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Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to Native Americans

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Photographer:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Extent:
2 Prints (etching or engraving)
13 Prints (albumen)
230 Copy prints (circa)
1 Chromolithograph
179 Cyanotypes
200 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Sisitonwan Dakota (Sisseton Sioux)  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Wenatchi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Tuscarora  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Cayuga  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Oneida  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Onondaga  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Copy prints
Chromolithographs
Cyanotypes
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs mostly commissioned and collected by personnel in the Bureau of American Ethnology. Most of the photographs are studio portraits of Native Americans made by the Bureau of American Ethnology and Smithsonian Institution, possibly for physical anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka. There are also photographs made by Truman Michelson among the Catawba tribe, copies of illustrations and drawings, and various images of archeological sites and artifacts.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 87-2M, USNM ACC 42191
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many photographs in this collection held in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Michelson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 13, Photo Lot 24, MS 2139, and MS 4365-c.
Additional Hillers photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 28, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot R82-10, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-3, the records of the Department of Anthropology, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Smillie photographs held in the National Museum of American History Archives Center in the Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives and in Smithsonian Institution Archives SIA Acc. 05-123.
Additional Gardner photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 80-18, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, and the BAE historical negatives.
Associated busts and molds held in the Department of Anthropology collections in accession 42191.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Catawba Indians  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 87-2M, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.87-2M
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-87-2m

United States National Museum Department of Anthropology photograph collection relating to Native Americans

Creator:
United States National Museum., Dept. of Anthropology.  Search this
Photographer:
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (U.S.)  Search this
Heyn Photo  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Mitchell, McGowan and Company  Search this
Place & Coover  Search this
Addison, George A.  Search this
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Brady, Mathew B., approximately 1823-1896  Search this
Bretz, George W. (Fort Sill, Oklahoma)  Search this
Fly, C. S. (Camillus Sidney), 1849-1901  Search this
Fouch, John H., 1849-1933  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1917  Search this
Gutekunst, Frederick, 1831-1917  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Partridge, William Ordway, 1861-1930  Search this
Randall, A. Frank  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Publisher:
Rice, Rutter & Co.  Search this
Artist:
Noyes, Francis H.  Search this
Reiss, Winold, 1886-1953  Search this
Extent:
3 Painted photographs
8 Prints (halftone and color halftone)
56 Photographic prints (albumen and silver gelatin)
10 Copy prints
1 Stereograph (albumen)
2 Engravings
2 Color lithographs
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Powhatan  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Painted photographs
Prints
Photographic prints
Copy prints
Stereographs
Engravings
Color lithographs
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection consists of portraits of identified Native Americans and some government officials and interpreters. It includes cabinet cards, other mounted prints, newspaper articles, illustrations, and a photographic postcard. Depicted individuals include American Horse, Oglala; Black Hawk, Sauk; Bob Tail, Cheyenne; Crowfoot, Hunkpapa; Gaul, Hunkpapa; Geronimo, Chiricahua; John Grass, Teton; Chief Joseph, Nez Perce; Little Wound, Oglala; Medicine Bull, Hunkpapa; Osceola, Seminole; Ouray, Ute; Litte Raven, Arapaho; Plenty Coups, Crow; Pocahontas, Powhatan; Rain in the Face, Hunkpapa; Red Cloud, Oglala; Red Iron, Dakota; Short Man, Piegan; Sitting Bull, Hunkpapa; Standing On Prairie, Siouan; Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant), Mohawk; Two Guns White Calf, Piegan; Two Moon, Cheyenne; and Washakie, Shoshoni.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 87-2P
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 87-2P, United States National Museum Department of Anthropology photograph collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.87-2P
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-87-2p

George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier

Collector:
Allen, George V.  Search this
Names:
Albuquerque Indian School  Search this
Castillo de San Marcos (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
Chilocco Indian School  Search this
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Haskell Indian Nations University  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Yankton Mission (Yankton Indian Reservation, S.D.)  Search this
American Horse, 1840-1908  Search this
Big Bow Chief  Search this
Bogy, Lewis V. (Lewis Vital), 1813-1877  Search this
Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1857-1900  Search this
Harding, Warren G. (Warren Gamaliel), 1865-1923  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Iron Bull (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Kelly, Luther S. (Luther Sage), 1849-1928  Search this
Mató-Tópe, Mandan chief, d. 1837  Search this
Mix, Charles E.  Search this
Monroe, Mark, 1930-  Search this
Moran, John, 1831-1903  Search this
Ouray  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Red Dog (Oglala chief)  Search this
Red Shirt, 1845?-1925  Search this
Reilly, John James, 1838-1894  Search this
Reynolds, Joseph Jones, 1822-1899  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe, 1850-1915  Search this
Two Guns White Calf Blackfoot  Search this
Photographer:
Alvord, Kellogg, & Campbell  Search this
Bailey & Whitesides  Search this
Bailey, Dix, & Mead  Search this
Bennett & Brown  Search this
Black Hills View Company  Search this
Brooks Photo  Search this
Brubaker and Whitesides  Search this
C. Duhem & Bro.  Search this
Calfee & Catlin  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Copelin & Son  Search this
Cosand & Mosser  Search this
Cunningham & Co. (1880-1889)  Search this
D.D. Merrill, Randall & Co.  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
Eaton, of Ralston, Oklahoma  Search this
Griffith & Griffith  Search this
Gurnsey & Illingworth  Search this
Hamilton and Hoyt  Search this
Hamilton and Kodylek  Search this
Hansard & Carden  Search this
Henry L. Shepard & Co.  Search this
Ingersoll View Company (St. Paul, Minnesota)  Search this
J.J. Reilly & Co.  Search this
Judd and McLeish  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Kilburn Brothers  Search this
Lawrence & Houseworth  Search this
M.S. Mepham & Bro.  Search this
Martin's Gallery  Search this
Montgomery Ward.  Search this
Ramsour & Pennel  Search this
Reed & McKenney  Search this
Rodocker & Blanchard  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Thomas Houseworth & Co  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Universal Photo Art Co  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Wittick & Bliss  Search this
Wittick & Russell  Search this
Young & Chase  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Batchelder, B. P. (Benjamin Pierce), 1826-1891  Search this
Bates, Edw. (Edward)  Search this
Beaman, Edward O.  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Bell, William, 1830-1910  Search this
Benecke, Robert  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Bierstadt, Charles, 1819-1903  Search this
Blessing, S. T.  Search this
Blosser, J. A.  Search this
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916  Search this
Brockham, William (of Morris, Minnesota)  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Brubaker, C. B.  Search this
Buehman, Henry, 1851-1912  Search this
Calfee, H. B. (Henry Bird), 1848-1912  Search this
Carbutt, John, 1832-1905  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Chase, D. B. (Dana B.)  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Clark, George A. (George Alfred), 1936-  Search this
Climo, John Saunders  Search this
Cobb, William Henry, 1859-1909  Search this
Conklin, E (Enoch)  Search this
Cozzens, Samuel Woodworth, 1834-1878  Search this
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Currier, Frank, fl. 1890-1909  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Curtis, George E., 1830-1910  Search this
Cushing, W. H., fl. 1870-1889  Search this
Davis, S., fl. 1860-1880  Search this
Doremus, John P., 1827-1890  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Eisenmann, Charles, b. 1850  Search this
Flanders, Dudley P.  Search this
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Fouch, John H., 1849-1933  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Godkin, William R.  Search this
Goodell, Abner Cheney, 1831-1914  Search this
Graves, C. H. (Carleton H.), -1943  Search this
Gurnsey, B. H. (Byron H.), 1833-1880  Search this
Hamilton, J. H. (James H.)  Search this
Hart, Alfred A., 1816-1908  Search this
Hawkins, B.A.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Hazeltine, M. M. (Martin Mason), 1827-1903  Search this
Heister, H. T., (Henry T.), -1895  Search this
Heller, Louis Herman, ca. 1839-1929  Search this
Heston, Wat  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Hook, W. E. (William Edward), 1833-1908  Search this
Huffman, L. A. (Laton Alton), 1854-1931  Search this
Illingworth, W. H. (William H.), 1842-1893  Search this
Immke, Henry W.  Search this
Ingalls, George W., 1838-1920  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jacoby, W. H. (William H.), 1841-1905  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Johnson, W.S.  Search this
Kirkland, Geo. W. (George W.)  Search this
Knight, J. Lee  Search this
Landon, S. C. (Seth C.), b. 1825  Search this
Leonard & Martin  Search this
Line, A. A.  Search this
Little, H.N.  Search this
Marshall, William I. (William Isaac), 1840-1906  Search this
Martin, Alex (Alexander), 1841-1929  Search this
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer)  Search this
Maynard, Hannah, 1834-1918  Search this
Maynard, Richard, 1832-1907  Search this
McIntyre, A. C. (Alexander Carson)  Search this
Meddaugh, J. E.  Search this
Mellen, Geo. E. (George Egbert), b. 1854  Search this
Mepham, Michael S.  Search this
Mitchell, Daniel S.  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904  Search this
Newcomb, C. H.  Search this
Nims, F.A.  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Palmer, A. A.  Search this
Parker, Joseph C.  Search this
Pierron, Geo. (George), b. 1816  Search this
Pollock, Charles, 1832-1910  Search this
Powers, F. F.  Search this
Raitt, T.G.  Search this
Randall, A. Frank  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Rodocker, D. (David)  Search this
Rothrock, George H.  Search this
Rudy, W. Ira  Search this
Russell, Andrew J.  Search this
Rutter, Thomas H., 1837-1925  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Seaver, C. (Charles)  Search this
Sedgwick, S. J. (Stephen James)  Search this
Shipler, James William, 1849-1937  Search this
Soule, John P.  Search this
Stoddard, Seneca Ray, 1844-1917  Search this
Taber, I. W. (Isaiah West), 1830-1912  Search this
Thorne, G.W.  Search this
Thurlow, J., 1831-1878  Search this
Towne, Bertram C.  Search this
Trager, George E.  Search this
Upton, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin)  Search this
Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916  Search this
Weitfle, Charles, 1836-1921  Search this
Wendt, Julius M.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Williscraft, W.H.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Woodburn, J. R.  Search this
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909  Search this
Publisher:
Beal's Gallery  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
Florida Club (Cooperative)  Search this
Union View Company  Search this
Webster & Albee (Rochester, N.Y.)  Search this
Smith, O. C.  Search this
Extent:
67 Lantern slides
26 Negatives (glass)
10 Negatives (nitrate)
6 Autochromes (photographs)
50 Stereographs (circa 50 printed stereographs, halftone and color halftone)
1,000 Stereographs (circa, albumen and silver gelatin (some tinted))
239 Prints (circa 239 mounted and unmounted prints, albumen (including cartes de visite, imperial cards, cabinet cards, and one tinted print) and silver gelatin (some modern copies))
96 Prints (Album :, silver gelatin)
21 Postcards (silver gelatin, collotype, color halftone, and halftone)
Culture:
Puyallup  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Modoc  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Washo Indians  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Haida  Search this
Cree  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Osage  Search this
Apache  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Umatilla Indians  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives
Autochromes (photographs)
Stereographs
Prints
Postcards
Place:
Custer Battlefield (Montana)
Date:
circa 1860-1935
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to American Indian or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.

There are studio portraits of well-known Indians, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.

Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.

Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni Indians led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
Biographical/Historical note:
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen collected an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90-1
See others in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier, circa 1860-1935
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Camps  Search this
Child care  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Totem poles  Search this
Cookery  Search this
Wild west shows  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Hunting  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.90-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-90-1

Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to Native Americans

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Photographer:
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Names:
Middlebrook, J. E. (probable photographer)  Search this
Extent:
2,600 Prints (circa, silver gelatin and platinum)
Culture:
Zulu (African people) -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- depicted  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- depicted  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1870s-1930
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection consists of photographs made from glass negatives collected and produced by the Bureau of American Ethnology. These photographs include portraits and field photographs by photographers and anthropologists, most associated with the BAE, including Alexander Gardner, William Henry Jackson, John K. Hillers, DeLancey Gill, C. M. Bell, Antonio Zeno Shindler Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and others. The collection also includes photographs donated to the United States National Museum and transferred to the Department of Anthropology which depict Zulus and people from Chiapas, Mexico. Some of the prints in this collection may have been made for an Indian Photographic Exhibit lent by the BAE to the Public Library Commission of Indiana.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 85
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for the bulk of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
Original prints for photographs of Zulu and people in Chiapas are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 97 and Photo Lot 24.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 85, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.85
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-85

Bureau of American Ethnology photograph albums of Native Americans

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Photographer:
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Cohner, Samuel A.  Search this
Dinwiddie, William, 1867-1934  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Names:
Mindeleff, Cosmos, 1863-  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor, 1860-1948  Search this
Extent:
16 Albums (albumen and platinum)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Spokane Indians  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Apache  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Osage  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Place:
Chaco Canyon (N.M.)
Sonora (Mexico : State)
New Mexico
Date:
1858-1905
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph albums prepared by the Bureau of American Ethnology or the photographic lab, possibly for reference purposes by staff. The use of such albums has been mentioned by BAE photographer De Lancey W. Gill. The albums contain photographs made from the Bureau of American Ethnology's collection of negatives, documenting Apache, Arapaho, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cocopa, Dakota, Flathead, Fox, Iowa, Kalispel, Kiowa Apache, Nez Perce, Omaha, Osage, Ponca, Santa Clara, Sauk, Shoshoni, Spokane Tonkawa, Wichita, and Winnebago people. The bulk of the photographs are studio portraits, made at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition in Omaha in 1898 or during delegation visits to Washington, DC. There are also other photographs made during Victor Mindeleffʹs work in Chaco Canyon, and on W J McGeeʹs expedition to Sonora, Mexico, in 1900.

Photographers include Charles Milton Bell, William Dinwiddie, Alexander Gardner, De Lancey W. Gill, John K. Hillers, William Henry Jackson, Frank Albert Rinehart, Wells Moses Sawyer, Antonio Zeno Shindler, Victor or Cosmos Mindeleff, Julian Vannerson with Samuel A. Cohner. Included are negative numbers formerly used by BAE, but the National Anthropological Archives also annotated them with current negative numbers.
Arrangement note:
Titles of the albums are (1) Omaha and Winnebago; (2) miscellaneous; (3) Sauk and Fox; (4) miscellaneous; (5) Arapaho and Cheyenne; (6) Chiricahua, San Carlos, and Apache; (7) Sauk and Fox; (8) Osage, Shoshoni and Nez Perce, Siouan, Oto; (9) Santa Clara and Flathead; (10) Ponca; (11) Sauk and (12) Wichita and Kiowa Apache; (13) Cocopa; and (14) Assiniboin and Blackfoot
Biographical/Historical note:
The Bureau of American Ethnology was founded in 1879 in part as a result of the federal geological surveys and under the administration of the Smithsonian Institution. Under the directorship of John Wesley Powell (1879-1902), the BAE supported field research by its staff and collaborators, initiated several anthropological publications, and supported the growth of the anthropological discipline, particularly as it related to Native Americans. In addition to its research and publications program, it developed a manuscript repository, library, and an illustrations section that included (in addition to the preparation of artwork for publications) photography and a photographic collection. The BAE commissioned studio portraits of visiting Indian delegates and hired De Lancey Gill served as the its official photographer and illustrator from the 1890s to 1930.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 60
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Bureau of American Ethnology records and the BAE historical negatives, as well as Dinwiddie photographs of the W. J. McGee expeditions are held in (Photo Lot 89 and Photo Lot 144), Charles Milton Bell photographs (Photo Lot 80), and additional photographs by most photographers represented in this collection (Photo Lot 59 and Photo Lot 90-1)
See others in:
Bureau of American Ethnology photograph albums of Native Americans, 1858-1905
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 60, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph albums of American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.60
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-60

William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians

Creator:
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Photographer:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
J. Gurney & Son  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Ulke, Henry, 1821-1910  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Names:
Hayden Survey  Search this
Powell-Thompson Survey  Search this
Extent:
9 Albums (circa 4000 prints, albumen (some copies))
Culture:
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)  Search this
Wahpeton Indians  Search this
Waco Indians  Search this
Yampa Indians  Search this
Wyandot Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Stockbridge Indians  Search this
Sisseton Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Uinta Indians  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Yankton Indians  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Montauk  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Brotherton Indians  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Miami  Search this
Oto  Search this
Kitchai Wichita  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Odawa (Ottawa)  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1877
Scope and Contents note:
Albums probably assembled by William Henry Jackson, mostly containing portraits of Native American delegates in Washington, D.C. and photographs made on US Geological Surveys (including the Hayden and Powell surveys). Photographs from the field include John K. Hillers' photographs of the Southwest, photographs of Fort Laramie (possibly by Alexander Gardner), Orloff R. Westmann's photographs of Taos Pueblo, and Jackson's photographs of Crow, Shoshoni, Pawnee, and Nez Perce Tribes and related sites. Most of the photographs were made circa 1860s-1870s.

The albums were probably by Jackson while working under Ferdinand V. Hayden for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. The reason for their creation is uncertain, though it may have been a project set up by Hayden or a continuation of William Henry Blackmore's tradition of publishing albums. Some of the albums include captions pasted from Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians (1877) while others have handwritten captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer. Born in New York, he sold drawings and retouched photographs from an early age. After serving in the Civil War, he opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska, with his brother Edward. As photographer for the US Geological and Geographical Surveys (1870-1878), he documented the American west and published the first photographs of Yellowstone. When the surveys lost funding in 1879, Jackson opened a studio in Denver, Colorado, and also worked for various railroad companies. Many of Jackson's photographs were displayed at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), for which he was the official photographer.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4420
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds William Henry Jackson photographs and negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4605, MS 4801, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 29, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo lot 143, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 87-20, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Correspondence from Jackson held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4517, MS 4881, MS 4821, and collections of personal papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4420, William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4420
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4420

James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West

Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Names:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Crook, George, 1829-1890  Search this
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876  Search this
Hickok, Wild Bill, 1837-1876  Search this
Juárez, Benito, 1806-1872  Search this
Kinman, Seth  Search this
Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Richard, Louis  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Photographer:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Pywell, Wm. R. (William Redish), 1843-1886  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Extent:
4 Tintypes
3 Chromolithographs
3 Lithographs (3 chalk-manner lithographs)
1 Print (photogravure)
118 Pages (Scrapbook)
685 Prints (circa, albumen)
80 Items (circa 80 relief prints (including woodcuts and wood engraving))
30 Items (circa 30 intaglio prints (including etchings and engravings))
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tintypes
Chromolithographs
Lithographs
Prints
Pages
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Place:
Mexico
Taos Pueblo (N.M.)
California
Oregon
Fort Davis (Tex.)
New Mexico
Fort Snelling (Minn.)
Arizona
Texas
San Juan Pueblo (N.M.)
Zuni (N.M.)
Kansas
Colorado
Date:
circa 1863-1900
Summary:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations.
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations. The album includes photographs (mostly albumen with three tintypes), newsclippings, wood engravings, and lithographs, some of which are reproductions of Taylor's own illustrations and paintings. Photographs depict American Indians, US Army soldiers and scouts, historical sites, forts, and scenery. Some were made on expeditions, including the Hayden and Powell surveys, and created from published stereographs. Many of Taylor's illustrations are signed, and some are inscribed with dates and "N. Y." The scrapbook also includes clippings from newspapers and other written sources relating to illustrations and photographs in the album.
Biographical Note:
James E. Taylor (1839-1901) was an artist-correspondent for Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper from 1863-1883. Born in Cincinatti, Ohio, he graduated from Notre Dame University by the age of sixteen. Taylor enlisted in the 10th New York Infantry in 1861 and the next year was hired by Leslie's Illustrated newspaper as a "Special Artist" and war correspondent. In 1864 he covered the Shenandoah Valley campaign, and was later one of the illustrator-correspondents at the 1867 treaty negotiations at Medicine Lodge, Kansas. He soon earned the moniker "Indian Artist" because of his vast number of drawings of American Indians. In 1883 Taylor retired from Leslie's to work as a freelance illustrator. Colonel Richard Irving Dodge used Taylor's drawings to illustrate his memoir, "Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience among the Red Men of the Great West" (1882).
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4605
Related Materials:
The National Anthropolgical Archives holds additional photographs by photographers represented in this collection (including original negatives for some of these prints), particularly in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 87.

Additional photographs by Whitney, Gardner, and Barry held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 80-18.

Julian Vannerson and James E. McClees photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4286.

Pywell photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4498.

O'Sullivan photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo lot 4501.

Additional Hillers photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 83-18 and Photo Lot 87-2N.
Provenance:
Donated or transferred by John Witthoft from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, April 14, 1961.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Church buildings  Search this
Mines and mineral resources  Search this
Dance  Search this
White River Massacre, Colo., 1879  Search this
Painting  Search this
Washita Campaign, 1868-1869  Search this
Mormon Church -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Tintypes
Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4605
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4605
Online Media:

William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Online Media:

Photographs of Crow and Sioux people

Photographer:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Dinwiddie, William, 1867-1934  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Extent:
1 Print (halftone)
14 Photographic prints (albumen and platinum or silver gelatin)
Culture:
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographic prints
Studio portraits
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Studio portraits of Native Americans, including Mierishash (Two Belly), Chief Gall (Pizi), Chief Iromagaja (Rain in the Face), Mato-Wa-Nahtaka (Kicking Bear), and Oglala men, and possibly chiefs. There is also a photograph of a sculpture of an Native American man, woman, child in cradleboard, and a dog.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 80-18
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
Additional photographs by Dinwiddie can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 141A, Photo Lot 89, and Photo Lot 60.
Additional photographs by Barry can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, and MS 4559.
Additional photographs by Bell can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 80, Photo Lot 25, Photo Lot 90-1, and Photo Lot 87-2P.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Sculpture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Studio portraits
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 80-18, Photographs of Crow and Sioux people, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.80-18
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-80-18

Alexander Gardner photographs of Fort Laramie during treaty negotiations

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sioux Nation. Treaties, etc. United States, 1868, Nov. 7  Search this
Extent:
8 Stereographs (albumen)
Culture:
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Date:
circa 1868
Scope and Contents note:
Images of people and United States peace commissions in and around Fort Laramie during treaty negotiations with Plains tribes in 1868. The collection includes images of Major Grimes, a surgeon Schnell, and A. S. H. White (Secretary of the 1868 treaty).
Biographical/Historical note:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a Scottish immigrant who first worked as an assistant to photographer Matthew Brady. He accompanied the 1868 Peace Commission to Fort Laramie for treaty negotiations between the United States government and the Oglala, Miniconjou, Brulé, Yanktonai, and Arapaho tribes.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2000-10
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Gardner photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Stereographs
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2000-10, Alexander Gardner photographs of Fort Laramie during treaty negotiations, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2000-10
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2000-10

Fort Laramie, Wyoming

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Extent:
37 Photographic prints
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
This series contains 37 albumen prints that were shot by Alexander Gardner in April and May 1868 during the Fort Laramie Treaty peace conference held in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. The photographs depict scenes at Fort Laramie including images of troops and buildings, as well as scenes shot near Fort Laramie including Fort David A. Russell and landscapes in the region. The bulk of the photographs in this series depict men, women, and children from the Lakota, Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. These photos depict outdoor group portraits; photos of encampments; domestic scenes such as butchering cattle; and transportation such as crossing the North Platte River by ferry, as well as other scenes. Individuals depicted include Spotted Tail (Sicangu Lakota), Fast Bear (Sicangu Lakota), Yellow Bull [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)], and Grey Eyes (Lakota), among many others. One photograph of note is image P15390, which depicts the Indian peace commissioners in the council with the Northern Cheyenne and Northern Arapaho tribes. Individuals depicted in this photo include General William T. Sherman, Colonel Samuel F. Tappen, General William S. Harney, John B. Sanborn, General Christopher C. Augur, General Alfred H. Terry, and Ashton S. H. White. There are also 3 restricted images in this series depicting American Indian tree burials.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, Series 1
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref1

Kansas Pacific Railroad

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Extent:
4 Photographic prints
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1867
Scope and Contents:
This series contains 4 albumen prints that were shot in Kansas by Alexander Gardner in 1867 while serving as the chief photographer for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway in 1868). The survey team led by General William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909) traveled from St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco, Calif. to determine the best railroad route. They passed through Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona enroute to California. While in Kansas, Gardner photographed between Kansas City to Fort Wallace, resulting in some of the earliest images shot in the state. He later compiled these images into the books entitled, Across the Continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad (Route of the 35th Parallel) and Across the Continent on the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division. While Gardner is credited as the photographer, the images may have been shot by one of the other photographers on the expedition including Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, Series 2
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref10

Indian encampment near Fort Laramie, Wyoming

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
View of wagons parked between Lakota [?] tipis at an encampment near Fort Laramie, Wyoming, during the Fort Laramie Treaty negotiations. A man stands on the far right and another individual is sitting next to a tipi on the left.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P10120
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref67

Group gathered at Fort Laramie during the 1868 treaty signing

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 7
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Men, women, and children gathered at Fort Laramie during the 1868 treaty signing. William G. Bullock may be the second man from right with Sophia and Louise Moran in the middle.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15376
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.1: Multicultural
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref86

Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) man

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) man wearing a Confederate coat, likely issued during the Fort Laramie Treaty signing. It is decorated with silver medallions.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15381
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref91

Portraits of Native American delegates to Washington DC

Photographer:
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Dinwiddie, William, 1867-1934  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Henshaw, Henry W. (Henry Wetherbee), 1850-1930  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Extent:
70 Prints (circa, albumen and silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1850s-1900
Scope and Contents note:
The collection largely consists of late 19th century studio portraits of Native American delegates to Washington DC made by professional photographers including Antonio Zeno Shindler, William Dinwiddie, Henry W. Henshaw, John K. Hillers, De Lancey Gill, and Alexander Gardner.
Biographical/Historical note:
Many of the photographers represented in the collection were associated with or did work for the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 141A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection are held in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives and Photo Lot 31.
Delegation portraits by these photographers are held in numerous collections within the National Anthropological Archives, including photo lot 60, photo lot 59, photo lot 24.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 141A, Portraits of Native American delegates to Washington DC, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.141A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-141a

Portrait of Henry Barnard (1811-1900)

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander 1821-1882  Search this
Subject:
Barnard, Henry 1811-1900  Search this
Physical description:
Cartes-de-visite (card photographs); 4 x 2.5;
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1882
Before 1882
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU000095 [SIA_000095_B27_089]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions. Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
No Copyright - United States
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_403468
Online Media:

Alexander Gardner: artist file, [photographs]

Artist:
Gardner, Alexander 1821-1882  Search this
Physical description:
1 folder
Type:
Photograph
Artist files
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Image number:
VFM VF001161
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_138800

Civil War : stereographs

Collector:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Photographer:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
11 Items
Container:
Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Photographs
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Gettysburg (Pa.) -- Stereographs
Date:
ca. 1896-1903
Scope and Contents:
Eleven images of monuments, battlefields, and memorial parks of the Civil War, including three copies of etchings, entitled "First Day's Fight," "Second Day's Fight," and "Battle of Gettysburg--3d day"; and a copy of the Alexander Gardner and Timothy O'Sullivan image, "Harvest of Death," titled on the card as "Dead on Culp's Hill"; several with stamps on verso from the Battlefield Museum at Gettysburg.
General:
In photographs division, stereographs sub-series.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site. Photographs must be handled with white cotton gloves, unless protected by plastic sleeves.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil War, United States -- Stereographs  Search this
Monuments and memorials -- Stereographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereographs
Photographs
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 2: Other Collection Divisions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 2: Other Collection Divisions / 2.6: Stereographs / Civil War
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s02-ref2777

Fox Tail, Fox Tail's Wife, Yellow Bull, Yellow Top, Bull That Goes Hunting, Yellow Coat, and Woman Who Walks on Ice at Fort Laramie 1868

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander 1821-1882  Search this
Subject:
Sioux Nation Treaties, etc United States 1868, Nov. 7  Search this
Physical description:
1 Photoprint 005 in x 007 in mounted on 016 in x 020 in
Culture:
Crow Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1868
Local number:
NAA INV 01000305
NAA MS MS 4420
OPPS NEG 3682
See more items in:
William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians circa 1877
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_38180

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