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Robert Moody Laughlin papers

Creator:
Laughlin, Robert M.  Search this
Extent:
39 videocassettes (vhs)
1 videocassettes (betamax)
20 cd-rs
6 electronic discs (dvd)
65.09 Linear feet
50 floppy discs
147 sound recordings
Culture:
Tzotzil  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes (vhs)
Videocassettes (betamax)
Cd-rs
Electronic discs (dvd)
Floppy discs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Paper tapes
Photographs
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Date:
1899-2016, bulk 1954-2016
Summary:
Robert Moody Laughlin was an American ethnologist specializing in the study of Mayan language, history, customs, and folklore. He spent the majority of his career working for the Smithsonian Institution, first with the Bureau of American Ethnology, then with the Department of Anthropology. He was a curator emeritus with the department from his retirement in 2006 until his death in 2020.

The Robert Moody Laughlin papers (1899-2016, bulk 1954-2016) document his research and professional activities and primarily deal with language and folktales he recorded and studied, as well as the culture and history of the Tzotzil and other Mayan groups in the Chiapas region. His involvement in language education and training, advocacy for the Tzotzil and language and cultural revitalization, and administrative matters at the Smithsonian are also represented. The collection consists of materials created for books and other publications, field notes, research materials, correspondence, administrative files, sound recordings, video recordings, photographs, and electronic records.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert Moody Laughlin papers (1899-2016, bulk 1954-2016) document his research and professional activities and primarily deal with language and folktales he recorded and studied, as well as the culture and history of the Tzotzil and other Mayan groups in the Chiapas region. His involvement in language education and training, advocacy for the Tzotzil and language and cultural revitalization, and administrative matters at the Smithsonian are also represented. The collection consists of materials created for books and other publications, field notes, research materials, correspondence, administrative files, sound recordings, video recordings, photographs, and electronic records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 14 series: Series 1. Tzotzil Dictionaries, 1963-1988, undated; Series 2. Of Wonders Wild and New, 1963-1976; Series 3. Of Cabbages and Kings, 1960-1977; Series 4. Of Shoes and Ships and Sealing Wax, 1963-1980; Series 5. Other Writings by Laughlin, 1956-2006; Series 6. Writings by Others, 1954-2002; Series 7. Biographical Files, 1906-2003; Series 8. Correspondence, 1899-1900, 1948-2002; Series 9. Research and Field Notes, 1954-1993; Series 10. Sna Jtz'ibajom, 1983-2016; Series 11. Administrative Files, 1961-2014; Series 12. Sound Recordings, circa 1960-2004; Series 13. Video Recordings, 1985-2002, undated; Series 14. Photographic Material, 1985-circa 2007, undated; Series 15. Electronic Files, 1985-circa 2004.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Moody Laughlin (also known as Lol Bik'it Nab in Tzotzil) was an ethnologist in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology specializing in modern and colonial Tzotzil lexicography as well as Tzotzil oral history, worldview, dreams, prayers, ethnobotany, and history. As a pioneer in advocacy anthropology, Laughlin spent the majority of his career working to support the Chiapas Mayas through his publications, research, and other professional efforts. Among his most notable contributions to local and global understandings of the Chiapas Mayas and the Tzotzil language were his publication of The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantan (1975) and his work in founding Sna Jtz'ibajom, a writers collective based in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.

Laughlin was born in 1934 in Princeton, New Jersey, and graduated from Princeton University with a Bachelors degree in English in 1956. He first visited the Chiapas area of Mexico in 1957 as a graduate student at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico City. He then transferred to Harvard University and began studying under cultural anthropologist Evon Vogt who had recently started the Harvard Chiapas Project. Laughlin completed his field work in Zinacantan, where he learned to speak Tzotzil. After receiving his Ph.D. in anthropology from Harvard in 1963, he collected myths and folk tales in Zinacantan as an ethnologist for the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology. During regular trips to the field in Chiapas, Mexico, he also worked to compile a dictionary of Tzotzil words. After fourteen years of work, The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantan was published in 1975.

After his dictionary was published, Laughlin returned to the study of folk tales and culture in Tzotzil and other Mayan cultural groups in Central America. He published several books on stories, dreams, marriage and other customs, ethnobotany, and history of the Tzotzil peoples. Laughlin's efforts at revitalizing the Tzotzil language and promoting the area's culture sparked significant Tzotzil interest in their own language and history, but illiteracy was still a major barrier to cultural revitalization. In 1983, Laughlin helped found Sna Jtz'ibajom (House of the Writer), a writers cooperative that took writings about Tzotzil history, folklore, and customs and translated them into Tzotzil. Sna Jtz'ibajom also created Teatro Lo'il Maxil (Monkey Business Theater), a group that wrote and performed plays related to Mayan folklore and education about social issues such as family planning and alcoholism.

Laughlin received the Premio Chiapas in Science in 2002 and the PEN Gregory Kolovakos Award for the translation of Spanish (including Native American) literature in 2004. He retired in 2006 and is currently a curator emeritus in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution.

Laughlin died on May 28, 2020, of Covid-19 complications.

Sources Consulted

Genzlinger, Neil. "Robert Laughlin, Preserver of a Mayan Language, Dies at 85." New York Times, June 24, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/24/science/robert-laughlin-preserver-of-a-mayan-language-dies-at-85.html

1934 -- Born on May 29 in Princeton, New Jersey

1956 -- Received Bachelor's Degree in English from Princeton University

1957 -- First trip to Chiapas area of Mexico in 1957 as a graduate student at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico City

1959 -- Traveled to Chiapas as a member of the Harvard Chiapas Project

1961 -- Received Masters Degree in Anthropology from Harvard University

1962 -- Hired as an ethnologist by the Bureau of American Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution).

1962-1964 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution

1963 -- Received a Ph. D. in Anthropology from Harvard University

1964-1969 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology

1969-1973 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology

1973-2006 -- Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology

1983 -- Aided in the foundation of Sna Jtz'ibajom (House of the Writer) in Chiapas.

2006 -- Retired from the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

2020 -- Died on May 28 of Covid-19 complications.
Separated Materials:
Material in Series 13. Video Recordings has been transferred to the National Anthropological Film Collection (NAFC), but is described in the this finding aid.
Provenance:
These papers were donated and transferred to the National Anthropological Archives by Robert M. Laughlin in 1985, 2011, and 2016 under accessions 1974-15, 2011-06, and 2016-16.
Restrictions:
The Robert Moody Laughlin papers are open for research.

Electronic media is currently restricted due to preservation concerns.

Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the National Anthropological Film Collection may not be played.

Access to the Robert Moody Laughlin papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Dreams  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Paper tapes
Photographs
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Citation:
Robert Moody Laughlin papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2011-06
See more items in:
Robert Moody Laughlin papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2011-06
Online Media:

Ella Fitzgerald Papers

Creator:
Fitzgerald, Ella  Search this
Producer:
Decca (recording company).  Search this
Verve Records (Firm)  Search this
Granz, Norman  Search this
Performer:
Jazz at the Philharmonic (Musical group)  Search this
Musician:
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-1993  Search this
Pass, Joe, 1929-1994  Search this
Peterson, Oscar, 1925-  Search this
Names:
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Arranger:
Riddle, Nelson  Search this
Extent:
50 Cubic feet (92 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Awards
Videocassettes
Audiotapes
Programs
Sound recordings
Manuscripts
Phonograph records
Photographs
Posters
16mm motion picture film
Clippings
Contracts
Greeting cards
Date:
circa 1935-1996
Summary:
Ella Fitzgerald, often called the "First Lady of Song," was one of the 20th century's most important musical performers. The collection reflects her career and personal life through photographs, audio recordings, and manuscript materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Ella Fitzgerald Papers document the performing and personal life of the "First Lady of Song." The collection contains music manuscripts, sheet music, photographs, scripts, correspondence, clippings, business records, sound recordings and video. The bulk of the materials reflect Fitzgerald's career as a singer and performer. The collection comprises materials found in Ella Fitzgerald's home at the time of her death.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 10 series.

Series 1: Music Manuscripts and Sheet Music, 1919-1973

Suberies 1.1: Television Shows

Series 2: Photographs, 1939-1990

Subseries 2.1: Ella Fitzgerald Performing Alone

Subseries 2.2: Ella Fitzgerald Performing With Others

Subseries 2.3: Publicity

Subseries 2.4: Ella Fitzgerald With Family, Colleagues, and Friends

Subseries 2.5: Ella Fitzgerald Candid Photographs

Subseries 2.6: Performing Venues

Subseries 2.7: Photographs From Friends and Fans

Series 3: Scripts, 1957-1981

Series 4: Correspondence, circa 1960-1996

Series 5: Business Records, 1954-1990

Series 6: Honorary Degrees and Awards, 1960-1996

Series 7: Concert Programs and Announcements, 1957-1992, undated

Series 8: Clippings, 1949-1997

Subseries 8.1: Magazine Articles, 1949-1997

Subseries 8.2: Newspapers, circa 19650-circa 1990

Series 9: Emphemera, 1950-1996

Subseries 9.1: Album Jackets

Subseries 9.2: Miscellaneous

Series 10: Audiovisual, 1939-1995

Subseries 10.1: Sound Discs: Test Pressings, Transcription Discs, and Performer Copies

Subseries 10.2: Commercial Sound Recordings

Subseries 10.3: Demonstration Sound Discs: Other Artists

Subseries 10.4: Videotapes
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Newport News, Virginia on April 25th, 1918, Ella Fitzgerald was sent to an orphanage in Yonkers, New York at the age of six. In 1934, she was discovered as a singer in New York's famed Apollo Theater Amateur Contest. This led to a stint with drummer Chick Webb's Band, with whom she recorded her first big hit, "A -tisket A-tasket" in 1938.

After Webb died in 1939, Fitzgerald took over leadership of the band for three years, during which time they were featured on a live radio series. She then embarked upon a solo career, which included recording for Decca Records, and in 1946, she began a pivotal association with producer Norman Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic series, which brought her a large international following.

In 1956, Fitzgerald left Decca Records to join Granz's newly formed Verve label. Among her notable Verve recordings were a series of "songbooks" featuring the work of major American composers such as Cole Porter, George Gershwin, and Harold Arlen as well as classic collaborations with Count Basie and Duke Ellington. Fitzgerald's toured and performed extensively and her immense popularity also led to appearances on television, in movies, and in commercials and magazine ads.

Despite increasing health problems, Fitzgerald continued to tour, perform and record into her seventies with musicians such as guitarist Joe Pass, arranger-producer Quincy Jones, and pianist Oscar Peterson. Throughout her life, Fitzgerald was active in charitable work with particular emphasis on the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation and the Ella Fitzgerald and Harriette E. Shields Child Care Centers.

Ella Fitzgerald was admired and honored world-wide. In addition to receiving more than a dozen Grammy awards, she was awarded numerous honorary degrees and many states and cities had commemorative Ella Fitzgerald days. Fitzgerald was a Kennedy Center honoree in 1979 and Harvard University's Hasty Pudding Club named her "Woman of the Year" in 1982.

The "First Lady of Song" died on June 17, 1996, of complications from diabetes.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Benny Carter Collection, 1928-2000 (AC0757)

Charismic Productions Records of Dizzy Gillespie, 1940s-1993 (AC0979)

Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Program Collection, 1992-2012 (AC0808)

Milt Gabler Papers, 1927-2001 (AC0849)

Tad Hershorn Collection, 1956-1991 (AC0680)

Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection, circa 1910- circa 1970 (AC0491)
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of American History, Division of Culture ands the Arts holds Ella Fitzgerald artifacts including costumes and clothing.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Fitzgerald 1989 Trust, Richard Rosman, trustee on April 14, 1997. The Ella Fitzgeral Charitable Foundation is the successor to the Fitzgerald 1989 Trust.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials can be used.
Rights:
The Archives Center can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Awards
Videocassettes
Audiotapes
Programs -- 1930-2000
Sound recordings
Sound recordings -- 1930-1990
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Phonograph records
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters -- 20th century
16mm motion picture film
Clippings -- 20th century
Contracts
Greeting cards
Citation:
Ella Fitzgerald Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0584
See more items in:
Ella Fitzgerald Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0584
Online Media:

Curatorial Records, 1972-2018

Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Curatorial - Ceramics  Search this
Subject:
Cort, Louise Allison 1944-  Search this
Freer Gallery of Art  Search this
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Physical description:
8 cu. ft. (8 record storage boxes)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Brochures
Clippings
Picture postcards
Electronic records
Compact discs
Sketches
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Glass negatives
Color transparencies
Date:
1972
1972-2018
Topic:
Art museums  Search this
Ceramics  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Art museum curators  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 20-104
Restrictions & Rights:
Restricted for 15 years, until Jan-01-2034; Transferring office; 9/13/01 memorandum, Wright to Hennessey; Contact reference staff for details
See more items in:
Curatorial Records 1972-2018 [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Curatorial - Ceramics]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_400096

Divisional Records, 1866, 1954-1997

Creator:
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Subject:
Merzbach, Uta C. 1933-  Search this
United States National Museum Section of Mathematics and Antique Instruments  Search this
Museum of History and Technology (U.S.) Section of Mathematics  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Mathematics  Search this
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.) Division of Mathematics  Search this
United States National Museum Section of Physical Sciences and Measurements  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Physical Sciences and Mathematics  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Physical and Biological Sciences  Search this
University of Texas at Austin  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
American Federation of Information Processing Societies  Search this
Physical description:
4 cu. ft. (4 record storage boxes)
Type:
Clippings
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Transcripts
Picture postcards
Drawings
Color transparencies
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Audiotapes
Date:
1866
1866-1997
1866, 1954-1997
19th century
20th century
Topic:
Women museum curators  Search this
Science--History  Search this
Museums--Acquisitions  Search this
Museums--Public relations  Search this
Computers--History  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Women mathematicians  Search this
Historical museums  Search this
Mathematical instruments  Search this
Congresses and conventions  Search this
Mathematics--History  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 20-126
See more items in:
Divisional Records 1866, 1954-1997 [National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Physical Sciences]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_400101

Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Radio and Geoastronomy Division  Search this
Extent:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1978-1983
Descriptive Entry:
These records were created primarily by Arthur Edward Lilley as head of the division. Basic administrative files include information on the Northeast Radio Observatory Corporation (NEROC) and its Haystack Observatory in Westfield, Massachusetts; international astronomical organizations; and projects of two investigators of the division, Mario Grossi and Giuseppe Colombo. A second series of files concerns the Satellite Tracking Program, chiefly including material in support of SAO's NASA contract for FY 1980; a proposal to support the Goddard Space Flight Center in its Laser Tracking Network, including the proposal to take over the network completely; information about foreign tracking stations; and information about relocating a tracking station to India through agreement with the India Space Research Corporation (ISRO).
Historical Note:
The Radio and Geoastronomy Division was formed in fiscal year 1979 by the combination of two existing divisions: Radio Astronomy and Geoastronomy. The first of these two was formed in 1973 under the reorganization of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) conducted by new director George B. Field. Arthur Edward Lilley (b. 1928), professor of radio astronomy at Harvard University, was appointed associate director of the observatory in charge of this division, a position he retained through the merger until the end of calendar year 1986. The Division of Geoastronomy was formed in 1970 under the direction of George Charles Weiffenbach (b. 1921), who joined the staff in 1969. At the time this was one of the few divisions into which the observatory was divided, and it retained its identity under Field's 1973 reorganization. Weiffenbach retained the directorship until 1976, when John C. Gregory took over as acting associate director until the merger of the two divisions.
Topic:
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Astrogeology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 517, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Radio and Geoastronomy Division, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 517
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0517

Satellite Tracking Station Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Extent:
41 cu. ft. (82 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Maps
Clippings
Manuscripts
Architectural drawings
Date:
1953-1968
Descriptive Entry:
This record unit consists mostly of records documenting the administration and operation of the STP tracking stations and includes files on the stations kept by the Photographic Observation Section, 1956-1961; SOD, 1961-1965; and STADAD, 1965-1968. The station files consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence and memoranda, reports, and technical data concerning satellite tracking operations; station fiscal matters; the construction and maintenance of station buildings and facilities; conferences and meetings held at the stations; the procurement of equipment and supplies for the stations; station personnel; and special projects conducted at each station. Also included are administrative records of SOD and STADAD; station files and administrative records of the Engineering Section of SOD and STADAD, mostly concerning the operation of the Baker-Nunn tracking cameras at each station; station financial statements; and records documenting relations between SAO and foreign countries or states where tracking stations were located.

Many of the files in this record unit are arranged in a numerical-subject records management system instituted at SAO about 1964. In the system, records were assigned a number code based on subject classification and filed numerically. Often records prior to 1964 were refiled using the numerical-subject system. Retrieval of records using the system is difficult. For a detailed explanation of the SAO numerical-subject filing system, see appendix 1 in the Archives.
Historical Note:
Created in 1956 as part of the International Geophysical Year, the Satellite Tracking Program (STP) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) was a world-wide network of stations responsible for the optical tracking of satellites. From 1956 until June 1959, the program was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. In July 1959, funding was assumed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The goal of STP was to obtain photographs of satellites in sufficient number and accuracy to allow the determination of highly precise orbits. Data derived from the orbits provided information concerning variations in the density and temperature of the upper atmosphere and helped construct new representations of the earth's gravitational potential and geometrical figure. Twelve camera stations were established around the world between 36 degrees north and 36 degrees south of the equator. Stations were located at Jupiter, Florida (closed in 1967); Organ Pass, New Mexico (moved to Mt. Hopkins, Arizona in 1968); Maui, Hawaii; Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, West Indies (moved to Natal, Brazil, in 1966); Arequipa, Peru; Villa Dolores, Argentina (moved to Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina, in 1966); Shiraz, Iran (moved to Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, in 1966); Olifantsfontein, South Africa; Naini Tal, India; San Fernando, Spain; Tokyo, Japan (closed in 1968); and Woomera, Australia (moved to the Space Research Site at Island Lagoon, Australia, in 1964). Cooperative programs enabled STP to track satellites at United States Air Force stations at Oslo, Norway, and Johnston and Kwajalein Islands in the Pacific Ocean; the Royal Canadian Air Force station at Cold Lake, Alberta; Harvard University's Agassiz Station; and the geodetic station at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. A special satellite tracking camera, designed by James C. Baker and Joseph Nunn, was installed in each station.

When it was created in 1956, STP was a part of SAO's Upper Atmosphere Studies Division. The 12 satellite tracking camera stations were administered by the Photographic Observation Section, under the direction of Karl G. Henize. In 1961, STP became a separate Department of SAO. At that time the Station Operations Division (SOD) was created within STP for the administrative direction and logistical support of all satellite tracking camera stations, for maintenance of equipment and development of new equipment and techniques, and for technical support in observing procedures. SOD was organized into three sections: Administrative, Operations, and Engineering. Richard C. Brock became the first chief of the Station Operations Division in June 1961. Other incumbents included Jan Rolff, 1962-1964, and Carl W. Hagge, acting chief, 1964-1965. In 1965, SOD was abolished and replaced by the Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Department (STADAD). STADAD assumed the duties of its predecessor and was also responsible for administering SAO's Meteor Simulation Project station at Wallops Island, Virginia. STADAD was comprised of five divisions: Optical Tracking Division, Moonwatch Division, Wallops Island Division, Engineering Division, and Administrative Support Division. John I. Hsia was appointed the first manager of STADAD in 1965. Other incumbents included Jack A. Coffey, 1966-1968, and Harry Albers, 1968- .
Topic:
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Astronomical observatories  Search this
Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Maps
Clippings
Manuscripts
Architectural drawings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 263, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Satellite Tracking Program, Satellite Tracking Station Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 263
See more items in:
Satellite Tracking Station Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0263

Correspondence

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Senior Research Fellow.  Search this
Extent:
1.5 cu. ft. (1 record storage box) (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1982-1983, 1986-1994
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the outgoing correspondence of George B. Field, Director, 1973-1982, and Senior Research Fellow, 1983- , as well as an applied astronomy professor at Harvard University. Materials also include some incoming correspondence as well as attachments. A small amount of correspondence belonged to George B. Rybicki, L. M. Ozernoi, Alan P. Lightman, and others. Together, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory administer the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics which was also directed by Field. Subject matter within the correspondence relates to all of these organizations.
Topic:
Astronomy -- Study and teaching  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Research institutes  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 10-008, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Senior Research Fellow, Correspondence
Identifier:
Accession 10-008
See more items in:
Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa10-008

Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Office of the Director  Search this
Extent:
30 cu. ft. (30 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Serials (publications)
Date:
1971-1987
Descriptive Entry:
These records document the administration and scientific programs of SAO under the leadership of Field, 1973-1983, and Shapiro, 1983-1987. A small amount of material was created during Whipple's tenure as director. The records consist of correspondence, memoranda, proposals, reports, budgets, publications, and related materials documenting the research activities of SAO divisions of Atomic and Molecular Physics, High Energy Astrophysics, Optical and Infrared Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Radio and Geoastronomy, Solar and Stellar Physics, and Theoretical Astrophysics; the development and operation of the multiple-mirror telescope; the research program of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (before 1981, the Mount Hopkins Observatory); the Satellite Tracking Program, including its evolution from Baker-Nunn cameras to laser-ranging systems, and its termination in 1983; SAO research programs in hydrogen masers, submillimeter wavelength interferometers, and infrared telescopes; the development of the Langley-Abbot Solar Research Program; relations with Harvard University, and SAO's role as a member of the Center for Astrophysics; the establishment of the SAO visiting scientist and post-doctoral fellowship programs; SAO involvement in site testing for an observatory on Mt. Graham, Arizona; a proposed Institute for X-Ray Astronomy at SAO; and budgets, facilities, information management, publication programs, and other administrative matters.

Also included is incoming and outgoing correspondence of Field and Shapiro with professional colleagues, staff of SAO and the Harvard College Observatory, students, and the general public concerning scientific research, professional affairs, administrative issues, and requests for information.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple retired as director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in 1973. He was succeeded by George B. Field, who served in the position until 1983. Irwin I. Shapiro was appointed director in January 1983.
Restrictions:
Materials in Box 1 are permanently restricted; see finding aid. Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Research  Search this
Baker-Nunn camera  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Astronomical observatories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Serials (publications)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 437, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Office of the Director, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 437
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0437

Fairchild Industries, Inc. collection

Creator:
Fairchild Aircraft Corp  Search this
Names:
Fairchild Aircraft Corp  Search this
Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp  Search this
Fokker Aircraft Corp  Search this
Hiller Aircraft Corp  Search this
Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co.  Search this
Pilatus Flugzeugwerke AG  Search this
Republic  Search this
Swearingen Aircraft  Search this
Fairchild, Sherman M.  Search this
Extent:
277.95 Cubic feet (255 records center boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Financial records
Negatives
Photographs
Videotapes
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1919-1980
Summary:
This collection consists of historical files on FI, its predecessors, and subsidiaries. The material consists primarily of historical/public relations material, including photographs and brochures, but also includes significant amounts of business records for FEAC, Kreider-Reisner, Hiller, Republic, Ranger, Stratos, and Swearingen. The collection also documents Fairchild's joint ventures with Fokker, Pilatus, and other aircraft manufacturers. The material also includes an extensive negative collection as well as film and videotape libraries.
Scope and Contents note:
Sherman Mills Fairchild (1896-1971) founded Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation (FAEC) in 1920. FAEC was incorporated in New York State for the purpose of developing, manufacturing and selling aerial photographic equipment. It went through many changes over the course of its existence. By 1971, FAEC was called Fairchild Industries, Inc. and had become an enormous corporation that produced such famous and history making aircraft as the Model 24 and A-10 as well as acquired other aviation industry giants such as Republic Aviation and Hiller Aircraft Company.

The Fairchild Industries, Inc. Collection, accessions 1989-0060 and 1990-0047, was donated to the Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and 1990. The collection consists of printed and photographic materials. The subject matter of the material has a wide scope that includes, but is not restricted to, the following subject areas: public relations, legal matters, production photography, aircraft drawings and manuals, company published materials such as brochures and press releases, and history files. This collection does not contain the engineering files or the complete photo holdings or corporate records of Fairchild Industries, Inc or any of its predecessors.

The collection was maintained for many years by Theron Rinehart, a Fairchild Industries employee. Due to the large size and lack original order, the Archives Division decided to create a database as well as a traditional finding aid for access to the collection. Access to the Fairchild Docs database is available from the Archives Division by appointment. Aircraft types and designations are listed in the database and finding aid as they are in The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Directory of Airplanes Their Designers and Manufacturers, edited by Dana Bell, 2002 (Greenhill Books: London). Folder titles are those that appeared on the original folders and dates are provided for those materials that had them. The material was rehoused by the Archives Division and is now in acid free folders and boxes. There are few instances of water damage; these materials are indicated in the finding aid and database.

This finding aid contains a corporate history and chronology of the companies owned by of Fairchild Industries, Inc and a list of the Fairchild, Hiller, Republic and Swearingen aircraft documented in this collection. The books, periodicals and artifacts that were part of this collection have been removed. This finding aid contains a list of these materials. Please ask for assistance in contacting the NASM Branch and Smithsonian Libraries and the NASM Aeronautics Division.

Sherman Mills Fairchild's personal papers, The Sherman Fairchild Papers, can be found in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress.
Biographical/Historical note:
The following information was taken from The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Directory of Airplanes: Their Designers and Manufacturers, edited by Dana Bell, 2002 (Greenhill Books: London).

"In 1924, Sherman Fairchild established the Fairchild Aviation Corp as the parent company for his many aviation interests. In 1930, The Aviation Corp (AVCO) purchased Fairchild Aviation and its subsidiaries, initially operating the various companies under their original names. The following year, Sherman Fairchild repurchased Fairchild Aviation Corp and began repurchasing the subordinate companies. In a December 1936 reorganization, Fairchild Aviation Corp divested itself of all aircraft manufacturing interests, placing them under a new Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co.

The original aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of Fairchild Aviation Corp was Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Co; it was created in 1924 to design and build aircraft as platforms for Fairchild's aerial survey cameras. Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing was one of the subsidiaries purchased by AVCO in 1930, but not one of the first companies repurchased by Sherman Fairchild. In 1931 AVCO combined the aircraft company with Fairchild Engine Co, forming American Airplane and Engine Corp. Fairchild Aviation Corp bought American Airplane and Engine in 1934, renaming the company the Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co.

In the 1936 reorganization that divided Fairchild Aviation Corp assets, Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co became Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co and took charge of all Fairchild aircraft and engine holdings. Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co became Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp in 1950 and Fairchild Stratos Corp in 1961. With the 1964 purchase of Hiller Aircraft Corp, Fairchild Stratos was renamed Fairchild Hiller Corp, then, again, renamed Fairchild Industries after the separation of all Hiller interests in 1973. Although Fairchild Industries closed and sold its military and commercial aircraft manufacturing divisions in 1987, "Fairchild" aircraft continued to be produced through the Swearingen Metro and Fairchild Dornier lines (see below).

Fairchild created, purchased, and merged with several companies during its history. The following are the most important subsidiaries:

Fairchild Aircraft Ltd was created in 1929 as Fairchild Aviation Corp's Canadian subsidiary. The company ended all aircraft production in 1948.

The Kreider Reisner Aircraft Co Inc was formed in 1927. Kreider Reisner became a wholly-owned division of (first) the Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Co in 1929, (second) AVCO's American Airplane and Engine Corp (which renamed KR aircraft "Pilgrims") in 1931, and (third) Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co in 1934. Kreider-Reisner was renamed the Fairchild Aircraft Corp in 1935, becoming Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co's principle US aircraft manufacturing subsidiary. Fairchild Aircraft Corp was renamed the Fairchild Aircraft Division in 1939, the Fairchild Aircraft and Missiles Division in 1961, the Fairchild Stratos Aircraft and Missiles Division in 1961, the Aircraft-Missiles Division in 1965, and the Aircraft Division in 1967. With a growing number of aircraft subsidiaries reporting to Fairchild Industries, the Aircraft Division was broken up in a corporate reorganization of the 1970s. While the Kreider Reisner Midget is listed under Kreider Reisner, all Kreider Reisner Challenger series aircraft (designated "KR" biplanes by Fairchild) appear under Fairchild.

In 1936 Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co founded the subsidiary Duromold Aircraft Corp to better account for time spent developing the Duromold wood/resin bonding process and the Model 46 aircraft. In 1938, the majority interest in Duromold was bought by a group of investors (including process inventor Col. Virginius E. Clark), who formed the Clark Aircraft Corp. Fairchild kept a minority interest in Clark, retaining Duromold as a holding company. In September 1938, Fairchild renamed its Duromold division Fairchild Airplane Investment Corp, and Clark created a subsidiary called Duramold Aircraft Corp (note the spelling change). In 1938 Duramold was renamed Molded Aircraft Corp. In 1939, Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp bought back a controlling interest in Clark and renamed Molded Aircraft Duramold Aircraft Manufacturing Corp. The Duramold and Clark companies disappeared during one of Fairchild's World War II reorganizations.

In 1952 Fairchild licensed the rights to Dutch Fokker's F.27 medium-range airliner. In 1953, the USAF transferred production contracts for the Chase Aircraft Co, Inc C 123 to Fairchild. The Chase-built XC 123 and XC 123A appear under Chase, while Fairchild's C-123 production is listed under Fairchild.

In 1954, the American Helicopter Co, Inc (founded 1947) became the Helicopter Division of Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp. The division closed by the end of decade.

In 1964, Fairchild Stratos purchased Hiller Aircraft Corp, and both companies were renamed: Hiller Aircraft Co Inc become a subsidiary of Fairchild Hiller Corp. In the 1973 reorganization of Fairchild Hiller into Fairchild Industries, Hiller helicopter interests passed to an independent Hiller Aviation Inc….

In 1965, the Republic Aviation Corp became Republic Aviation Division (also known as Fairchild Republic) of Fairchild Hiller Corp. In 1987, Republic was shut down when Fairchild Industries ceased building commercial and military aircraft.

Swearingen Aircraft formed in the late 1950s, modifying Beech aircraft for executive transport. In 1965 the company produced its first new design, the Merlin. In 1970 Swearingen began development of the Metro, a joint venture to be marketed by Fairchild Hiller Corp. As a subsidiary of Fairchild Industries, Swearingen became Swearingen Aviation Corp, in 1971, Fairchild Swearingen in 1981, and Fairchild Aircraft Corp in September 1982. When Fairchild Industries closed its aircraft design and production facilities in 1987, Fairchild Aircraft Corp was sold to GMF Investments, Inc; GMF continued to operate the company under the Fairchild name. In 1990, Fairchild Aircraft filed for Chapter 11 protection and was purchased by Fairchild Acquisition Inc as Fairchild Aircraft Inc. Fairchild Aircraft delivered its last aircraft in 2001. Most Swearingen designs are filed under Swearingen; the Metro and Expediter can be found under Fairchild.

In 1996, Fairchild Acquisition became Fairchild Aerospace. While continuing to operate Fairchild Aircraft, the company also purchased 80% of the stock of Germany's Dornier Luftfahrt GmbH (with the remaining 20% of shares held by Daimler Benz Aerospace). Dornier's aircraft manufacturing operations were taken over by Fairchild Dornier Luftfahrt Beteiligungs GmbH. In 2000, Fairchild Aerospace was renamed Fairchild Dornier Aerospace, with corporate headquarters moved to Germany. Dornier designs predating Fairchild's takeover are listed under Dornier. Subsequent designs are found under Fairchild Dornier."

The following lists companies owned by Sherman Fairchild Industries and their years of incorporation. Major divisions of Fairchild are also listed. This list does not include when these entities were divested of or liquidated.

1920 -- Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation

1922 -- Fairchild Aerial Surveys (of Canada) Limited

1924 -- Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Incorporated

1924 -- S.M. Fairchild Flying Corporation

1925 -- Fairchild Aerial Camera

1925 -- Fairchild Caminez Engine Corporation

1925 -- Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation

1925 -- Fairchild Flying Company, Incorporated (name change from S.M. Fairchild Flying Corp.)

1925 -- Fairchild Aviation Corporation (holding company for Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation, Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc., Fairchild Flying Company, Inc, Fairchild Caminez Engine Corporation, Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation and Fairchild Aerial Surveys (of Canada) Ltd.)

1925 -- Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation

1926 -- Elliot-Fairchild Air Service, Limited

1926 -- Elliot-Fairchild Air Transport, Limited

1926 -- Fairchild Aviation, Limited (name change from Fairchild Aerial Surveys (of Canada) Limited)

1926 -- Fairchild Air Transport, Limited (name change from Elliot-Fairchild Air Transport, Limited)

1927 -- Fairchild Aviation Corporation (reorganization and refinancing of the following subsidiaries and minority holdings, Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation, Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc., Fairchild Flying Company, Inc, Fairchild Caminez Engine Corporation, Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation, Fairchild Aviation, Limited, Compania Mexicana de Aviacion, S.A. [20% stock] and International Aerial Engineering Company [20% stock])

1928 -- Faircam Realty Corporation

1928 -- Fairchild Boats, Incorporated

1928 -- Fairchild Engine Corporation

1928 -- V.E. Clark Corporation

1928 -- West Indian Aerial Express, Incorporated

1928 -- Fairchild Aviation Corporation of Illinois

1929 -- Fairchild Shares Corporation

1929 -- Fairchild Aircraft, Limited

1930 -- Fairchild-American Photo Aerial Surveys, S.A.

1932 -- Fairchild Airplane Sales Corporation

1934 -- Fairchild Aircraft Corporation

1936 -- Fairchild Aviation, Incorporated

1936 -- Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation (holding company for Fairchild Aircraft Corporation, Ranger Engineering Corporation and Fairchild Aircraft, Limited [50% stock])

1937 -- Duramold Aircraft Corporation

1938 -- Clark Corporation

1938 -- Fairchild Airplane Investments Corporation

1938 -- Duramold Aircraft Corporation

1938 -- Molded Aircraft Corporation (name change from Duramold Aircraft Corporation)

1938 -- Duramold Aircraft Corporation

1939 -- Ranger Corporation

1941 -- AL-FIN Corporation

1941 -- Stratos Corporation

1945 -- Fairchild Pilotless Planes Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1945 -- Fairchild Personal Planes Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1946 -- Fairchild – NEPA (nuclear powered aircraft engines) Division is formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1949 -- Fairchild Guided Missiles Division (name change from Fairchild Pilotless Planes Division)

1953 -- Fairchild Speed Control Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1953 -- Fairchild Aviation, (Holland) N.V.

1954 -- American Helicopter Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1954 -- Fairchild Kinetics Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1955 -- Fairchild Armalite Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1956 -- Fairchild Electronics Division (name change from American Helicopter Division)

1957 -- Jonco Aircraft Corporation

1958 -- Fairchild Arms International, Limited

1958 -- Fairchild Astronautics Division (name change from Fairchild Guided Missiles Division)

1958 -- Fairchild Aircraft and Missiles Division (name change from Fairchild Aircraft Division)

1958 -- International Aluminum Structures Incorporated

1960 -- Astrionics Division (name change from Electronics Systems Division)

1960 -- Aircraft Service Division

1961 -- Fairchild Stratos Corporation (operating division, subsidiaries and affiliates: Aircraft-Missile Division, Aircraft Service Division, Electronic Systems Division, Stratos Division, Fairchild Arms International Ltd, Fairchild Aviation (Holland) N.V., and Aerotest Laboratories, Inc.)

1962 -- Space System Division formed by Fairchild Stratos Corporation

1962 -- Data Systems Engineering formed by Fairchild Stratos Corporation

1964 -- Hiller Aircraft Company, Inc

1964 -- Fairchild Hiller Corporation (name change from Fairchild Stratos Corporation; division and subsidiaries: Aircraft Missiles Division, Aircraft Service Division, Electronic Systems Division, Data Systems Engineering, Space Systems Division, Stratos Division, Hiller Aircraft Company, Inc., Fairchild Aviation (Holland) N.V. and Fairchild Arms International, Inc.)

1965 -- Republic Aviation Corporation

1965 -- Republic Aviation Division

1965 -- Electronic and Information Systems Division (formed by combining Electronic Systems Division, Data Systems Engineering and similar disciplines from Republic Aviation Corporation)

1966 -- Burns Aero Seat Company, Incorporated

1966 -- Fairchild Hiller – FRG Corporation

1966 -- Aircraft Division (formed by combining Aircraft-Missiles Division and Hiller Aircraft Company, Inc.)

1966 -- Space and Electronics Systems Division (formed by combining Space Systems Division and Electronic and Information Systems Division)

1966 -- Industrial Products Division (forms from the Industrial Products Branch of Stratos Division)

1967 -- S.J. Industries, Inc.

1967 -- Air Carrier Engine Services, Inc.

1967 -- Fairchild Chemical Corporation

1967 -- EWR-Fairchild International

1968 -- Fairchild Aircraft Marketing Company

1968 -- FAIRMICCO

1969 -- Fairchild-Germantown Development Company, Incorporated

1970 -- Fairchild Aviation (Asia) Limited

1971 -- Fairchild Industries, Incorporated (name changes from Fairchild Hiller Corporation, division and subsidiaries: Fairchild Aircraft Marketing Company, Fairchild Aircraft Service Division, Fairchild Industrial Products Division, Fairchild Republic Division, Fairchild Space and Electronics Division, Fairchild Stratos Division, Burns Aero Seat Company, Incorporated, Fairchild Arms International, Ltd., Fairchild Aviation (Asia) Limited, Fairchild Aviation (Holland) N.V., Fairchild-Germantown Development Company, Incorporated and S.J. Industries, Inc.)

1971 -- Fairchild KLIF, Incorporated

1971 -- Swearingen Aviation Corporation

1972 -- American Satellite Corporation

1972 -- Fairchild Minnesota, Incorporated

1972 -- Fairchild International Sales Corporation

1979 -- Bunker Ramo Corporation [18.4% interest]

1980 -- American Satellite Company

1980 -- Space Communications Company (Spacecom) [25% interest]

1980 -- VSI Corporation

1980 -- Saab-Fairchild HB

1981 -- Fairchild Swearingen Corporation (name change from Swearingen Aviation Corporation)

1982 -- Fairchild Credit Corporation

1982 -- Fairchild Control Systems Company (name change from Fairchild Control Systems Company)

1983 -- Fairchild Space Company and Fairchild Communications and Electronics Company (formed from the Fairchild Space and Electronics Company)

1929 -- Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company, Incorporated [82% stock]
Fairchild, Hiller, Republic and Swearingen Aircraft documented in this collection:
Fairchild

Fairchild A 10 Thunderbolt

Fairchild YA 10 Thunderbolt II

Fairchild A 10A Thunderbolt II

Fairchild YA 10B Thunderbolt II (N/AW, Night/Adverse Weather)

Fairchild XAT 13 Yankee Doodle

Fairchild XAT 14 Gunner

Fairchild XAT 14A Gunner

Fairchild AT 21 Gunner

Fairchild XBQ 3

Fairchild XC 8

Fairchild C 8

Fairchild C 8A

Fairchild (American) Y1C 24 (C 24) Pilgrim

Fairchild XC 31 Pilgrim

Fairchild UC 61 Forwarder

Fairchild UC 61A Forwarder

Fairchild UC 61K Forwarder

Fairchild XC 82 Packet

Fairchild C 82A Packet

Fairchild UC 86

Fairchild UC 96

Fairchild C 119A (XC 82B) Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119B Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119C Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119F Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119G Flying Boxcar

Fairchild AC 119G Shadow Gunship

Fairchild YC 119H Skyvan

Fairchild C 119J Flying Boxcar

Fairchild YC 119K Flying Boxcar

Fairchild AC 119K Stinger Gunship

Fairchild C 119L Flying Boxcar

Fairchild XC 120 Packplane

Fairchild XC 123 Avitruc

Fairchild XC 123A Avitruc

Fairchild C 123B Provider

Fairchild (Stroukoff) YC 123E Provider (Pantobase)

Fairchild YC 123H Provider

Fairchild C 123J Provider

Fairchild C 123K Provider

Fairchild NC 123K (AC 123K) Provider

Fairchild UC 123K Provider

Fairchild VC 123K Provider

Fairchild (Stroukoff) YC 134A (BLC, Pantobase)

Fairchild YF 1 (F 1, C 8)

Fairchild F 27 Friendship

Fairchild F 27A Friendship (Fokker F.27 Series 200)

Fairchild F 27B Friendship (Fokker F.27 Series 300)

Fairchild F 27E Friendship

Fairchild F 27F Friendship

Fairchild F 27G Friendship

Fairchild F 27J Friendship

Fairchild F 27M Friendship

Fairchild F 27 (M 258) Military Configuration

Fairchild FH 227 Friendship

Fairchild FH 227B Friendship

Fairchild FH 227C Friendship

Fairchild FH 227D Friendship

Fairchild FH 227E Friendship

Fairchild F 47

Fairchild F 78 (M 82) Packet

Fairchild FB 3 (Special Flying Boat Monoplane)

Fairchild FC 1

Fairchild FC 2L

Fairchild FC 2W

Fairchild FC 2W, NASM

Fairchild FC 2W2

Fairchild FC 2W2 Stars and Stripes

Fairchild FC 2W2 City of New York

Fairchild GK 1

Fairchild JK 1

Fairchild J2K 1

Fairchild J2K 2

Fairchild XJQ 2 (XRQ 2, FC 2)

Fairchild KR 21 (Challenger C 6)

Fairchild KR 31 (Challenger C 2)

Fairchild KR 34 (Challenger C 4)

Fairchild M 62

Fairchild M 84

Fairchild M 186

Fairchild M 225

Fairchild M 253

Fairchild M 270D

Fairchild M 288

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro II

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro III

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro IV

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro 23

Fairchild XNQ 1

Fairchild (American) Pilgrim 100

Fairchild (Pilatus) Porter (Heli Porter, Turbo Porter)

Fairchild PT 19

Fairchild PT 19A

Fairchild PT 19B

Fairchild PT 23

Fairchild PT 23A

Fairchild PT 26 Cornell

Fairchild XR2K 1 (F 22)

Fairchild R4Q 1 Packet

Fairchild SF 340

Fairchild T 46 NGT

Fairchild AU 23A Peacemaker (Armed Pilatus Turbo Porter)

Fairchild VZ 5 Fledgling (M 224 1)

Fairchild 21 (FT 1)

Fairchild 22

Fairchild 24

Fairchild 24R40

Fairchild 34 42 Niska

Fairchild 41

Fairchild 42

Fairchild 45 (F 45)

Fairchild 45 80 Sekani Floatplane

Fairchild 46

Fairchild 51

Fairchild 51A

Fairchild 71

Fairchild 71A

Fairchild 71B

Fairchild 71C

Fairchild 71CM

Fairchild Super 71

Fairchild 91 Baby Clipper (942, XA 942A, XA 942B)

Fairchild 125

Fairchild 135

Fairchild 140

Fairchild 150

Hiller

Hiller YOH 5 (YHO 5, Model 1100)

Hiller H 23A (Model UH 12A) Raven

Hiller H 23B (Model UH 12B, OH 23B) Raven

Hiller H 23C (OH 23C) Raven

Hiller H 23D (OH 23D) Raven

Hiller H 23F (Model 12E 4, OH 23F) Raven

Hiller YH 32 (Model HJ 1 Hornet)

Hiller YH 32A (Sally, 3 Seat)

Hiller Model XH 44

Hiller Copter

Hiller Model XH 44

Hiller Copter, NASM

Hiller Model HJ 1 (Model J 1) Hornet

Hiller HOE 1 (Model HJ 1 Hornet)

Hiller HTE 1 (Model UH 12A)

Hiller HTE 2 (Model UH 12B)

Hiller Model J 5

Hiller XROE 1 Rotorcycle

Hiller YROE 1 Rotorcycle

Hiller STORC (Self Ferrying Trans Ocean Rotary Wing Crane)

Hiller Model UH 4 Commuter

Hiller Model UH 5

Hiller Model UH 12 (Model 12) Family

Hiller Model UH 12E 4 (E 4)

Hiller Model UH 12L 4 (L 4, SL 4)

Hiller VZ 1 Pawnee (YHO 1E, Flying Platform)

Hiller Model X 2 235

Hiller X 18 Propelloplane

Hiller Model 360

Hiller Model Ten99

Hiller Model 1100 (FH 1100)

Republic

Republic (Sud) Alouette II

Republic AT 12

Republic EP 1

Republic XF 12 (R 12) Rainbow

Republic XF 84 (XP 84) Thunderjet

Republic YF 84A (YP 84A) Thunderjet

Republic F 84B (P 84B) Thunderjet

Republic F 84E Thunderjet

Republic YF 84F (YF 96A) Thunderstreak

Republic F 84F Thunderstreak

Republic YRF 84F Thunderflash

Republic RF 84F Thunderflash

Republic F 84G Thunderjet

Republic XF 84H Thunderjet

Republic XF 91 Thunderceptor

Republic XF 103

Republic YF 105B Thunderchief

Republic F 105B Thunderchief

Republic YP 43 Lancer

Republic P 43 Lancer

Republic XP 44 (AP 4J, AP 4L) Rocket (Warrior)

Republic P 47B Thunderbolt

Republic P 47C Thunderbolt

Republic P 47D (F 47D) Thunderbolt

Republic TP 47G Thunderbolt

Republic XP 47J Thunderbolt

Republic XP 47K Thunderbolt

Republic P 47M Thunderbolt

Republic P 47N (F 47N) Thunderbolt

Republic XP 72

Republic RC 2 Airliner

Republic RC 3 Seabee

Swearingen

Swearingen Excalibur (Modified Beech Twin Bonanza)

Swearingen Merlin I

Swearingen Merlin II

Swearingen Merlin IIA

Swearingen Merlin III

Swearingen Merlin IV
List of Artifacts:
Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co., Inc, 1925, corporate stamp

Dummy 30mm canon round (used on A-10)

Cork screw

Brief case with map holder detached

Bronze Plaque, William Preston Lane, Jr., 189 --1967, Attorney, Publisher, Governor of Maryland 1947 --1951, Director of Fairchild Hiller Corporation 1951 - 1966

Fairchild flag 1964-71
Provenance:
Fairchild Industries, gift, 1989, 1989-0060
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Financial records
Negatives
Photographs
Videotapes
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0060
See more items in:
Fairchild Industries, Inc. collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0060
Online Media:

Lyman Bradford Smith Papers

Creator::
Smith, Lyman B.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1959-circa 1970
Descriptive Entry:
These papers contain correspondence with botanists and directors of herbaria concerning the identification of specimens, collecting and exchanging botanical collections, especially those of South and Central America, and requests for publications and notes and a manuscript on a key to Tillandsia.
Historical Note:
Lyman Bradford Smith (1904-1997), botanist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He attended Harvard University where he received an A.B. in 1925, an A.M. in 1929, and a Ph.D. in biology in 1930. From 1928 to 1929, Smith held a Sheldon traveling fellowship to Brazil. From 1931 to 1947, Smith was an Assistant Curator, Junior Curator, and Curator at the Gray Herbarium.

In 1947, Smith was appointed Associate Curator in the Division of Phanerogams, United States National Museum, and was made Curator of the Division in 1957. Smith retired from the Division in 1966 and held the position of Senior Botanist with the Department of Botany. Smith died in 1997.

Smith concentrated his studies on the taxonomy of flowering plants, especially those from Latin America, and the family Bromeliaceae.
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Tillandsia  Search this
South America  Search this
Central America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7276, Lyman Bradford Smith Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7276
See more items in:
Lyman Bradford Smith Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7276

Frank Smith Papers

Creator::
Smith, Frank, 1857-1942  Search this
Extent:
1.5 cu. ft. (3 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Serials (publications)
Date:
1893-1942 and undated
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Frank Smith document his research on earthworms. They consist of correspondence with biologists and USNM administrators and staff, including Paul Bartsch, Nathan A. Cobb, Gordon Enoch Gates, Chancey Juday, James Arthur MacNab, John Percy Moore, Brayton Howard Ransom, Mary Jane Rathbun, Richard Rathbun, William deC. Ravenel, Waldo LaSalle Schmitt, and Paul Smith Welch; field notes; class notes kept by Smith at Harvard University, 1893; reprints; a bibliography; and research notes.
Historical Note:
Frank Smith (1857-1942) was a biology professor and authority on earthworms. He was educated at Hillsdale College (Michigan), Ph.B., 1885, and Harvard University, A.M., 1893. His first teaching job was at Hillsdale College where he served as Professor of Chemistry and Biology from 1886 to 1892. In 1893, Smith was appointed Instructor in Zoology at the University of Illinois. He was promoted to Assistant Professor in 1896, Associate Professor in 1900, and Professor in 1913. He retired in 1926 and was named Professor Emeritus. Smith also served as Curator of the University Museum of Natural History from 1900 to 1917. Smith's field experience included investigations at the University of Michigan Biological Station during the summers of 1911-1914 and 1919-1922, and a collecting trip to Colorado in 1916. For many years, Smith identified specimens and worked up collections of earthworms for the United States National Museum (USNM). In 1934, he donated his collection of earthworms to the USNM.
Topic:
Invertebrate zoology  Search this
Earthworms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Serials (publications)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7262, Frank Smith Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7262
See more items in:
Frank Smith Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7262

Martin H. Moynihan Papers

Creator::
Moynihan, M.  Search this
Extent:
4 cu. ft. (4 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Field notes
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Audiotapes
Place:
Barro Colorado Island (Panama)
Date:
1952-1996
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist primarily of field notes, and include correspondence, photographs, sonograms and spectograms, and a small number of audio tapes.

Many of the materials in this collection are available online.

View Digitized Materials.
Historical Note:
Dr. Martin H. Moynihan (1928-1996) was a world authority on animal behavior, with major contributions to the study of communication in birds, primates, and cephalopods. In 1957 he became the Resident Naturalist and Director of what was then a small field station on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, later named the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI). He transformed the station into a major research institution in tropical biology. After retirement in 1973, he served as Senior Scientist at STRI and continued writing and researching the behavior of various species of wild and imported pheasants at his farmhouse in France.

Curriculum Vitae

Born: February 5, 1928, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Education: A.B. Princeton University, 1950; D.Phil. Oxford University, 1953.

Positions held: Visiting Fellow, Cornell University, 1953-1955; Research Fellow, Harvard University, 1955-1957; Resident Naturalist and Director, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1957-1973; Senior Scientist, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1973 to 1996; Research Associate, Stazione Zoologica "Anton Dohm", Naples, Italy.

Fellowships and Grants: 1950-1951, Fulbright Fellowship; 1952-1953, NSF Grant; 1953-1955, Public Health Service Postdoctoral Fellowship; 1958-1963, 1963-1967, NSF Research Grants for studies on the ecology and behavior of birds and primates; 1971-1972, and 1980's, various Smithsonian research awards for the study of Cephalopod behavior.

Honors and Societies: 1967, Walker Prize, Boston Natural History Society, for "meritorious published scientific investigation and discovery in the general area of Natural History," 1976, The Henry Medal (Board of Regents) "for outstanding contributions to the Smithsonian Institution"; 1992, New York Academy of Sciences.

Publications

1946 Evolution in the Rhipidura rujifrons group. Amer. Mus. 1321: 2-21. (With E. Mayr).

1952 Head flagging in the Black-headed Gull: its function and origin. Brit. Birds 45: 19-22. (With N. Tinbergen).

1953a Some displacement activities of the Black-headed Gull. Behaviour 5: 58-80.

1953b Some comments on conflict and thwarting in animals. Behaviour 6: 66-84. (With M. Bastock and D. Morris).

1954 Hostile, sexual and other social behaviour patterns of the Spice Finch (Lonchura punctulata) in captivity. Behaviour 7: 33-76. (With M.F. Hall).

1955a Some aspects of reproductive behavior in the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibund ridibundus L.) and related species. Behaviour Supplement 4, 201p.

1955b Remarks on the original sources of displays. Auk 72: 240-246.

1955c Types of hostile display. Auk 72: 247-259.

1956a Behavior of a pratincole. Auk 73: 268-27 1.

1956b California Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding in the same colony. Auk 73: 453-454.

1956c Notes on the behavior of some North American gulls. I. Aerial hostile behavior. Behaviour 10: 126-178.

1957 Notes on the sea-birds of Sand Island of the Johnston Island group. Elepaio 18: 35-37.

1958a Notes on the behavior of some North American gulls. II. Non-aerial hostile behavior of adults. Behaviour 12: 95-182.

1958b Notes on the behavior of the Flying Steamer Duck. Auk 75: 183-202.

1958c Notes on the behavior of some North American gulls. III. Pairing behavior. Behaviour 13: 112-130.

1959a A revision of the family Laridae. Amer. Mus. Novitates. November 1-42.

1959b Notes on the behavior of some North American gulls. IV. The ontogeny of hostile behavior and display patterns. Behaviour 14: 214-239.

1960 Some adaptations which help to promote gregariousness. Proc. 12th Int. Orn. Cong., Helsinki 1958, pp. 523-541.

1962a The organization and probable evolution of some mixed species flocks of Neotropical birds. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 143: 7, 1-140.

1962b Hostile and sexual behavior patterns of South American and Pacific Laridae. Behaviour, Supplement 8, 365 p.

1962c Display patterns of tropical American "nine-primaried" songbirds. 1. Chlorospingus. Auk 79: 310-344.

1962d Display patterns of tropical American "nine-primaried" songbirds. II. Some species of Ramphocelus. Auk 79: 655-686.

1963a Display patterns of tropical American "nine-primaried" songbirds. III. The Green-backed Sparrow. Auk 80: 116-144.

1963b Interspecific relations between some Andean birds. Ibis 105: 327-339.

1963c Two papers on the evolution of communal displays. Auk 80: 381-384.

1964 Some behavior patterns of platyrrhine monkeys. I. The Night Monkey (Aotus trivirgatu), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 146: 5, 1-84.

1966a Display patterns of tropical American "nine-primaried" songbirds. IV. The Yellow-rumped Tanager. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 149: 5, 1-34.

1966b Communication in the titi monkey, Callicebus. J. Zool. Soc. Lond. 150: 77-127.

1967 Comparative aspects of communication in New World Primates. In: Primate Ethology, edited by D. Morris, pp. 236-266. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

1968a Social mimicry: character convergence versus character displacement. Evolution 22: 315-331.

1968b The "Coerebini"; a group of marginal areas, habitats and habits. Amer. Natur. 102: 573-581.

1970a Some behavior patterns of platyrrhine monkeys. II. Saguinus geoffroyi and some other tamarins. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 28: 1-77.

1970b The control, suppression, decay, disappearance and replacement of displays. L. Theor. Biol. 29: 85-112.

1971 Successes and failures of tropical mammals and birds. Amer. Natur. 105: 371-383.

1973a Species proportions - a reply. Amer. Natur. 107: 155-156.

1973b The evolution of behavior and the role of behavior in evolution. Breviora 415: 1-29.

1975 Conservatism of displays and comparable stereotyped patterns among cephalopods. In: Function and Evolution in Behaviour, edited by B. Baerends, C. Beer and A. Manning G., pp. 276-291. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1976a THE NEW WORLD PRIMATES: Adaptive Radiation and the Evolution of Social Behavior, Languages, and Intelligence. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 262p.

1976b Notes on the ecology and behavior of the Pygmy Marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, in Amazonian Colombia. Neotropical Primates. In: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 79-84. Washington: National Academy of Sciences.

1977 Communication, crypsis, and mimicry among cephalopods. In: How Animals Communicate, edited by T. Sebeok, pp. 293-302. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. (With A.F. Rodaniche).

1978 An "Ad hoc" association of hornbills, starlings, coucals, and other birds. Terra et Vie 3: 357-376.

1979 GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND IN ADAPTATION TO COMPETITION AMONG ANDEAN BIRDS. Publ. Nuttall Orn. Club 18:162p.

1980 The coincidence of mimicries and other misleading coincidences. Amer. Natur., 117(4): 372-378.

1982a Spatial parameters and interspecific social relations: some differences between birds and fishes. J. Theor. Biol. 95: 253-262.

1982b THE BEHAVIOR AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE CARIBBEAN REEF SQUID SEPIOTEUTHIS SEPIOIDEA. Zeitschr. f. Tierpsychol., Advances in Ethology 25, 150p. (With A. Rodaniche).

1982c Why is lying about intentions rare during some kind of contests? J. Theor. Biol., 97(l): 7-12.

1982d Introduccion. In: Evolucion en los Tropicos, edited by Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and Editorial Universitaria. Impresora Panama: Panama, pp. 11-14.

1983a A slight discrepancy. Amer Natur., 121: 301.

1983b Notes on the behavior of Euprymna scolopes (Cephalopoda: Sepioidae). Behaviour 85: 25-41.

1983c Notes on the behavior of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Cephalopoda: Idiosepiidae). Behaviour 85: 42-57.

1984 Transpositions of signals and the persistence of releasing mechanisms. Zeitschr. f. Tierpsychol., 64: 269-282.

1985a Why are cephalopods deaf? Amer. Natur. 25(3): 465-469.

1985b COMMUNICATION AND NON-COMMUNICATION BY CEPHALOPODS. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 141p.

1987a Social relations among Halcyon kingfishers in Senegal. Rev. Ecol. (Terre et Vie) 42: 145-166.

1987b Notes on the behaviour of Giant Kingfishers. Malimbus 9(2): 97-104.

1988 The opportunism of the Abyssinian Roller (Coracias abyssinica) in Senegal. Rev. Ecol. (Terre et Vie) 43: 159-166.

1990 Social, sexual and pseudosexual behavior of the blue-bellied roller, coracias syanogaster; the Consequences of Crowding or Concentration. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 491: 1-23.

1991 Structures of Animal Communication. In: Man & Beast Revisited, edited by Michael H. Robinson and Lionel Tiger, pp. 193-202. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

1995 Social structures and behavior patterns of captive and feral Reeves' Pheasants (Syrmaticus reevesi) in France. Alauda 63(3):41-56.

1997 Self Awareness, with Specific References to Coleoid Cephalopods. In: Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals, edited by Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, and H. Lyn Miles, pp. 213-219. Albany: State University of New York Press.

1998 THE SOCIAL REGULATION OF COMPETITION AND AGGRESSION IN ANIMALS. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 158p.
Topic:
Squids  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Primates  Search this
Pheasants  Search this
Ornithologists  Search this
Animal behavior  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Field notes
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Audiotapes
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 01-096, Martin H. Moynihan Papers
Identifier:
Accession 01-096
See more items in:
Martin H. Moynihan Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa01-096

Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers

Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Extent:
19.72 cu. ft. (19 record storage boxes) (2 5x8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Clippings
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Moon
Date:
circa 1932-2004
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Fred Lawrence Whipple (FLW) document his astronomical research; his professional work in the field of astronomy; and his career as Director of the SAO. They include correspondence with professional colleagues, amateur astronomers, SAO staff scientists, Smithsonian Institution officials, scientific societies and professional groups, government agencies, and Harvard University staff and officials which concerns Whipple's research interests, scientific publications, and editorial work; SAO research projects; Whipple's work for professional organizations and government agencies and committees; SAO relations with the Smithsonian Institution; and his activities at Harvard University and the Harvard College Observatory. Also included are manuscripts of articles, lectures, reviews, and notes from his research; research notes on comets; and a set of Whipple's publications.

Researchers should also consult Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers, c. 1927-1983; and Record Unit 9520, Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews, 1976.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004), an astronomer, received the B.A. from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927, and the Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. In 1932, he joined the staff of Harvard University as an Instructor of Astronomy. By 1950, Whipple had received the title of Professor and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard. Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) when it moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1955. After his retirement in 1973, Whipple continued his research as a Senior Scientist at SAO.

During his tenure as Director, Whipple oversaw SAO research programs in stellar interiors, the upper atmosphere, meteorites, celestial mechanics, and geodesy studies. Major SAO projects under his direction included the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project, also known as the Prairie Network. In the late 1960's, Whipple selected Mount Hopkins, Arizona as the site of a new SAO astronomical facility. Renamed the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in 1981, the facility houses the Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT), an innovative, low cost telescope planned by Whipple and two colleagues.

Whipple is internationally recognized for his research on the moon, meteors, and comets. He has conducted pioneering research in photographically measuring the speeds and decelerations of meteors, computing the orbits of comets and asteroids, and describing the structure of comets.
Topic:
Astrophysics  Search this
Comets  Search this
Meteors  Search this
Astronomers  Search this
Astrophysicists  Search this
Asteroids  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Clippings
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 04-183, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Identifier:
Accession 04-183
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa04-183

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Names:
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Extent:
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1891-1914
bulk 1891-1900
Summary:
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Provenance:
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494
Online Media:

Charles Stuart Sheldon II Papers

Creator:
Sheldon, Charles Stuart, II, 1917-1981  Search this
Names:
Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Council (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Astronautics  Search this
United States. Congress. House. Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration  Search this
United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee  Search this
Sheldon, Charles Stuart, II, 1917-1981  Search this
Extent:
13.08 Cubic feet ((12 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Place:
Outer space -- Exploration -- Soviet Union
Outer space -- Exploration -- United States
Date:
1934-1980
bulk 1958-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists mainly of Sheldon's research correspondence files from his tenure at CRS and NASC. The collection also reflects his activities as Staff Economist for the Joint Economics Committee (1955-57), Assistant Director, House Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration (1958), and Technical Director, House Committee on Science and Astronautics (1959-61). The bulk of the material consists of papers and notes regarding U.S. and Soviet space programs (both manned and unmanned) in connection with various papers and speeches prepared by Dr. Sheldon, including original drawings of Soviet spacecraft, various photos of U.S. and Soviet craft, articles, and papers touching on various aerospace subjects, as well as notes of lectures given by Dr. Sheldon, and copies (both rough-draft and final) of speeches given by him in the 1960s.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Charles Stuart Sheldon II (1917-1981) was an economist, author, and advisor to Congress and the President on aerospace matters. Sheldon graduated from the University of Washington (BA, 1936; MA, 1938) and Harvard University (AM, 1939; Ph.D., 1942) and worked in several transportation and economics-related positions before World War II. During and after the war he served in the United States Navy (1943-1952) before transferring to the Naval Reserve. He spent several several years on the staff of the University of Washington Departments of Transportation (1940-48), including three years as Director (1946-48), and Economics (1949-55), before joining the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress (CRS) as Senior Specialist, Transportation and Communications (1955-58). At the same time he served as director of several congressional committees relating to astronautics. He joined the professional staff of the National Aeronautics and Space Council (1961-66), which advised the President on aerospace matters, before returning to CRS (1966-81).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
C.S. Sheldon II, Gift, 1984, XXXX-0141, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0141
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0141

Manuscript and Research Material

Creator:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Names:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Tung, Kuang-zung.  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Wenley, A. G. (Archibald Gibson), 1898-1962  Search this
Collection Creator:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Manuscripts
Place:
China
Date:
1915-1933
Scope and Contents:
This series contains Bishop's unpublished typed manuscript entitled Archaeological Research in China 1923-1934—Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art, [n.d.] 2v. : some ill.; 27cm., a field report that chronicled the two Gallery-sponsored expeditions; various drafts and research notes in Box 2, which are organized according to their original order from their envelopes and notecards based on subject.
The papers concern Bishop's Gallery-sponsored travels to China, 1923 to 1927 and from 1929-1934, while acting as Associate Curator at the Freer Gallery of Art. The collection includes a large collection of still prints and maps.The earliest still photographic prints in the Bishop Papers date from his employ at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, where he conducted archaeological reconnaissance from 1915 to 1918 in China, Korea, and Japan. All subsequent images were created or collected by Bishop and his assistant Kwang-zung Tung during the Freer Gallery-sponsored expeditions of 1923-1934. This selection of digitized prints showcase prints which are not reflected in the Bishop manuscript or the photograph books. These selected images include place views of various excavations that featured prominently in the Bishop manuscript as well as the writings of A.G. Wenley and Dr Li Chi, who accompanied Bishop during his archaeological excavations in China. These include place views of Shansi, Shensi, Hsi-yin-Ts'un, Yu Ho Chen, Yun Kang and Peitaiho. In addition, images from Bishop's photographs of Mongolia, Manchuria and Nanjing, which are focused less on the excavation activities and depict more of the social and physical landscape of the areas Bishop visited, were chosen to reflect the comprehensive nature of Bishop's still print collection.
This series contains Bishop's unpublished typed manuscript entitled Archaeological Research in China 1923-1934. it is a field report that chronicled the two Freer Sackler Gallery sponsored expeditions. There are various drafts and research notes in box two.
Carl Whiting Bishop, Series 1: Manuscript and Research Material
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Whiting Bishop was an Associate Curator and Associate in Archaeology at the Freer Gallery of Art from 1922 to 1942.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.02 1
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
The Carl Whiting Bishop Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A.02, Series 1
See more items in:
Carl Whiting Bishop Collection
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-02-ref11
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Manuscript and Research Material digital asset number 1
  • View Manuscript and Research Material digital asset number 2
  • View Manuscript and Research Material digital asset number 3

Appendices I-III, Bibliography

Creator:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Names:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Tung, Kuang-zung.  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Wenley, A. G. (Archibald Gibson), 1898-1962  Search this
Collection Creator:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Place:
China
Date:
1923-1934
Scope and Contents:
This unpublished manuscript constituted a field report that chronicled Bishop's Gallery-sponsored expeditions in northern and central China during the period 1923 to 1934. The reader is provided with a record of the day-to-day operations completed, of obstacles and opposition encountered, and the results obtained from their work. Key diplomatic and scientific representatives from the West and China are recorded who aided and contributed to the investigations. Moreover, there are descriptions of the academic, social and political climate in China during a period of civil war and economic strife. Against this background, Bishop also discussed their efforts in view of the history of China, with commentary on the country's geography, topography, climate, flora and fauna, mineral products, and ancient customs and legends.The manuscript consists of an introduction, 19 numbered chapters, 3 appendices and a series of plates and figures related to his text.
Archaeological Research in China (Appendices)
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Whiting Bishop was an Associate Curator and Associate in Archaeology at the Freer Gallery of Art from 1922 to 1942.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.02 1.01.02
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
The Carl Whiting Bishop Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A.02, File FSA A.02 1.01.02
See more items in:
Carl Whiting Bishop Collection
Carl Whiting Bishop Collection / Series 1: Manuscript and Research Material / 1.1: Manuscript
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-02-ref23
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Appendices I-III, Bibliography digital asset number 1

Records, 1910-2011

Creator:
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  Search this
Subject:
Baird, Donald  Search this
Carnegie Museum of Natural History  Search this
Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Princeton University  Search this
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  Search this
Princeton University Museum of Natural History  Search this
University of Colorado, Boulder Museum  Search this
Physical description:
11 cu. ft. (11 record storage boxes)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Field notes
Picture postcards
Floor plans
Illustrations
Plates (illustrations)
Sketches
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Color photographs
Color transparencies
Artifacts
Date:
1910
1910-2011
Topic:
Geology  Search this
Paleoanthropology  Search this
Vertebrates  Search this
Vertebrate paleontology  Search this
Ichnology  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 12-107
Restrictions & Rights:
Restricted for 15 years, until Jan-01-2027; Transferring office; 4/1/1988 Agreement of Transfer; Contact reference staff for details
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_308829

National Systematics Laboratory Records, 1955-1994

Creator:
United States National Marine Fisheries Service  Search this
Subject:
Pérez Farfante, Isabel  Search this
Physical description:
4 cu. ft. (4 record storage boxes)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Color transparencies
Date:
1955
1955-1994
Topic:
Zoology  Search this
Penaeus  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 07-134
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_270837

John A. Wood Papers, 1950-2005

Creator:
Wood, John A. 1932-  Search this
Subject:
Wood, John A. 1932-  Search this
Apollo 11 (Spacecraft)  Search this
Enrico Fermi Institute  Search this
Harvard College Observatory  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics  Search this
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Magellan (Spacecraft)  Search this
National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration  Search this
Physical description:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Moon
Venus (Planet)
Date:
1950
1950-2005
Topic:
Chondrites (Meteorites)  Search this
Geology  Search this
Lunar petrology  Search this
Meteorology  Search this
Petrology  Search this
Planetary scientists  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 05-265
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_259148

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