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Garden house for the Maison di Frascati

Architect:
Giuseppe Barberi, Italian, 1746–1809  Search this
Medium:
Pen and brown ink, brush and gray wash
Type:
architecture
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Made in:
Italy
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of various donors and from Eleanor G. Hewitt Fund
Accession Number:
1938-88-2589
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1938-88-2589

Recueil d'architecture civile, contenant les plans, coupes et élévations des châteaux, maisons de campagne, et habitations rurales, jardins anglais, temples, chaumières, kiosques, ponts, etc. etc. situés aux environs de Paris et dans les départemens voisins, avec les décorations intérieures, et le détail de ce qui concerne l'embellissement des jardins (Album of Civilian Architecture, containing the Plans, Sections and Elevations of the Chateaux, Country Houses and Rural Habitations, English Gardens, Temples, Cottages, Kiosques, Bridges etc. etc. situated Around Paris and in the Neighboring Departments, with the Interior Decorations and Detail of the Embellishments of Gardens)

Draftsman:
Jean-Charles Krafft, French, 1764 - 1833  Search this
Medium:
Black ink on cream paper
Type:
albums (bound) & books
Album
Object Name:
Album
Made in:
France
Date:
1806-12
Credit Line:
Purchased for the Museum by the Advisory Council
Accession Number:
1921-6-552
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1921-6-552
Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Heywood-Wakefield Streamline Maple]

Variant company name:
Established 1826; Jane's office ; Modern American home  Search this
Company Name:
Heywood-Wakefield Streamline Maple  Search this
Related companies:
Heywood-Wakefield  Search this
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Gardner, Massachusetts, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Topic:
Furniture industry and trade  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10234
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10234

[Trade catalogs from Libbey, Owens, Ford Glass Co.]

Variant company name:
Jane's office, Modern American home  Search this
Company Name:
Libbey, Owens, Ford Glass Co.  Search this
Notes content:
windows, furnishings, in dining rooms, kitches, bathrooms, bedrooms, breakfast rooms, solar housing, thermopane, plate glass, window conditioning, mirrors
Includes:
Trade catalog and photographs
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Toledo, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10471
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10471

[Trade catalogs from Gordon-Van Tine Co.]

Variant company name:
Modern American Home  Search this
Company Name:
Gordon-Van Tine Co.  Search this
Notes content:
for homebuilders, high quality millwork, lumber, roofing, paint and hardware
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Davenport, Iowa, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Paint; varnishes; adhesives; coatings; etc.  Search this
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Adhesives  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Furniture industry and trade  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Paint industry and trade  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10231
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10231

[Trade catalogs from Highbee's]

Company Name:
Highbee's  Search this
Notes content:
clothing ; accessories ; glassware ; ceramics ; decor ; furnishings
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Color images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Clothing (including hats; shoes; accessories; etc)  Search this
Department store; dry goods and mail order catalogs  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Topic:
Beverage industry  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Commercial catalogs  Search this
Department stores  Search this
Distilleries  Search this
Dress accessories  Search this
Dry-goods  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Furniture industry and trade  Search this
Hats  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Shoes  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_42655
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_42655

Glenview -- Robert Worth Bingham Garden

Former owner:
Ballard, Charles  Search this
Robert Worth Bingham  Search this
Architect:
Hutchins, E. T.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Robert Worth Bingham Garden (Glenview, Kentucky)
United States of America -- Kentucky -- Jefferson County -- Glenview
Scope and Contents:
Materials relating to the privated gardens located in Glenview, Kentucky. The folder includes slide list, excerpts from publications, and a description and worksheet completed by GCA researcher Mrs. C. More. The garden was designed by the Olmsted Firm.
General:
"This garden is an amphitheater. The semicircular rows are formed by low brick walls with turf for the seats. In front of the stage is a fountain. The stage is backed by a colonnade. In another garden, boxwood hedges planted in geometric shapes border flower beds and all are arranged around a central pool. Elsewhere is a turf walk with small pools at either end. Here a gate is at one end, a pergola at the opposite end. The turf walk is flanked by a hedged-edged flower border."
Persons associated with the property include: Mrs. Charles Ballard (former owner, 1911 to 1918); Robert Worth Bingham (former owner); Olmsted Brothers (landscape architect); E.T. Hutchins (architect).
Related Materials:
Robert Worth Bingham Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (5 35 mm. slides)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 05065, Charles T. Ballard.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Kentucky -- Glenview  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File KY035
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Kentucky
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref7654

Ipswich -- Castle Hill (MA)

Architect:
Adler, David, 1882-1949  Search this
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Sculptor:
Selmer-Larsen, Johan  Search this
Pratt, Bela Lyon, 1867-1917  Search this
Owner:
Trustees of Reservations (Mass.)  Search this
Former owner:
Crane, Richard T., Jr  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1930
General:
The Crane's "Formal Garden" (also known as the "Italian Garden" was designed by the Olmsted Bros. The architects for the hardscape was the Boston firm of Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge. The firm also designed the first mansion on the site for the Crane's in 1910-11 and they worked with the Olmsted Bros. on the "Italian Garden." Boston-area sculptor Johan Selmer Larsen also worked with the Olmsted Bros. on the garden, designing cast-stone mermaid figures atop the columns and the relief sculptures along the walls. A large figural sculpture was designed by Bela Pratt. Pratt's solid white marble "Rainbow Fountain (1916) was located in a recessed niche behind the pool area. Landscape architect Arthur Schurcliff designed the Crane's circular Rose Garden and the Grand Allee among other garden areas on the property. In 1924-1928, David Adler later designed a second mansion on the site. The Great House is the central feature of Castle Hill that was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1998.
Related Materials:
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 10109, Crane Reservation.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File MA032
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref9515

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection

Topic:
Landscape architecture
Creator:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
American Society of Landscape Architects  Search this
Donor:
Tibbetts, Eleanor Sears  Search this
Tibbetts, Eleanor Sears  Search this
Extent:
44.5 Cubic feet (4,317 glass negatives. 363 film negatives. 182 glass lantern slides. 12 photograph albums. 56 plans and drawings. 3 monographs. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Blueprints
Albums
Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
Date:
1899-1964
Summary:
The Thomas Warren Sears Photograph Collection documents examples of the design work of Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1966), a landscape architect and amateur photographer from Brookline, Massachusetts. Sears, who was based for most of his career in Philadelphia, designed a variety of different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments located primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. In addition to some of Sears' design work, images in the collection document Sears' domestic and foreign travels, design inspirations, and family. The collection includes over 4,800 black and white negatives and glass lantern slides dated circa 1899 to 1930. While most images show private and public gardens, there are a significant number of unidentified views and views photographed in Europe during two trips he took there in 1906 and 1908. Few images are captioned or dated. In addition, there are over 50 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and 3 monographs by or about Sears.
Scope and Contents note:
The Thomas Warren Sears Photograph Collection documents examples of the design work of Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1966), a landscape architect and amateur photographer from Brookline, Massachusetts. Sears, who was based for most of his career in Philadelphia, designed a variety of different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments located primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. In addition to some of Sears' design work, images in the collection document Sears' domestic and foreign travels, design inspirations, and family. The collection includes over 4,800 black and white negatives and glass lantern slides dated circa 1899 to 1930. While most images show private and public gardens, there are a significant number of unidentified views and views photographed in Europe during two trips he took there in 1906 and 1908. Few images are captioned or dated. In addition, there are over 50 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and monographs by or about Sears. Several of the glass lantern slides are duplicates of glass plate negatives in the collection. They apparently were chosen by Sears to illustrate some of his best design work, perhaps for lecture or client purposes.

In addition, there are 56 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. They range in date from 1917 to 1937 and from 1955 to 1964. Sears photographed some of his early plans; they are included in with the photographic images. Sears also photographed a handful of design plans by landscape architect Sibley Coslett Smith who practiced in Providence, Rhode Island; Sears and Smith shared the same business address there.

The Thomas Warren Sears Collection does not fully document the extent of Sears' design work. The use of glass plate negatives—which make up the bulk of the Thomas Warren Sears Collection—as a photography medium waned sometime during the first quarter of the twentieth century. As a result, the images in the Sears Collection capture examples of Sears' early to mid-career design work but they do not include jobs designed by Sears during the latter half of his design career.
Arrangement note:
The glass plate negatives were originally housed in numerous cardboard boxes manufactured for the sale of undeveloped glass plate negatives. Sears annotated the outside of the boxes with project or client names and/or locations, but the contents do not always match these labels. In addition, because very few of the glass plate negatives and lantern slides were labeled or captioned, it is not always evident where one job ended and another began if multiple projects were stored in the same carton. As a result, there are many instances in the Sears Collection where images have been inadvertently mislabeled because their identification is not apparent. Misidentified images are subject to correction as their proper identification is discovered. Each project has been assigned its own unique AAG job number based on its geographic origin. Those groups of images that have not been identified as to their location have been assigned a project number starting with 'SRS.' The collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Photographic images (including glass plate negatives, film negatives, glass lantern slides, and photograph albums) 2) Plans and Drawings 3) Monographs
Biographical/Historical note:
Thomas Warren Sears was born in 1880 in Brookline, Massachusetts. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard University in 1903 and Bachelor of Science degree in landscape architecture from the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard in 1906. Sears was an amateur photographer who won awards for his photography while at Harvard. In 1915 his images were published in the monograph, Parish Churches of England. After graduation he worked for the firm of Olmsted Brothers Landscape Architects for two years and then briefly practiced in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1913, Sears established a landscape design office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he spent the remainder of his professional career. Sears at one point was in a professional partnership; some of his design plans list the firm name of Sears and Wendell. He was made a Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1921.

Sears designed many different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments. His designs were primarily located in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. Just a few of his private landscapes include Marengo in Easton, Maryland; Sunnybrook, the Isaac H. Clothier, Jr. estate in Radnor, Pennsylvania; and Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland. In 1915, Sears started work on Reynolda, a country estate in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He generated design plans for the property intermittently over the next two decades. Reynolda's formal gardens, greenhouses, and acres of fields and woodlands subsequently became part of Wake Forest University.

During World War I, Sears designed Army camps in Battle Creek, Michigan and Spartanburg, South Carolina. He also helped lay out Langley Field, at that time an experimental aviation field in Hampton Roads, Virginia. In the 1940s, Sears designed the amphitheater at Swarthmore College in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania for concerts, outdoor performances, and other special events. During that decade he also worked on Colonial Revival gardens at Pennsbury, William Penn's country estate in Bucks County, Pennsylvania located by the Delaware River. Sears retired in 1964 and died in 1966.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Project (PAB), administered by The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, includes references to design projects by Sears.

Harvard University's Loeb Library includes a number of images by Sears, some of them documenting gardens that he designed.

Harvard University's Fine Arts Library, Special Collections includes a collection of photographs and negatives of English parish churches by Sears, c. 1908. Some of the images were published in the monograph, Parish Churches of England.

The Reynolda House Museum of American Art in Winston-Salem, North Carolina includes plans by Sears of Reynolda in its Estate Archives.
Provenance:
Gift of Eleanor Sears Tibbetts, Sears' daughter, to the Horticulture Services Division (later Smithsonian Gardens) in 1992.
Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Photographers  Search this
Landscape architects  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Switzerland  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Germany  Search this
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Blueprints
Albums
Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection.
Identifier:
AAG.SRS
See more items in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-srs
Online Media:

Beverly -- Eagle Rock

Landscape architect:
Hudak, Joseph  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Innocenti & Webel  Search this
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903  Search this
Architect:
Little, Arthur  Search this
Browne, Herbert W. C.  Search this
Steffian, Steffian and Bradley  Search this
Former owner:
Frick, Henry Clay, 1849-1919  Search this
Frick, Helen Clay, 1888-1984  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Eagle Rock (Pride's Crossing, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Essex County -- Beverly
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets.
Reproduction Note:
There are two duplicate 35 mm. slides (MA075030) copied from an original postcard, which is not in the collection. Six 35 mm. slides are copies of original glass lantern slides. One 35 mm. slide (MA075049) is copy of original painting belonging to Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities.
General:
Eagle Rock, a 104-room brick "cottage" in the neoclassical style, was set in a romantic, 25-acre landscape. Built in 1904, this house became Henry Clay Frick's summer house. In 1969, tired of maintaining a house Helen Frick considered pretentious, she "carefully demolished" Eagle Rock, sending the billiard room paneling, the car and carriage collection and sections of wrought iron fence to the Frick Art Museum she was building near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Related Materials:
Eagle Rock related holdings consist of 1 folder (39 35 mm. slides and 13 glass autochromes)
Plans and drawing exist in the Olmsted Association. Drawings and photographs are located at the Helen C. Frick Foundation in Pittsburgh, PA. Drawings by Arthur Little are located in the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities.
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 01071, W. C. Loring.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Pride's Crossing  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MA075
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17556

ACC Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1974-2003
Scope and Contents:
Originally housed together in a box.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2015-0010-ref1387

ACC Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1974-2003
Scope and Contents:
Originally housed together in a box.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2015-0010-ref1388

ACC Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1974-2003
Scope and Contents:
Originally housed together in a box.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2015-0010-ref1389

ACC Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1974-2003
Scope and Contents:
Originally housed together in a box.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2015-0010-ref1390

ACC Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1974-2003
Scope and Contents:
Originally housed together in a box.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2015-0010-ref52

Records of the Field Offices of the Freedmen's Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1872–1878

Extent:
58 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1872–1878
Summary:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 58 rolls of microfilm described in NARA publication M2029. These digital surrogates reproduced the field office records of the Freedmen's Branch in the Office of the Adjutant General, 1872–1878. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters sent, letters received, registers of letters received, and registers of claims.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. All of the volumes of the Freedmen's Branch were at one time arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) after the records came into its custody. In the table of contents that follows, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there may be blank numbered pages that have not been filmed. It appears that about 40 volumes of Freedmen's Branch records listed by a clerk in the Adjutant General's Office in 1906 were not transferred to the National Archives; however the other Freedmen's Branch records are intact.

The records of field disbursing offices operating under thee Freedmen's Branch consist of the following series: letters sent, letters received, registers of letters received, and registers of claims. These records span various periods within the years 1872–78. The records are ordered by field office just as they were arranged when transferred by the Office of the Adjutant General to the National Archives as follows: Charleston, SC; Columbia, SC (see Charleston); Fort Johnston, NC; Louisville, KY; Fort Macon, NC; Fort Leavenworth, KS; Fort Monroe, VA; Memphis, TN; Nashville, TN; Natchez, MS; New Orleans, LA; St. Louis, MO; Savannah, GA; and Vicksburg, MS.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M2029.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Freedmen's Branch was established in the office of the Adjutant General in June 1872. It assumed and continued the unfinished business of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau), which was ended by an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872.

The Freedmen's Bureau was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). Under the direction of Commissioner Oliver Otis Howard, it was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their families or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

An act of Congress approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered the Bureau to withdraw from the states in which it operated and to discontinue its work. Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers ended their field office activities. For the next year and a half, the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the state superintendents of education ceased to operate in the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. With the closing of the Bureau on June 30, 1872, its records and remaining functions, which consisted almost exclusively of the disposition of military–related claims, were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the War Department's Office of the Adjutant General.

When Assistant Adjutant General Thomas Vincent assumed office as head of the Freedmen's Branch on June 27, 1872, his charge was to supervise the transfer of the records of the unfinished business of the Freedmen's Bureau and to "look to the arrangement of the records and distribution of the duties, so that there will be the least delay in the future transaction of the business, with the view of completing and closing it." When the records of the Freedmen's Bureau began to arrive at his office, however, Vincent found them "in a state of much confusion." The records for several states and divisions were intermixed with others; some records were missing and presumed kept by Assistant Commissioner and local agents; many transactions relating to claims were never recorded, making it difficult to determine who had been paid; and there were a deficit in the amount of moneys due the some 4,858 unpaid claims and the amount transferred by the Freedmen's Bureau. These and other factors contributed to numerous complaints, accusations of fraud and embezzlement, and delays in the Freedmen's Branch's attempt to prepare and pay claims.1

Vincent established his headquarters and a chief disbursement office in Washington, DC. Capt. James McMillian served as the chief disbursing officer of the Freedmen's Branch from July 1872 to July 1877, until he was succeeded by Capt. G. G. Hunt, who served from July 1877 to February 1879. Field disbursing offices were established at Louisville, Kentucky; St. Louis; Missouri; Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee; Vicksburg and Natchez, Mississippi; and New Orleans, Louisiana. Payments to claimants in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia were made through the Washington office; in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and states where slavery had not existed, disbursing officers were temporarily assigned.

The effort to organize, arrange, and make sense of the Freedmen's Bureau's records took the Freedmen's Branch almost a year and a half. Nevertheless, in accordance with Joint Resolution Number 25, approved Mach 29, 1867, which had governed the payment of black veterans' claims by the Freedmen's Bureau, the Freedmen's Branch received, acted upon, and paid claims of black soldiers, sailors, and marines and their heirs for bounty, pension, arrears of pay, commutation of rations, and prize money. Under the provisions of the resolution, the chief disbursement officer received all checks and certificates relating to the settlement of blacks soldiers' claims, and was responsible for paying claimants in the Washington, DC, area and for the accounting and disbursements of funds to the field disbursing officers located in the Border and former Confederate States. The Washington office also paid attorneys' fees and expenses, and after satisfactory identification, the balance of the claim was paid to individual claimants, heirs or representatives. To protect black claimants from fraud and "imposition," claimants were to receive payment in currency rather than checks or drafts. The transfer or assignment of power off attorney for the balance of a claim ("or any part thereof") was not allowed. The resolution made clear that it was the duty of the Freedmen's Branch and its officers "to facilitate as far as possible the discovery, identification, and payment of claimants."2

In December 1874, the Secretary of War reported that as of July 1872, the Freedmen's Branch had paid military claims amounting to more than $1 million. He also reported that, to meet the needs of claimants in Kansas and the northwestern areas of Missouri, a field office was opened at Fort Leavenworth. The disbursing office that had been established at Nashville in 1873 was consolidated with the Memphis, TN office and the office at Fort Macon, NC and Columbia, SC, were discontinued. One of the offices at New Orleans, LA, was consolidated with that at Vicksburg, MS. While the Secretary of War reported that payments of claims by means of postal orders were alleviating delays in remote areas, Freedmen's Branch officials still found it difficult to process unpaid bounty and pension claims transferred by the Freedmen's Bureau. In many of these claims, individuals had moved from their former residences and could not be located. Some had died, leaving no representative; others for one reason or another failed to apply for payments.3

By mid–fall 1875, the disbursing office established at Fort Leavenworth, KS was consolidated with that in St. Louis, MO. Because of increasing demand for services, the office at Nashville was reopened. The offices at Fort Monroe, VA and Charleston, SC were permanent closed. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1875, the Freedmen's Branch received more than 13,000 correspondences relating to the military claims of black veterans. Disbursing officers settled more than 3,700 of these claims, at a cost of nearly $390,000. Also, through the "diligent effort" of disbursing officers, the settlement of unpaid claims had increased, although allocating some claimants still remains a problem. To protect the interests of both the Federal Government and claimants, disbursing officers worked "vigorously" to investigate contested and fraudulent claims, which had increasingly become an important part of their duties. The Freedmen's Branch also continued to pursue matters relating to embezzlement.4

By October 1876, payment of military claims had fallen off dramatically. The number of claims paid during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and July and August 1876, totaled less than 2,500. Most claimants who remained unpaid lived in remote locations thus making payment extremely difficult. Also, some claimants had changed their place of residence after filing claims. The periodic reduction of disbursing offices and clerical staff also greatly impacted the settlement process. The offices at St. Louis, MO and Nashville, TN were permanently closed. The disbursing responsibilities formerly assigned at Natchez and Vicksburg, MS were moved to the New Orleans, LA; Memphis, TN; Louisville, KY and the chief disbursing office at Washington, DC. Nonetheless, the Freedmen's Branch continued to settle unpaid claims, address complaints, institute measures to combat fraud, and when necessary, worked to rearrange records that had been transferred by the Freedmen's Bureau.5

In accordance with an act of December 15, 1877 (20 Stat. 11), the work of the Freedmen's Branch had to be completed by January 1, 1879. If not, the Freedmen's Branch would be closed and all of its papers would be turned over the Paymaster General. However, when the Freedmen's Branch was finally closed on June 30, 1879, its work relating to the claims of black veterans was assigned to the Colored Troops Division in the Office of the Adjutant General.

ENDNOTES

1 House Ex. Doc. 109, 42nd Cong., 3rd Sess., Serial Vol. 1566, pp. 1 – 4; see also George R. Bentley, A History of the Freedmen's Bureau (New York: Octagon Books, 1974), pp. 212 – 213.

2 House Ex. Doc. 109, Serial Vol. 1566, pp. 6 – 7.

3 House Ex. Doc. No. 59, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1645, pp. 1 – 2.

4. See Annual Report of the Adjutant General on the Operations of the Freedmen's Branch, October 9, 1875, pp. 1 – 14, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group (RG) 105, National Archives Building (NAB), Washington, DC.

5 See Annual Report of the Adjutant–General on the Operations of the Freedmen's Branch, October 10, 1876, pp. 1 – 7, RG 105, NAB.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Office of the Adjutant General:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Adjutant General's Office personnel at selected field offices of the Freedmen's Branch. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Freedmen's Branch's Washington Office Register of Employees, July 1872–June 1879.

CHARLESTON, SC

Dec. 1872–Jan. 1874 -- Disbursing Officer J. H. Counselman

Jan.–June 1874 and July 1874–Apr. 1875 -- Disbursing Officer J. K. Hyer, at Columbia (See Savannah, GA)

FORT JOHNSTON, NC

June 1872–May 1874 -- Disbursing Officer W. S. Starring

LOUISVILLE, KY

Oct. 1872–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer A. P. Howe

June 1876–July 1878 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. H. S. Hawkins

FORT MACON, NC

Dec. 1872–Apr.1874 -- Disbursing Officer Edgar Dudley

FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS

Jan.–Mar. 1874 -- Disbursing Officer Quentin Campbell

Mar. 1874–May 1875 -- Disbursing Officer Capt. D. H. Brotherton

FORT MONROE, VA

Dec. 1872–Apr. 1875 -- Disbursing Officer James Curry

MEMPHIS, TN

Sept. 1872–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. George Gibson

July 1876–June 1877 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. G. G. Hunt

NASHVILLE, TN

Sept. 1872–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer R. G. LaMotte

June 1874–Apr. 1875 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. George Gibson

Apr. 1875–July 1876 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. H. S. Hawkins

NATCHEZ, MS

Oct. 1872–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. G. G. Hunt (also, New Orleans, LA)

June 1874–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. G. G. Hunt, at Vicksburg (also, New Orleans, LA)

NEW ORLEANS, LA

Sept. 1872–July 1878 -- Disbursing Officer A. K. Arnold

ST. LOUIS, MO

Sept. 1872–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer P. T. Swain

SAVANNAH, GA

Nov. 1872–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer J. W. Dillenback

July–Nov. 1874 -- Disbursing Officer J. W. Dillenback, at Charleston, SC

Nov. 1874–Apr.1875 -- Disbursing Officer E. H. Totten, at Charleston, SC

VICKSBURG, MS

Sept. 1872–Apr.1873 -- Disbursing Officer E. F. Townsend

Apr.1873–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer Th. Anderson

June 1874–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer (See Natchez, MS)
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Voulkos, Peter  Search this
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