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Oral history interview with Fritz Scholder

Interviewee:
Scholder, Fritz, 1937-2005  Search this
Interviewer:
Karlstrom, Paul J.  Search this
Names:
Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000  Search this
Green, Robert B.  Search this
Horowitch, Elaine  Search this
Howe, Oscar, 1915-1983  Search this
Lauren, Ralph  Search this
Loloma, Charles, 1921-  Search this
Martin, Agnes, 1912-2004  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Price, Vincent, 1911-1993  Search this
Thiebaud, Wayne  Search this
Extent:
100 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1995 March 3-30
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Fritz Scholder conducted 1995 March 3-30, by Paul Karlstrom, for the Archives of American Art.
Scholder discusses his family background and growing up in parallel worlds of Anglo and Indian cultures and the frustration of western versus tribal life; his education in Lawrence, Kan. and the University of Wisconsin; moving to California; his father's job as head of Indian relocation; studying at the Indian art program at the University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and the Indian Art Institute in Santa Fe, N.M.; his views on Indians in general and the difficulty of operating in the mainstream art world; his travels and search for adventure in Europe and Egypt; the importance of magic and the occult in his work; myths as a basis for human experience; art as an agent of social change; objections of Indian groups to his work; and his experience as an Indian role model while not part of the movement. He recalls Robert B. Green, Wayne Thiebaud, Ralph Lauren, Vincent Price, Georgia O'Keeffe, Charles Loloma, Agnes Martin, Elaine Horowitch, and Leonard Baskin.
Biographical / Historical:
Fritz Scholder (1937-2005) was a painter and sculptor from Scottsdale, Ariz.
General:
Originally recorded on 7 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 12 digital wav files. Duration is 6 hr., 11 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Painters -- Arizona -- Scottsdale -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Arizona -- Scottsdale -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- Southwest, New -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Southwest, New -- Interviews  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New -- Art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.schold95
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schold95

Acee Blue Eagle papers

Creator:
Blue Eagle, Acee, 1907-1959  Search this
Names:
Abbott, Mae  Search this
Beaver, Fred  Search this
Bosin, Blackbear, 1921-1980  Search this
Campbell, Walter S.  Search this
Dale, Edward E.  Search this
Debo, Angie, 1890-1988  Search this
Dja, Devi  Search this
Echohawk, Brummett T., 1922-2006  Search this
Fairbanks, Charles H. (Charles Herron), 1913-1985  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Field, Dorothy  Search this
Gilcrease, Thomas, 1890-1962  Search this
Houser, Allan, 1914-1994  Search this
Howe, Oscar, 1915-1983  Search this
Jackson, Oscar B.  Search this
Lemos, Pedro de  Search this
Marriott, Alice  Search this
Martinez, Julian, -1943  Search this
Martínez, María Montoya  Search this
McCombs, Solomon, 1913-1980 (Creek)  Search this
Medicine Crow, Joseph, 1913-2016  Search this
Mirabel, Eva  Search this
Momaday, Al  Search this
Pond, Charles E.  Search this
Rowan, Edward B.  Search this
Shears, Glen E.  Search this
Sheets, Nan  Search this
Steinke, Bettina, 1913-1999  Search this
Sunrise, Riley  Search this
Te Ata  Search this
Whitehorse, Roland Noah, 1920-1998  Search this
Extent:
673 Paintings (visual works) (approximate)
30 Linear feet (55 document boxes and 8 oversize boxes)
Culture:
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Paintings (visual works)
Date:
1907 - 1975
Summary:
Acee Blue Eagle was a Pawnee-Creek artist, poet, dancer, teacher, and celebrity. The papers relate to both Blue Eagle's personal and professional life. Also included are some materials of Blue Eagle's friend Mae Abbott and a collection of art by other Indians.
Scope and Contents:
This collection reflects the life and work of Acee Blue Eagle, internationally famed Indian artist of Oklahoma. Identified for his brilliant paintings of tribal ceremonies, legend and dance, Blue Eagle's work is represented in numerous private collections and museums both in this country and abroad.

A portion of the papers contains correspondence. Fan mail written by school children to Chief Blue Eagle of the Chief Blue Eagle television program is included. Letters regarding Blue Eagle's participation in Indian festivals and events, art shows and exhibitions, speaking engagements on Indian life and culture are found in the collection. Personal correspondence is included; most frequent correspondents are Devi Dja, Mae Abbott, and Charles E. Pond. There are approximately 100 letters from Devi Dja, approximately 90 to or from Mae Abbott, and approximately 36 from Charles E. Pond. Some letters addressed to these individuals from other friends and acquaintances are also within this collection.

Photographs comprise a large portion of the Blue Eagle collection. Included are not only portraits of the artist himself and photographs of his art work, but a large number of prints of Blue Eagle in full costume and other Indians engaged in tribal ceremonies, identified by tribe, whenever possible. Photographs of Mae Abbott, Devi Dja and the latter's Balinese dance troupe are identified. A file of negatives is arranged in the same subject order as the prints. Newspaper and magazine clippings regarding Blue Eagle's work and activities are also included in the collection. These clippings have not been arranged. In addition, Mae Abbott's recipes and notes for her cookbook, wood blocks, greeting cards and other miscellaneous publications can be found in the collection. These items have been sorted but not arranged.

Within the collection are also over 600 pieces of artwork. A good number are by Blue Eagle while most are by other Native artists. Artists whose are work are represented in the collection include Fred Beaver, Harrison Begay, Archie Blackowl, Woodrow Crumbo, Allan Houser, Ruthe Blalock Jones, Quicy Tahoma, Pablita Verde, and members of the Kiowa Five (Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke).
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged into six series: 1) Personal; 2) Collections; 3) Artwork; 4) Television; 5) Correspondence; 6) Photographs.
Biographical / Historical:
Acee Blue Eagle was an artist, poet, dancer, teacher, and celebrity. Born Alex C. McIntosh in 1907, Blue Eagle attended Indian schools in Anadarko, Nuyaka, and Euchee, Oklahoma, and the Haskell and Chilocco Indian schools. Advanced study came at Bacone Indian College and the University of Oklahoma. At the latter, he studied with Oscar B. Jacobson. Privately he studied with Winold Reiss. Discrepancies exist in the records regarding his early life: born in either Anadarko or Hitchita, Oklahoma; he's cited as both Pawnee-Creek and 5/8 Creek without any Pawnee blood; his mother is either Mattie Odom, the first wife of Solomon McIntosh or Ella Starr, McIntosh's second wife.

A prolific painter who, for the sake of authenticity, carried out research in libraries and museums, Blue Eagle was an outstanding American Indian artist of the 1930s-1950s. His paintings hung in many exhibits, including the Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts, 1932-1933; International Art Exhibition of Sport Subjects at Los Angeles, 1932; Chicago Century of Progress Exposition, 1934; a one-man show at the Young Galleries in Chicago; National Exhibition of Art at the Rockefeller Center in New York, 1936; a one-man show at the Washington, D.C., Arts Club, 1936; Museum of Modern Art, 1941; Northwest Art Exhibition at Spokane, Washington, 1944; a one-man show at the Gilcrease Institute in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1953; An Exposition of American Indian Painters in New York, 1955; and a one-man show at the Philbrook Art Center in Tulsa, 1957. Between 1946 and 1965, over fifty galleries hung his paintings. Some pieces are among the permanent holdings of many institutions.

In 1934, Blue Eagle joined the Work Projects Administration (WPA) Public Works of Art Project, painting murals in public buildings. In 1935 at Oxford University, he participated in a program of the International Federation of Education and lectured on Indian art. A tour of Europe followed. He taught at Bacone Indian College from 1935-1938 where he founded the art program and became Director of Art. He also taught at the University of Kansas extension division in 1949 and Oklahoma State Technical College beginning in 1956. During World War II, he served in the United States Army Air Force; and, following the war, he spent a few years attempting to get into the movies. During 1946-1952, he was married to his second wife, a famous Balinese dancer, Devi Dja, and became involved in her career, an involvement that was briefly reflected in his art. However, Dja and Blue Eagle divorced and Blue Eagle lived with Mae Wadley Abbott for the last years of his life. During the 1950s, he had a television show for children on a Tulsa-Muskogee station. Acee Blue Eagle died on June 18, 1959 of a liver infection.

Sources Consulted

Martindale, Rob. Muskogee Paying Tribute to Blue Eagle. Biographical/Genealogical data, Box 1, Acee Blue Eagle Collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

West, Juanita W. 1967. Acee Blue Eagle: A.C. McIntosh. Biographical/Genealogical data, Box 1, Acee Blue Eagle Collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

1907 -- Born August 17, 1907 on the Wichita Reservation, north of Anadarko, Oklahoma

1928 -- Graduated Chilocco High School

1929-1934 -- Attended Bacone College, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State Tech

1935 -- Toured United States and Europe giving lecture-exhibition program, "Life and Character of the American Indian"

1935-1938 -- Established and headed art department at Bacone College at Muskogee

1936 -- Exhibited at the National Exhibition of Art, Rockefeller Center, New York

1942-1945 -- World War II, U.S. Air Force (Army)

1947-49 -- Free-lance work in New York and Chicago

1951-52 -- Artist-in-residence at Oklahoma Tech

1950-54 -- Conducted TV program, Muskogee, OklahomaToured U.S. West Coast exhibiting and lecturing about ways to improve TV programs for children

1958 -- Named Indian-of-the-Year by the American Indian Expostion at Anadarko, Oklahoma

1959 -- Died June 18, 1959
Related Materials:
Other materials relating to Acee Blue Eagle at the National Anthropological Archives include correspondence in the Solomon McCombs papers, 1914-1972, and correspondence with Betty Meilink under Manuscript 2011-20.
Provenance:
Acee Blue Eagle's private papers and collection of paintings were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Mrs. Mae Abbott of Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Restrictions:
There are no restrictions on access.
Rights:
Literary property rights to unpublished material in the collection in the National Anthropological Archives has been given to the public.
Topic:
Indian art -- North America  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Citation:
Acee Blue Eagle Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1973-51
See more items in:
Acee Blue Eagle papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1973-51
Online Media:

MS 2001-18 Bringer of the Mystery Dog

Creator:
Clark, Ann  Search this
Afraid-of-Hawk, Emil  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Illustrator:
Howe, Oscar, 1915-1983  Search this
Extent:
1 Book
Culture:
Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Date:
United States Indian Service,, 1943
Scope and Contents:
Story about a young boy who brings the first horse to his Plains Indian tribe, the Antelope Band, around the year 1700. Book published by the United States Indian Service in 1943 with both English and Sioux texts. English text by Ann Clark, Sioux text by Emil Afraid of Hawk, and illustrations by Oscar Howe.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2001-18
Other Title:
Šunka W‛an Wak'an Agli Kin He
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Horses  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books
Citation:
Manuscript 2001-18 Bringer of the Mystery Dog, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2001-18
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2001-18

Indian Arts and Crafts Board accession records

Creator:
United States. Indian Arts and Crafts Board  Search this
Artist:
Da, Popovi, 1923-1971  Search this
Houser, Allan, 1914-1994  Search this
Howe, Oscar, 1915-1983  Search this
Kabotie, Fred  Search this
Lelooska, 1933-1996  Search this
Martinez, Julian, -1943  Search this
Martínez, María Montoya  Search this
Moses, James Kivetoruk, 1900-1982  Search this
Senungetuk, Ronald W., 1933-  Search this
Velarde, Pablita, 1918-2006  Search this
Extent:
39 Slides (photographs)
35 Negatives (photographic)
257 Photographic prints
14 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Photographs
Purchase orders
Newspaper clippings
Correspondence
Accession records
Date:
1870-2010
bulk 1962-1985
Summary:
The Indian Arts and Crafts Board accession records collection includes documents and photographs related to works of art accessioned into the IACB collection from it's inception in 1935 to 1999. The collection also includes docuements related to objects accessioned into the IACB's run Southern Plains Indian Museum. The collection is nearly comprehensive and includes works of art from Alaska Native artists to Catawba pottery, and includes artwork from several renowned artists including, Maria Martinez (San Ildefonso Pueblo), James Kivetoruk Moses (Inupiaq), and Don Morse "Lelooska" Smith (Cherokee).
Scope and Contents:
The records in this collection consist of the original accession records for the Indian Arts and Crafts Board Headquarters Collection. The bulk of the records are made up of original catalog cards, purchase orders, invoices, and correspondence between artists, IACB field representatives, commercial entities, and various directors of the IACB, including Robert G. Hart. There is also documentation detailing purchases and transactions with the IACB's Southern Plains Indian Museum of objects that are housed within that institution. Additionally, the records include brochures, business cards, object tags and labels, object lists and descriptions, newspaper clippings, journal articles, negatives, photographs, and slides. Objects that were stolen during a 1980 theft in Washington, D.C. are noted within the records as well. Artists that can be found within the records include, Papovi Da, Allan Houser, Oscar Howe, Fred Kabotie, Julian Martinez, Maria Martinez, James Kivetoruk Moses, Ronald Senungetuk, Don Morse Smith (Lelooksa) Pablita Velarde, Amos Wallace, Lincoln Wallace, and many other prominent artists.
Arrangement:
Arranged in three series: Series 1: Original Accession Notes, Series 2: Accession Information, Series 3: Miscellaneous Accession Information. All material is arranged by catalog number and chronologically when date is known.
Biographical / Historical:
The Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB), a federal agency within the Department of the Interior, was created by Congress through the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1935. Its creation stemmed from the Indian Reorganization Act, often called the Indian New Deal, which sought to reverse assimilative government policies towards Native Americans and promote tribal self-governance. Since its inception, the IACB has fulfilled its mission of promoting the economic development of federally recognized American Indians and Alaska Natives through the expansion of the Indian arts and crafts market by commissioning and purchasing works of art, while also supporting regional and tribal arts projects. Initially, the IACB did not catalog works of art, and little documentation exists for some of the first objects that the entity acquired. Starting in the 1960s, the IACB began cataloguing the works of art within its collection and began acquiring objects on a grander scale, which it did throughout the 1980s. In 2000, the IACB transferred its Headquarters Collection and associated accession documentation to the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. This collection does not include objects from the IACB's three regional museums in Oklahoma, Montana, and South Dakota.The collection contains a vast array of art from ceramics to works on paper from a diverse number of Native American artists.
Provenance:
Transferred from the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior, in 2000.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
American Indians -- arts and crafts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Purchase orders
Negatives (photographic)
Slides (photographs)
Newspaper clippings
Correspondence
Accession records
Citation:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board accession records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.072
See more items in:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board accession records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-072

Oscar Howe / story compiled by Lisa Vande Vegte Dresch and Lois Sayre ; book design by Marnie Teppen

Compiler:
Dresch, Lisa Vande Vegte  Search this
Sayre, Lois  Search this
Book designer:
Teppen, Marnie  Search this
Subject:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Physical description:
56 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), map, portraits ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
Juvenile literature
Pictorial works
Juvenile works
Date:
2015
[2015]
20th century
Topic:
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Dakota painting  Search this
Call number:
ND237.H79 D74 2015
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1096023

Bringer of the mystery dog = S̆unka wan wakʻan agli kin he / Ann Clark ; illustrated by Oscar Howe. Sioux text by Emil Afraid of Hawk, and edited by Edward A. Kennard. An Indian life reader edited by Willard W. Beatty

Title:
S̆unka wan wakʻon agli kin he
Author:
Clark, Ann Nolan 1896-1995  Search this
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Afraid-of-Hawk, Emil  Search this
Kennard, Edward A (Edward Allan) 1907-1989  Search this
Beatty, Willard W (Willard Walcott) 1891-1961  Search this
Physical description:
84 pages : illustrations ; 18 x 25 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
West (U.S.)
Date:
1943
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
PM1024 .C59t 1943
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_355303

Oscar Howe, artist / paintings and commentaries by Oscar Howe ; forward [sic] by Heidi Howe and Inge Dawn (Howe) Maresh ; introduction by John R. Milton ; Howe essay, John A. Day

Author:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Day, John A  Search this
Subject:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Physical description:
[45] p. : ill. (chiefly col.), ports. ; 32 cm
Type:
Biography
Pictorial works
Place:
South Dakota
Date:
2004
Topic:
Indian painters  Search this
Indian dance in art  Search this
Call number:
ND237.H79 A52 2004
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_789690

Bringer of the mystery dog = S̆unka wan waka̐n agli kin he / by Ann Clark ; illustrated by Oscar Howe ; [Sioux text by Emil Afraid of Hawk ; Sioux text edited by Edward A. Kennard ; an Indian life reader [Sioux series] edited by Willard W. Beatty]

Title:
S̆unka wan waka̐n agli kin he
Author:
Clark, Ann Nolan 1896-1995  Search this
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Afraid-of-Hawk, Emil  Search this
Beatty, Willard W (Willard Walcott) 1891-  Search this
Physical description:
84 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Juvenile fiction
Place:
West (U.S.)
Date:
1996
1943
Topic:
Juvenile fiction  Search this
Call number:
PM1024 .C59t 1996
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_600165

Oscar Howe : the liberation of Indian art / by Frederick J. Dockstader

Title:
Oscar Howe and the liberation of Indian art
Liberation of Indian art
Author:
Dockstader, Frederick J  Search this
Subject:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art  Search this
Physical description:
p. 19-25 : col. ill., port. ; 28 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1982
Topic:
Indian artists  Search this
Call number:
ND237.H79 D63 1982
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_664451

Oscar Howe, artist of the Sioux

Author:
Pennington, Robert  Search this
Subject:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Physical description:
61 p. illus. 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1961
Call number:
ND237.H79 P4X
ND237.H79P4X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_121903

Oscar Howe : a retrospective exhibition / Frederick J. Dockstader, editor

Author:
Dockstader, Frederick J  Search this
Warren M. Lee Center for the Fine Arts  Search this
Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art  Search this
Subject:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Physical description:
72 p. : ill. (some col.), port. ; 30 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Exhibitions
Place:
United States
Date:
1982
Topic:
Indian art  Search this
Call number:
N40.1.H845 D6
N40.1.H845D6
ND237.H85A4 1982
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_162183

Bringer of the Mystery Dog / by Ann Nolan Clark ; illustrated by Oscar Howe

Author:
Clark, Ann Nolan 1896-1995  Search this
Ill:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Physical description:
40 p. : ill. ; 18 x 26 cm
Type:
Fiction
Place:
Great Plains
Date:
1996
1943
1996,1943
Topic:
Horses  Search this
Call number:
PM1024 .C59b 1996
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_953927

Legends of the mighty Sioux / compiled by workers of the South Dakota Writer's Project, Work Projects Administration ; illustrated by Oscar Howe

Author:
Howe, Oscar 1915-1983  Search this
Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of South Dakota  Search this
Physical description:
158 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 cm
Type:
Folklore
Juvenile literature
Date:
1987
C1987
Topic:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Call number:
E99.D1 L44 1987
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_978810

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