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John Peabody Harrington Papers

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Geronimo, 1829-1909  Search this
Extent:
683 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of Central America  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Maps
Stats (copies)
Newspaper clippings
Printed material
Photographs
Botanical specimens
Field notes
Correspondence
Financial records
Personal records
Poetry
Writings
Date:
1907-1959 (some earlier)
Summary:
Harrington was a Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist involved in the study of over one hundred American tribes. His speciality was linguistics. Most of the material concerns California, southwestern, northwestern tribes and includes ethnological, archeological, historical notes; writings, correspondence, photographs, sound recordings, biological specimens, and other types of documents. Also of concern are general linguistics, sign language, writing systems, writing machines, and sound recordings machines. There is also some material on New World Spanish, Old World languages. In addition, there are many manuscripts of writings that Harrington sketched, partially completed, or even completed but never published. The latter group includes not only writings about anthropological subjects but also histories, ranging from a biography of Geronimo to material on the history of the typewriter. The collection incorporates material of Richard Lynch Garner, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and others. In his field work, Harrington seems sometimes to have worked within fairly firm formats, this especially being true when he was "rehearing" material, that is in using an informant to verify and correct the work of other researchers. Often, however, the interviews with informants (and this seems to have been the case even with some "rehearings") seem to have been rather free form, for there is a considerable intertwining of subjects. Nevertheless, certain themes frequently appear in his work, including annotated vocabularies concerning flora and fauna and their use, topography, history and biography, kinship, cosmology (including tribal astronomy), religion and philosophy, names and observations concerning neighboring tribes, sex and age division, material culture, legends, and songs. The fullness of such materials seems to have been limited only by the time Harrington had to spend with a goup and the knowledge of his informants.
Arrangement:
(Some of the titles are tentative). Papers relating to Alaska/Northwest Coast, including (1) Aleut; (2) Tlingit/Eyak; (3) Northern Athapascan (Beaver, Carrier, Chipewyan, Sarsi, Sekani, Cree); (4) Nicola/Thompson; (5) Lummi/Nespelem; (6) Duwamish; (7) Chimakum/Clallam; (8) Makah/Quileute; (9) Quinault/Chehalis/Cowlit; (10) Chinook/Chinook Jargon; (11) "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai"; (12) Tillamook, (13) Alsea/Siuslaw/Coos; (14) Southwest Oregon Athapascan (Chasta Costa, Chetco, Upper Coquille, "Gold Beach", Smith River, Tolowa, Tutini, Upper Umpqua), (14) Galice/Applegate; (15) Takelma, general and miscellaneous;

(16) Klamath; (17) Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; (18) Coast Yuki/Northern and Central Pomo/Kato; (19) Coast Miwok; (20) Lake and Coast Miwok/Southeastern Pomo/Wappo; (21) Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; (22) Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; (23) Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; (24) Chimariko/Hupo; (25) Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; (26) Chamariko/Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; (27) Costanoan (Chocheno, Mutsun, Tumsen); (28) Salinan (Antoinano, Migueleno); (29) Yokuts (Chunut, Tachi, Wikchamni, Yawdanchi, Yawelmani, Koyeti); (30) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to southern California and the Basin area,

including (31) Chumash (Barbareno, Cruzeno, Ineseno, Obispeno, Purisimeno, Ventureno); (32) Chauilla; (33) Chemehuevi; (34) Gabrielino; (35) Juaneno; (36) Kitanemuk; (37) Luiseno; (38) Serrano; (39) Tubatulabal; (40) Diegueno; (41) Mohave/Yuma; (42) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to the Southwest, including (43) Apache; (44) Hopi; (45) Jemez; (46) Acoma/Laguna; (47) Cochiti; (48) Navaho; (49) Pima/Papago; (50) Illeta; (51) Taos; (52) Picuris; (53) Tewa; (54) Zuni; (55) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to the Plains, including (56) Comanche; (57) Caddo/Pawnee/Wichita; (58) Dakota/Lakota; (59) Hidatso/Mandan/Crow;

(92) general and miscellaneous; notes and writings on special linguistic studies, including (93) correspondence; (94) financial records; (95) personal records; (96) poetry; (97) newspaper clippings; (98) printed material/reprints/photostats/microfilm; (99) maps; (100) photographs (101) sound recordings; (102) botanical specimens

Joseph S. Danner, Edward S. Davis, Ella C. Deloria, Frances Densmore, Paul Desiardins, Lydia Dornherr, Harry W. Dorsey, Frederick Huntington Douglas, David C. Dozi, Edward P. Dozi, Robert Drak Aitken), Rose S. Gaffney, David E. Gales, S. H. Gapp, Clark M. Garber, Lucrlson Fenton, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Reginald G. Fisher, Barbara Freire-Marreco (see also Barbara Aitken), Rose S. Gaffney, David E. Gales, S. H. Gapp, Clark M. Garber, Lucretia Garcia, Maria Garcia, Paul Garcia, Walter C. Garwick, William Gates, Ja Gapp, Clark M. Garber, Lucretia Garcia, Maria Garcia, Paul Garcia, Walter C. Garwick, William Gates, James A Geary, Otto William Geist,

Richard H. Geoghegan, Harold S. Gladwin, Pliny Earle Goddard, T. R. Goodwin, Howard W. Gorman, Blanche C. Grant, George Grasty, Louis H. Gray, Alexander Grigolia, Alexandra Gromoff, F. A. Gross, Ruther Gruber, Erwin G. Gudde, Grace Guest, Ralph Gustafson, Berard Haile, Alfred Irving Hallowell, Howard M. Hamblin, Lucile Hamner, Adelaide Harrington, Arthur Harrington, Awona Harrington, Edmund Ross Harrington, Elliot Harrington, Mark Raymond Harrington, Robert Fleming Heizer, Marta Herrera (Orozoco), Melville Jean Herskovits, Edgar Lee Hewett, George Gustave Heye,

Thomas Willing Hicks, Willard Williams Hill, William B. Hill, Philip K. Hitti, Hulda R. Hobbs (Heidel), Frederick Webb Hodge, Robert Hofsinde, W. C. Holden, Nils Homer, R. B. Horsefield, James Hovey, Grace Hudson, John W. Hudson, William Hughes, Edward P. Hunt, George Hunt, Wayne Henry (Wolf Robe) Hunt, Arnold J. Jacobins, Jean Allard Jge, George M. Lamsa, William T. Linkins, Ralph Linton, Alan Lomax, Theodore R. Lonewolf, uis Kroeber, Benjamin T. Kurtz, Walter and Hilda Kurze, Oliver LaFarge, George M. Lamsa, William T. Linkins, Ralph Linton, Alan Lomax, Theodore R. Lonewolf,

Boas Long, Ivan Alexis Lopatin, Robert Harry Lowie, Charles F. Lummis, Phoebe Maddux, Frank Marashulo, Frank Marr, John Marr, Edna P. Marsh, Gordon H. Marsh, William B. Marye, Elizabeth Mason, John Alden Mason, Anna P. Mattinger, Wayne L. Mauzy, William Ralph Maxon, Parker McKenzie, F. Romero Mendez, Clinton Hart Merriam, E. Vigo Mestres, Truman Michelson, Harry E. Miller, Ralph L. Milliken, William S. Mills, Willie Miranda, Albert Mohr, Dionisia Mondragon, Manuel Mondragon, Lucy Montgomery, Harriet Moore, Mildred C. Moore, R. E. Moore, Rosalind Moore, Carlos Morales, Marion Moreno, Sylvanus Griswold Morley, Philip A. Munz, O. J. Murie,

Roy Nash, Mrs. W. J. Nichols, Eugene A. Nida, Frans M. Olbrechts, Cornelius Osgood, Asbjorn P. Ousdal, Charles F. Outland, Henry E. Parmenter, Elsie Clews Parsons, A. W. Payne, Ellen Peace, Elizabeth Wells Pearce, Arthur B. Perkins, Mrs. Rodolphe Petter, Kenneth L. Pike, Arnold R. Pilling, Nellie B. Pipes, I. J. Pitman, J. O. Prescott, Erik Kellerman Reed, Nathaniel Julius Reich, Jane Richardson, Arthur Stanley Riggs, Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., Helen H. Roberts, Clarence M. Ruth, Everett Sanders, Edward Sapir, Charles F. Saunders, F. H. Saville, Paul Schumacher, Donald Scott, Blanche Seeley, Ettie Seeley, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant,

A. W. Setychell, Jessie Shaw, Anna O. Shepard, Frank T. Siebert, Rita Siedenberg, Albion M. Sitton, Nich Sivonen, H. D. Skinner, Mrs. N. P. Sloan, Clement Smith, Stella Smith, Jack Snow, Maria Soto, Frank Gouldsmith Speck, Robert F. Spencer, Marjorie Spinks, Waldo C. Spraque, Winifred Stamm, Moses Steinberg Marian Stirling, Matthew Williams Stirling, William Duncan Strong, Edgar Howard Sturtevant, Georgianna Barbara Such, John R. Swanton, Turkey Tayac, Douglass Taylor, Lincoln Thompson, Morjorie L. Tichy, Janet Tietjins, Bennie Tilden, J. R. R. Tolkien, W. Cameron Townsend, George L. Trager, Lovell B. Triggs, Edwin H. Tuttle,

Ruth Underhill, Richard Fowler Van Valkenburgh, Rosendo Vargas, Charles Frederick Voegelin, Paul Vogenitz, James W. Waldo, Paul A. F. Walter, Althea Warren, Fred Washington, Thomas Talbot Waterman, Edith White, Joseph J. White, Leslie A. White, Grace T. Whiting, Robert B. Whitsett, Benjamin Lee Whorf, H. E. Williams, William L. Wonderly, Arthur Woodward, Robert W. Young, and Father Zephyrin of the Santa Barbara Mission.
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Indians of North America -- Languages  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Toponymy  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Maps
Stats (copies)
Newspaper clippings
Printed material
Photographs
Botanical specimens
Field notes
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Financial records
Personal records
Poetry
Writings
Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31fe9575b-f7aa-4286-9787-0cfc495ab461
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1976-95
Online Media:

Chimariko/Hupa

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
16 Boxes
Culture:
Chimariko  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1921-1930
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Chimariko and Hupa.

A large portion of the subseries consists of field notes on Chimariko vocabulary and sentences provided by Sally Noble. Much of the information was elicited from a reading of Roland Dixon's "The Chimarika Indians and Language," (1910) and includes anatomical terms, names for plants and animals, material culture vocabulary, tribenames, and placenames. A small number of Hupa lexical terms were also obtained, evidently with reference to the work of Pliny Earle Goddard "Athapascan (Hupa)" (1911). There is a mixture of ethnographic and biographical data provided by Noble and several nonlinguistic sources.

The subseries also contains Harrington's grammatical analysis of Chimariko. Many of these notes feature examples excerpted from the linguistic notes; the page numbers in brackets refer to numbered pages of the section of "original" field notes. There are also summaries of various grammatical principles in the form of charts. These sketches are followed by a short "general dictionary" of vocabulary and phrases.

As a supplement to his linguistic and grammatical notes, Harrington collected extensive textual material from Noble. Noble provided mythological texts; accounts of historical events, such as the Indian wars and encounters with whites; descriptions of an ethnological nature on various subjects, such as doctoring, tattooing, and hairdressing; and personal reminiscences. The texts were recorded in Chimariko and some have fairly detailed interlinear translations. In several instances, a synopsis in English has been filed with the text. Some notes from Martha Ziegler appear in this section.

There are also notes obtained by Harrington during his first meeting with Lucy Montgomery. Chimariko and some Hupa lexical terms were recorded for plant and animal names, age, sex, and relationship terms, material culture vocabulary, and numbers. At least a portion of the information was elicited through a rehearing of a word list furnished by C. Hart Merriam and another published by Roland B. Dixon. An unidentified publication (possibly by Parmenter) was utilized to prompt responses on bird names. Montgomery also commented on the names of several native objects that Harrington had recently collected in Karok territory.

The section on Chimariko vocabulary consists of notes presumably collected during Harrington's second stint of work with Montgomery. Harrington made frequent notes on the phonetics of Chimariko and included several Wintu equivalences, as well as scattered references of ethnographic, historical, or biographical interest.

Another section of notes obtained from Montgomery represent a fairly systematic rehearing of the linguistic data Harrington had collected from Sally Noble in 1921-1922.

The block of ethnographic notes were also obtained from Montgomery. The notes cover a wide variety of subjects: food preparation, the collection of firewood, doctoring, the medicinal use of plants, menstruation, child care, clothing, hairdressing, burial, and the manufacture and use of tools, implements, and baskets. A few pages also concern songs and vocabulary. In addition, information is provided on the Montgomery's relatives, the Round Valley Removal, and gold mining. Some data were obtained from Mrs. Ramazzena and I. N. Hamilton. A little ethnographic information pertinent to Coast Yurok was collected from Mrs. Frye.

There are also notes from an interview with Saxy Kidd. The notes consist in large part of ethnographic data from the New River and Trinity River areas. In addition, there is some plant and animal vocabulary. Most Hupa terms are given, with selected Chimariko equivalents.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington's study of Chimariko began when he spent between four and five months working with Sally Noble at her ranch on New River in Trinity County, California. Noble, a speaker of the "Trinity River" dialect of Chimariko, had previously worked with C. Hart Merriam, and joint work with her had been planned by the two anthropologists for the summer of 1921. Due to confusion concerning Harrington's whereabouts at the time the trip was scheduled, Merriam went to northern California alone in the summer. In early September, after Merriam had completed his own field work and had departed, Harrington arrived at the region, arranged to take meals with the neighboring Dailey family, and proceeded to work regularly with Noble. After amassing several thousand pages of notes, Harrington left Burnt Ranch in mid-to-Iate January 1922, intending to continue the work with Noble in May. He later learned that she had died some twenty days after his departure.

The data he gained from Noble were supplemented by a little linguistic information given by her half sister, Martha Ziegler. Nonlinguistic information was provided by Noble's son, Frank; the Daileys; Mr. and Mrs. Zack Bussell; and Mr. and Mrs. Jim Chesbro.

In the spring of 1926, during or just following his work on Wiyot and Karok, Harrington scheduled an initial interview with another Chimariko woman, Lucy Montgomery. A cousin of Sally Noble, Montgomery was then residing on the coast at Stone Lagoon. Although, by her own admission, she had stopped speaking Chimariko at age eleven, she did attempt to assist Harrington in compiling a basic vocabulary list.

Harrington's interest in Chimariko was renewed in April 1927 when he learned of Edward Sapir's efforts to locate native speakers for that language. In August and September of the same year he employed his long-time friend George W. Bayley to collect plant specimens and ethnobotanical data from Lucy Montgomery. Contact with her having been reestablished, Harrington joined Bayley in 1928 to pursue further linguistic work with her. It was on this occasion that they reheard the notes which he had obtained earlier from Noble. Montgomery's data are not highly reliable as she basically had only a passive knowledge of the language. A small section of ethnographic notes also appears to have been collected at this time.

Mrs. Zack Bussell evidently took Harrington to interview Saxy Kidd, who, according to reports, was said to speak quite a bit of Chimariko. Harrington had heard of Kidd from Sally Noble during his work in 1921-1922 and again from Edward Sapir in 1927. Sapir had discovered that what little Chimariko Kidd knew was "distorted by his Hupa phonetics." Harrington likewise obtained only a few Chimariko terms from him.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Chimariko language  Search this
Hupa language  Search this
Wintu language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Zoology -- nomenclature  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.10
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw310ad1cc2-46de-4445-a90d-d14122be80a1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13423
Online Media:

Copy of Chimariko Field Notes from C. Hart Merriam

Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Container:
Box 156
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Microfilm Reel: 24
Subseries Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Subseries Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California / 2.10: Chimariko/Hupa
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a77c6d27-b4e9-4e2d-af32-2f86bf7d8b80
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13454

Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
20 Boxes
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Chimariko  Search this
Wintu  Search this
Yana  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Maps
Narratives
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1928-1932
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of this subseries of the Northern and Central California series consists of Harrington's research on Yana, Achomawi, Wintu, and Chimariko in 1931-1932 in Hayfork and Hyampom Valley. Materials include comparative vocabularies; notes from rehearings of secondary sources by Edward Sapir, T.T. Waterman, and Alfred Kroeber; placename data; brief texts; and ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes.

There are two sections of vocabulary in the subseries. The Yana, Achomawi, and Wintu section begins with two short Yana word lists from Grapevine Tom. Much of the earlier data from Tom was incorrect—probably because he was being evasive or uncooperative. Thus, in succeeding sessions, Harrington worked with him in the presence of a second or third Yana speaker. In this later work, the abbreviation "Grt." was adopted for Tom. His earlier data was labeled "Grpt." The major portion of the section is arranged semantically. The sections on plants and animals are particularly extensive. Names of plants were elicited for the most part from specimens collected on numerous trips. There are occasional references to cultural practices and myths throughout the notes. The Wintu-Chimariko vocabulary section is arranged for the most part by terms in the Hayfork dialect of Wintu. Equivalents are provided in the McCloud dialect and, in some cases, in Chimariko. The section on plant names includes data obtained by Harrington as early as 1928. There are numerous references to botanical specimens collected for him by his field assistant George W. Bayley.

The rehearings are mostly of Yana papers by Edward Sapir and T.T. Waterman as well as Roland Dixon's "The Chimariko Indians and Language." As part of a continuing effort to determine the relationship of Esselen to other California languages, Harrington also reheard Esselen vocabulary in Alfred Kroeber's "The Languages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco.

His records relating to Yana, Achomawi, Wintu, and Chimariko placenames are extensive. There are two types of notes: those recorded during "armchair interviews" with informants and those made during trips with them. Usually individual names were recorded one to a page and were accompanied by data regarding the translation of the Indian name, the location, and the cultural or historical significance of the site. To elaborate upon the data gathered in these initial interviews, Harrington frequently made automobile and walking trips with his consultants, asking them to name the places they encountered. These notes were recorded in journals or logs, which contain, in addition to the above-described data, mileage from starting points, hand-drawn maps, and descriptions of neighboring topographical features.

The subseries also contains textual data Harrington collected. Several texts were recorded in Wintu, including one with a translation from Jim Feder. English summaries of the Flood Myth and the story of Coyote's Daughter were obtained from Billy George and Grapevine Tom. Joe Charles contributed a Redding myth. Miscellaneous notes on storytelling and on song texts were recorded from Billy Wright, Tom, and Rosa and Joe Charles.

There are also notes on the history and culture of the northern California tribes. Information was recorded throughout the summer and fall of 1931 from virtually all of his major linguistic consultants. Subjects covered in the notes include battles, baskets, games, clothing, customs, and herbal cures. Also filed here is a copy of a speech given to young men.

Additional materials include biographical notes as well as notes on vocabulary, placenames, and tribenames from Sarah Kloochoo, Billy Stone, and Mr. Radcliffe.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington's involvement in the area of north-central California began in September 1921 when he undertook five months of fieldwork on Chimariko with Sally Noble, who was then residing in Denny on New River. The emphasis of his work at that time was recording the phonetics and grammatical structure of the language. Shortly afterwards he worked with a number of Achomawi, Atsugewi, Wintu, and Yana speakers, recording brief vocabularies, extensive placename notes, and some myths.

Through correspondence with Edward Sapir in the fall of 1927, Harrington learned of Billy George (alias Hayfork Bill), a Wintu and Chimariko speaker. Harrington had occasion to conduct a lengthy interview with him at Hayfork during the summer of 1928. Harrington also had the opportunity to work briefly with Ann McKay, an elderly Wintu speaker, and with Abe Bush, who had previously provided linguistic information to C. Hart Merriam and Edward Sapir. Some of Harrington's time in 1928 was also spent at Stone Lagoon reviewing with Lucy Montgomery the notes he had compiled with Sally Noble.

In mid-May 1931 Harrington returned to Hayfork and Hyampom to resume his field studies with George and Bush. For a virtually uninterrupted period from then until January 1932, he worked with these consultants and with numerous other speakers of Wintu, as well as with members of the neighboring Yana and Achomawi tribes. As this was a linguistically complex region, many of those he worked with were bi-or multilingual. Harrington evidently arranged his elicitation sessions to include speakers of different languages.

Harrington had multiple aims in conducting fieldwork in the region. Initially he wished to add to the already existing files of linguistic data which he had accumulated some ten years before. (See subseries "Chimariko/Hupa" and "Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana.") He was also interested in pursuing his botanical studies of the area, which had begun in 1928 and 1930 when his field assistant George W. Bayley had made collections of spring plants with Montgomery. The primary focus of his work, however, was the ethnogeography of the region. He was keenly interested in collecting a network of placenames throughout Shasta and Trinity counties and in determining the location of borders between the tribal territories.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Yana language  Search this
Achomawi language  Search this
Wintu language  Search this
Chimariko language  Search this
Atsugewi language  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Toponymy  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Maps
Narratives
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.12
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30d2b0cf7-cf88-404a-97a0-6c15e4dba514
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13478
Online Media:

Esselen

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
9 Boxes
Culture:
Esselen Indians  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Place:
California -- Languages
Date:
1913-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Esselen. Materials include drafts of a paper on Esselen; copies of primary and secondary sources; file slips containing Esselen vocabulary, cognates, and equivalent terms; notes on rehearings of Esselen vocabulary; and notes on a comparison of Esselen and Southern Pomo vocabulary. The drafts are for a paper on sources of Esselen, with notes on phonetics, grammar, and vocabulary. The section of primary and secondary sources contains notes from 1916 to 1953 and include handwritten and typed copies of manuscripts and published versions of the various Esselen vocabularies. The file contains fairly extensive notes from a conversation with Henshaw regarding his fieldwork, dated August 31, 1920, and notes on the chapter entitled "The Esselen and Salinans" from Kroeber's "Handbook of the Indians of California." There are also several pages of notes on Esselen which were sent to Harrington by C. Hart Merriam. The slipfiles are organized under broad semantic headings: nature, material culture, bodyparts, animals, plants, kinship, tribenames, and placenames. The remainder of the slips were filed under such grammatical headings as nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs, reduplication, and phonetics. The sources of Esselen vocabulary from which he extracted the data were de Lamanon, Alcala Galiano, Arroyo de la Cuesta, Pinart, Henshaw, Merriam, and Kroeber. For comparative purposes, he also copied lexical items in other languages. Notes from rehearings of Esselen vocabulary are from his work with Ascencion Solorsano and Isabelle Meadows, both Costanoan speakers. The files on the comparison of Esselen and Southern Pomo contains Pomo vocabulary that Harrington recorded from Manuel C. Cordova along with Harrington's notes on the similarity of certain terms to Esselen.

A number of abbreviations were utilized by Harrington throughout the work to refer to the various reference works which he consulted. "Man." and "Per." refer to the vocabulary collected by de Lamanon and published by Laperouse. "Suen." and "Gal." allude to the vocabulary obtained by Lasuen and often credited to the explorer Dionicio Alcala Galiano.) Harrington also refers to this work as "Esp." for Espinosa y Tello. "Pi." and "Pin." stand for Alphonse Pinart and "Hen." for Henry W. Henshaw. The code "Mof." was utilized for Eugene Duflot de Mofras and "Cues." or "Arr." for Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta. Harrington employed the abbreviations "Mer." and "Kr." for the writings of his contemporaries C. Hart Merriam and Alfred L. Kroeber.
Biographical / Historical:
Harrington began a study of Esselen relatively early in his career and maintained a continuing interest in relating it to a recognized language family. Because the language became extinct in the early 1900s, he himself was not actually able to conduct any fieldwork with a native speaker. He did undertake research among the existing primary and secondary sources and attempted to learn what he could from various Native Americans who he thought might have some knowledge of the language.

As early as 1913 Harrington began compiling notes on the historical accounts of Esselen. It is known that he presented a paper on the subject at the meeting of the San Francisco Society of the Archaeological Institute of America at Berkeley in November of that year. An undated manuscript titled "The Excelen Language" presumably dates from that period.

As his research continued, Harrington was pleased to locate a "new source," the vocabulary recorded by Alphonse Pinart, at the Bancroft Library. This manuscript had been unavailable to Alfred Kroeber when he published his summary of Esselen in 1904. The discovery may have led Harrington to present a paper titled "Notes on Esselen" at the joint session of the San Francisco Society of the A.I.A. and the Anthropological Section of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held in Berkeley on December 1 and 2, 1916.

Harrington continued revising his notes on secondary sources in the 1920s, producing two additional drafts of his earlier summary in 1921 and 1927. In addition, he compiled slipfiles and various handwritten and typed lists of lexical items which were culled from the available sources on Esselen and some neighboring languages.

In the mid-1930s Harrington reviewed his files with Rumsen speaker Isabelle Meadows in hopes that she might recognize or help him reconstruct various Esselen words. At the end of their work he concluded that she knew only eleven words of the language.

In February 1947 Harrington reheard Esselen vocabulary items with his Southern Pomo consultant, Manuel C. Cordova, in an attempt to find similarities between the two languages. A number of years later he began another draft write-up. This remains in a sketchy, outline form.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Esselen language  Search this
Pomo languages  Search this
Ohlone language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.14
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3793f68bd-bc92-44f9-b0b7-325709a41092
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13841
Online Media:

Salinan

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
18 Boxes
Culture:
Salinan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Narratives
Maps
Date:
1912-1932
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Salinan.

His Migueleno field notes from 1912 and 1913 contain vocabulary, English summaries of myths, and ethnographic and biographical notes from Juan Solano and Pacifico Archuleta. The linguistic and ethnographic portion of these field notes were also copied onto slipfiles and filed semantically. The originals of notes labeled "Pac." appear to be missing.

Materials from his 1922 fieldwork consist of Antoniano and Migueleno field notes and vocabulary. These include extensive linguistic notes from Maria and David Mora. While Maria was the principal source for Migueleno and David for Antoniano, they occasionally gave cognate forms in both languages. Much of the data was given in response to questions regarding vocabulary items published by J. Alden Mason (1918). A citation such as "On Mas. M." was used to indicate this. One section of phrases was evidently elicited by Harrington for purposes of comparison with Esselen forms. Another set of files consists of vocabulary that Harrington copied from the original field notes and arranged semantically. The notes on plants and animals are particularly extensive and contain commentary from Petronilo Gomez. There are numerous references to terms copied from the vocabulary portion of Mason's "The Language of the Salinan Indians." A few copies of notes from Pacifico Archuleta and Juan Solano are also filed here.

Harrington's research from 1931 consists of notes from rehearings with Maria de los Angeles, David Mora, and, to a lesser extent, Tito Encinales, of published works by J. Alden Mason and Father Bonaventura Sitjar's Antoniano vocabulary. They, including a woman identified simply as Maggie, also reviewed linguistic data collected in 1922 from David and Maria Jesusa Mora. Harrington wanted to form an "ethnological dictionary" from the linguistic notes and arranged them into semantic groupings. The section on plants includes remarks on lists of plants native to Mutsun territory in California and to New Mexico and rehearing of ethnobotanical information published by Engelhardt (1929). There is also a section of stories containing English and Spanish summaries of myths.

The subseries also contains notes on placenames. The earliest set consists of notes which he made in Washington, D.C. in 1930 on a list of rancheria names obtained in 1929. English or Spanish equivalents are given for the Indian placenames. There are also notes from placename trips, which include etymologies of Indian placenames, explanations of the significance of sites, sketch maps, references to myths, biographical notes, and notes on photographs he took. Other materials include notes from interviews with Buck Davis and J.C. Curtin and rehearings of rancheria names published by Zephyrin Engelhardt (1929).

The miscellaneous section consists mostly of notes recorded from David and Maria Mora and from Maria de los Angeles from February 1930 to February 1932; some are undated. Among the data included are unsorted vocabulary and phrases (particularly on animals and plants), observations on phonetics, and ethnographic and biographical references in English and Spanish. Also filed here are notes on a letter from C. Hart Merriam (December 26, 1929), with comments on Esselen. The last group of notes is a set of instructions from Harrington to Arthur E. Harrington, his nephew, and Paul Garda, son of a Chumash informant, on making sound recordings from Maria de los Angeles and David Mora.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington undertook fieldwork on the Salinan dialects during three phases of his career. In 1912 and 1913 he worked for several days with two Migueleno speakers, Juan Solano and Pacifico Archuleta. He interviewed Archuleta again briefly in 1915. During a lengthy period of time in the field in 1922, he contacted David and Maria Mora, recording extensive Antoniano and Migueleno vocabularies from them. Approximately ten years later he returned to work with David as well as with Maria de los Angeles and her husband, Tito Encinales. The primary focus of his study was the rehearing of his earlier field notes and the checking of data from several manuscript and published sources. He also took a number of trips by car and on horseback to collect botanical specimens for identification and to gather placename data. Others that he worked with included Rosario Cooper and Petronilo Gomez.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Salinan language  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Zoology -- nomenclature  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Toponymy  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Narratives
Maps
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.15
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a9be1b9c-dd6a-48c5-b29d-5a0b9acedd6d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13856
Online Media:

Yokuts

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Laird, Carobeth, 1895-1983  Search this
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Names:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
20 Boxes
Culture:
Yokuts  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Songs
Maps
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1914-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on the Yokuts.

Notes from his fieldwork in 1914 include references to residents who he thought might be able to assist him in his research, detailed descriptions of house construction and the fabrication of sleeping mats, and small sketches of pictographs which Harrington had seen in the region. Amidst the miscellaneous notes are lists of baskets which he purchased, notes on photographs he took and bibliographic references from C. Hart Merriam. Harrington also copied extracts of his field notes onto slipfiles, which he filed under a variety of subject headings. The Tachi file contains ethnographic notes from Roberto Bautista and Agnes Light as well as a few Tachi lexical items. The file labeled "Tule" consists of mixed linguistic and ethnographic data from Jim Alto and Mr. Edmundson at the Tule River Reservation and notes on the Tachi dialect recorded from Pacifico Archuleta.

The section of linguistic, ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes consists of raw field data collected by Harrington and Carobeth from twenty residents of Yokuts territory during the period 1916-1917. Topics include vocabulary, placenames, tribenames, myths, ceremonial regalia and dances, songs, and religion. The notes from Josefa Damian, marked "Jos. Mar.," feature extensive data on relationship terms, age and sex terms, and moieties in Chunut, Tachi, Tejonefio, and Wowol. The most extensive notes were recorded from Francisca Lola. The notes contain voluminous amounts of linguistic data (vocabulary and paradigms) in Koyeti, Yawdanchi, Choynok, and Tachi as well as equivalent forms in "R. C." (Rio Chiquito). The material is also rich in ethnographic detail, providing information on uses of plants (Tejon ranch specimens), ceremonies, fiestas, dances, and material culture accompanied by diagrams and sketches. In addition, there are biographical notes on informants, myths, and texts of songs.

A year after collecting his field data on Yokuts, Harrington made copies of his notes and arranged them into several sizable slipfiles. One major file was created for the Chunut and Tachi languages, and another for the Yawelmani, Koyeti, Yawdanchi, and Wikchamni languages. There are also small slipfiles for Choynok and Palewyami. The slipfiles are organized semantically; headings included are cosmography, plants, animals, "artifacts" (material culture), sociology, religion, tribenames, and placenames. They include information regarding plant speciments collected by Harrington at the Tejon Ranch.

An additional step that Harrington took in the analysis of his Yokuts field data was the development of an outline grammar of the Yawelmani dialect. He extracted vocabulary and linguistic notes from the semantically arranged slipfiles, marking the slips which he copied with a check mark or the notation "gr." The data which he extracted are largely Yawelmani, although vocabulary and sentences from Koyeti, Yawdanchi, Chunut, and Tachi are included for comparative purposes. Harrington also submitted multiple manuscripts of his Yawelmani grammar to the Bureau of American Ethnology (former B.A.E. Mss. 2973, 3041, 3047, 3048, and 3054).

Harrington's files relating to the Tejon Ranch Case contain correspondence dating from 1921 to 1924, legal documents, a copy of a census taken at the ranch, and documentary evidence from a variety of secondary sources including military records, newspaper accounts, and Senate documents. The major portion of the records consists of notes from interviews with about twenty Tejon residents. The content is primarily biographical, with placename references. In many cases the notes were taken down in the form of depositions. Harrington simultaneously recorded lengthy Yokuts myth texts as well as stories in English and Spanish. Information from a number of the informants was formerly cataloged as B. A. E. ms. 3046. There is also a carbon copy of a "Report on Tejon Indians, Kern County, California" submitted by Herbert V. Clotts, Acting Superintendent of Irrigation, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on January 15, 1918.

Records relating to sound recordings pertain to songs performed by five Yokuts speakers and two Kitanemuks. The songs were recorded on wax by Harrington in Yokuts territory during the periods 1916-1917. The cylinders were sent to ethnomusicologist Helen H. Roberts in 1921 to review. The bulk of this section contains her lengthy notes on the texts of songs, accompanied by musical transcriptions.

The final section of this subseries consists of miscellaneous notes. There are notes from interviews and correspondence with information on boat construction, a sketch map received in a 1925 letter, notes relative to a conversation with J.N.B. Hewitt in 1926, notes from an interview with Angel Sanchez and Bill Skinner, and information from Roberts on song text. There are also copies of Harrington's own field notes and notes on secondary sources.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington worked on the Yokuts language a number of times during his forty years of fieldwork in California. This study certainly matches the breadth of the data for Karok and Salinan and is surpassed in volume only by his output for Costanoan and Chumash.

Harrington's first contact with the so-called "Tulareno" people occurred in late September to early October 1914 on a two-week trip to the San Joaquin Valley. At that time he made short visits to the Santa Rosa rancheria near Lemoore, to the Tule Indian Reservation near Porterville, and to Bakersfield as part of a dialect survey. A limited amount of additional data was obtained in 1914 and 1915 during the course of his work on Salinan and Chumash. Migueleno speaker Pacifico Archuleta, whose wife, Suncion, was Yokuts, gave a limited Tachi vocabulary, and Rosario Cooper, an Obispeno speaker, also provided several words.

In November 1916 Harrington traveled to the Tejon region, ostensibly to work with Jose Juan Olivas, an inland Chumash speaker. It appears, in addition, that for a virtually uninterrupted period from that time until September 1917, Harrington (assisted by his wife, Carobeth) made an in-depth study of a number of Southern Valley and Foothills Yokuts dialects, obtaining extensive vocabularies and texts, as well as a considerable amount of ethnographic and historical data. This work took them to the valley near the Santa Rosa rancheria and to the Tule River Reservation. Harrington also made trips with informants to obtain placename data and to collect, identify, and describe botanical specimens. The observance of ceremonial rituals during that winter afforded him the opportunity of recording on wax cylinders and in writing a significant number of songs.

The flare-up of the Tejon Ranch case, which threatened to disinherit many Indians of their tribal lands, brought Harrington back to the area in February 1922. As a special temporary appointee to the Department of the Interior, he was responsible for obtaining depositions from the elderly residents of the Tejon. He simultaneously elicited additional biographical, historical, and linguistic data for his own work. The case was argued before the Supreme Court on February 28, 1924. In June of that year the court held that the Indians had abandoned the land. The decision was based on the Indians' failure to present their claim to the commission appointed under the act of March 1851 to ascertain and adjust private land claims in territory ceded by Mexico to the United States.

In the fall of 1923, he took a number of Yokuts to the Ventura County Fair to perform dances, to demonstrate house and boat building techniques, and to exhibit their crafts. He also made trips to Yokuts territory in the early 1930s and again in January 1942. These were possibly side trips made during the course of other work to follow upon the Tejon Ranch case.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Yokuts language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Songs
Maps
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.16
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34367f9fc-3a4a-44fa-8d76-e8ad250f8dfe
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13960
Online Media:

Supplemental Material on Northern and Central California

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Underhill, Ruth, 1883-1984  Search this
Names:
Drake, Francis, 1540?-1596  Search this
Du Bois, Cora Alice, 1903-1991  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Morton, C. V. (Conrad Vernon), 1905-1972  Search this
Uldall, Hans Jørgen, 1907-1957  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
5 Boxes
Culture:
Wiyot  Search this
Yurok  Search this
Mattole  Search this
Nisenan Indians  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Karuk (Karok)  Search this
Chimariko  Search this
Shasta  Search this
Wailaki  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Atsugewi (Hat Creek)  Search this
Wintu  Search this
Yana  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Esselen Indians  Search this
Salinan Indians  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Vocabulary
Field notes
Manuscripts
Place:
California -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
circa 1907-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Notes and writings on special linguistic studies series contains material that supplement Harrington's Northern and Central California field notes. There are materials on Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; Plains Miwok; Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; Chimariko/Hupa; Wailaki; Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko; Costanoan; Esselen; Salinan; and Yokuts. The files include notes Harrington collected from the field, covering linguistic, botanical, biographical, geographical, and ethnographic topics; notes from rehearings; notes and drafts from his papers; notes on his travels and activities; and notes from secondary sources, including field notes from Alfred Kroeber and other colleagues and notes on Sir Francis Drake's travels in California. Some of his botanical notes include scientific identifications and comments by botanist C. V. Morton of the National Herbarium. The Karok section contains labels for Karok baskets housed in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology.

There are also some general and miscellaneous materials, notes relating to collections of artifacts, notes relating to mission records, notes from conversations, notes from secondary sources, and notes and writings collected from others. Miscellaneous material includes lists of possible informants for a number of California languages, bibliographic references, notes on boats, a list of captions for Harrington's paper "Chainfern and Maidenhair, Adornment Materials of Northwestern California Basketry," a tracing of a map labeled "Plano de la Mision San Jose, 1824," additional references to that mission, and a text. The papers contain references to the Hupa, Maidu, and Yurok tribes. Notes on artifacts pertain to collections held by others, including the George Heye collection of artifacts for the Modoc, Klamath, Pomo, Tolowa, Hupa, and Yurok tribes. Notes from conversations includes interviews with Cora DuBois, C. Hart Merriam, Carl F. Voegelin, and T.T. Waterman. Notes from his meeting with Dr. J.W. Hudson are the most extensive. The last file in the subseries consists of notes from a meeting with Ruth Underhill on January 10, 1941, and a notebook which Harrington evidently obtained from her at that time. The notebook contains class notes from a course on Maidu which Underhill had taken at Columbia University in 1932 with Hans Jorgen Uldall. Included are information on phonetics and grammar and a number of texts.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Grammar, Comparative and general  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Wiyot language  Search this
Yurok language  Search this
Mattole language  Search this
Nisenan language  Search this
Miwok languages  Search this
Karok language  Search this
Shasta language  Search this
Konomihu language  Search this
Chimariko language  Search this
Hupa language  Search this
Achomawi language  Search this
Atsugewi language  Search this
Wintu language  Search this
Yana language  Search this
Ohlone language  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Salinan language  Search this
Yokuts language  Search this
Meskwaki; Sauk & Fox  Search this
Karuk  Search this
Achumawi  Search this
Genre/Form:
Vocabulary
Field notes
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 8.2
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 8: Notes and Writings on Special Linguistic Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30cfeef45-d96e-4d0f-b57c-8ea915d225b3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15214
Online Media:

Letters Received

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Correspondent:
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Collins, Henry Bascom, 1899-1987  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930.  Search this
Harrington, Arthur  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Marr, John Paul  Search this
Martin, Fredericka I.  Search this
Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973  Search this
Van Valkenburgh, Richard F.  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
United States. Office of Censorship  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
26 Boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Correspondence series contains letters received by John P. Harrington. His incoming letters include handwritten and typed letters, postcards, and telegrams.

The primary focus of Harrington's correspondence is his work--both that which he undertook on an official basis for the B.A.E. and that which he pursued because of strong personal interests. References to his research and fieldwork take the form of passing references in letters to acquaintances, detailed accounts in letters to close friends, requests for authorization of proposed fieldwork, and reports of work accomplished in letters to supervisors, and lists of instructions to field and clerical assistants.

Much of the correspondence involves queries and the exchange of information and questions. Harrington wrote to scientists for identification of plant, animal or mineral specimens collected during fieldwork, and to postmasters, Indian agents, and social works in search of informants. There is also correspondence regarding acquisition of books, photostats, microfilm, and various supplies and equipment. There are also letters to editors of various journals enclosing articles for publication as well as letters of introduction, obtained by Harrington to facilitate his own work or prepared by him for use by his assistants. A number of letters involve answers which Harrington prepared to questions which were addressed directly to him by members of the public or were referred to him in the capacity of Senior Ethnologist at the B.A.E.

Several hundred items of correspondence relate to Harrington's duties when detailed to the Office of Censorship from 1943 to 1945. Most of these reflect his efforts to obtain translations of letters in foreign languages which he could not identify or for which dictionaries were not available.

Finally there are letters exchanged with landladies; real estate agents; bank personnel; and city, county and federal officials regarding payment or collection of rent, selling of property, confirmation of bank balances, and payment of taxes, as well as letters written to friends and family dealing with purely personal matters.

Some of the letters are incomplete. A number of lengthy responses to Harrington's queries were cut apart by him and pasted on separate sheets for filing in various subject categories in his field notes. Such letters were reconstructed as much as possible by N.A.A. staff. Attempts were also made to determine the identity of each correspondent. The full name of an individual is supplied if known even though only the first name, initials, or a nickname were used on a letter. In those cases in which signatures are illegible, a suggested form is given in brackets; if the form is doubtful, it is marked with a question mark. There is a small file of four items at the end for which the identity of the correspondent has not been determined. In those cases where onlly a partial date was given by Harrington or his correspondents, brackets have been used to supply a fuller suggested date.

More than 140 incoming letters were never opened by Harrington. These items were removed from their envelopes after any relevant data appearing on an envelope were transferred to the letter. These are annotated with the date when they were opened at the N.A.A.
Arrangement:
The documents are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the correspondent and thereunder chronologically; any undated items have been placed at the end of the group of letters for each person. In those instances when only a company name is given, the item in question is filed under that name. Some letters written by third parties to various acquaintances of Harrington were then forwarded to him without a cover letter. These records have been filed under the name of the original recipient as though they were enclosures. Letters, photographs, notes, drawings, maps, and other miscellaneous items which were sent under cover of a letter are labeled as enclosures and immediately follow the letter with which they were sent.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 9.1
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 9: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3aa1e7caa-edea-4fac-a7d7-6d0d7e7936fe
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15991
Online Media:

Letters Sent

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Correspondent:
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Collins, Henry Bascom, 1899-1987  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930.  Search this
Harrington, Arthur  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Marr, John Paul  Search this
Martin, Fredericka I.  Search this
Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Van Valkenburgh, Richard F.  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
United States. Office of Censorship  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
11 Boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Correspondence series contains copies of letters that John P. Harrington sent. For the most part the file consists of carbon copies of typed letters or handwritten drafts. There are also a number of signed originals. It is not always clear whether these documents were not sent or whether they were returned to Harrington. In those cases in which an original letter was returned with a reply written on it, the original letter is filed as though it were the reply and can be located under the name of the correspondent who returned it; a photocopy has been made for filing in correct chronological order within the file of letters sent.

The primary focus of Harrington's correspondence is his work--both that which he undertook on an official basis for the B.A.E. and that which he pursued because of strong personal interests. References to his research and fieldwork take the form of passing references in letters to acquaintances, detailed accounts in letters to close friends, requests for authorization of proposed fieldwork, and reports of work accomplished in letters to supervisors, and lists of instructions to field and clerical assistants.

Much of the correspondence involves queries and the exchange of information and questions. Harrington wrote to scientists for identification of plant, animal or mineral specimens collected during fieldwork, and to postmasters, Indian agents, and social works in search of informants. There is also correspondence regarding acquisition of books, photostats, microfilm, and various supplies and equipment. There are also letters to editors of various journals enclosing articles for publication as well as letters of introduction, obtained by Harrington to facilitate his own work or prepared by him for use by his assistants. A number of letters involve answers which Harrington prepared to questions which were addressed directly to him by members of the public or were referred to him in the capacity of Senior Ethnologist at the B.A.E.

Several hundred items of correspondence relate to Harrington's duties when detailed to the Office of Censorship from 1943 to 1945. Most of these reflect his efforts to obtain translations of letters in foreign languages which he could not identify or for which dictionaries were not available.

Finally there are letters exchanged with landladies; real estate agents; bank personnel; and city, county and federal officials regarding payment or collection of rent, selling of property, confirmation of bank balances, and payment of taxes, as well as letters written to friends and family dealing with purely personal matters.

There are small subsections for undated letters and unmatched portions of letters (second and third pages without salutation) at the end of the file of outgoing letters.
Arrangement:
The section of outgoing letters is arranged chronologically. Under each date, letters are further arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the addressee. When multiple letters were sent to the same correspondent on the same date, these are labeled "(1st)," "(2nd)," etc. In some cases Harrington addressed a letter to a company; when the identity of the respondent at the company is known, this individual's name has been added to the letter in brackets and is the basis for filing. When Harrington addressed a letter to one individual and another replied, the letter is filed under the name of the addressee, but the name of the respondent has been added in a cross-reference note on the letter or on a target.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 9.2
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 9: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f693dc10-bacc-4a10-95bc-a457bc6c9541
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref16046
Online Media:

Sound recording

Collector:
Marr, John Paul  Search this
Informant:
Drew, Frank  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Disc (17.5in)
Culture:
Coos (Kusan)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Discs
Sound recordings
Date:
JUN 1941
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.00000959
Funding note:
Digitization and preparation of these materials for online access has been funded through generous support from the Arcadia Fund.
Local Note:
Disc Note:Jpm List:JPH Lr Marr Bear River Dialect of Athapascan; Goddard, P E; Berkeley, 1929; the Dawn of the World; Merriam, C Hart, Arthur H Clark Co, Cleveland, 1910
SEE COO CT13, 21 MINS:COO CT14, 21 MINS, 7.50IPS
Aluminum disc
Other Title:
1st M-1 Continuation Rehearing Goddard's Bear River Dialect
1st N-1 Same
1st N-2 Rehearing Merriam's the Dawn of the World
Place:
Oregon
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Coos language  Search this
Hanis  Search this
Miluk  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / John Peabody Harrington Sound Recordings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw329cfa9af-2d5b-4753-b6c6-3109fbafb8e3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref16519
Online Media:

John Peabody Harrington papers: Costanoan (part 1)

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Mission San Carlos Borromeo (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
San Juan Bautista (Mission : San Juan Bautista, Calif.)  Search this
Santa Barbara Mission  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
149 Boxes
Culture:
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1921-1939
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Costanoan (Ohlone) languages, particularly Chocheno, Mutsun, and Rumsen. Materials include linguistic, ethnographic, and historical notes.

Harrington obtained a large amount of vocabulary during his fieldwork. Harrington organized the Mutsun vocabulary into a dictionary of sorts, and also compiled a rudimentary Rumsen dictionary. The bulk of the subseries, however, consist of his notes from rehearings of vocabulary recorded by Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, C. Hart Merriam, Henry W. Henshaw, Alfred Kroeber, Alexander S. Taylor, Alphonse Pinart, R.G. Latham, Adam John (an Indian agent), Reverend Professor Gregory Mengarini, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, Father Juan Comelias, and Horatio Hale. Harrington reviewed their data, some of which include ethnographic material, with various Costanoan speakers. He also reviewed with them some Esselen, Chumash, and Yokut vocabulary to elicit Costanoan equivalences. In addition, Harrington conducted rehearings of the records of San Juan Bautista Mission, Carmel Mission, and Santa Barbara Mission.

Harrington also collected Costanoan tribenames and placenames. There is a list of ranches and, in some cases, brief notes on the location and approximate number of Indian residents. There are also diaries of placename trips which Harrington made with Isabelle Meadows in 1932 and his travel from Berkeley to San Juan Capistrano with Henry Cervantes and Marta Herrera in 1932. The notes include sketch maps, records of mileage, and notes on photographs taken. In addition, Harrington formulated a questionnaire on Rumsen tribenames and placenames.

Another portion of the subseries consists of Harrington's notes for a proposed monograph on the native people brought together at Mission San Juan Bautista from various parts of San Benito County and the adjacent region. There are ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes from Ascencion Solosano and others as well as excerpts from a letter written by C. Hart Merriam, mission records, and notes from placename trips. The sections on Indian and Spanish cooking and on clothing are particularly extensive, as are the files on historical anecdotes and the mission itself.

Other materials in the subseries include notes on Chocheno and Mutsun song texts; information from Ascencion Solorsano regarding the use of herbs and native wild plants in the treatment of various diseases; myths and songs, anecdotes and historical accounts, and translations; and a miscellany of notes from interviews with various Costanoan speakers. Among his miscellaneous notes are comments on photographs taken by Harrington and information about his sound recordings.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington recorded three Costanoan dialects in three separate, primary periods: Chocheno (1921), Mutsun (mostly 1929), and Rumsen (mostly 1932-1939).

During the month of August 1921, prompted, no doubt, by suggestions from C. Hart Merriam, Harrington worked in the area of Pleasanton, California, gathering data on Chocheno, which he sometimes referred to as "the Nepeno language." His principal informant in the work was Maria de los Angeles Colas, usually called "Angela." A man named José, presumably Angela's husband José Guzmán, also provided information.

In January 1922 Harrington had his first opportunity to record basic vocabularies of the Mutsun and Rumsen dialects of Costanoan. Early in the month he worked briefly with an eighty-seven year-old Mutsun speaker, Ascencion Solorsano of Gilroy. Seven years later Harrington reestablished contact with Solorsano. He found Solorsano to be an excellent source of linguistic information. Much of his work with her was devoted to reviewing all historical and contemporary recordings of Mutsun. Although Solorsano was not a speaker of any other Costanoan dialect, Harrington felt that her Mutsun data were fundamental to his understanding of the other languages. For this reason he asked her to rehear a number of vocabularies in Rumsen, Santa Cruz, and Soledad. Harrington deemed as "astonishing" Solorsano's knowledge of Mutsun material culture, myths, native plants, ceremonies, customs, and life at the mission. She had intimate personal knowledge of missionary influences and a secondhand knowledge dating from pre-mission days. She had also lived with her parents on a ranch near the Pinnacles, where she learned the practice of herbal medicine.

During the period 1929-1930, Harrington also resumed fieldwork on Chocheno and Rumsen. In March 1930 he interviewed and recorded Chocheno songs from Jose Guzman. Another person involved in the later "San Jose mission" work was Susana Nicolas. Harrington evidently read various Chocheno forms to her but she responded in Rumsen. Laura Ramirez (nee Escobar), the older sister of Tomasa Cantua, was his major source of Rumsen informantion. She gave him a sizable vocabulary as well as a significant amount of ethnographic data.

On March 28, 1932, Harrington returned to Monterey to work with Isabelle Meadows, who learned Rumsen as a child from an elderly Wacharon woman, Maria Omesia. Throughout the spring of 1932, Harrington roomed with Solorsano's family in New Monterey and drove to Meadows' house in Carmel each day. By utilizing his earlier field notes as well as various primary and secondary sources, Harrington began to elicit a "big, thorough vocabulary of the Carmel-Monterey language." During automobile and walking trips, which took them as far as Salinas, he recorded some Indian names of sites as well as many old Spanish placenames. He scheduled other trips for collecting flowering plants with Claudia Corona.

In the summer of 1932, Harrington's interest turned to the study of Uto-Aztecan languages (Gabrielino, Luiseno, and Juaneno) and the annotation of Geronimo Boscana's writings. Meadows accompanied him to the San Juan Capistrano area to pursue this fieldwork. In 1933 she also traveled with him to Santa Ana, where he worked out the details for the publication of Chinigchinich. Harrington brought her back with him to Washington for several months in 1934. The following year they again returned to the capital, where she continued working intermittently with him until her death in 1939. During this later phase, their interviews consisted of repetitive reviews of all of the Costanoan notes which Harrington had compiled to date. He was attempting to refine his orthography and to check on detailed points of Rumsen grammar. Simultaneously he amassed voluminous notes of ethnographic and biographical interest and recorded a wealth of data relating to California Spanish.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Local Note:
This subseries was broken up into three catalog records to facilitate viewing of digital surrogates. See the catalog record for John Peabody Harrington papers: Costanoan (part 2) and (part 3) to view surrogates for the rest of Harrington's Costanoan files.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ohlone language  Search this
Mutsun dialect  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Chumash language  Search this
Yokuts language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California / 2.13: Costanoan
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3251d030c-1b89-42cb-a003-668f97a38d00
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref17247
Online Media:

John Peabody Harrington papers: Costanoan (part 2)

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Mission San Carlos Borromeo (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
San Juan Bautista (Mission : San Juan Bautista, Calif.)  Search this
Santa Barbara Mission  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
149 Boxes
Culture:
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1921-1939
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Costanoan (Ohlone) languages, particularly Chocheno, Mutsun, and Rumsen. Materials include linguistic, ethnographic, and historical notes.

Harrington obtained a large amount of vocabulary during his fieldwork. Harrington organized the Mutsun vocabulary into a dictionary of sorts, and also compiled a rudimentary Rumsen dictionary. The bulk of the subseries, however, consist of his notes from rehearings of vocabulary recorded by Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, C. Hart Merriam, Henry W. Henshaw, Alfred Kroeber, Alexander S. Taylor, Alphonse Pinart, R.G. Latham, Adam John (an Indian agent), Reverend Professor Gregory Mengarini, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, Father Juan Comelias, and Horatio Hale. Harrington reviewed their data, some of which include ethnographic material, with various Costanoan speakers. He also reviewed with them some Esselen, Chumash, and Yokut vocabulary to elicit Costanoan equivalences. In addition, Harrington conducted rehearings of the records of San Juan Bautista Mission, Carmel Mission, and Santa Barbara Mission.

Harrington also collected Costanoan tribenames and placenames. There is a list of ranches and, in some cases, brief notes on the location and approximate number of Indian residents. There are also diaries of placename trips which Harrington made with Isabelle Meadows in 1932 and his travel from Berkeley to San Juan Capistrano with Henry Cervantes and Marta Herrera in 1932. The notes include sketch maps, records of mileage, and notes on photographs taken. In addition, Harrington formulated a questionnaire on Rumsen tribenames and placenames.

Another portion of the subseries consists of Harrington's notes for a proposed monograph on the native people brought together at Mission San Juan Bautista from various parts of San Benito County and the adjacent region. There are ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes from Ascencion Solosano and others as well as excerpts from a letter written by C. Hart Merriam, mission records, and notes from placename trips. The sections on Indian and Spanish cooking and on clothing are particularly extensive, as are the files on historical anecdotes and the mission itself.

Other materials in the subseries include notes on Chocheno and Mutsun song texts; information from Ascencion Solorsano regarding the use of herbs and native wild plants in the treatment of various diseases; myths and songs, anecdotes and historical accounts, and translations; and a miscellany of notes from interviews with various Costanoan speakers. Among his miscellaneous notes are comments on photographs taken by Harrington and information about his sound recordings.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington recorded three Costanoan dialects in three separate, primary periods: Chocheno (1921), Mutsun (mostly 1929), and Rumsen (mostly 1932-1939).

During the month of August 1921, prompted, no doubt, by suggestions from C. Hart Merriam, Harrington worked in the area of Pleasanton, California, gathering data on Chocheno, which he sometimes referred to as "the Nepeno language." His principal informant in the work was Maria de los Angeles Colas, usually called "Angela." A man named José, presumably Angela's husband José Guzmán, also provided information.

In January 1922 Harrington had his first opportunity to record basic vocabularies of the Mutsun and Rumsen dialects of Costanoan. Early in the month he worked briefly with an eighty-seven year-old Mutsun speaker, Ascencion Solorsano of Gilroy. Seven years later Harrington reestablished contact with Solorsano. He found Solorsano to be an excellent source of linguistic information. Much of his work with her was devoted to reviewing all historical and contemporary recordings of Mutsun. Although Solorsano was not a speaker of any other Costanoan dialect, Harrington felt that her Mutsun data were fundamental to his understanding of the other languages. For this reason he asked her to rehear a number of vocabularies in Rumsen, Santa Cruz, and Soledad. Harrington deemed as "astonishing" Solorsano's knowledge of Mutsun material culture, myths, native plants, ceremonies, customs, and life at the mission. She had intimate personal knowledge of missionary influences and a secondhand knowledge dating from pre-mission days. She had also lived with her parents on a ranch near the Pinnacles, where she learned the practice of herbal medicine.

During the period 1929-1930, Harrington also resumed fieldwork on Chocheno and Rumsen. In March 1930 he interviewed and recorded Chocheno songs from Jose Guzman. Another person involved in the later "San Jose mission" work was Susana Nicolas. Harrington evidently read various Chocheno forms to her but she responded in Rumsen. Laura Ramirez (nee Escobar), the older sister of Tomasa Cantua, was his major source of Rumsen informantion. She gave him a sizable vocabulary as well as a significant amount of ethnographic data.

On March 28, 1932, Harrington returned to Monterey to work with Isabelle Meadows, who learned Rumsen as a child from an elderly Wacharon woman, Maria Omesia. Throughout the spring of 1932, Harrington roomed with Solorsano's family in New Monterey and drove to Meadows' house in Carmel each day. By utilizing his earlier field notes as well as various primary and secondary sources, Harrington began to elicit a "big, thorough vocabulary of the Carmel-Monterey language." During automobile and walking trips, which took them as far as Salinas, he recorded some Indian names of sites as well as many old Spanish placenames. He scheduled other trips for collecting flowering plants with Claudia Corona.

In the summer of 1932, Harrington's interest turned to the study of Uto-Aztecan languages (Gabrielino, Luiseno, and Juaneno) and the annotation of Geronimo Boscana's writings. Meadows accompanied him to the San Juan Capistrano area to pursue this fieldwork. In 1933 she also traveled with him to Santa Ana, where he worked out the details for the publication of Chinigchinich. Harrington brought her back with him to Washington for several months in 1934. The following year they again returned to the capital, where she continued working intermittently with him until her death in 1939. During this later phase, their interviews consisted of repetitive reviews of all of the Costanoan notes which Harrington had compiled to date. He was attempting to refine his orthography and to check on detailed points of Rumsen grammar. Simultaneously he amassed voluminous notes of ethnographic and biographical interest and recorded a wealth of data relating to California Spanish.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Local Note:
This subseries was broken up into three catalog records to facilitate viewing of digital surrogates. See the catalog record for John Peabody Harrington papers: Costanoan (part 2) and (part 3) to view surrogates for the rest of Harrington's Costanoan files.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ohlone language  Search this
Mutsun dialect  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Chumash language  Search this
Yokuts language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California / 2.13: Costanoan
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw39cd23197-d0a9-4b0c-90db-071591869a31
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref17248
Online Media:

John Peabody Harrington papers: Costanoan (part 3)

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Mission San Carlos Borromeo (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
San Juan Bautista (Mission : San Juan Bautista, Calif.)  Search this
Santa Barbara Mission  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
149 Boxes
Culture:
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1921-1939
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Costanoan (Ohlone) languages, particularly Chocheno, Mutsun, and Rumsen. Materials include linguistic, ethnographic, and historical notes.

Harrington obtained a large amount of vocabulary during his fieldwork. Harrington organized the Mutsun vocabulary into a dictionary of sorts, and also compiled a rudimentary Rumsen dictionary. The bulk of the subseries, however, consist of his notes from rehearings of vocabulary recorded by Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, C. Hart Merriam, Henry W. Henshaw, Alfred Kroeber, Alexander S. Taylor, Alphonse Pinart, R.G. Latham, Adam John (an Indian agent), Reverend Professor Gregory Mengarini, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, Father Juan Comelias, and Horatio Hale. Harrington reviewed their data, some of which include ethnographic material, with various Costanoan speakers. He also reviewed with them some Esselen, Chumash, and Yokut vocabulary to elicit Costanoan equivalences. In addition, Harrington conducted rehearings of the records of San Juan Bautista Mission, Carmel Mission, and Santa Barbara Mission.

Harrington also collected Costanoan tribenames and placenames. There is a list of ranches and, in some cases, brief notes on the location and approximate number of Indian residents. There are also diaries of placename trips which Harrington made with Isabelle Meadows in 1932 and his travel from Berkeley to San Juan Capistrano with Henry Cervantes and Marta Herrera in 1932. The notes include sketch maps, records of mileage, and notes on photographs taken. In addition, Harrington formulated a questionnaire on Rumsen tribenames and placenames.

Another portion of the subseries consists of Harrington's notes for a proposed monograph on the native people brought together at Mission San Juan Bautista from various parts of San Benito County and the adjacent region. There are ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes from Ascencion Solosano and others as well as excerpts from a letter written by C. Hart Merriam, mission records, and notes from placename trips. The sections on Indian and Spanish cooking and on clothing are particularly extensive, as are the files on historical anecdotes and the mission itself.

Other materials in the subseries include notes on Chocheno and Mutsun song texts; information from Ascencion Solorsano regarding the use of herbs and native wild plants in the treatment of various diseases; myths and songs, anecdotes and historical accounts, and translations; and a miscellany of notes from interviews with various Costanoan speakers. Among his miscellaneous notes are comments on photographs taken by Harrington and information about his sound recordings.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington recorded three Costanoan dialects in three separate, primary periods: Chocheno (1921), Mutsun (mostly 1929), and Rumsen (mostly 1932-1939).

During the month of August 1921, prompted, no doubt, by suggestions from C. Hart Merriam, Harrington worked in the area of Pleasanton, California, gathering data on Chocheno, which he sometimes referred to as "the Nepeno language." His principal informant in the work was Maria de los Angeles Colas, usually called "Angela." A man named José, presumably Angela's husband José Guzmán, also provided information.

In January 1922 Harrington had his first opportunity to record basic vocabularies of the Mutsun and Rumsen dialects of Costanoan. Early in the month he worked briefly with an eighty-seven year-old Mutsun speaker, Ascencion Solorsano of Gilroy. Seven years later Harrington reestablished contact with Solorsano. He found Solorsano to be an excellent source of linguistic information. Much of his work with her was devoted to reviewing all historical and contemporary recordings of Mutsun. Although Solorsano was not a speaker of any other Costanoan dialect, Harrington felt that her Mutsun data were fundamental to his understanding of the other languages. For this reason he asked her to rehear a number of vocabularies in Rumsen, Santa Cruz, and Soledad. Harrington deemed as "astonishing" Solorsano's knowledge of Mutsun material culture, myths, native plants, ceremonies, customs, and life at the mission. She had intimate personal knowledge of missionary influences and a secondhand knowledge dating from pre-mission days. She had also lived with her parents on a ranch near the Pinnacles, where she learned the practice of herbal medicine.

During the period 1929-1930, Harrington also resumed fieldwork on Chocheno and Rumsen. In March 1930 he interviewed and recorded Chocheno songs from Jose Guzman. Another person involved in the later "San Jose mission" work was Susana Nicolas. Harrington evidently read various Chocheno forms to her but she responded in Rumsen. Laura Ramirez (nee Escobar), the older sister of Tomasa Cantua, was his major source of Rumsen informantion. She gave him a sizable vocabulary as well as a significant amount of ethnographic data.

On March 28, 1932, Harrington returned to Monterey to work with Isabelle Meadows, who learned Rumsen as a child from an elderly Wacharon woman, Maria Omesia. Throughout the spring of 1932, Harrington roomed with Solorsano's family in New Monterey and drove to Meadows' house in Carmel each day. By utilizing his earlier field notes as well as various primary and secondary sources, Harrington began to elicit a "big, thorough vocabulary of the Carmel-Monterey language." During automobile and walking trips, which took them as far as Salinas, he recorded some Indian names of sites as well as many old Spanish placenames. He scheduled other trips for collecting flowering plants with Claudia Corona.

In the summer of 1932, Harrington's interest turned to the study of Uto-Aztecan languages (Gabrielino, Luiseno, and Juaneno) and the annotation of Geronimo Boscana's writings. Meadows accompanied him to the San Juan Capistrano area to pursue this fieldwork. In 1933 she also traveled with him to Santa Ana, where he worked out the details for the publication of Chinigchinich. Harrington brought her back with him to Washington for several months in 1934. The following year they again returned to the capital, where she continued working intermittently with him until her death in 1939. During this later phase, their interviews consisted of repetitive reviews of all of the Costanoan notes which Harrington had compiled to date. He was attempting to refine his orthography and to check on detailed points of Rumsen grammar. Simultaneously he amassed voluminous notes of ethnographic and biographical interest and recorded a wealth of data relating to California Spanish.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Local Note:
This subseries was broken up into three catalog records to facilitate viewing of digital surrogates. See the catalog record for John Peabody Harrington papers: Costanoan (part 2) and (part 3) to view surrogates for the rest of Harrington's Costanoan files.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ohlone language  Search this
Mutsun dialect  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Chumash language  Search this
Yokuts language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California / 2.13: Costanoan
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw302f03cb6-a86a-4d2e-b358-4a59db54a02e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref17249
Online Media:

Lake and Coast Miwok/Southeastern Pomo/Wappo

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
3 Boxes
Culture:
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Wappo  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Date:
1942
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's field notes on Lake and Coast Miwok, Southeastern Pomo, and Wappo that he gathered in Middletown, California in 1942.

The entire set of field notes consists of a partially arranged vocabulary based, at least in part, on a rehearing of Samuel A. Barrett's (1908) "The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo and Neighboring Indians." Much of the general vocabulary seems to have been elicited for comparison with numbered lexical items given in the Moquelumnan vocabulary on pages 68 to 80 of that work. The tribenames and placenames were evidently excerpted from various parts of the text as well as from the accompanying map. In addition, he conducted rehearings of the brief vocabulary collected on the Drake expedition, which was published in Barrett. Also included are comments on several items from C. Hart Merriam's (1910) Dawn of the World, several pages of Harrington's observations on the phonetics of the languages, and a few comparisons with Patwin and Rumsen (Carm.). Intermixed with the linguistic data are miscellaneous ethnographic notes and biographical facts about the informants.

The linguistic items are marked in a number of ways--sometimes simply with the name of the informant, at other times by a variety of terms or abbreviations. Lake Miwok items are marked "Knight's lang[uage]," "Middletown lang.," "Coy[ote] Val[ley] lang.," or oloyomi. Coast Miwok terms are labeled "Bod." for Bodega and "Southern" or "Marshall" for Marin. Southeastern Pomo words are marked variously as "Sulphurbank," "Sbank," "Sulphurb," or xamfo. Wappo is referred to alternately as "Mishawa(l)" or the "Alexander Valley language."
Biographical / Historical:
During a prolonged period of work on the west coast frorn Washington to northern California in the fall and winter of 1942, John P. Harrington spent several days in Middletown, California. There he recorded several dialects of Miwok, as well as Southeastern Pomo and Wappo. He worked mainly with Henry Knight, who knew Lake, Bodega, and Marin Miwok, in addition to the two neighboring languages. Harrington obtained Wappo and Pomo data from Knight's father, Jake, and Lake Miwok data from his wife, Martha, and son, James. Additional Bodega terms were provided by Maggie Smith Johnson. A few miscellaneous notes came from Francisco Norato, a resident of the Lakeport area.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Miwok languages  Search this
Southeastern Pomo language  Search this
Wappo dialect  Search this
Wintun languages  Search this
Ohlone language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.5
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw33eac286f-48d5-4a0a-ac53-29553335c385
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13246

Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Drake, Francis, 1540?-1596  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Culture:
Pomo  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Maps
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Place:
California -- History
California -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1941,1947
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Southern Pomo and Central Sierra Miwok, focusing on Sir Francis Drake's landfall near Point Reyes in northern California.

Harrington's investigation into the location of the landing included obtaining data on tribenames and placenames in Coast Miwok territory. As a guide for elicitation from his lingusitic sources, he utilized terms listed by C. Hart Merriam (1907) and probably some additional materials from the Merriam Papers at the Library of Congress. In Harrington's notes, typed and handwritten extracts from Merriam are followed by comments from William Fuller. There is one page of placenames from Manuel C. Cordova as well as several comments of a nonlinguistic nature from Francis Elmore.

The bulk of the field notes for Central Sierra Miwok and southern Pomo consists of a rough draft and typed copy of an article on Drake's landing. The final manuscript is titled "Drake on the Coast of Northern California." Both versions take the form of a "Drake questionnaire." Using linguistic and ethnographic analysis with both the Miwok and Pomo speakers, Harrington considered separately the brief vocabularies recorded in the early accounts and the various ethnological features mentioned in descriptions of the landing and of Drake's crowning. His examination of specific cultural elements, added to the archeological evidence of the "plate of brass" left by the expedition, led him to concur with Heizer's conclusion that Drake had landed at the spot currently known as "Drake's Bay." In secret, however, he inclined toward the opinion that the "Golden Hinde" had perhaps entered the nearby Limantour Estero instead. Analysis of the linguistic evidence caused him to identify the recorded words and songs as coming from the Hukkuykku' (Marin) dialect of Coast Miwok. Included with the article is a bibliography arranged in both alphabetical and chronological order. Harrington's article was never published.

Within this subseries is a U. S. Department of Interior Geological Survey map of Point Reyes Quadrangle, California. It is annotated by Harrington with several references to various individuals not mentioned in the field notes. Included are brief comments on geographical features in the area surrounding Drake's Bay.

Also filed in the subseries is a single page of notes made during a discussion by Harrington and Truedson regarding the brass plate. These comments were written down during the return trip from Harrington's Aleutian work aboard the ferry "Dellwood" on December 30, 1941. Also included are the names and addresses of two Coast Miwok speakers, presumably obtained at the time of his interviews with Fuller and Cordova.
Biographical / Historical:
The appearance in March 1947 of Robert Heizer's article "Francis Drake and the California Indians, 1579," prompted John P. Harrington to conduct his own research into the circumstances surrounding Drake's landfall near Point Reyes in northern California. He made a fairly exhaustive search into the two early accounts of the voyage as well as later assessments of it.

In mid-May of 1947, the arrival of several representatives from Indians of California, Inc., gave Harrington an occasion to interview Manuel C. Cordova, a Southern Pomo. He also conferred with Alfred C. Gillis, a member of that organization's advisory committee.

Around June 18 a former acquaintance, Francis Elmore, arrived in town. Aware of Elmore's specialized knowledge in Navajo ethnobotany, Harrington queried him regarding all botanical references in the early accounts of Drake's landing.

Sometime after May 23 and prior to July 7, Harrington also spoke with a small delegation of Indians from northern California who were pursuing a claim against the federal government. Members of this group included Judge Fred A. Baker; Bertha Stewart, a Smith River Indian; and William Fuller, a Tuolumne chief who had served as informant to L. S. Freeland ("Nancy" de Angulo) some twenty years previous, and to Charlie Kemp in 1936.

During this general period Harrington consulted with Matthew W. Stirling, chief of the B.A.E., regarding the matter of Drake's landing. Stirling had made studies of Pomo sociology during the years he studied under Kroeber at the University of California; for a brief mention of this work, see Loeb (1926).
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Miwok languages  Search this
Pomo languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Maps
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.8
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30aa92ea2-70e9-4838-8e28-1f5eacefba1c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13263

Dallas -- McCullough Garden

Architect:
Stick, Charles J.  Search this
Thompson, Hal  Search this
Perkins, John Astin  Search this
Fuqua, Wilson  Search this
Former owner:
Hart, Larry  Search this
Kidd, Barron  Search this
Hunter, Lucy  Search this
Hunter, Dwight  Search this
Provenance:
Founders Garden Club of Dallas  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
McCullough Garden (Dallas, Texas)
United States of America -- Texas -- Dallas
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes an information sheet, a features plan, a slide view plan, a slide list and two magazine articles.
General:
McCollough Garden in Dallas, Texas is located in Highland Park across the street from the Town Hall with views of its historic tower. The garden was designed by landscape architect, Charles J. Stick of Charlottesville, Virginia in 2004. Stick designed a classical garden around the historic home designed by Hal Thompson and built in 1916. The home was renovated in 1945 and 1993 by John Astin Perkins and Wilson Fuqua, respectively. Garden features include an entry courtyard garden with a stone-paved walkway, a parterre garden, a boxwood lined pathway leading to an armillary sundial, a knot garden and a pool garden. The grounds are bordered by seventy-year old oak trees.
Persons associated with this property include: Hal Thompson (architect, 1916); John Astin Perkins (architect, 1945); Wilson Fuqua (architect, 1993); Charles J. Stick (landscape architect, 2004); Larry Hart (former owner, 1916-1945); Barron Kidd (former owner, 1945-1967); Lucy and Dwight Hunter (former owner, 1967-1992).
Related Materials:
McCullough Garden related holdings consist of 3 folders (13 35 mm. slides (photographs) and 2 prints (photographs); 6 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Texas -- Dallas  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File TX087
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Texas
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb668d3c12c-dc5e-4477-b57f-7cff54676f94
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref13475

Knoll, The

Creator:
Hartness, George B., Mrs.  Search this
Hartness, George B.  Search this
Architect:
Jones, Edward Vason  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
South Carolina -- Columbia
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Richland County -- Columbia
Date:
06/01/1984
General:
The 18th century house was designed by Edward Vason Jones, architect, that was inspired by Woodlawn Plantation in Virginia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Houses -- brick  Search this
Sphinxes (Mythology)  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item SC050001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / South Carolina / SC050: Columbia -- Knoll, The
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6579dc527-afbd-445f-b0df-327e6b1e0cc8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12732

Knoll, The

Creator:
Hartness, George B.  Search this
Hartness, George B., Mrs.  Search this
Architect:
Jones, Edward Vason  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
South Carolina -- Columbia
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Richland County -- Columbia
Date:
06/01/1984
General:
The 18th century house was designed by Edward Vason Jones, architect, that was inspired by Woodlawn Plantation in Virginia. Brick walkway to lake. One 35-mm slide with simular view.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Flowering shrubs  Search this
Azaleas  Search this
Woodlands  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item SC050002
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / South Carolina / SC050: Columbia -- Knoll, The
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6f9f50881-a9d2-4c43-8b07-9d1dedd45252
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12733

Knoll, The

Creator:
Hartness, George B.  Search this
Hartness, George B., Mrs.  Search this
Architect:
Jones, Edward Vason  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
South Carolina -- Columbia
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Richland County -- Columbia
Date:
06/01/1984.
General:
The 18th century house was designed by Edward Vason Jones, architect, and was inspired by Woodlawn Plantation in Virginia. One 35-mm. slide with similar view.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Pine  Search this
Box  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item SC050003
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / South Carolina / SC050: Columbia -- Knoll, The
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e40a907b-9ef4-41e7-9cec-db069f47ca32
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12734

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