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Mlle. Chanel (Gabrielle Chanel)

Maker:
Avedon, Richard  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 35.8 cm x 26.8 cm; 14 1/8 in x 10 9/16 in
Object Name:
gelatin silver print
photograph
Date made:
1958
Subject:
Portraits  Search this
Fashion Designer  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Richard Avedon
ID Number:
PG.006979
Catalog number:
6979
Accession number:
246041
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a3-d027-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_557365

Episode 25

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0025
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1951 March 26
Scope and Contents:
Record Refuge! Record keeping for national defense. U.S. National Bank, Portland, OR.

Contour in Silver! Silverware. Towle Manufacturing Co., Newburyport, MA.

Paris to Peoria! TWA airline from Paris to U.S. for fashion design. Making dresses for American women; apparel industry. Gracerte Dress Co.

Stress on Security! Security for defense. Bell Aircraft Corp., Buffalo, NY.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e9a13022-a0b1-4c85-9a35-4b0d790c494c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref54

Episode 350

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0350
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1957 June 29
Scope and Contents:
New Jersey Making pharmaceutical materials to be injected in a sterile environment. Air cleaning system and mobile ultra-violet units clean air in a "positive pressure" atmosphere. Schering Pharmaceutical Corp., Union, NJ.

Ohio A national chain of hamburger stands. Company owns steel plant to manufacture its equipment and a paper company to manufacture employees' hats. Managerial training program for young men. White Castle Systems, Inc., Columbus, OH.

Connecticut Making paper dress patterns for Vogue Pattern Service. Parisian high fashion designs available to American women. Includes pattern made from a design by Patou. Conde Nast Publications, Inc., Greenwich, CT.

Missouri Conversion of an automobile showroom into a public library. Machines speed book repairs. Dictation machines save paperwork by recording books borrowed. Mobile units take books to readers. St. Louis County Library, St Louis, MO.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep824f42bda-e18c-42c5-afa9-624ef05ae759
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref675

Woman's Dress, 1948–58

Designer:
Simpson, Adele  Search this
Simpson, Adele  Search this
Measurements:
center back: 45 3/8 in; 115.2525 cm
Object Name:
dress, 2-piece
Object Type:
Main Dress
Woman
Dress
Entire Body
Made in:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1960 - 196900
1946-1956
Credit Line:
Gift of The Washington Fashion Group
ID Number:
CS.310259.005
Catalog number:
310259.005
Accession number:
310259
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Costume
Clothing & Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a1-6532-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_360605

Mrs. Wharton's classroom -- Margaret [Murray] Wash[ington] Voc[ational] School, Apr[il] 1950 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Ansco (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Margaret Murray Washington Vocational School (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Wharton, Mrs.  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5".)
Container:
Box 98
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
April 1950
Scope and Contents:
Group of young women fashion students. One woman is working on a dress on a mannequin, another is sketching a second dressed mannequin. Two women are cutting cloth on a table. On the wall behind them are framed fashion plate drawings. No ink on negative. Further ink on envelope, "Hold back upper right hand corner". "9 ANSCO SAFETY FILM" edge imprint. No Scurlock number.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
African American students -- 1950-1960  Search this
Fashion designers  Search this
Fashion drawing  Search this
Mannequins (Figures)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep852721b93-7e72-4235-9091-f139f1014ed2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3133
Online Media:

Dorothy Shaver Papers

Creator:
Shaver, Dorothy, 1893-1959  Search this
Donor:
Shaver, Elsie  Search this
Names:
Lord & Taylor  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Costume  Search this
Extent:
14 Sound recordings
32 Cassette tapes
1 Electronic discs (CD)
6 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Cassette tapes
Electronic discs (cd)
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
78 rpm records
Phonograph records
Professional papers
Date:
circa 1920-1959; undated
bulk 1945-1959
Summary:
This collection contains the personal and professional papers of Dorothy Shaver, one of the best-known female executives in the 1950s; Shaver became the first female president of Lord & Taylor in 1945.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the personal and professional life of Dorothy Shaver. Types of materials include correspondence, clippings, biographical narratives, interviews, statements to the press, event programs, speeches, certificates, obituaries, awards and honorary degrees, souvenir publications, advertisements, scrapbooks, planning documents, travel itineraries, notes, invitations, seating lists, photographs, and audio recordings. These materials range in date from 1920 to 1959, but the bulk date is from 1945 to 1959. Those interested in the history of women in business, fashion merchandising, the department store Lord & Taylor, the "American Look" as a fashion trend, and the creation of the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art will find this collection useful. An oral history interview was conducted with Elsie Shaver, sister of Dorothy Shaver, in 1973.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Personal Papers, 1920s-1959; undated

Series 2: Professional Papers, 1927-1959; undated

Series 3: Social and Professional Activities, 1928-1959; undated

Series 4: Photographs, about 1920-1959; undated

Series 5: Audio Recordings, 1946-1948; 1956, 1973
Biographical History:
Dorothy Shaver was born on July 29, 1893, in Center Point, Arkansas to, Sallie Borden and James D. Shaver, a lawyer and judge. After graduating from Mena High School in 1910, Dorothy went on to study at the University of Arkansas and the University of Chicago. She moved to New York City with her sister Elsie, an artist, in the 1920s. Acting as an agent for her sister, Dorothy sold some of Elsie's fashion drawings to the department store Lord & Taylor. Dorothy also promoted Elsie's "Five Little Shaver" dolls, which became a major fad after Lord &Taylor introduced them.

Impressed, Lord & Taylor hired Dorothy Shaver to head its Comparative Shopping Bureau, the main purpose of which was to spy on other department stores. Shaver eventually reorganized this department to create a Bureau of Stylists in an effort to improve Lord & Taylor's merchandising strategy and set the pace for style in New York. Her career with Lord & Taylor skyrocketed from there. In 1927, Shaver became a member of Lord & Taylor's board of directors and in 1931, she was named a vice president. In 1937, she was elevated to first vice president and on December 19, 1945, she was named president of Lord & Taylor, becoming one of the first female executives of a large department store. One year later, she was elected to the board of directors of the Associated Dry Goods Corporation, of which Lord & Taylor was a division.

Under Shaver's direction, Lord & Taylor became one of the first department stores to sell clothing specifically designed for different subsets of their customer base; teenaged girls, young adult women, petite women, and career women. She also introduced a bridal shop and a maternity department. She was known for her unique merchandising techniques, such as spraying perfume from the store's marquee in an effort to sell perfume and attract customers. Six suburban branches were opened under her leadership in Manhasset, New York, 1941; Scarsdale, New York, 1948; Millburn, New Jersey, 1949; West Hartford, Connecticut, 1953; Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, 1954; and Garden City, New York, 1956.

Shaver was also known for her early recognition of American fashion designers. She promoted the "American Look" as a fashion trend, putting American designers on par with French designers. Her efforts fueled the careers of many American designers including Clare Potter, Claire McCardle, and Nettie Rosenstein. In 1937, Shaver established the American Design Awards, an annual event hosted by Lord & Taylor highlighting the achievements of innovators in the fields of design, the arts, housing, education, the sciences, and international relations.

Shaver also helped establish the Museum of Costume Art, which became the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1944. She was chairman of the institute's executive committee and was a member of the Museum's board of trustees. In 1942, as a merchandising consultant to the office of Quartermaster General, Shaver supervised the design of new uniforms and accessories for nurses in the military.

Shaver received numerous citations and awards over the course of her life, including honorary degrees from Syracuse University (1947), Bates College (1949), New York University (1950), Russell Sage College (1951), Lafayette College (1957), and Wheaton College (1957).

Shaver suffered a stroke and died soon after on June 28, 1959; she is buried in Texarkana, Arkansas. Her gravestone has the year of her birth as 1897, four years later than her actual birth date. This error apparently was done on the instruction of her sister, Elsie, because the two women enjoyed misrepresenting their ages.
Bibliographic references:
Lord and Taylor advertisement in: Museum of the City of New York, Paris, and New York. Design Fashion Culture 1925-1940 Monacelli Press, 1928, p. 166;
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Freda Diamond Collection, circa 1945-1984 (AC0616)

Estelle Ellis Collection, 1944-1994, #423, Brownie Wise Papers, circa 1928-1968 (AC0509) California Shop Records, 1938-1942 (AC0572)

Setting the Precedent: Four Women Who Excelled in Business, featuring Freda Diamond, Estelle Ellis, Dorothy Shaver, and Brownie Wise.
Related Artifacts:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds artifacts relating to S. Newman Darby and his invention of the windsurfer, including an original board, boom and mast, and sail dating from 1964. See accessions #1998.0086 and #1998.0323.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Museum's Division of Home and Community Life by Dorothy Shaver's sister, Elsie Shaver, in 1973.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original audio acssettes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Costume design  Search this
Women in business -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
78 rpm records
Phonograph records
Professional papers
Citation:
Dorothy Shaver Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0631
See more items in:
Dorothy Shaver Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep846b248bb-7d72-45b7-94c6-78a9533028f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0631
Online Media:

The world of Anna Sui by Tim Blanks ; foreword by Naomi Campbell

Author:
Blanks, Tim  Search this
Writer of foreword:
Campbell, Naomi  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (287 pages) chiefly illustrations
Type:
Pictorial works
Ouvrages illustrés
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
États-Unis
Date:
2017
20th century
Topic:
Women fashion designers  Search this
Fashion--History  Search this
Fashion design--History  Search this
Costume--History  Search this
Clothing and dress--History  Search this
Couturières (Créatrices de mode)  Search this
HEALTH & FITNESS--Beauty & Grooming  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Costume  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156471

German design 1949-1989 two countries, one history editors, Erika Pinner, Klára Němečková ; translations, Herwig Engelmann [and four others]

Editor:
Pinner, Erika  Search this
Nemečkova, Klara  Search this
Translator:
Engelmann, Herwig  Search this
Host institution:
Vitra Design Museum  Search this
Kunstgewerbemuseum (Dresden, Germany)  Search this
Physical description:
320 pages illustrations (chiefly color), facsimiles, portraits 28 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Expositions
Exhibition catalogs
History
Place:
Germany
Allemagne
Date:
2021
20th century
20e siècle
Topic:
Design--History  Search this
Design--Histoire  Search this
Design  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1155060

Announcements and Press Material

Collection Creator:
Constantine, Mildred  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1974-2006
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Use of origininal material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Mildred Constantine papers, 1945-2008. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Mildred Constantine Papers
Mildred Constantine Papers / Series 3: Subject Files / Sheila Hicks
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw975fbfc6e-56ba-44d2-94a6-534005a2c58e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-consmild-ref61
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Miss America 1951 Papers

Creator:
Betbeze, Yolande  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Sports, Entertainment and Leisure  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (8 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings
Awards
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Date:
1910 - 2003
Summary:
Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America in September, 1950. During and after her reign she was influential in both the Civil Rights and Feminist movements. Her papers document her reign as Miss America, her life after Miss America, and the Miss America pageant itself.
Scope and Contents:
Scope and Content: This collection documents the life of Yolande Betbeze who reigned as Miss America 1951. Though the collection focuses heavily on the year of her reign from September 1950 to September 1951, it also includes information about her life before winning the Miss America pageant, the Miss Alabama and Miss America pageants of 1950, and her life post-Miss America. Visual imagery in the collection documents life and fashion in the 1950s through 2000. Newspaper articles offer evidence of the culture of the 1950s. This collection contains newspaper clippings, magazine articles, photographs, awards, and memorabilia of Miss America pageants throughout the twentieth century in the form of booklets, brochures, and paper dolls.

Series 1, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated, includes newspaper articles, magazine articles, and awards from the House of Representatives, programs and brochures relating to Ms. Betbeze's activities as Miss America. All publicity articles—whether promotional or editorial-are included in this series. Betbeze traveled extensively during her reign, and her trips are documented here. Also included in this series are her visits to military installations, promotion of Miss America pageant sponsors, promotion of her own opera career, and most importantly her verbal attacks against the objectification of women in pageants while she wore the Miss America crown.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated,

includes newspaper clippings about Betbeze during her reign as Miss America, documenting nearly every event she attended and delving into her love life and home life. The clippings are arranged by month and year from September 1950 through September 1951. The newspaper articles from Betbeze's reign that are without a date are arranged by topic behind the dated clippings. This subseries also includes several articles published in magazines about Betbeze during her reign. The articles are arranged in chronological order by year behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Awards, 1950, includes awards given to Betbeze by the House of Representatives after she was named Miss America in Atlantic City, as well as an award by the town of Chickasaw naming Betbeze an honorary citizen.

Subseries 3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951, includes mini-photo books of Betbeze from her reign as Miss America, as well as pageant programs from pageants she attended as Miss America. It also includes programs and brochures of events she attended and participated in as Miss America, such as her Coronation Ball and a Symphony in Fashion runway show. The materials are arranged with the photograph books first, followed by pageant programs, then programs from various events.

Subseries 4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951, includes promotional advertisements for Nash Automobile, the Official Car Company of Miss America, and Everglaze Fabric. These advertisements are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, includes material relevant to Betbeze's reign as Miss America, such as her schedule book from September 1950 to September 1951 and a 1994 interview regarding her life, her reign, and her beliefs. The materials are arranged in chronological order by year.

Series 2, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, undated, documents Betbeze's life after her reign as Miss America through newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and Betbeze's copy of pageant judging guidelines for Miss America 1957. It also documents the changing view of women from the 1950s through the turn of the twenty-first century. Betbeze pursued a career in opera after Miss America, but this career ended with her marriage to Matthew Fox. Materials also relate to her marriage to Matthew Fox, her relationship with Cherif Guellal, her life in Georgetown in Washington D.C in the 1960s, and her participation in later Miss America pageants.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated, includes newspaper clippings and magazine articles about Betbeze after her reign as Miss America. They document her relationships, lifestyle, causes, and career. The clippings are arranged chronologically by year. The magazine articles are arranged chronologically by decade behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957, comprises of Betbeze's copy of judging guidelines from the 1957 Miss America Pageant. It includes a schedule of events and the judging criteria for each woman, illustrating the changing perception of women in the United States of America from the 1950s through the twenty-first century.

Series 3, Photographs, 1950-2000, undated, documents Betbeze's life from the 1940s to the turn of the twenty-first century. It includes several photographs from her childhood and teen years. The majority of the series focuses on her reign as Miss America, including photos of her travels, glamour photos, publicity photos, and candid shots. It also includes photographs of Betbeze after her reign. There are negatives for several of the photographs. Photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950, contains Betbeze's life as a teenager and the Miss Alabama pageant. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated, provides visual evidence enhancing the printed materials in the other series. It includes photographs of Betbeze's travels throughout the United States, Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It also includes glamour photographs, candid shots, and publicity events that she attended as Miss America. There are a few photographs of her in a swimsuit. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 3, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, includes photographs of Betbeze in later life, especially at Miss America pageants in the 1990s. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Series 4, Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated, documents the institution of the Miss America Pageant and its development throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. It includes memorabilia from Atlantic City, the pageants, and Miss America advertisements. It includes official pageant yearbooks and correspondence to Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary of Miss America, including a booklet about the pageant. It also includes Miss America Through the Looking Glass (1985), a book documenting the Miss America Pageant from its inception to the 1980s.

Subseries 1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003, comprises of Official Pageant Yearbooks. They illustrate the changing fashions and culture surrounding the pageant. They are arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated, consists of memorabilia of the Miss America Pageant and Atlantic City. The materials include a package for a hairnet from the 1920s, advertisements using the Miss America label for Lucky Strike cigarettes, sheet music for the Miss America and Miss Alabama official songs, Miss America Through the Looking Glass, various stickers advertising the pageant and Atlantic City, Miss America paper dolls, cards and postcards. The memorabilia is arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995, includes correspondence between pageant directors and Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Miss America Pageant, as well as a brochure about the pageant. The materials are arranged by type; first is the correspondence regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary, then the brochure advertising Miss America.

Series 5, Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated, documents life behind-the-scenes through telegrams and letters from friends and fans, invitations and Betbeze's schedule book as Miss America. It includes magazine articles and newspaper clippings from her pre-Miss America years, and the layout of an interview she gave in 1994.

Subseries 1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated, consists of personal letters between Betbeze and her friends, including Lenora Slaughter, the head of the Miss America Pageant when Betbeze was Miss America. It also includes fan-mail and autograph requests. The correspondence is arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 2, Telegrams, 1950-1951, consists of telegrams that Betbeze received as Miss America. They consist of well wishes for her reign, birthday, and Christmas. The telegrams are arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950, consists of newspaper clippings and magazine articles saved by Betbeze. They include reviews of her performance as Musetta in La Boheme in Mobile in 1949 and articles about Matthew Fox. The clippings are arranged chronologically by month and year. The magazine articles are arranged by year behind the newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
Tyhe collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated

Subseries 1.1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 1.2, Awards, 1950

Subseries 1.3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1994

Series 2: Post Miss America, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957

Series 3: Photographs, 1950-2000, undated

Subseries 3.1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950

Subseries 3.2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3, Post Miss America Reign, 1951-2001

Series 4: Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated

Subseries 4.1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003

Subseries 4.2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated

Subseries 4.3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995

Series 5: Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated

Subseries 5.1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 5.2, Telegrams, 1950-1951

Subseries 5.3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950
Biographical / Historical:
Yolande Betbeze, Miss America 1951, was born in 1929 in Mobile, Alabama. Her mother was of Basque ancestry, so Yolande ended up with a foreign sounding name and dark European looks, quite different from the general populace of Mobile. Early on she aspired to become a famous opera singer, and took voice lessons throughout her teenage years. In 1949 she starred as Musetta in Puccini's La Boheme, through the Mobile Opera Guild.

In 1950, Yolande entered the Miss Mobile Beauty Pageant, hoping to win and continue to state and national levels to receive a scholarship to study voice in New York City, or even abroad. When she entered the pageant she gave her age as 21, but at her next birthday in late 1950 (presumably her 22nd) she confessed that she had lied about her age. Really, she was 20 when she entered the Miss America pageant, and this was her 21st birthday. She was crowned Miss Mobile, then Miss Alabama. In September 1950, she made her way to Atlantic City to compete for the title of Miss America. Newspapers in Alabama raved about her. Even journalists in the north predicted that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. In an interview, pageant director Lenora Slaughter says that from the moment she saw her she felt that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. During preliminaries, Yolande won first place in the swimsuit competition, while Miss Connecticut won first place in the talent competition. Nonetheless, Yolande wowed them with her singing. When she won the title of Miss America, her schedule quickly filled with singing engagements.

On September 9th, 1950, Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America. She became an overnight success due to her grace, poise, beauty, and talent. However, she had received an education at a convent school, and felt a bit squeamish about 'cheesecake poses' in a bathing suit. Every Miss America had done a swimsuit tour, even though it wasn't in their contracts that they must, and Yolande was expected to follow in their footsteps. But she wanted to be an opera star, not a pin-up girl, she declared. After winning Miss America, she refused to pose in a swimsuit unless she was going swimming.

The Catalina Swimwear Company, a sponsor of the Miss America pageant, did not like Yolande's stance on swimsuits. They contended that the Miss America pageant had become less focused on the beauty of the contestant and more on their talents and personality. They wanted to bring beauty back. They pulled their sponsorship and created a new pageant line which now includes Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA. This pageant focuses only on the physical beauty of a competitor. Even today there is no talent portion, and even the interview portion has been diluted.

Another issue of the Miss America pageant involved the marriage of a Miss America. Though Yolande had no plans to marry, or even a boyfriend, the papers certainly wanted to know the details surrounding her love-life and ability to marry with the title Miss America. Yolande explained that she received an extra $4000 for staying single throughout the year, but if she wanted to marry she could ask permission from the 18 pageant directors. "Wouldn't it be easier to wait a year?" she asked.

Her year as Miss America was an eventful one. She traveled throughout the United States, the Bahamas, Mexico, France, and Italy. She met with Congressmen, foreign leaders, opera stars, and famous fashion designers. According to Lenora Slaughter, Yolande had the fullest schedule of any Miss America to that date. Everyone agreed that she had put class into the Miss America pageant.

After her reign, she was succeeded as Miss America by Colleen Kay Hutchins, originally Miss Utah. The two became friends and Yolande was in Colleen's wedding some years later. Yolande took up philanthropic causes—fighting for racial equality in the pageants, for instance. She also marched in civil rights demonstrations, participated in sit-ins, and marched in a feminist demonstration in Atlantic City. In 1954 she married a motion picture and television producer, Matthew Fox. They had one daughter before his death in 1964. After she was widowed, Yolande moved to Georgetown in the District of Columbia, where she lives to this day.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Miss America 1943 [Jean Bartel] Photographs, 1943-1944 (AC0902)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry, Natiuonal Museum of American Historu holds artifacts related to this collection: the Miss America crown, scepter, and sash of 1950-1951, worn by the donor, and the Miss Alabama sash and Miss America ribbon of 1950-1951.
Provenance:
Donated by Yolande Betbeze in 2005.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings -- 20th century
Awards
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Miss America 1951 Papers, 1949-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0888
See more items in:
Miss America 1951 Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep831c413c2-0f80-442d-96bb-d1c263de59a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0888
Online Media:

Designers

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1950-1980
Scope and Contents:
Comprise of materials documenting the creative work of American, French, and Italian clothing designers dating from circa 1890-1970s. Materials include couture, ready-to-wear clothing, and costumes for film and theater productions. Fashion designers include Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973), Coco Chanel (1883-1971), Claire McCardell (1905-1958), and Paul Poiret (1879-1944). There are also materials representing time periods of fashion design including La Belle Époque (1890-1914). The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the designer followed by collections representing the 1920s-1960s.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0752, Subseries 8.3
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e6278267-66cf-4c3b-adf9-d2e27818b914
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref949

Brooch/Pin

Culture/People:
Plains Ojibwa (Bungi) [Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana]  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Flora Big Knife (Flora Stump), Plains Ojibwa (Bungi) [Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana], ca. 1908-1998  Search this
Previous owner:
Vera Maxwell (Vera Huppe Maxwell), Non-Indian, 1901-1995  Search this
Donor:
Vera Maxwell, Incorporated  Search this
Object Name:
Brooch/Pin
Media/Materials:
Commercially tanned leather, glass bead/beads, metal jewelry findings
Techniques:
Overlay beadwork, edge beaded, strung, stitched
Dimensions:
8 x 4.5 cm
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Rocky Boy's Reservation; Hill County; Montana; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1950-1975
Catalog Number:
25/2850
Barcode:
252850.000
See related items:
Plains Ojibwa (Bungi) [Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66ae386ce-ba38-4fb4-a20b-f036c79197f7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268725
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Missing Title

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82872300c-a4e2-4b50-bc09-a07880235215
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Online Media:

Claire McCardell

Artist:
Boris Chaliapin, 22 Sep 1904 - 18 May 1979  Search this
Sitter:
Claire McCardell, 1905 - 1958  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor and graphite pencil on illustration board
Dimensions:
Sight: 31.1 x 24.2cm (12 1/4 x 9 1/2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1955
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry\Earring  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace\Pearl  Search this
Personal Attribute\Teeth  Search this
Claire McCardell: Female  Search this
Claire McCardell: Visual Arts\Designer\Fashion Designer  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC569
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Chris Murphy
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm497701549-4cbf-4b2a-92d5-5a7b0b6a11f0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC569

Coco Chanel

Artist:
Jacques Lipchitz, 22 Aug 1891 - May 1973  Search this
Sitter:
Coco Chanel, 19 Aug 1883 - 10 Jan 1971  Search this
Medium:
Plaster
Dimensions:
41.5cm x 16cm x 19cm (16 5/16" x 6 5/16" x 7 1/2"), *
Type:
Sculpture
Date:
c. 1930-1950
Topic:
Coco Chanel: Female  Search this
Coco Chanel: Visual Arts\Designer\Fashion Designer  Search this
Coco Chanel: Health and Medicine\Nurse  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: University of Arizona Museum of Art
Object number:
79.23.59
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b7231864-e4d5-410a-8d4e-6aec05cdb3ab
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_79.23.59

Christian Dior : l'autre lui-même

Author:
Dior, Christian  Search this
Musée Richard Anacréon  Search this
Subject:
Dior, Christian  Search this
Physical description:
64 p. : ill. (some col.), ports. ; 29 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
France
Paris
Date:
1987
20th century
Topic:
Fashion designers  Search this
Costume design--History  Search this
Call number:
TT505.D5 C47 1987
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_609667

Versace / by Richard Martin

Author:
Martin, Richard (Richard Harrison)  Search this
Subject:
Versace, Gianni  Search this
Physical description:
80 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Pictorial works
Place:
Italy
Date:
1997
C1997
20th century
Topic:
Fashion designers  Search this
Costume design--History  Search this
Fashion--History  Search this
Call number:
TT505.V47 M37 1997
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_597465

The Thames and Hudson dictionary of fashion and fashion designers / Georgina O'Hara Callan

Title:
Dictionary of fashion and fashion designers
Fashion and fashion designers
Author:
Callan, Georgina O'Hara  Search this
Physical description:
272 p. : ill. (some col.), ports. ; 21 cm
Type:
Dictionaries
Date:
1998
C1998
19th century
20th century
Topic:
Fashion  Search this
Costume--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_545301

St. James fashion encyclopedia : survey of style from 1945 to the present / Editor, Richard Martin

Title:
Saint James fashion encyclopedia
Author:
Martin, Richard (Richard Harrison)  Search this
St. James Press  Search this
Physical description:
x, 438 p. ; ill. : 25 cm
Type:
Encyclopedias
Date:
1997
20th century
Topic:
Fashion designers--Biography  Search this
Costume design--History  Search this
Fashion--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_495373

Théatre de la mode / Edmonde Charles-Roux ... [et al.] ; photographs by David Seidner ; edited by Susan Train with Eugène Clarence Braun-Munk

Author:
Charles-Roux, Edmonde  Search this
Train, Susan  Search this
Braun-Munk, Eugene Clarence  Search this
Eisendrath, Betsy K  Search this
Physical description:
190 p. : ill. (some col) ; 32 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
France
Paris
Paris (France)
Date:
1991
20th century
1940-1944
Topic:
Costume--History--Exhibitions  Search this
Fashion--History  Search this
Fashion designers--History  Search this
Miniature dolls--History  Search this
Arts, Modern  Search this
History  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Call number:
GT887.T4813 1991X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_408868

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