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Miss America 1951 Papers

Collector:
Sports, Entertainment and Leisure, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Sports, Entertainment and Leisure, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Betbeze, Yolande  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings
Awards
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Date:
1910 - 2003
Summary:
Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America in September, 1950. During and after her reign she was influential in both the Civil Rights and Feminist movements. Her papers document her reign as Miss America, her life after Miss America, and the Miss America pageant itself.
Scope and Contents:
Scope and Content: This collection documents the life of Yolande Betbeze who reigned as Miss America 1951. Though the collection focuses heavily on the year of her reign from September 1950 to September 1951, it also includes information about her life before winning the Miss America pageant, the Miss Alabama and Miss America pageants of 1950, and her life post-Miss America. Visual imagery in the collection documents life and fashion in the 1950s through 2000. Newspaper articles offer evidence of the culture of the 1950s. This collection contains newspaper clippings, magazine articles, photographs, awards, and memorabilia of Miss America pageants throughout the twentieth century in the form of booklets, brochures, and paper dolls.

Series 1, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated, includes newspaper articles, magazine articles, and awards from the House of Representatives, programs and brochures relating to Ms. Betbeze's activities as Miss America. All publicity articles—whether promotional or editorial-are included in this series. Betbeze traveled extensively during her reign, and her trips are documented here. Also included in this series are her visits to military installations, promotion of Miss America pageant sponsors, promotion of her own opera career, and most importantly her verbal attacks against the objectification of women in pageants while she wore the Miss America crown.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated,

includes newspaper clippings about Betbeze during her reign as Miss America, documenting nearly every event she attended and delving into her love life and home life. The clippings are arranged by month and year from September 1950 through September 1951. The newspaper articles from Betbeze's reign that are without a date are arranged by topic behind the dated clippings. This subseries also includes several articles published in magazines about Betbeze during her reign. The articles are arranged in chronological order by year behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Awards, 1950, includes awards given to Betbeze by the House of Representatives after she was named Miss America in Atlantic City, as well as an award by the town of Chickasaw naming Betbeze an honorary citizen.

Subseries 3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951, includes mini-photo books of Betbeze from her reign as Miss America, as well as pageant programs from pageants she attended as Miss America. It also includes programs and brochures of events she attended and participated in as Miss America, such as her Coronation Ball and a Symphony in Fashion runway show. The materials are arranged with the photograph books first, followed by pageant programs, then programs from various events.

Subseries 4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951, includes promotional advertisements for Nash Automobile, the Official Car Company of Miss America, and Everglaze Fabric. These advertisements are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, includes material relevant to Betbeze's reign as Miss America, such as her schedule book from September 1950 to September 1951 and a 1994 interview regarding her life, her reign, and her beliefs. The materials are arranged in chronological order by year.

Series 2, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, undated, documents Betbeze's life after her reign as Miss America through newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and Betbeze's copy of pageant judging guidelines for Miss America 1957. It also documents the changing view of women from the 1950s through the turn of the twenty-first century. Betbeze pursued a career in opera after Miss America, but this career ended with her marriage to Matthew Fox. Materials also relate to her marriage to Matthew Fox, her relationship with Cherif Guellal, her life in Georgetown in Washington D.C in the 1960s, and her participation in later Miss America pageants.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated, includes newspaper clippings and magazine articles about Betbeze after her reign as Miss America. They document her relationships, lifestyle, causes, and career. The clippings are arranged chronologically by year. The magazine articles are arranged chronologically by decade behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957, comprises of Betbeze's copy of judging guidelines from the 1957 Miss America Pageant. It includes a schedule of events and the judging criteria for each woman, illustrating the changing perception of women in the United States of America from the 1950s through the twenty-first century.

Series 3, Photographs, 1950-2000, undated, documents Betbeze's life from the 1940s to the turn of the twenty-first century. It includes several photographs from her childhood and teen years. The majority of the series focuses on her reign as Miss America, including photos of her travels, glamour photos, publicity photos, and candid shots. It also includes photographs of Betbeze after her reign. There are negatives for several of the photographs. Photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950, contains Betbeze's life as a teenager and the Miss Alabama pageant. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated, provides visual evidence enhancing the printed materials in the other series. It includes photographs of Betbeze's travels throughout the United States, Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It also includes glamour photographs, candid shots, and publicity events that she attended as Miss America. There are a few photographs of her in a swimsuit. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 3, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, includes photographs of Betbeze in later life, especially at Miss America pageants in the 1990s. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Series 4, Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated, documents the institution of the Miss America Pageant and its development throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. It includes memorabilia from Atlantic City, the pageants, and Miss America advertisements. It includes official pageant yearbooks and correspondence to Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary of Miss America, including a booklet about the pageant. It also includes Miss America Through the Looking Glass (1985), a book documenting the Miss America Pageant from its inception to the 1980s.

Subseries 1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003, comprises of Official Pageant Yearbooks. They illustrate the changing fashions and culture surrounding the pageant. They are arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated, consists of memorabilia of the Miss America Pageant and Atlantic City. The materials include a package for a hairnet from the 1920s, advertisements using the Miss America label for Lucky Strike cigarettes, sheet music for the Miss America and Miss Alabama official songs, Miss America Through the Looking Glass, various stickers advertising the pageant and Atlantic City, Miss America paper dolls, cards and postcards. The memorabilia is arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995, includes correspondence between pageant directors and Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Miss America Pageant, as well as a brochure about the pageant. The materials are arranged by type; first is the correspondence regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary, then the brochure advertising Miss America.

Series 5, Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated, documents life behind-the-scenes through telegrams and letters from friends and fans, invitations and Betbeze's schedule book as Miss America. It includes magazine articles and newspaper clippings from her pre-Miss America years, and the layout of an interview she gave in 1994.

Subseries 1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated, consists of personal letters between Betbeze and her friends, including Lenora Slaughter, the head of the Miss America Pageant when Betbeze was Miss America. It also includes fan-mail and autograph requests. The correspondence is arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 2, Telegrams, 1950-1951, consists of telegrams that Betbeze received as Miss America. They consist of well wishes for her reign, birthday, and Christmas. The telegrams are arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950, consists of newspaper clippings and magazine articles saved by Betbeze. They include reviews of her performance as Musetta in La Boheme in Mobile in 1949 and articles about Matthew Fox. The clippings are arranged chronologically by month and year. The magazine articles are arranged by year behind the newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
Tyhe collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated

Subseries 1.1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 1.2, Awards, 1950

Subseries 1.3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1994

Series 2: Post Miss America, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957

Series 3: Photographs, 1950-2000, undated

Subseries 3.1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950

Subseries 3.2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3, Post Miss America Reign, 1951-2001

Series 4: Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated

Subseries 4.1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003

Subseries 4.2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated

Subseries 4.3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995

Series 5: Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated

Subseries 5.1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 5.2, Telegrams, 1950-1951

Subseries 5.3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950
Biographical / Historical:
Yolande Betbeze, Miss America 1951, was born in 1929 in Mobile, Alabama. Her mother was of Basque ancestry, so Yolande ended up with a foreign sounding name and dark European looks, quite different from the general populace of Mobile. Early on she aspired to become a famous opera singer, and took voice lessons throughout her teenage years. In 1949 she starred as Musetta in Puccini's La Boheme, through the Mobile Opera Guild.

In 1950, Yolande entered the Miss Mobile Beauty Pageant, hoping to win and continue to state and national levels to receive a scholarship to study voice in New York City, or even abroad. When she entered the pageant she gave her age as 21, but at her next birthday in late 1950 (presumably her 22nd) she confessed that she had lied about her age. Really, she was 20 when she entered the Miss America pageant, and this was her 21st birthday. She was crowned Miss Mobile, then Miss Alabama. In September 1950, she made her way to Atlantic City to compete for the title of Miss America. Newspapers in Alabama raved about her. Even journalists in the north predicted that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. In an interview, pageant director Lenora Slaughter says that from the moment she saw her she felt that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. During preliminaries, Yolande won first place in the swimsuit competition, while Miss Connecticut won first place in the talent competition. Nonetheless, Yolande wowed them with her singing. When she won the title of Miss America, her schedule quickly filled with singing engagements.

On September 9th, 1950, Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America. She became an overnight success due to her grace, poise, beauty, and talent. However, she had received an education at a convent school, and felt a bit squeamish about 'cheesecake poses' in a bathing suit. Every Miss America had done a swimsuit tour, even though it wasn't in their contracts that they must, and Yolande was expected to follow in their footsteps. But she wanted to be an opera star, not a pin-up girl, she declared. After winning Miss America, she refused to pose in a swimsuit unless she was going swimming.

The Catalina Swimwear Company, a sponsor of the Miss America pageant, did not like Yolande's stance on swimsuits. They contended that the Miss America pageant had become less focused on the beauty of the contestant and more on their talents and personality. They wanted to bring beauty back. They pulled their sponsorship and created a new pageant line which now includes Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA. This pageant focuses only on the physical beauty of a competitor. Even today there is no talent portion, and even the interview portion has been diluted.

Another issue of the Miss America pageant involved the marriage of a Miss America. Though Yolande had no plans to marry, or even a boyfriend, the papers certainly wanted to know the details surrounding her love-life and ability to marry with the title Miss America. Yolande explained that she received an extra $4000 for staying single throughout the year, but if she wanted to marry she could ask permission from the 18 pageant directors. "Wouldn't it be easier to wait a year?" she asked.

Her year as Miss America was an eventful one. She traveled throughout the United States, the Bahamas, Mexico, France, and Italy. She met with Congressmen, foreign leaders, opera stars, and famous fashion designers. According to Lenora Slaughter, Yolande had the fullest schedule of any Miss America to that date. Everyone agreed that she had put class into the Miss America pageant.

After her reign, she was succeeded as Miss America by Colleen Kay Hutchins, originally Miss Utah. The two became friends and Yolande was in Colleen's wedding some years later. Yolande took up philanthropic causes—fighting for racial equality in the pageants, for instance. She also marched in civil rights demonstrations, participated in sit-ins, and marched in a feminist demonstration in Atlantic City. In 1954 she married a motion picture and television producer, Matthew Fox. They had one daughter before his death in 1964. After she was widowed, Yolande moved to Georgetown in the District of Columbia, where she lives to this day.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Miss America 1943 [Jean Bartel] Photographs, 1943-1944 (AC0902)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry, Natiuonal Museum of American Historu holds artifacts related to this collection: the Miss America crown, scepter, and sash of 1950-1951, worn by the donor, and the Miss Alabama sash and Miss America ribbon of 1950-1951.
Provenance:
Donated by Yolande Betbeze in 2005.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings -- 20th century
Awards
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Miss America 1951 Papers, 1949-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0888
See more items in:
Miss America 1951 Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0888
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Patti Warashina

Interviewee:
Warashina, Patti, 1940-  Search this
Interviewer:
Jeck, Doug, 1963-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
42 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2005 September 8
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Patti Warashina conducted 2005 September 8, by Doug Jeck, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at the artist's home and studio, in Seattle, Washington.
Warashina discusses her childhood in Spokane, Washington, as the youngest of three children of Japanese immigrants; her first experience with art, which was working on murals in elementary school; getting through school by doing visual art projects, including one on fashion design for a French class; her great-grandmother who sold pottery and rice off a cart in her native Japan; her working processes and moving from high-fire to low-fire glazes, as well as dealing with color and decoration in her work; making increasingly larger pieces and thus discovering more surfaces on which to paint; learning how to make hand-built pieces, and in general learning how to control her material; spending her early years working in a vacuum because she was busy raising a family during the day and working in the studio all night; the influence of Surrealism, the Funk movement, and the Chicago Hairy Who on her work; her love of clay as a medium because it presents challenges and technical variables that keep the work interesting; the status of clay as a valid artistic material, and how that has changed over the course of art history; her own personal definition of art as something that "raises your blood pressure," and what makes a "a good pot into a work of art instead of just a pot"; the difference between her early and later work, which she calls cumulative process; her move to the figure, which came naturally out of her earlier work and was in keeping with the Surrealist images to which she was so attracted; recent series of her work, including Mile Post Queens, and Sake Sets: The Drunken Power Series; the role of the figure in her work and the unique challenges they present; being a self-proclaimed "news junkie" and listening to jazz while she works; spending 30 years teaching and the influence it had on her career; her mother as a strong influence and role model in her life, as well as her mother's interest in crafts and gardening; and the influence of artists such as Hieronymous Bosch, René Magritte and Joan Miró on her work. Warashina recalls Robert Sperry, Fred Bauer, Peter Voulkos, Robert Arneson, Toshiko Takaezu, Henry Takemoto, Garth Clark, Howard Cotler, Matthew Kangas, Warren McKenzie, Nan McKinnell, Bernard Leach, Shoji Hamada, Soetsu Yanagi, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Patti Warashina (1940-) is a ceramist from Spokane, Washington. Doug Jeck (1963-) is a ceramist from Seattle, Washington.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 5 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 54 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Ceramicists -- Washington (State) -- Seattle -- Interviews  Search this
Pottery -- Technique  Search this
Japanese American women -- Washington (State) -- Seattle -- Interviews  Search this
Japanese American artists  Search this
Women artists -- Washington (State) -- Seattle -- Interviews  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.warash05
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-warash05

John Burbidge and Cile Bellefleur-Burbidge Wedding Design Collection

Creator:
Bellefleur-Burbidge, Cile  Search this
Priscilla of Boston.  Search this
Burbidge, John (costume designer)  Search this
Extent:
1.6 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Design drawings
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Date:
1951-2006
Summary:
Includes Burbidge's design drawings for wedding gowns while employed by the Priscilla of Boston firm, and scrapbooks documenting Cile Bellefleur-Burbidge's wedding cakes.
Scope and Contents:
Includes Burbidge's design drawings for wedding gowns while employed by the Priscilla of Boston firm, and two scrapbooks documenting Cile Bellefleur-Burbidge's wedding cakes. Also included are two books written by Cile Burbidge on cake decorating.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Wedding Gown Design Drawings and Materials Relating to John Burbidge, 1968-1985

Series 2; Wedding Cake Scrapbooks,

Series 3: Books,
Biographical / Historical:
John Burbidge was a creative and prolific fashion designer for the Priscilla of Boston wedding gown company from the late 1940s to 1985. Burbidge, born in 1922, went to work for the Priscilla of Boston firm in 1948, after graduating from the New England School of Art and Design and serving for three years in the Army during World War II. He started out operating a button machine and gradually worked his way up to designing. His technique involved clipping photographs of models from magazines, laying tracing paper over the cut-out, and tracing the figure, onto which he added his design. After creating, in his words, "hundreds" of sketches and doodles, he would work out the details in muslin. Eventually he achieved status as Priscilla Kidder's favorite designer and was known for his use of certain features, such as bows, bustled backs, puffed sleeves and "star" bodices. The high point in his career with Priscilla of Boston was in 1971 when he designed the wedding dress worn by President Nixon's daughter Tricia at her White House wedding. The design had a strong influence on wedding fashion, though the design used was never duplicated by the company. Since leaving Priscilla of Boston, Burbidge has made a second career designing and creating dolls in elegant historic costume, while Burbidge's wife, Cile Bellefleur-Burbidge, designs and creates elegant and elaborate wedding cakes.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Home and Community Life has a collection of several Priscilla of Boston wedding gowns.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Burbidge. The design drawings were donated in 1997 and the scrapbooks were donated in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fashion design -- 1970-1990  Search this
Costume designers  Search this
Costume design -- 1970-1990  Search this
Wedding costume -- 1970-1990  Search this
Wedding cakes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Design drawings
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
John and Cile Bellefleur-Burbidge Wedding Design Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0562
See more items in:
John Burbidge and Cile Bellefleur-Burbidge Wedding Design Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0562
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Morris

Interviewee:
Morris, William, 1957-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
California State University, Chico -- Students  Search this
Central Washington University -- Students  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.)  Search this
San Carlos Borromeo Basilica (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
Benaroya, Jack, 1921-2012  Search this
Benaroya, Rebecca  Search this
Campbell, Joseph, 1904-1987  Search this
Carpenter, James, 1949-  Search this
Chihuly, Dale, 1941-  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Graves, Nancy Stevenson, 1940-1995  Search this
Hauberg, John H. (John Henry), 1916-  Search this
Hydman-Vallien, Ulrica, 1938-2018  Search this
Jung, C. G. (Carl Gustav), 1875-1961  Search this
Karan, Donna, 1948-  Search this
Kirkpatrick, Joey  Search this
Libenský, Stanislav, 1921-2002  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Lipski, Donald, 1947-  Search this
Mace, Flora, 1949-  Search this
Marioni, Dante, 1964-  Search this
Moore, Benjamin P.  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Pfaff, Judy, 1946-  Search this
Saxe, Dorothy  Search this
Saxe, George  Search this
Scanga, Italo, 1932-  Search this
Seguso, Livio, 1930-  Search this
Signoretto, Pino, 1944-  Search this
Smith, Kiki, 1954-  Search this
Stroemple, George R.  Search this
Tagliapietra, Lino  Search this
Vallien, Bertil, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 wav files (5 hr., 5min.), digital)
105 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
British Isles -- Description and Travel
Date:
2009 July 13-14
Scope and Contents:
An interview of William Morris conducted 2009 July 13-14, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Morris' home, in Stanwood, Washington.
William Morris speaks of his decision to stop working in glass in 2005; his deep connection to the natural world; working now with stone; the longstanding theme of man and nature in his work; his influence on the studio glass movement; use of installations; relationship to the greater art world; Cache [1993]; the importance of working in a team, particularly with Jon Ormbrek; studio practice and philosophy of working in the studio; series Man Adorned and first use of the human form; how his work evolves artistically; the influence of his travels on his work and his particular affinity for Mesoamerican culture; the process of choosing his subjects; growing up in Carmel, California, and frequenting the museum at the Carmel Mission Basilica; his early fascination with Native American artifacts and history in the museum; childhood spent hiking in the hills around Carmel and youth spent camping and rock-climbing; art instruction during childhood; ceramics work in high school; introduction to ideas of Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell by his high school teacher, Lloyd Baskerville; undergraduate work at California State University, Chico, working with Vernon Patrick; first experience with glass in high school, through the Fort Ord military base crafts department; brief studies at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington; arriving at Pilchuck Glass School, Stanwood, Washington, in 1977 as a shop assistant/maintenance person; his first encounter with Dale Chihuly; 10 years as Chihuly's main assistant and de facto apprenticeship; his greater overall technical education at Pilchuck; the development of his own team as he continued to work with Chihuly; working with Chihuly and Italo Scanga; the synergy of working in a group and artistic cross-pollination at Pilchuck; the influence and mentorship of Judy Pfaff; working with Italian glass masters at Pilchuck; the influence of Pino Signoretto; his trip with Chihuly to the British Isles, which inspired his series Stone Vessels and series Standing Stones in the mid-1980s; his practice of working in series; series Petroglyph Vessels, and the beginning of narrative in his work; the importance of naiveté, experimentation, and a "confidence in innocence"; series Artifacts; the influence of Donald Lipski on Morris' installations; series Burial Urns and series Burial Rafts; series Canopic Jars; commissions for George Stroemple; the genesis of the series Rhyton; the transcendental/mythic qualities in his work; series Crow and Raven; more discussion of series Man Adorned; series Rattles; collaboration with fashion designer Donna Karan; the importance of glass as a material, and the importance of "play"; the value of an apprentice-type program; his work in bronze and with Nancy Graves; series Cinerary Urns and coming to terms with the deaths of close friends; series Mazorca; series Idolo and Idolito; series Native Species (2006); series Fish Traps; more discussion of his decision to leave glassworking; documentary film Creative Nature, 2008; "Myth, Object, and the Animal" exhibition; the adventurous spirit of the American studio glass movement, particularly in the early years; his preference for short workshops rather than longer teaching sessions; the aesthetic continuity of his work throughout his career; his appreciation of the community of collectors of glass art. He also recalls Ken Wiese, Robert and Terrie Kvenild, Bertil and Ulrica Vallien, Gary Galbraith, Stan Price, Dennis Oppenheim, Kiki Smith, Dante Marioni, Livio Seguso, Marvin Lipofsky, Benjamin Moore, Jamie Carpenter, Checco Ongaro, Lino Tagliapietra, Ricky DeMarco, Flora Mace, Joey Kirkpatrick, Trumaine Mason, Karen Willenbrink, Ross Richmond, Randy Walker, John Hauberg, Stanislav Libenský, Graham Graham, Charlie Cowles, George and Dorothy Saxe, and Jack and Rebecca Benaroya.
Biographical / Historical:
William Morris (1957- ) is a glass artist in Stanwood, Washington.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 5 hr., 5 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Glass artists -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.morris09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-morris09

Oral history interview with Douglas Crimp

Interviewee:
Crimp, Douglas  Search this
Interviewer:
Burton, Johanna  Search this
Extent:
125 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2009 March 8
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Douglas Crimp conducted 2009 March 8, by Johanna Burton, for the Archives of American Art, at the Crimp's home, in New York, New York.
Crimp speaks of his childhood in Couer d'Alene, Idaho; his education at Tulane University in New Orleans; his early experiences in New York while working with fashion designer Charles James, Diane Waldman at the Guggenheim, and Rosalind Krauss at October Magazine; the graduate program at City University in New York; his working relationship with Agnes Martin; the Pictures exhibition at Artists Space; his role in orchestrating the AIDS issue of October in 1987 and his subsequent break from October; his current memoirs; and his teaching positions at Sarah Lawrence and University of Rochester in New York. He comments on the cultural gay scene of New York and New Orleans and its influence on his own writings and perspective; his friendships with Helene Winer, Craig Owens, and Gregg Bordowitz; his impressions of the Pictures Generation exhibition at the Met; the role visual theory had played in his career; and the ideological climate of the art history community today. He concludes by explaining his current interest in film and dance, particularly concerning the work of Merce Cunningham and Yvonne Rainer.
Biographical / Historical:
Douglas Crimp (1944-2019) was a professor and art critic in New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded as 10 digital sound files. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 7 hr., 14 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
This transcript is open for research. Access to the entire recording is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- Rochester -- Interviews  Search this
Art historians -- New York (State) -- Rochester -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.crimp09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-crimp09

Inez Wheeler papers

Creator:
Wheeler, Inez, 1891-1978  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1910-1925 and [undated]
Scope and Contents:
Drawings and reproductions, including 57 fashion designs, 22 advertisements for shoes, 8 cover illustrations for fashion brochures, 7 pencil drawings for war posters. In addition there are some clippings.
Biographical / Historical:
Designer and illustrator Inez Wheeler, married name Inez Wheeler Prell, was born in 1891 in Chicago, Illinois and died in 1978 in Detroit, Michigan.
Provenance:
Donated 1978 by Detroit Public Library via Paul T. Scupholm, executive secretary of the Friends of the Library.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Designers -- United States  Search this
Illustrators -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Commercial art -- United States  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
AAA.wheeinez
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-wheeinez

Anna Walinska papers

Creator:
Walinska, Anna  Search this
Names:
Guild Art Gallery  Search this
Avery, Milton, 1885-1965  Search this
Beata, Welsing  Search this
Hacohen, Bracha  Search this
Littlefield, William Horace, 1902-1969  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Walinsky, Louis Joseph, 1908-2001  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Transcripts
Travel diaries
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Israel -- Description and Travel
Date:
1927-2002
bulk 1935-1980
Summary:
The papers of New York-based painter, teacher and art director Anna Walinska measure 2.1 linear feet and date from 1927 to 2002, with the bulk of material from 1935 to 1980. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writings, travel diaries, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York-based painter, teacher and art director Anna Walinska measure 2.1 linear feet and date from 1927 to 2002, with the bulk of material from 1935 to 1980. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writings, travel diaries, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographs.

Biographical material consists of awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, biographical outlines, exhibition lists, passports and other material. There is a partial transcript from a radio interview of Anna Walinska. Also included are limited financial records.

Correspondence includes Anna Walinska's letters to her family from her 1954-1955 trip abroad to multiple countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. There is personal and professional correspondence with friends, artists and art institutions. Notable correspondents include Milton Avery, Louise Nevelson, Beata Welsing, Bracha Hacohen, William Littlefield, and Walinska's brother Louis Walinsky.

Writings consist of Walinska's notes, notebooks, lectures, essays, and a handwritten prospectus for Guild Art Gallery. There is one folder of writings by others about Walinska at the end of the series. There are four travel diaries that describe Walinska's trip around the world from 1954-1955, during which she traveled to many countries, and later trips to locations such as Israel and Trinidad.

Printed Material include clippings about Anna Walinska, group and solo exhibition catalogs, announcements, event invitations, and course catalogs for the Master Institute of United Art in New York City, where Walinska taught painting and drawing classes.

There are three scrapbooks: one scrapbook is about Guild Art Gallery, the second scrapbook is about the Holocaust exhibition, the third oversized scrapbook documents Walinska's career and activities overall.

Artwork consists of two bound sketchbooks as well as drawings and sketches in a variety of mediums from pencil and ink to watercolors and oils.

Photographs are of Walinska, friends, family, artists, artwork, exhibition installations, and other subjects. One album includes photos of Anna Walinska and her travels, along with images of friends and colleagues. The second album includes photographs of Walinska's solo exhibition at Sunken Meadow Gallery (1959). There is also one folder of photocopies of photos of assorted artwork by Walinska.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1927-2002 (Box 1; 11 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1949-1995 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1935-circa 1983 (Box 1; 8 folders)

Series 4: Travel Diaries, 1954-1973 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1942-2002 (Boxes 1-2; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, circa 1929-1980 (Boxes 2, 4; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1929-1963 (Box 3; 5 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1932-1980 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Anna Walinska (1906-1997) was a New York artist, teacher and gallery director who traveled widely and is most well known for her paintings related to the subject of the Holocaust.

Anna Walinska was born in London, England in 1906 to labor organization leader Ossip Walinsky and poet Rosa Newman Walinska. She had two siblings, Emily and Louis. The family immigrated to New York City in 1914, and Anna Walinska began studying at the Art Students League in 1918. In 1926, she travelled to Paris and studied art at the Academie de Grande Chaumier with Andre L'Hote. France was her primary residence until 1930.

In 1935, Walinska and artist Margaret Lefranc co-founded the Guild Art Gallery at West 57th Street in New York and gave Arshile Gorky his first solo exhibition in the city. The gallery closed its doors in 1937. In 1939, Walinska was the Assistant Creative Director of the Contemporary Art Pavilion at the New York World's Fair. During this time, Walinska also pursued her own art and exhibited work in numerous group shows.

From 1954 to 1955, Walinska traveled around the world, visiting the capitals and major cities of many countries in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Places she went included Japan, Burma (now known as Myanmar), Pakistan, Greece, Italy, France and Spain. During her four month stay in Burma, she painted a portrait of Prime Minister U Nu and she later became a highly respected portrait artist who painted numerous illustrious subjects such as First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, artists Louise Nevelson and Mark Rothko, and many others.

In 1957, Walinska became the artist-in-residence at the Riverside Museum where she also taught and exhibited with other artists. That same year, she had her first retrospective at the Jewish Museum in New York City.

Walinska exhibited widely and often. Holocaust: Paintings and Drawings, 1953-1978, which opened at the Museum of Religious Art at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City, is probably the most well-known of her exhibitions and it traveled across the country to several other sites such as the War Memorial Building in Baltimore and Mercy College of Detroit. Works from this exhibition were acquired by multiple museums to become part of their permanent collections.

Walinkska died on December 19, 1997 at the age of 91 in New York City. In 1999, there was a retrospective of her work titled Echoes of the Holocaust: Paintings, Drawings, and Collage, 1940-1989 held at Clark University's Center for Holocaust Studies. The Onisaburo Gallery at New York's Interfaith Center also held a solo exhibition titled Portraits of Faith (2000). Her art is part of the collections at the Denver Art Museum, National Portrait Gallery, National Museum of Women in the Arts, the Rose Art Museum, and other museums.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also has the Guild Art Gallery records, which consists of material related to the gallery that was co-founded by Anna Walinska.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Anna Walinska in two installations in 1976 and 1981. Rosina Rubin, Anna Walinska's niece, made a third donation of material in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., research center.
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Drawing--Study and teaching  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in art  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Asia--Description and travel  Search this
Middle East--Description and travel  Search this
Trinidad and Tobago--Description and travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Transcripts
Travel diaries
Citation:
Anna Walinska papers, 1927-2002, bulk 1935-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.walianna
See more items in:
Anna Walinska papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-walianna
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Rudolph Schaeffer papers

Creator:
Schaeffer, Rudolph  Search this
Names:
East & West Gallery (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Frey, Caroline  Search this
Frey, Fred  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
13.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Christmas cards
Designs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
1880s-1997
Summary:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997 and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997, and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.

Correspondence documents Schaeffer's personal and professional activities as well as the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design. Subject files contain various combinations of correspondence, photographs, printed material, and drawings reflecting Schaeffer's activities, projects, and interests. Within the subject files is correspondence with artists, including Mark Tobey. Extensive writings include manuscripts for published and unpublished articles and drafts, notes, and manuscripts of several unpublished books including Collected Lectures of Rudolph Schaeffer on Color and Design, Color and Design, Prismatic Color Theory, and Rhythmo-Chromatics, all undated. Diaries include a volume recording Schaeffer's 1936 trip to Japan. 42 volumes of journals, compiled between 1954 and 1987, contain entries on a wide range of subjects including lists of errands, invitation lists, class notes, drafts of letters, notes including staff assignments and staff meetings, autobiographical notes and reminiscences, and musings on religion and philosophy.

The Artwork series houses artwork by Schaeffer and his students. Found are hand-made Christmas cards, designs, sketches, and sketchbooks. Seven scrapbooks document Rudolph Schaeffer's career, his school and former students, and the San Francisco art scene. They contain printed material, photographs, letters, and a small amount of artwork. Volume 3 is devoted to East West Gallery, and volume 7 documents Rudolph Schaeffer's 90th Birthday and the 50th Anniversary of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.

Most untranscribed sound recordings (audio cassettes and reels) are of lectures by Schaeffer and others delivered at the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.

Miscellaneous records includes a series of hand-baticked fabric samples from the Wiener Werkstatte, as well as transcripts of an oral history with Schaeffer and other interviews.

Printed material concerns the career of Rudolph Schaeffer, his school and former students, the San Francisco art scene, and general art topics. Included are articles and a book by Schaeffer, catalogs and other items produced by the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and miscellaneous items about or mentioning Schaeffer and his school. Items of note are announcements of courses taught by Schaeffer in Piedmont and San Francisco prior to the opening of his school, and theatre programs from productions with sets and some costumes designed by Schaeffer in the early 1920s.

Photographs are of artwork, people, places, events, stage designs, and miscellaneous subjects. Artwork includes some designs by Rudolph Schaeffer; people include Schaeffer, his family, friends, and students. Of particular note are a photograph of Frank Lloyd Wright's visit to the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and one of Rudolph Schaeffer and Imogen Cunningham. Places include interior and exterior views of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design at its St. Anne Street and Mariposa Street locations. Also included are photographs by Ansel Adams of the home of Ed and Caroline Fey.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1900-1988 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1989 (Box 1, 19; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1907-1988 (Boxes 1-2, OV 16; 1.3 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1910-1987 (Boxes 2-6, 15, 19, 21; 4.2 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, 1911-1957 (Boxes 6-15, 19, 21 OV 17; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1933-1976 (Boxes 6, 14, 19; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Sound Recordings, 1949-1986 (Boxes 11-13; 1.2 linear ft.)

Series 8: Miscellaneous Records, 1905-1986 (Box 7, 19, 22; 0.8 linear ft.)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1906-1994 (Boxes 7-8, 15, 19, 22; 1.2 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographs, 1880s-circa 1988 (Boxes 8-10,15, 20, 22, OV 18; 1.8 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Rudolph Schaeffer (1886-1988), a proponent of the Arts and Crafts movement, aspired to unite technology, science, and lifestyle in order to live in harmony with nature. An individual with many talents and interests, he was best known for his work in the field of color study and as a teacher and the founder of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco.

Born on a farm in Clare, Michigan in 1886, Rudolph Schaeffer displayed musical and artistic talent from a young age. Although he initially wanted to become a professional musician, he began focusing more on art when his musical abilities were compromised by an improperly set broken wrist. Schaeffer received his first formal art training as a high school student and then attended the Thomas Normal Training School in Detroit, where he studied music, art, and design. He continued studying independently, developing interests in calligraphy and metal craft.

In 1907, Schaeffer taught manual training courses in the Columbus, Ohio, public schools. The following summer he traveled to Paris and London. While in London he saw an exhibition of Josef Hoffman's modern interiors that had a great impact on his own design ideas. He then returned to Michigan and taught in schools close to home. In 1909, Schaeffer attended a design course in Minneapolis taught by A. E. Batchelder, director of Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena. Both Batchelder and his course were strong influences on Schaeffer, as was Ralph Johnot, a proponent of Arthur Wesley Dow's design principles. In 1910 Schaeffer joined the faculty of Throop Polytechnic Institute, where he remained for five years.

The U. S. Commission on Education selected Schaeffer to be part of a delegation of twenty-five American teachers sent to Munich for several months in 1914 to investigate the exemplary industrial design curriculum offered in their secondary schools. Schaeffer subsequently expected to begin teaching at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles at the start of the 1914 school year, but World War I erupted while he was in Germany and his return to the United States was delayed so long that another teacher had to be hired to fill his place.

In 1915 Schaeffer was a manual training instructor at the California College of Arts and Crafts (formerly the Hopkins School), and taught design and metal crafts at the University of California Berkeley. For a number of years afterwards, he did free lance design work, taught private classes, and ran a small summer school in his Piedmont studio. Schaeffer was a visiting professor at Stanford University in 1918 when he was drafted and sent to drafting and surveying courses by the Army. Between 1917 and 1924 Schaeffer was on the faculty of the California College of Arts and Crafts where he taught design, color, handicrafts, and interior design. During this period he developed a new approach to teaching color and design based on the prismatic color wheel.

During the early 1920s Schaeffer worked as a set designer and as Art Director of Greek Theatre at the University of California at Berkeley, Schaeffer began applying prismatic color theory to set and costume design. He also designed sets for productions in Detroit. In 1925, Schaeffer saw the Paris Exposition and researched interior and stage design while in France.

The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design which, in its early days was called the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Rhythmo-Chromatic Design, opened on St. Anne Street in San Francisco's Chinatown in 1926. In 1951 the school then moved to Union Street on Telegraph Hill where it remained for nearly a decade. In 1960, the school purchased a former boys' school on Mariposa Street, Portero Hill. Rudolph Schaeffer lived in a small cottage built for him at the rear of the property where he designed and tended a remarkable "Peace Garden."

The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was best known for its courses in color and interior design. Schaeffer was the first person in the United States to teach prismatic color theory, is credited with being the first to use the term "interior design" rather than "interior decoration" and the first to incorporate the use of models into interior design coursework. In 1959 the school's courses were expanded from 2 to 3-year programs and a diploma was awarded. Former students include many successful interior designers, textile designers, furniture designers, industrial designers, commercial artists, color consultants, teachers, and master flower arrangers.

In addition to the interior design and color diploma courses, the school offered a summer session, classes for children, a brief lecture series for the general public, and a wide variety of classes including advertising art, architecture and design, art history, art in public schools, calligraphy, color design, color for television, color for weavers, color theory, design, drawing, environmental aesthetics, fashion design, fashion illustration, flower arrangement, industrial design, interior design, Notan, sculpture, space planning, textile design, and weaving. Always struggling financially and sometimes lacking adequate enrollment, the school nevertheless managed to stay open for nearly 60 years. In 1984, the Board of Directors voted to remove Schaeffer from the board and close the school. Two years earlier the board had forced Schaeffer to retire, appointed him Director Emeritus, and brought in a new director charged with making the institution financially solvent, reorganizing the curriculum, and working toward accreditation. Unable to separate himself from the school (though he had done so legally when it was incorporated in 1953), Schaeffer balked and refused to cooperate with plans for revitalizing the institution.

One of the aims of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was to interpret Asian esthetic principles. To this end the East West Gallery was established at the school in 1950. A membership organization, it offered exhibitions, lectures, concerts, and other programs that encouraged cultural integration. Exhibitions alternated between East (Asian art and artifacts from Rudolph Schaeffer's collection or other sources) and West (student work or work of local artists illustrating the influence of the Asian esthetic on contemporary art and design). East West Gallery was a membership organization, the first space of its kind in San Francisco for Asian art and operated in each of the school's locations.

In addition to running the school Schaeffer was involved in many other activities. He wrote several articles about flower arrangement, color, and color theory that were published in popular magazines. In 1935, he published Flower Arrangement Folio I (said to be the first on the subject published in this country) and in 1942 edited and wrote the introduction to Sunset's Flower Arrangement Book by Nell True Welch. Over a period of many years, he worked on several monographs on color, design, and "rhythmo-chromatics." None were ever published.

A sought-after speaker on the subjects of color, interior design, flower arrangement, and myriad other art topics, Schaeffer frequently served as a juror for art exhibitions and flower shows. From the 1930s on, the San Francisco department store Emporium used his services as a color consultant, as did Dutch Boy paints, and numerous textile and clothing manufacturers. Builders also asked Schaeffer to select interior and exterior colors for suburban housing developments.

Schaeffer worked on planning and designing the decorative arts exhibition at the 1939-40 Golden Gate International Exposition. In 1943-44, he participated in the Red Cross's Arts and Skills program, using color therapy with shell-shocked soldiers in a psychiatric unit.

The Rudolph Schaeffer Collection of Asian Art began as a collection of ceramics, both historical and contemporary examples chosen for their form and color, which he used for flower arrangements and in set-ups for still life classes. It soon expanded to include color prints, paintings, screens, and other works of art and portions were exhibited frequently in the East West Gallery. Selections from this collection were exhibited in Kansas City in 1960 and at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in 1976.

The City of San Francisco declared June 26, 1986, Schaeffer's 100th birthday, "Rudolph Schaeffer Day" and it was observed with great fanfare. He died at home on March 5, 1988, a few months before his 102nd birthday.
Provenance:
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers were donated in 1991 by Rudolph Schaeffer and the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design administrator Peter Docili, and in 1999 and 2000 by James Alexander, a friend of both Schaeffer and Docili, who had been storing portions of Docili's estate after his death in 1998, with the assistance of Frances Valesco, a fiber artist and researcher. An addition was received in 2007 by William Woodworth, a close friend and caretaker of Schaeffer's and in 2017 and 2018 by Frances Valesco.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Designers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Authors -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Color -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Christmas cards
Designs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Citation:
Rudolph Schaeffer papers, 1880s-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.scharudo
See more items in:
Rudolph Schaeffer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-scharudo

Julia Santos-Solomon papers

Creator:
Santos-Solomon, Julia, 1956-  Search this
Names:
Parsons School of Design -- Faculty  Search this
Calamari, Barbara  Search this
Dye, Alice  Search this
Dye, Pete  Search this
Extent:
2.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Place:
Altos de Chavón (Dominican Republic)
Date:
1977-2008
Scope and Contents:
Writings, correspondence, commission files, teaching files, artists' files, a scrapbook, works of art, printed material, and audio visual material documenting the career of Julia Santos-Solomon as an artist and teacher.
Writings include three diaries recording Santos-Solomon's study of art and design, largely in the Dominican Republic and Europe. Correspondence is with Alice Dye, wife of Pete Dye, golf course architect. Commission files relate to golf course landscape paintings, prints, and textiles. Teaching files consist of syllabi and annotated student drawing submissions from Altos de Chavon School of Design and Parsons School of Design. Artists' files relate to artist residencies at Altos de Chavon School of Design. One scrapbook includes altered photographs, drawings, writings, and various printed material.
Artwork consists of three sketchbooks, sketches, fashion illustrations, an original watercolor, pen, and pencil textile designs and prints for golf course landscapes. Printed material includes exhibition catalogs and announcements, newspaper and magazine clippings. Audio visual material consists of a DVD and CD related to the pilot television program 'Lola' (never produced) created by Santos-Solomon and Barbara Calamari and loosely based on Santos-Solomon's biography, especially as a teenager and young adult. Also included are episode descriptions and notes about the show.
Biographical / Historical:
Julia Santos Solomon (1956- ) is a teacher, painter, and textile and fashion designer in the Dominican Republic and Woodstock, New York. Julia Santos-Solomon taught fashion and design illustration at Altos de Chavon School of Design in the Dominican Republic and at Parsons School of Design in New York.
Provenance:
Donated 2015 and 2016 by Julia Santos-Solomon.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- Dominican Republic  Search this
Art teachers -- New York (State)  Search this
Fashion designers -- Dominican Republic  Search this
Fashion designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- Dominican Republic  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Textile designers -- Dominican Republic  Search this
Textile designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Golf courses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Identifier:
AAA.santjuli
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-santjuli

Allen Saalburg papers

Creator:
Saalburg, Allen Russell, 1899-1987  Search this
Names:
Bucks County Historical Society  Search this
Canal Press  Search this
Ink River Gallery  Search this
New York Graphic Society  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1924-circa 2003
bulk 1940-1987
Summary:
The papers of painter, illustrator, and screenprinter Allen Saalburg, 1924-circa 2003, bulk 1940-1987, measure 0.8 linear feet. Included are professional correspondence, printed material, a scrapbook and photographs. Most photographs are of Saalburg and his artwork. Also found are biographical material and subject files.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, illustrator, and screenprinter Allen Saalburg, 1924-circa 2003, bulk 1940-1987, measure 0.8 linear feet. Included are professional correspondence, printed material, and a scrapbook. Most photographs are of Saalburg and his artwork. Also found are biographical material and subject files.

Biographical material consists of a chronology. Correspondence is with New York Graphic Society and Bucks County Historical Society, Doylestown, Pennsylvania. Business conducted by Canal Press and exhibitions at Ink River Gallery are documented in the subject files. Books and World War II posters illustrated by Saalburg are among the printed material. A scrapbook consists mainly of printed material illustrated by Saalburg. Photographs include views of his home in Uhlerstown, Pennsylvania and the studio, Canal Press, in Frenchtown, New Jersey. Also found are photographs of a trip to Albrook Air Force Base, Panama Canal Zone, where he participated in an exhibition featuring paintings of military planes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 6 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, circa 2003 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1956-1969, 1982-1983 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Subject Files, circa 1950s-1994 (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1940-circa 1980s (Boxes 1-2, OV 3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Scrapbook, 1924-1927, 1941-1947 (Box 2; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1930-circa 1980s (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Allen Saalburg (1899-1987) was a painter, illustrator, and innovative screenprinter who spent most of his career working in Frenchtown, New Jersey. From 1917 to 1920 he studied painting at the Pratt Institute and the Art Students League. In the late 1920s, Saalburg worked in Paris and had a solo exhibition at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune before returning to New York in 1930.

Throughout his career, Saalburg illustrated covers for popular magazines. His paintings were shown in group exhibitions at the Art Institute of Chicago and Whitney Museum of American Art. Solo exhibitions included shows at Grand Central Galleries and Kraushaar Galleries in New York, and others in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. He produced complex prints based on his paintings and experimented with screenprinting onto non-traditional surfaces. A piece on plastic panels was commissioned for a pavillion at the 1964 New York World's Fair.

Allen Saalburg's marriage to Muriel King, a costume and fashion designer, ended in divorce. His second wife was Mary Faulconer, a painter. Allen Saalburg died in 1987 in Flemington, New Jersey.
Provenance:
Executor Prudence Crowther donated the Allen Saalburg papers in 2004.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment.
The Allen Saalburg papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Posters -- United States  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Printers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Allen Saalburg papers, 1924-circa 2003, bulk 1940-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.saalalle
See more items in:
Allen Saalburg papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-saalalle

Dress designed by Ann Lowe

Designed by:
Ann Lowe, American, 1898 - 1981  Search this
Worn by:
Barbara Baldwin Dowd, American  Search this
Subject of:
Black Fashion Museum, American, 1979 - 2007  Search this
Medium:
silk, tulle, linen, metal, and elastic
Dimensions:
Waist: 23", Length: 53", Hem: 85"
Storage: 25.4 x 152.4 x 55.9 cm (10 x 60 x 22 in.)
Type:
dresses
Place made:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1966-1967
Topic:
African American  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the Black Fashion Museum founded by Lois K. Alexander-Lane
Object number:
2007.3.19
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Black Fashion Museum Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5038e57d9-a7f3-44d9-9ec4-ce08fa6823cf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2007.3.19
Online Media:

Lillian Desow-Fishbein interview

Creator:
Desow-Fishbein, Lillian, 1921-2004  Search this
Interviewer:
Levin, Blossom  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound cassettes
76 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1984 Aug. 8
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Lillian Desow-Fishbein conducted by Blossom Levin. Desow-Fishbein speaks of her childhood in Detroit; her early studies in fashion design; attending Cranbrook Academy of Art; Judaic themes in her early work; moving to Chicago; how Chicago has influenced her and her work;
teaching and her philosophies of education; galleries she has been affiliated with; her charitable and philanthropic activities; influences on her work; and her concerns about the survival of Judaism.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter; Chicago, Ill.
Provenance:
Donated 1986 by the American Jewish Committee.
Topic:
Jewish art and symbolism  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Painters -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.desolill
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-desolill

Cream damask hat with gold and red scarf from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
synthetic fiber, plastic, and beads
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 8 1/2 x 11 3/4 x 12 in. (21.6 x 29.8 x 30.5 cm)
Type:
hats
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.144
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd55bff8179-ab9e-401d-9789-b0c3c533136e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.144

Red feather lamp shade hat from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
nylon, wool, feather, velvet
Dimensions:
8 1/4 x 9 x 9 1/4 in. (21 x 22.9 x 23.5 cm)
Type:
hats
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.154
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd592f44743-ff92-4969-8e48-70da33cb244a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.154

Navy blue cloche with flowers, beads, and feathers from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
synthetic fiber, plastic, sequins, feathers, and beads
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 8 3/4 x 9 1/4 x 9 in. (22.2 x 23.5 x 22.9 cm)
Type:
cloches
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.155
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd556d10979-4a9e-44a9-9e13-2d864dbb91b6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.155
Online Media:

Cream hat with white and gold embellishment from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
wool felt, synthetic fiber, net, and metal button
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 6 1/2 x 14 x 12 in. (16.5 x 35.6 x 30.5 cm)
Type:
hats
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.157
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53fb647d2-2fb7-419b-b854-9fe53118335c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.157

Green raffia lamp shade hat from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
raffia, silk (textile), polyester
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 9 3/4 x 9 1/4 x 9 3/4 in. (24.8 x 23.5 x 24.8 cm)
Type:
hats
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.158
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5bc50eb96-945c-4b60-8984-5c954ed0a697
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.158
Online Media:

Turqouise turban style hat with brooch from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
Hat: synthetic fiber;
Brooch: metal and rhinestones
Dimensions:
H x W x D (ab): 5 3/4 × 8 1/2 × 8 in. (14.6 × 21.6 × 20.3 cm)
H x W x D (b): 2 1/4 × 1 7/8 × 1/2 in. (5.7 × 4.8 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
brooches
hats
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.160ab
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Exhibition:
Power of Place
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Community/Third Floor, 3 051
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5acfcf16e-72a0-415b-bbb0-e771d7c84fe2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.160ab
Online Media:

Brown feathered hat from Mae's Millinery Shop

Designed by:
Mae Reeves, American, 1912 - 2016  Search this
Subject of:
Mae's Millinery Shop, American, 1941 - 1994  Search this
Medium:
wool felt and feathers
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 6 1/2 x 8 1/2 x 9 in. (16.5 x 21.6 x 22.9 cm)
Type:
hats
Place made:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1941-1994
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Mae Reeves and her children, Donna Limerick and William Mincey, Jr.
Object number:
2010.6.175
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Mae's Millinery Shop Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Fashion
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e5314574-f7c1-48d0-a4c7-d5ace397d2e4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.6.175
Online Media:

Native/American Fashion 15 | Virgil Ortiz

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2017-04-25T00:59:23Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_r5kNzTRfD1U

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