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Grace Nicholson: Inventories and Clippings

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 262A, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928 - 1968
Restrictions:
Image number 011 "Holiday Handcraft" has been removed from the slideshow due to culutral sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref14859
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George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 265, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jul-Aug 1903
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: Edward P. Valentine, Homer Sargent, H.C. White, Glenn Marston, W.C. Witte, T. Mitchell Prudden, P.M. Pearson, William Caldwell, Archibald Reid, Frederic Ward Putnam.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7433
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George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 265, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jul-Aug 1904
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: DeLancey Gill, William Henry Holmes, Frederic Ward Putnam, Frederick W. Hodge, P.E. Goddard, Alfred L. Kroeber, W.J. Holland, John H. Cobbs, E.P. Ripley, E.T. Jeffrey, Homer Sargent, M.C. Long, W.C. Witte, Anita M. Earl, Franklin W. Hooper, Benjamin Talbot Babbitt Hyde, Hermon C. Bumpus, George Gustav Heye,, George Lentz, John Frederick Huckel, Clarence B. Moore.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7473
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Tiarella unifoliata Hook.

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Mrs. M. H. Manning  Search this
Place:
Near Hupa, Humboldt Co., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Sep 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Rosales Saxifragaceae
Published Name:
Tiarella unifoliata Hook.
Barcode:
03784047
USNM Number:
669721
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31c191045-d8e9-4fea-a001-87961877d3fd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15255733

Philadelphus lewisii Pursh

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
152  Search this
Place:
The North Coast Ranges. Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Common name:
Lewis' mock orange
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Rosales Saxifragaceae
Published Name:
Philadelphus lewisii Pursh
Barcode:
03683135
USNM Number:
412654
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cf4c8da8-cf38-4ac0-8bbb-73deb36283cd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15256643

Elymus glaucus Buckley

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
C. P. Chandler  Search this
Place:
Hupa Valley, Humboldt Co. Napa., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
1901
Common name:
Blue wildrye
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Pooideae
Published Name:
Elymus glaucus Buckley
Barcode:
04092939
USNM Number:
1865773
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/35826f6fb-6d83-41fc-9e96-cab04e33e144
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15985053

Phleum pratense L.

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
J. Burtt Davy  Search this
Place:
Humboldt County. Hupa Valley., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
20 Jun 1899
Common name:
Cats-Tail grass
Timothy
herd's grass
timothy
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Pooideae
Published Name:
Phleum pratense L.
Barcode:
04075836
USNM Number:
996267
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f5bbf745-569c-4452-8ca4-e8c731aa626a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15907873

Thlaspi fendleri subsp. glaucum

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
183  Search this
Place:
The North Coast Ranges. Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Brassicales Brassicaceae
Published Name:
Thlaspi fendleri subsp. glaucum
Barcode:
03581579
USNM Number:
412665
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36200b4f2-95f9-4c27-b80d-00bb4209d4a3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15203228

Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt.

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
1097  Search this
Place:
The North Coast Ranges, Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Ranunculales Berberidaceae Berberidoideae
Published Name:
Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt.
Barcode:
03576597
USNM Number:
412632
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a37c1994-984a-40c0-8f18-3be6c3005c1d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15188374

Achlys californica Fukuda & H.G. Baker

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
183  Search this
Place:
North Coast Ranges. Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Ranunculales Berberidaceae Podophylloideae
Published Name:
Achlys californica Fukuda & H.G. Baker
Barcode:
03576108
USNM Number:
412635
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/32ad4184c-eb16-42b2-8cd6-cfe958f944a1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15173558

Mahonia pinnata (Lag.) Fedde

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
1097  Search this
Place:
The North Coast Ranges. Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Common name:
wavy leaf barberry
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Ranunculales Berberidaceae Berberidoideae
Published Name:
Mahonia pinnata (Lag.) Fedde
Barcode:
03576650
USNM Number:
412624
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/355d30de1-928f-40b4-bef0-d99885d54b7a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15167633

Cryptantha torreyana (A. Gray) Greene

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
152  Search this
Place:
North Coast Ranges, Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Boraginales Boraginaceae Cynoglossoideae
Published Name:
Cryptantha torreyana (A. Gray) Greene
Barcode:
02898369
USNM Number:
412641
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b24961c3-4e33-411f-b46f-b79f0b0cddcd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14209033

Cryptantha muricata (Hook. & Arn.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
152  Search this
Place:
North Coast Ranges. Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Common name:
pointed cryptantha
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Boraginales Boraginaceae Cynoglossoideae
Published Name:
Cryptantha muricata (Hook. & Arn.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.
Barcode:
02908238
USNM Number:
412640
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/383a2292a-e08d-4f89-a590-e082d2e12a74
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14208416

Cryptantha flaccida (Douglas ex Lehm.) Greene

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Harley P. Chandler  Search this
Min. Elevation:
152  Search this
Place:
The North Coast Ranges, California, Hupa Indian Reservation., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Boraginales Boraginaceae Cynoglossoideae
Published Name:
Cryptantha flaccida (Douglas ex Lehm.) Greene
Barcode:
02907443
USNM Number:
412642
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e2553b6b-5766-4fe4-9e67-0621aa0f5d93
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14207581

Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, evolution, and eugenics) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. From the 1920s to the 1940s Hrdlicka was a member of the American Eugenics Society and prepared exhibits for various eugenics congresses. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

The University of Alaska Anchorage holds diaries relating to Hrdlička's Expeditions to Alaska in 1936, 1937, and 1938 in the Alan G. May papers. The finding aid for this collection is avialable online at https://archives.consortiumlibrary.org/collections/specialcollections/hmc-0690/ and a trascription of May's diaries from the expeditions is available online at https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/11850
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Strong Women/Strong Nations 5: Panel 1, Trail Blazers

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-03-25T16:26:44.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_DQo-lop0NJ4

Lolium temulentum L.

Biogeographical Region:
76 - Southwestern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
J. Burtt Davy  Search this
Place:
Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte Counties. Hupa Valley., California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
20 Jun 1899
Common name:
darnel
poison darnel
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Pooideae
Published Name:
Lolium temulentum L.
Barcode:
03892660
USNM Number:
1015366
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37d9b62ff-6626-472f-893f-d8f00c76d5e9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15827693

Grace Nicholson photograph collection

Creator:
Nicholson, Grace, -1948  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Names:
Maxwell, Thyra  Search this
Extent:
374 Photographic prints
38 Copy negatives
Culture:
Hupa  Search this
Yurok  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Karuk (Karok)  Search this
Tolowa  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Atsugewi (Hat Creek)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Wintu  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Chukchansi Yokuts  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1905-1930
Summary:
This collection contains 374 photographic prints and 38 copy negatives made by Grace Nicholson, a collector and dealer of Native American and Asian arts and crafts in Pasadena, California. The majority of the photographs were made between 1910 and 1930 among various native communities in California, though there are smaller amounts of photographs in Arizona and New Mexico. Communities photographed include—Hupa, Yurok, Pomo, Karuk (Karok), Tolowa, Yokayo Pomo, Achomawi (Pit River), Atsugewi (Hat Creek), Hopi Pueblo, Kumeyaay (Digueno), Mojave (Mohave), Paiute, Taos Pueblo, Wintu, Acoma Pueblo, Maidu, Chukchansi Yokuts, Yokuts.
Scope and Contents:
The Grace Nicholson photograph collection contains 374 black and white photographic prints (38 copy negatives) made by Grace Nicholson between 1905 and 1930 however many of the photographs are undated. The majority of the photographs were shot within various native communities in California, including Hupa, Yurok, Pomo, Karuk (Karok), Tolowa, Yokayo Pomo, Achomawi (Pit River), Atsugewi (Hat Creek), Maidu, Chukchansi Yokuts, Yokuts, Kumeyaay (Digueno), Wintu. There are smaller amounts of photographs from Arizona and New Mexico which include photographs within Hopi Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, Acoma Pueblo, Mojave (Mohave) and Paiute communities.

A large number of these photographs include portraits of Native men and women posed with baskets, either made by themselves or other community members. There are also posed portraits of families in front of their homes and going about their daily activities. Nicholson was often close with the families she photographed and took care to include their names with the images, though there are many photographs where the sitters are still unidentified. Some photographs of certain dances and ceremonies have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.

The majority of the prints are silver gelatin (DOP) and the copy negatives (acetate) were made by the Museum of the American Indian sometime in the 1960s as part of a large photograph conservation project. There were also a number of photographic prints found within the Grace Nicholson manuscript materials (NMAI.AC.001) that were transferred to the photo archives in the early 2000s.
Prints from Grace Nicholson: P05451-P05497, P05505, P08339-P08368, P08469-P08479, P09400-P09453, P09463-P09464, P09836-P09838. Prints from Thyra Maxwell: P18316-P18317, P18932-P19107, P20830-P20836, P20999-P21075. Prints pulled from the MAI records (NMAI.AC.001): P28169, P28170, P28443-P28445. Copy Negatives: N35814-N35844, N36250, N41439, N41551-N41556.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Nicholson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 31, 1877. She moved to California following her parents and grandparents death, in 1901 and was soon purchasing Native American baskets and other artifacts in association with Carrol S. Hartman, an old family friend from the East. Traveling north through California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and south and east through Arizona and New Mexico, she collected, not only for herself, but also for such institutions as the Smithsonian, the Field Columbian Museum of Chicago, University of Pennsylvania Department of Archeology and later the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Nicholson kept extensive diaries and notes on her buying trips through Native American territory, especially of the Karok, Klamath, and Pomo Indians. Her subjects included Native American legends, folklore, vocabulary, tribal festivals, basket making, the art trade, and living conditions. Native American artists with whom Nicholson established long-term business and personal connections included Pomo basket weaver Mary Benson (1878-1930) and her husband William Benson (1862-1937), as well as Elizabeth Hickox (1875-1947) of the Karuk tribe. By August of 1902 she was establishing a shop and studio at 41-143 Raymond Ave., Pasadena and she regularly paid higher prices than competitive buyers, thereby obtaining the finest pieces.

In 1909 Grace Nicholson was awarded a silver medal for her ethnological collection exhibited at the Alaska-Yukon- Pacific Exposition in Seattle. In 1924, Nicholson designed and opened a new building for her collections nicknamed the "Treasure House" where she also handled the work of a number of the outstanding artists among them, Joseph H. Sharp and Grace Carpenter Hudson. Throughout her collecting career, Nicholson maintained a correspondence with George Heye selling and donating collections to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation from 1916 until her death in 1948.

Following Nicholson's death, her Native American Indian art collection was left to her assistants Thyra Maxwell and Estelle Bynum who became the executors of her estate. Her 12,000-item Asian art collection was auctioned by the Curtis Gallery in November 1950 and purchased by Los Angeles businessman Edker Pope. In 1968, Maxwell donated Nicholson's papers and photographs to The Huntington Library and sold Nicholson's collection of baskets made by the Bensons, as well as a large collection of correspondence and myths from William Benson, to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, of New York City (now the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution).
Related Materials:
The majority of Grace Nicholson's papers and photographs can be found at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California; Grace Nicholson Photograph Collection (photCL 56), Grace Nicholson Papers and Addenda (mssNicholson papers and addenda).

Additional Nicholson material can be found at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley; Photographic negatives and prints of Calif. Indian baskets and other ethnographic items handled by Grace Nicholson from about 1912-1925 (Accession 2880), Grace Nicholson's ledger of Indian baskets from about 1912-1925 in Pasadena, California (Accession 2881).
Separated Materials:
Correspondence between Grace Nicholsan and George Heye as well as Pomo myths recorded from William Benson can be found in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Boxes 262, 262A, 263. Baskets made by Mary and William Benson, as well also additional collections donated and sold by Nicholson to the Museum, can be found in NMAI's ethnographic collection.
Provenance:
The majority of the photographic prints were donated by Thyra Maxwell in 1968 and 1969. The rest of the photographs accompanied collections purchased by the Museum of the American Indian or presented to the Museum from Grace Nicholson in 1923.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Photographs with cultural sensitivity are restricted.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
California  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace Nicholson photograph collection, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.039
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-039

C. Hart Merriam photographs of Native Americans

Creator:
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Photographer:
Boysen Studio  Search this
Diller, J. S.  Search this
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Henshaw, Henry W. (Henry Wetherbee), 1850-1930  Search this
Meddaugh, O. E.  Search this
Names:
Muir, John, 1838-1914  Search this
Talbot, Zenaida Merriam (photographer)  Search this
Twain, Mark, 1835-1910  Search this
Extent:
5,000 Items (glass negatives, film negatives, lantern slides, and some prints)
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Atsugewi (Hat Creek)  Search this
Patwin  Search this
Karuk (Karok)  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Shasta  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Koso (Panamint) Shoshone  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Klikitat  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Yana Indians  Search this
Wintu Indians  Search this
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Yokayo Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Tolowa Indians  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Washo Indians  Search this
Wasco Indians  Search this
Nisenan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Photographs
Date:
circa 1902-1938
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting Native American baskets and portraits of Native Americans with whom C. Hart Merriam worked, as well as scenic views and images of animals and plants, mostly in California. Many of the photographs were made by Merriam himself or his daughter Zenaida Merriam Talbot. In addition, Merriam collected photographs from other researchers and photographers, including J. S. Diller, John Peabody Harrington, Henry Wetherbee Henshaw, and O. E. Meddaugh. There are also images acquired from the Boysen Studio of Yosemite and photographs of Mark Twain, John Muir, basketmaker Maggie James, and Merriam's family.
Biographical/Historical note:
Clinton Hart Merriam (1855-1942) was a Columbia University-educated physician who worked as a naturalist, including as head of the Biological Survey for the US Department of Agriculture. He joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as a zoologist in 1899. In 1910, he left the USDA and began to conduct research among California tribes. Financed by Mary W. Harriman and the E. H. Harriman Fund administered by the Smithsonian, he researched tribes' vocabularies, history, mythology, crafts (particularly basketmaking) until about 1936. His resarch was assisted by his daughter, Zenaida, who took photographs and painted glass slides for him. Merriam served as President of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1920-1921.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-27
General note:
Additional information supplied by Marvin Shodas.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Merriam's notes held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 1563 and in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in SIA Acc. 12-264.
Additional photographs by Merriam held in the National Museum of American Indian Archives in the Mary Harriman Rumsey Photograph Collection and the Harriman Alaska Expedition Photograph Collection.
Correspondence from Merriam held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4558, the Department of Anthropology records (Manuscript and Pamphlet file), Bureau of American Ethnology records, J.C. Pilling Papers, Ales Hrdlicka Papers, and Jesse Logan Nusbaum Papers.
The Bancroft Library at University of California, Berkeley holds the C. Hart Merriam Papers, C. Hart Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs (prints corresponding to negatives in this collection), and C. Hart Merriam pictorial collection.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Baskets  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 74-27, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.74-27
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-74-27

Library of Congress Copyright Office photographs of Native Americans

Creator:
Library of Congress. Copyright Office  Search this
Photographer:
Alfred S. Campbell Art Co.  Search this
Alligator Farm  Search this
Art Foto Company  Search this
Bailey Company  Search this
C. C. Pierce & Company  Search this
Case & Draper  Search this
Cobbs, The  Search this
Cornish & Baker  Search this
Crippen & Reese  Search this
Curtis & Miller  Search this
Detroit Publishing Co.  Search this
Frashers Inc.  Search this
Fred Harvey (Firm)  Search this
H.H. Bennett Studio  Search this
Harrison & Harris  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
James & Pierce  Search this
John F. Byrnes & Co.  Search this
Karl E. Moon & Co.  Search this
Kendrick Studio  Search this
Kesir Brothers  Search this
Lewiston Business College  Search this
Locke & Peterson  Search this
Lomen Bros.  Search this
Mary Ann Studio  Search this
McIllheney & Engstrom  Search this
Mishler & Walker  Search this
National Art Co.  Search this
Osborne Company  Search this
Perry & Petrik  Search this
Robinsons, The  Search this
Rose & Hopkins  Search this
Smith & Hassel  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Adams, Ira Clay  Search this
Allyn, Harry J.  Search this
Anderson, J. A. (John Alvin), 1869-1948  Search this
Anderson, John F.  Search this
Anderson, Oliver P. (Oliver Phelps)  Search this
Andrews, Clarence Leroy, 1862-1948  Search this
Arnold, C. D. (Charles Dudley), 1844-1927  Search this
Arnold, John J.  Search this
Baker, A. J.  Search this
Bakey, William August  Search this
Black, T. Henry  Search this
Blessing, J. Lynne  Search this
Blotcky, Abraham G.  Search this
Boag, W. J. (William John)  Search this
Boos, Edward H.  Search this
Bortell, P. Clinton  Search this
Bowman, W. S. (Walter S.)  Search this
Bradford, C. S. (Charles Sydney)  Search this
Brady, Ferdinand  Search this
Bratley, J. H. (Jesse H.)  Search this
Brewster, Arthur J.  Search this
Britain, J. W.  Search this
Buchman, Albert R.  Search this
Bunnell, S. U.  Search this
Burke, F. P. (Frank P.)  Search this
Carpenter, A. C.  Search this
Clark, R. H.  Search this
Cline, Walter M., 1873-1941  Search this
Collins, J. W.  Search this
Cornish, Geo. B. (George Bancroft)  Search this
Countryman, Edwin W., 1872-1946  Search this
Crossland, W. R.  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Davis, Trevor M.  Search this
Dean, F. E.  Search this
Distin, William  Search this
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Dobbs, B. B. (Beverly Bennett)  Search this
Dodge, K. T. (Katherine Taylor)  Search this
Drake, J. D.  Search this
Drum, O.  Search this
Duckwall, David Thomas Jr  Search this
Eickemeyer, Carl  Search this
Eklund, Hildore C.  Search this
Ellingson, M. A. (Martin A.)  Search this
Emery, C. E. (Charles E.)  Search this
Endner, Harry W.  Search this
Evans, Wilmot R.  Search this
Fair, Henry, 1856-  Search this
Faulk, B. J.  Search this
Fawcett, Waldon  Search this
Fewkes, John  Search this
Fine, Eben G.  Search this
Fishbaugh, W. A. (William A.)  Search this
Fiske, Frank Bennett, 1883-1952  Search this
Fitch, W. T.  Search this
Fly, M. E.  Search this
Forrest, Earle R. (Earle Robert), 1883-1969  Search this
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Freeman, Emma B., 1880-1928  Search this
Fully, Albert  Search this
Gifford, Benjamin A.  Search this
Gifford, Ralph  Search this
Gilpin, Laura  Search this
Glasier, E. C. (Emma C.)  Search this
Glasier, F. W. (Frederick W.)  Search this
Goetze, O. D. (Otto Daniel)  Search this
Gonner, F. (Frank)  Search this
Grabill, John C. H.  Search this
Grady, M. A.  Search this
Graves, Faye, -1945  Search this
Hakkerup, N. L. (N. Larson)  Search this
Hall, A. W.  Search this
Hall, Fred G.  Search this
Hamilton, James R.  Search this
Hance, G. W. (George W.)  Search this
Hand, Fred  Search this
Haran, J. A.  Search this
Harrison, J. V.  Search this
Hartwell, Sidney R.  Search this
Haynes, Jack Ellis, 1884-1962  Search this
Hebard, Grace Raymond, 1861-1936  Search this
Herman, Eddie  Search this
Hibbard, C. J.  Search this
Hill, Eva M.  Search this
Hill, Harry E., 1869-1937  Search this
Homan, Edward Jr  Search this
Hook, W. E. (William Edward), 1833-1908  Search this
Hunt, P. S. (Phinney S.), 1866-1917  Search this
Ingersoll, T. W. (Truman Ward), 1862-1922  Search this
James, George Wharton, 1858-1923  Search this
Jansrud, J. C.  Search this
Jensen, W. F.  Search this
Johnson, George W.  Search this
Johnson, Jessamine Spear, 1886-  Search this
Johnson, John A.  Search this
Jones, Ida  Search this
Kellogg, P. H.  Search this
Kern, Bernhard  Search this
Kinne, A. B. (Albert Barnes)  Search this
Kinsey, Darius, 1869-1945  Search this
Kip, Benjamin M.  Search this
Kiser, Fred H.  Search this
Knott, Franklin Price  Search this
La Roche, Frank, 1853-1934  Search this
Langdon, J. W. (John Warren)  Search this
Lange, William  Search this
Ledford, Duke E.  Search this
Lewis, Anna  Search this
Linton, Esther Letitia, 1866-  Search this
Logston, E. W.  Search this
Lubken, Walter J., 1881-1960  Search this
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
MacKenzie, Colin (Colin H.)  Search this
Markham, B. C. (Benjamin Clayton)  Search this
Markley, Iris  Search this
Matthews, George L.  Search this
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer)  Search this
McAllister, William O.  Search this
McClintock, Walter, 1870-1949  Search this
McKay, R. H. (Rollin H.)  Search this
McKee, Thomas M., 1854-1939  Search this
McWhorter, Lucullus Virgil, 1860-1944  Search this
Mcbride, C. C.  Search this
Meiser, J. A. (Jesse A.)  Search this
Mellen, Geo. E. (George Egbert), b. 1854  Search this
Mercer, Anson Cary  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Merryman, Aubrey Ewert  Search this
Metcalfe, Frederick Andrew  Search this
Meyers, Henry C.  Search this
Miller, James A.  Search this
Mitchell, Daniel S.  Search this
Monsen, Frederick, 1865-1929  Search this
Moore, F. E. (Frank E.)  Search this
Moorhouse, Lee, 1850-1926  Search this
Morris, Charles E.  Search this
Morris, T. A.  Search this
Murray, Sylvia E.  Search this
Newcomb, Alta Ida  Search this
Newton, Warren Z.  Search this
Norcott, Culver K.  Search this
Northrup, Dale O.  Search this
Nowell, Frank H., 1864-1950  Search this
Oakes, Mortimer L.  Search this
Oliver, Warren Mack  Search this
Palmer, Frank, 1864-1920  Search this
Palmer, G. E.  Search this
Parker, Robert Gish  Search this
Peabody, Henry G. (Henry Greenwood), 1855-1951  Search this
Peeso, Frederick E.  Search this
Pennington, William M.  Search this
Percy, Henry George  Search this
Phelan, A. B.  Search this
Pickett, W. B.  Search this
Plank, Henriette A.  Search this
Pleissner, Ogden M.  Search this
Poley, H. S. (Horace Swartley)  Search this
Porter, Milton E. (Milton Edson)  Search this
Powell, Tod  Search this
Prestbus, Ingemar  Search this
Price, Robert C.  Search this
Putnam, A.  Search this
Quick, Floyd Edgar  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Rauderbaugh  Search this
Reading, R. L.  Search this
Reed, Roland, 1864-1934  Search this
Rice, Thomas J.  Search this
Risem, A.  Search this
Robinson, K. E.  Search this
Rogers, May S.  Search this
Ross, D. F.  Search this
Rosser, J. H.  Search this
Rowland, Perley C.  Search this
Russell, Charles M. (Charles Marion), 1864-1926  Search this
Rutter, Thomas H., 1837-1925  Search this
San Jule, F. E.  Search this
Schwemberger, Simeon  Search this
Scott, Frances  Search this
Shattuck, Rena  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Shipman, B. J.  Search this
Shuck, J. A.  Search this
Siebert, Edward S.  Search this
Smith, Benjamin A.  Search this
Smith, Erminnie A. (Erminnie Adele), 1836-1886  Search this
Soule, John P.  Search this
Spencer, George A.  Search this
Splawn, A. J.  Search this
Spurr, E. Willard  Search this
Squires, C. F.  Search this
Starrh, Thomas M.  Search this
Stephenson, Benton E.  Search this
Stevens, J. E.  Search this
Stimson, Joseph Elam, 1870-1952  Search this
Stonecipher, C. U.  Search this
Strakal, Chris J.  Search this
Sweney, Dallas R.  Search this
Tammen, Harry Heye, 1856-1924  Search this
Tancred, Douglas  Search this
Tangen, Ed, 1873-1951  Search this
Tanner, W. S.  Search this
Taylor, G. S. (Gracie S.)  Search this
Tees, Howard  Search this
Terry, John Jesse  Search this
Thedens, Fred R.  Search this
Thomas, Arthur  Search this
Thompson, Lucy, 1856-  Search this
Thompson, P. T.  Search this
Throssel, Richard, d. 1933  Search this
Trager, George E.  Search this
Truman, Edward  Search this
Tuell, Julia E.  Search this
Turner, Thomas  Search this
Van Oeyen, L.  Search this
Waite, C. B. (Charles Betts), 1861-1927  Search this
Wallace, H. J.  Search this
Warren, O. B.  Search this
Waterman, O. W.  Search this
Wheeler, C. S.  Search this
White, Lily E.  Search this
Wolf, C. A.  Search this
Wores, Theodore, 1858-1939  Search this
Young, F. A. (Fred Andrew)  Search this
Names:
Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922 (photographer or copyright claimant)  Search this
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928 (photographer or copyright claimant)  Search this
Extent:
6,085 Mounted prints (circa, albumen, collodion, silver gelatin, platinum)
Culture:
Onondaga  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Kootenai (Kutenai)  Search this
Klikitat  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Kato Indians  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Karuk (Karok)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Haida  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Palouse  Search this
Duwamish (Dwamish)  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Ahtna (Ahtena)  Search this
Quinault  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Yakama Indians  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Coeur d'Alene  Search this
Spokane Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Interior Salish  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Sarsi Indians  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Peoria  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Swinomish Indians  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Oto  Search this
Osage  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Wailaki Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Zia Indians  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Tolowa Indians  Search this
Yuki Indians  Search this
Yurok Indians  Search this
Twana Indians  Search this
Umatilla Indians  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Tsimshian  Search this
Wappo Indians  Search this
Wampanoag Indians  Search this
Washo Indians  Search this
Wasco Indians  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Walla Walla Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Makah  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Yaqui Indians  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Klallam (Clallam)  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Chinook  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Cowichan  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Chehalis  Search this
Cayuse  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Chimakum  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Photographs
Date:
bulk 1890s-1920s
1860s-1930s
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of photographs relating to Native Americans, which were submitted to the copyright office of the Library of Congress in and around the early 20th century. Many of the photographs are studio portraits as well as photographs made as part of expeditions and railroad surveys. It includes images of people, dwellings and other structures, agriculture, arts and crafts, burials, ceremonies and dances, games, food preparation, transportation, and scenic views. Some of the photographs were posed to illustrate literary works, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hiawatha, while others depict paintings or other artwork.

Tribes represented are Achomawi, Ahtena, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboin, Bannock, Blackfoot, Cahita, Cahuilla, Cayuse, Chehalis, Chemehuevi, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chimakum, Chinook, Chippewa, Choctaw, Clatsop, Cocopa, Comanche, Cowichan, Cree, Creek, Crow, Dakota, Duwamish, Eskimo, Fox, Gros Ventre (Atsina), Gros Ventre (Hidatsa), Haida, Havasupai, Hoh, Hupa, Iroquois (including Mohawk, Onandaga, Seneca, and St. Regis), Kalispel, Karok, Kato, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Klamath, Klickitat, Kutenai, Kwakiutl, Maidu, Makah, Mandan, Maricopa, Menominee, Miwok, Mohave, Mono, Navaho, Nez Perce, Nootka, Omaha, Osage, Oto, Paiute, Paloos, Papago, Passamaquoddy, Pawnee, Peoria, Pima, Pomo, Ponca, Potawatomi, Pueblo (including Acoma, Cochiti, Hano, Hopi, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Sia, San Juan, Taos, Tesuque, and Zuni), Quahatika, Quapaw, Queets, Quileute, Quinault, Salish (including Flathead), Sarsi, Sauk and Fox, Seminole, Shawnee, Shoshoni, Sinkiuse, Skitswish, Spokan, Swinomish, Tenino, Tlingit, Tolowa, Tonkawa, Tsimshian, Twana, Umatilla, Ute, Wailaki, Walapai, Wallawalla, Wampanoag, Wappo, Wasco, Washo, Wichita, Winnebago, Wishram, Yakima, Yavapai, Yokuts, Yuki, Yuma, and Yurok.
Arrangement:
Collection is organized alphabetically by copyright claimant.
Biographical/Historical note:
The collection was formed from submissions made to the Library of Congress as part of the copyright registration process. In 1949, arrangements were made to allow the Bureau of American Ethnology to copy the collection and some negatives were made at that time, largely from the Heyn and Matzen photographs. The project was soon abandoned, however, as too large an undertaking for the facilities of the BAE. In 1957-1958, arrangements were begun by William C. Sturtevant of the BAE to transfer a set of the photographs from the Library of Congress to the BAE.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 59
Provenance:
In 1965, the Bureau merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, and in 1968 the Office of Anthropology Archives transformed into the National Anthropological Archives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 59, Library of Congress Copyright Office photograph collection of Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.59
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-59

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