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Episode 25

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0025
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1951 March 26
Scope and Contents:
Record Refuge! Record keeping for national defense. U.S. National Bank, Portland, OR.

Contour in Silver! Silverware. Towle Manufacturing Co., Newburyport, MA.

Paris to Peoria! TWA airline from Paris to U.S. for fashion design. Making dresses for American women; apparel industry. Gracerte Dress Co.

Stress on Security! Security for defense. Bell Aircraft Corp., Buffalo, NY.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e9a13022-a0b1-4c85-9a35-4b0d790c494c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref54

Episode 350

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0350
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1957 June 29
Scope and Contents:
New Jersey Making pharmaceutical materials to be injected in a sterile environment. Air cleaning system and mobile ultra-violet units clean air in a "positive pressure" atmosphere. Schering Pharmaceutical Corp., Union, NJ.

Ohio A national chain of hamburger stands. Company owns steel plant to manufacture its equipment and a paper company to manufacture employees' hats. Managerial training program for young men. White Castle Systems, Inc., Columbus, OH.

Connecticut Making paper dress patterns for Vogue Pattern Service. Parisian high fashion designs available to American women. Includes pattern made from a design by Patou. Conde Nast Publications, Inc., Greenwich, CT.

Missouri Conversion of an automobile showroom into a public library. Machines speed book repairs. Dictation machines save paperwork by recording books borrowed. Mobile units take books to readers. St. Louis County Library, St Louis, MO.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep824f42bda-e18c-42c5-afa9-624ef05ae759
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref675

Mrs. Wharton's classroom -- Margaret [Murray] Wash[ington] Voc[ational] School, Apr[il] 1950 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Ansco (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Margaret Murray Washington Vocational School (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Wharton, Mrs.  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5".)
Container:
Box 98
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
April 1950
Scope and Contents:
Group of young women fashion students. One woman is working on a dress on a mannequin, another is sketching a second dressed mannequin. Two women are cutting cloth on a table. On the wall behind them are framed fashion plate drawings. No ink on negative. Further ink on envelope, "Hold back upper right hand corner". "9 ANSCO SAFETY FILM" edge imprint. No Scurlock number.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
African American students -- 1950-1960  Search this
Fashion designers  Search this
Fashion drawing  Search this
Mannequins (Figures)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep852721b93-7e72-4235-9091-f139f1014ed2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3133
Online Media:

Male dress designer at H.U. [Howard University] School of Home Economics, June 1964 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Ansco (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 1960-1970  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 5" x 4")
Container:
Box 111
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
June 1964
Scope and Contents:
Man making adjustments to a dress worn by a woman who is holding a pin cushion. They are standing next to two tailor's dummies. There are curtains on either side of them and a row of three mirrors on the wall behind. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "12 - Fri". "ANSCO SAFETY FILM 11" edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Home economics  Search this
African American fashion designers  Search this
Fashion designers  Search this
Mannequins (Figures)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep809b603b5-c177-4da4-b774-d00bfb3e18c3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3783

Dorothy Shaver Papers

Creator:
Shaver, Dorothy, 1893-1959  Search this
Donor:
Shaver, Elsie  Search this
Names:
Lord & Taylor  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Costume  Search this
Extent:
14 Sound recordings
32 Cassette tapes
1 Electronic discs (CD)
6 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Cassette tapes
Electronic discs (cd)
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
78 rpm records
Phonograph records
Professional papers
Date:
circa 1920-1959; undated
bulk 1945-1959
Summary:
This collection contains the personal and professional papers of Dorothy Shaver, one of the best-known female executives in the 1950s; Shaver became the first female president of Lord & Taylor in 1945.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the personal and professional life of Dorothy Shaver. Types of materials include correspondence, clippings, biographical narratives, interviews, statements to the press, event programs, speeches, certificates, obituaries, awards and honorary degrees, souvenir publications, advertisements, scrapbooks, planning documents, travel itineraries, notes, invitations, seating lists, photographs, and audio recordings. These materials range in date from 1920 to 1959, but the bulk date is from 1945 to 1959. Those interested in the history of women in business, fashion merchandising, the department store Lord & Taylor, the "American Look" as a fashion trend, and the creation of the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art will find this collection useful. An oral history interview was conducted with Elsie Shaver, sister of Dorothy Shaver, in 1973.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Personal Papers, 1920s-1959; undated

Series 2: Professional Papers, 1927-1959; undated

Series 3: Social and Professional Activities, 1928-1959; undated

Series 4: Photographs, about 1920-1959; undated

Series 5: Audio Recordings, 1946-1948; 1956, 1973
Biographical History:
Dorothy Shaver was born on July 29, 1893, in Center Point, Arkansas to, Sallie Borden and James D. Shaver, a lawyer and judge. After graduating from Mena High School in 1910, Dorothy went on to study at the University of Arkansas and the University of Chicago. She moved to New York City with her sister Elsie, an artist, in the 1920s. Acting as an agent for her sister, Dorothy sold some of Elsie's fashion drawings to the department store Lord & Taylor. Dorothy also promoted Elsie's "Five Little Shaver" dolls, which became a major fad after Lord &Taylor introduced them.

Impressed, Lord & Taylor hired Dorothy Shaver to head its Comparative Shopping Bureau, the main purpose of which was to spy on other department stores. Shaver eventually reorganized this department to create a Bureau of Stylists in an effort to improve Lord & Taylor's merchandising strategy and set the pace for style in New York. Her career with Lord & Taylor skyrocketed from there. In 1927, Shaver became a member of Lord & Taylor's board of directors and in 1931, she was named a vice president. In 1937, she was elevated to first vice president and on December 19, 1945, she was named president of Lord & Taylor, becoming one of the first female executives of a large department store. One year later, she was elected to the board of directors of the Associated Dry Goods Corporation, of which Lord & Taylor was a division.

Under Shaver's direction, Lord & Taylor became one of the first department stores to sell clothing specifically designed for different subsets of their customer base; teenaged girls, young adult women, petite women, and career women. She also introduced a bridal shop and a maternity department. She was known for her unique merchandising techniques, such as spraying perfume from the store's marquee in an effort to sell perfume and attract customers. Six suburban branches were opened under her leadership in Manhasset, New York, 1941; Scarsdale, New York, 1948; Millburn, New Jersey, 1949; West Hartford, Connecticut, 1953; Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, 1954; and Garden City, New York, 1956.

Shaver was also known for her early recognition of American fashion designers. She promoted the "American Look" as a fashion trend, putting American designers on par with French designers. Her efforts fueled the careers of many American designers including Clare Potter, Claire McCardle, and Nettie Rosenstein. In 1937, Shaver established the American Design Awards, an annual event hosted by Lord & Taylor highlighting the achievements of innovators in the fields of design, the arts, housing, education, the sciences, and international relations.

Shaver also helped establish the Museum of Costume Art, which became the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1944. She was chairman of the institute's executive committee and was a member of the Museum's board of trustees. In 1942, as a merchandising consultant to the office of Quartermaster General, Shaver supervised the design of new uniforms and accessories for nurses in the military.

Shaver received numerous citations and awards over the course of her life, including honorary degrees from Syracuse University (1947), Bates College (1949), New York University (1950), Russell Sage College (1951), Lafayette College (1957), and Wheaton College (1957).

Shaver suffered a stroke and died soon after on June 28, 1959; she is buried in Texarkana, Arkansas. Her gravestone has the year of her birth as 1897, four years later than her actual birth date. This error apparently was done on the instruction of her sister, Elsie, because the two women enjoyed misrepresenting their ages.
Bibliographic references:
Lord and Taylor advertisement in: Museum of the City of New York, Paris, and New York. Design Fashion Culture 1925-1940 Monacelli Press, 1928, p. 166;
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Freda Diamond Collection, circa 1945-1984 (AC0616)

Estelle Ellis Collection, 1944-1994, #423, Brownie Wise Papers, circa 1928-1968 (AC0509) California Shop Records, 1938-1942 (AC0572)

Setting the Precedent: Four Women Who Excelled in Business, featuring Freda Diamond, Estelle Ellis, Dorothy Shaver, and Brownie Wise.
Related Artifacts:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds artifacts relating to S. Newman Darby and his invention of the windsurfer, including an original board, boom and mast, and sail dating from 1964. See accessions #1998.0086 and #1998.0323.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Museum's Division of Home and Community Life by Dorothy Shaver's sister, Elsie Shaver, in 1973.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original audio acssettes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Costume design  Search this
Women in business -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
78 rpm records
Phonograph records
Professional papers
Citation:
Dorothy Shaver Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0631
See more items in:
Dorothy Shaver Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep846b248bb-7d72-45b7-94c6-78a9533028f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0631
Online Media:

The "American Look"

Collection Creator:
Shaver, Dorothy, 1893-1959  Search this
Collection Donor:
Shaver, Elsie  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1930s-1959
Scope and Contents:
This subseries includes newspaper clippings, advertisements, press releases, correspondence, and speeches related to Shaver's promotion of American fashion designers and the "American Look" as a fashion trend. Materials in this series are arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original audio acssettes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Dorothy Shaver Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0631, Subseries 2.2
See more items in:
Dorothy Shaver Papers
Dorothy Shaver Papers / Series 2: Professional Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89d156da0-02b6-4d07-bc34-28b506708f4b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0631-ref128

Society of American Fashion Designers, Incorporated,1955

Collection Creator:
Shaver, Dorothy, 1893-1959  Search this
Collection Donor:
Shaver, Elsie  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 40
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original audio acssettes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Dorothy Shaver Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Dorothy Shaver Papers
Dorothy Shaver Papers / Series 3: Social and Professional Activities
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86ee53b74-16d1-4f22-b728-a313b406f309
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0631-ref256

Straight Lines and Shorter Skirts for Summer Wear. [photonegative]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Boston (Mass.) -- 1920-1930
Massachusetts
Date:
5/26/1926
Scope and Contents:
Caption: "Boston, Mass - Cotton frocks, with shorter skirts and straight lines are in vogue for summer wear, according to a style show held in Boston. The frocks shown were designed by Mrs. Mabel Tiffany, New York fashion designer who used Massachusetts materials - left to right - the Misses Ruth Farrar, Peggy Hall, Helen Mann, Mildred Farrar, Grace Tuernay and Faye Lahey."
Local Numbers:
RSN 18423

Video number 17745
General:
Company catalog card included.
Currently stored in box 3.1.71 [227B].
U&U caption in file box:1942-A204.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clothing and dress -- Massachusetts  Search this
Dress -- Massachusetts  Search this
Fashions -- Massachusetts  Search this
Models (Persons) -- Massachusetts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1920-1930 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass.
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 18413-18537
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep810cdb939-a199-467e-b5ff-9f479bcf3923
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref14848

Straight lines and shorter skirts for summer wear. [Non-stereo photonegative]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 4".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Boston (Mass.) -- 1920-1930
Massachusetts
Date:
05/26/1926
Scope and Contents:
Caption: "Boston, Mass - Cotton frocks, with shorter skirts and straight lines are in vogue for summer wear, according to a style show held in Boston. The frocks shown were designed by Mrs. Mabel Tiffany, New York fashion designer who used Massachusetts materials exclusively. Photo shows some of the models as displayed at the show."
Local Numbers:
RSN 18425
General:
Company catalog card included.
U&U caption in file box: 1943-A204.
Currently stored in box 3.1.71 [227B].
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clothing and dress -- Massachusetts  Search this
Dress -- Massachusetts  Search this
Fashions -- Massachusetts  Search this
Models (Persons) -- Massachusetts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1920-1930 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass.
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 18413-18537
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8219fbf59-d1c9-4c06-9814-bae28ae17263
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref14850

Miss America 1951 Papers

Creator:
Betbeze, Yolande  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Sports, Entertainment and Leisure  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (8 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings
Awards
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Date:
1910 - 2003
Summary:
Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America in September, 1950. During and after her reign she was influential in both the Civil Rights and Feminist movements. Her papers document her reign as Miss America, her life after Miss America, and the Miss America pageant itself.
Scope and Contents:
Scope and Content: This collection documents the life of Yolande Betbeze who reigned as Miss America 1951. Though the collection focuses heavily on the year of her reign from September 1950 to September 1951, it also includes information about her life before winning the Miss America pageant, the Miss Alabama and Miss America pageants of 1950, and her life post-Miss America. Visual imagery in the collection documents life and fashion in the 1950s through 2000. Newspaper articles offer evidence of the culture of the 1950s. This collection contains newspaper clippings, magazine articles, photographs, awards, and memorabilia of Miss America pageants throughout the twentieth century in the form of booklets, brochures, and paper dolls.

Series 1, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated, includes newspaper articles, magazine articles, and awards from the House of Representatives, programs and brochures relating to Ms. Betbeze's activities as Miss America. All publicity articles—whether promotional or editorial-are included in this series. Betbeze traveled extensively during her reign, and her trips are documented here. Also included in this series are her visits to military installations, promotion of Miss America pageant sponsors, promotion of her own opera career, and most importantly her verbal attacks against the objectification of women in pageants while she wore the Miss America crown.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated,

includes newspaper clippings about Betbeze during her reign as Miss America, documenting nearly every event she attended and delving into her love life and home life. The clippings are arranged by month and year from September 1950 through September 1951. The newspaper articles from Betbeze's reign that are without a date are arranged by topic behind the dated clippings. This subseries also includes several articles published in magazines about Betbeze during her reign. The articles are arranged in chronological order by year behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Awards, 1950, includes awards given to Betbeze by the House of Representatives after she was named Miss America in Atlantic City, as well as an award by the town of Chickasaw naming Betbeze an honorary citizen.

Subseries 3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951, includes mini-photo books of Betbeze from her reign as Miss America, as well as pageant programs from pageants she attended as Miss America. It also includes programs and brochures of events she attended and participated in as Miss America, such as her Coronation Ball and a Symphony in Fashion runway show. The materials are arranged with the photograph books first, followed by pageant programs, then programs from various events.

Subseries 4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951, includes promotional advertisements for Nash Automobile, the Official Car Company of Miss America, and Everglaze Fabric. These advertisements are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, includes material relevant to Betbeze's reign as Miss America, such as her schedule book from September 1950 to September 1951 and a 1994 interview regarding her life, her reign, and her beliefs. The materials are arranged in chronological order by year.

Series 2, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, undated, documents Betbeze's life after her reign as Miss America through newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and Betbeze's copy of pageant judging guidelines for Miss America 1957. It also documents the changing view of women from the 1950s through the turn of the twenty-first century. Betbeze pursued a career in opera after Miss America, but this career ended with her marriage to Matthew Fox. Materials also relate to her marriage to Matthew Fox, her relationship with Cherif Guellal, her life in Georgetown in Washington D.C in the 1960s, and her participation in later Miss America pageants.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated, includes newspaper clippings and magazine articles about Betbeze after her reign as Miss America. They document her relationships, lifestyle, causes, and career. The clippings are arranged chronologically by year. The magazine articles are arranged chronologically by decade behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957, comprises of Betbeze's copy of judging guidelines from the 1957 Miss America Pageant. It includes a schedule of events and the judging criteria for each woman, illustrating the changing perception of women in the United States of America from the 1950s through the twenty-first century.

Series 3, Photographs, 1950-2000, undated, documents Betbeze's life from the 1940s to the turn of the twenty-first century. It includes several photographs from her childhood and teen years. The majority of the series focuses on her reign as Miss America, including photos of her travels, glamour photos, publicity photos, and candid shots. It also includes photographs of Betbeze after her reign. There are negatives for several of the photographs. Photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950, contains Betbeze's life as a teenager and the Miss Alabama pageant. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated, provides visual evidence enhancing the printed materials in the other series. It includes photographs of Betbeze's travels throughout the United States, Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It also includes glamour photographs, candid shots, and publicity events that she attended as Miss America. There are a few photographs of her in a swimsuit. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 3, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, includes photographs of Betbeze in later life, especially at Miss America pageants in the 1990s. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Series 4, Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated, documents the institution of the Miss America Pageant and its development throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. It includes memorabilia from Atlantic City, the pageants, and Miss America advertisements. It includes official pageant yearbooks and correspondence to Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary of Miss America, including a booklet about the pageant. It also includes Miss America Through the Looking Glass (1985), a book documenting the Miss America Pageant from its inception to the 1980s.

Subseries 1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003, comprises of Official Pageant Yearbooks. They illustrate the changing fashions and culture surrounding the pageant. They are arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated, consists of memorabilia of the Miss America Pageant and Atlantic City. The materials include a package for a hairnet from the 1920s, advertisements using the Miss America label for Lucky Strike cigarettes, sheet music for the Miss America and Miss Alabama official songs, Miss America Through the Looking Glass, various stickers advertising the pageant and Atlantic City, Miss America paper dolls, cards and postcards. The memorabilia is arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995, includes correspondence between pageant directors and Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Miss America Pageant, as well as a brochure about the pageant. The materials are arranged by type; first is the correspondence regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary, then the brochure advertising Miss America.

Series 5, Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated, documents life behind-the-scenes through telegrams and letters from friends and fans, invitations and Betbeze's schedule book as Miss America. It includes magazine articles and newspaper clippings from her pre-Miss America years, and the layout of an interview she gave in 1994.

Subseries 1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated, consists of personal letters between Betbeze and her friends, including Lenora Slaughter, the head of the Miss America Pageant when Betbeze was Miss America. It also includes fan-mail and autograph requests. The correspondence is arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 2, Telegrams, 1950-1951, consists of telegrams that Betbeze received as Miss America. They consist of well wishes for her reign, birthday, and Christmas. The telegrams are arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950, consists of newspaper clippings and magazine articles saved by Betbeze. They include reviews of her performance as Musetta in La Boheme in Mobile in 1949 and articles about Matthew Fox. The clippings are arranged chronologically by month and year. The magazine articles are arranged by year behind the newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
Tyhe collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated

Subseries 1.1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 1.2, Awards, 1950

Subseries 1.3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1994

Series 2: Post Miss America, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957

Series 3: Photographs, 1950-2000, undated

Subseries 3.1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950

Subseries 3.2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3, Post Miss America Reign, 1951-2001

Series 4: Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated

Subseries 4.1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003

Subseries 4.2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated

Subseries 4.3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995

Series 5: Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated

Subseries 5.1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 5.2, Telegrams, 1950-1951

Subseries 5.3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950
Biographical / Historical:
Yolande Betbeze, Miss America 1951, was born in 1929 in Mobile, Alabama. Her mother was of Basque ancestry, so Yolande ended up with a foreign sounding name and dark European looks, quite different from the general populace of Mobile. Early on she aspired to become a famous opera singer, and took voice lessons throughout her teenage years. In 1949 she starred as Musetta in Puccini's La Boheme, through the Mobile Opera Guild.

In 1950, Yolande entered the Miss Mobile Beauty Pageant, hoping to win and continue to state and national levels to receive a scholarship to study voice in New York City, or even abroad. When she entered the pageant she gave her age as 21, but at her next birthday in late 1950 (presumably her 22nd) she confessed that she had lied about her age. Really, she was 20 when she entered the Miss America pageant, and this was her 21st birthday. She was crowned Miss Mobile, then Miss Alabama. In September 1950, she made her way to Atlantic City to compete for the title of Miss America. Newspapers in Alabama raved about her. Even journalists in the north predicted that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. In an interview, pageant director Lenora Slaughter says that from the moment she saw her she felt that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. During preliminaries, Yolande won first place in the swimsuit competition, while Miss Connecticut won first place in the talent competition. Nonetheless, Yolande wowed them with her singing. When she won the title of Miss America, her schedule quickly filled with singing engagements.

On September 9th, 1950, Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America. She became an overnight success due to her grace, poise, beauty, and talent. However, she had received an education at a convent school, and felt a bit squeamish about 'cheesecake poses' in a bathing suit. Every Miss America had done a swimsuit tour, even though it wasn't in their contracts that they must, and Yolande was expected to follow in their footsteps. But she wanted to be an opera star, not a pin-up girl, she declared. After winning Miss America, she refused to pose in a swimsuit unless she was going swimming.

The Catalina Swimwear Company, a sponsor of the Miss America pageant, did not like Yolande's stance on swimsuits. They contended that the Miss America pageant had become less focused on the beauty of the contestant and more on their talents and personality. They wanted to bring beauty back. They pulled their sponsorship and created a new pageant line which now includes Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA. This pageant focuses only on the physical beauty of a competitor. Even today there is no talent portion, and even the interview portion has been diluted.

Another issue of the Miss America pageant involved the marriage of a Miss America. Though Yolande had no plans to marry, or even a boyfriend, the papers certainly wanted to know the details surrounding her love-life and ability to marry with the title Miss America. Yolande explained that she received an extra $4000 for staying single throughout the year, but if she wanted to marry she could ask permission from the 18 pageant directors. "Wouldn't it be easier to wait a year?" she asked.

Her year as Miss America was an eventful one. She traveled throughout the United States, the Bahamas, Mexico, France, and Italy. She met with Congressmen, foreign leaders, opera stars, and famous fashion designers. According to Lenora Slaughter, Yolande had the fullest schedule of any Miss America to that date. Everyone agreed that she had put class into the Miss America pageant.

After her reign, she was succeeded as Miss America by Colleen Kay Hutchins, originally Miss Utah. The two became friends and Yolande was in Colleen's wedding some years later. Yolande took up philanthropic causes—fighting for racial equality in the pageants, for instance. She also marched in civil rights demonstrations, participated in sit-ins, and marched in a feminist demonstration in Atlantic City. In 1954 she married a motion picture and television producer, Matthew Fox. They had one daughter before his death in 1964. After she was widowed, Yolande moved to Georgetown in the District of Columbia, where she lives to this day.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Miss America 1943 [Jean Bartel] Photographs, 1943-1944 (AC0902)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry, Natiuonal Museum of American Historu holds artifacts related to this collection: the Miss America crown, scepter, and sash of 1950-1951, worn by the donor, and the Miss Alabama sash and Miss America ribbon of 1950-1951.
Provenance:
Donated by Yolande Betbeze in 2005.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings -- 20th century
Awards
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Miss America 1951 Papers, 1949-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0888
See more items in:
Miss America 1951 Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep831c413c2-0f80-442d-96bb-d1c263de59a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0888
Online Media:

Designers

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1950-1980
Scope and Contents:
Comprise of materials documenting the creative work of American, French, and Italian clothing designers dating from circa 1890-1970s. Materials include couture, ready-to-wear clothing, and costumes for film and theater productions. Fashion designers include Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973), Coco Chanel (1883-1971), Claire McCardell (1905-1958), and Paul Poiret (1879-1944). There are also materials representing time periods of fashion design including La Belle Époque (1890-1914). The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the designer followed by collections representing the 1920s-1960s.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0752, Subseries 8.3
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e6278267-66cf-4c3b-adf9-d2e27818b914
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref949

Great fashion designers, 1920s

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Container:
Box 88, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion / 8.3: Designers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8715aecaf-ddff-45a4-b1d2-38b701d5be3f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref957

Great fashion designers, 1930s

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Container:
Box 88, Folder 10-11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion / 8.3: Designers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8be6945fa-8345-46ce-959b-7c2ea5d85490
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref958

Great fashion designers, 1940s

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Container:
Box 88, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion / 8.3: Designers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8037ef155-9bf9-4f7f-a86f-794c78d9ed30
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref959

Great fashion designers, 1950s

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Container:
Box 89, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion / 8.3: Designers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8eeb65b3f-29fc-447c-831e-1ae0ad8e5086
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref960

Great fashion designers, 1960s

Collection Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Container:
Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection / Series 8: Clothing and Fashion / 8.3: Designers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83a1e4cb2-7402-4521-ab4c-a1e352448483
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0752-ref961

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Missing Title

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82872300c-a4e2-4b50-bc09-a07880235215
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Online Media:

Priscilla of Boston Collection

Creator:
Kidder, Priscilla C. (costume designer)  Search this
Priscilla of Boston.  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Clippings
Tear sheets
Correspondence
Sketches
Date:
1940-1996
Summary:
This collection includes letters, sketches, style books, publicity photographs, tearsheets, articles and clippings, scrapbooks, and business documents relating to Priscilla Kidder, the Priscilla of Boston Company, and the American wedding industry. This collection is extraordinarily useful in documenting the development of wedding fashion during the last half of the 20th century. It also illustrates how a small, family-owned, woman-run business grew into a large, nationally known operation.
Scope and Contents:
The primary material in this collection consists of a few letters, mostly relating to fashion shows; photographic portraits of Priscilla Kidder, possibly from her days as a bridal gown model; sketches; and three different types of style books, one for store buyers containing information on ordering and on the various product lines, one for sales associates containing information helpful in selling the gowns and measuring and fitting the client, and one for factory Afloor girls" containing information about the construction of the gowns. Some of the style books were used by the company as "chicken books", i.e., annotated with scratch marks to indicate quantities of orders in each style, which designs were taken off line, etc. They also contain information on type of fabric and ornamentation used, yardage, measurements, available sizes, color, where advertised, and a brief description of each gown. These are arranged by line (i.e., Priscilla, Teeny, Contemporary Romantic) and thereunder by design number. Additionally, the collection contains some assorted internal business documents, but these are merely samplings of different kinds of company records and do not form a cohesive record of the business. The majority of the collection consists of secondary material from the 1950s to the 1990s, including publicity photographs, tear sheets from magazine advertising, newspaper clippings, and scrapbooks containing additional tear sheets and clippings and articles.

This collection is extraordinarily useful in documenting the development of wedding fashion during the last half of the 20th century. It also illustrates how a small, family-owned, woman-run business grew into a large, nationally known operation.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into ten series.

Series 1: Letters

Series 2: Items related to Priscilla Kidder

Series 3: Design sketches

Series 4: Style books

Series 5: Publicity photographs

Series 6: Advertising tear sheets

Series 7: Articles and clippings

Series 8: Scrapbooks

Series 9: Assorted business documents

Series 10: Miscellany
Biographical / Historical:
Priscilla Kidder actively participated in every aspect of the wedding industry for almost fifty years. She was a nationally known figure whom journalists often referred to as the "Dior" of bridal design. Priscilla Comins Kidder was born in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1918. After finishing high school she opened a small yarn shop in the community. After completing her education in retail design at the New England School of Design, she took a job at R.H. White's department store in Boston, Massachusetts. At R.H. White's she worked her way up from model to sales associate to assistant buyer in the bridal department.

The limited selection of bridal gowns available to women in the early 1940s moved Priscilla Kidder to leave R. H. White in 1945 to start her own bridal salon, which would offer a broader selection of bridal lines to a variety of brides. With the help of her husband, who became the financial consultant, she opened "The Bride's Shop" at 129 Newbury Street. It grossed $10,000 in its first week of business.

Priscilla of Boston Company grew at a rapid pace, and quickly established a national reputation. The company prided itself on innovation, and its designers blended ongoing fashion trends with classic looks to create various dress styles. One difference which distinguished Priscilla of Boston gowns from those of other bridal manufacturers in the 1940s was the decoration on the gowns. Wedding gowns at that time tended to be simple without a substantial amount of ornamentation. Priscilla was the first designer to use large amounts of lace to decorate her gowns.

Over the years Priscilla of Boston has had numerous bridal lines, in addition to the custom work that the company continued to do. In addition to the "Priscilla" line, the company started the "Betsy" line, named for Priscilla Kidder's daughter, which was created in 1960 for the woman who wanted an inexpensive dress. The "Teeny" line, later renamed the "Petite" line, was a more sophisticated title, created for the small woman. The most recent line created, in 1980, was the "Contemporary Romantic" line, a less formal gown for the refined woman. Priscilla of Boston also designed dresses for bridesmaids, mothers of brides, and debutantes.

Priscilla of Boston grew quite large, with stores and factories in Massachusetts and New York. Despite the growth of the business, which at one point manufactured more than two thousand dresses a month, the company always maintained a small, personal atmosphere. The company did not unionize, but instead functioned on a profit-sharing basis. Mrs. Kidder continuously attempted to influence the bridal industry in the United States. She stressed running a business that focused on New England morality and maintaining its family atmosphere. Priscilla Kidder also believed that a bridal showroom should hire a consultant who was near the age of the brides-to-be and was a person whom the customers could relate to.

Priscilla Kidder, along with her sister Natalie, designed the bridal gowns for the company when it first opened in 19434. She soon turned the duty over to a small team of designers. Priscilla Kidder's favorite designer was John Burbidge. His preference for elaborate gowns matched Priscilla Kidder's taste. Although she stopped designing, she stayed involved in the creative process, overseeing each sketch. Priscilla also was directly involved with the stores that marketed her gowns. She traveled throughout the United States to hold fashion shows or visit showrooms. On these trips she advised brides on how to make their weddings the most special day of their lives. She kept a high profile in the media and she created a distinctive image for herself that helped sell her products.

Among Priscilla Kidder's many accomplishments are: being chosen to design Grace Kelly's bridesmaids' gowns for her wedding to Prince Rainier in 1956; having one of her gowns selected by Luci Baines Johnson for her 1966 wedding; and designing Julie Nixon's bridal gown in 1968 and Tricia Nixon's in 1971. Priscilla Kidder credits herself with three innovations within the bridal industry. She was the first to create a petite line for the smaller woman. She also introduced gowns with pale pink coloring beneath the white fabric for a trompe l'oeil effect, and introduced a style with silk shantung. In 1993 Priscilla Kidder sold her family business to Priscilla Kaneb.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Priscilla Kidder, founder of Priscilla of Boston, December 17, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wedding costume -- 1940-2000  Search this
Women in business -- 1940-2000  Search this
Women costume designers -- 1940-2000  Search this
Fashion design -- 1940-2000  Search this
Costume design -- 1940-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Tear sheets -- 1940-2000
Correspondence -- 20th century
Sketches -- 1940-2000
Citation:
Priscilla of Boston Collection, 1940-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0557
See more items in:
Priscilla of Boston Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a211c23d-8122-4736-b8b6-84ea7d267552
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0557
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 1: Business Ephemera

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1,108 Cubic feet (consisting of approximately 2,050 of boxes, approximately 336 oversize boxes, map case material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Business records
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Date:
circa 1544-1988
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years.

Series 1 is organized into two sub-groups. The first is divided into 468 subject categories. The second sub-group is divided into 68 geographical categories.

An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.
VERTICAL FILES:
This material makes up the largest portion of the collection currently contained in approximately 2,050 vertical document boxes. It consists of bills, receipts, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, advertising cards, trade catalogues, calendars, greeting cards, business cards, timetables, labels, handbills, photographs, lithographs, certificates, fans, newspaper clippings, envelopes, bookmarks, cigarette cards, stock cards, election literature, menus, sheet music, postcards, playing cards, posters, scraps, stickers, rewards of merit, maps, printed advertisements, application forms, and an assortment of other types of business ephemera. The material dates from the late eighteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries.

The material is organized into two sub-groups. The first is divided into 468 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. Within the subject categories, the material is organized by company where applicable or type of material. Subject categories which have been fully organized, re-housed, and described are followed by an asterisk (*). A scope and content note, folder list, and a list of subject terms for the processed subject categories is available. Many of the subjects also have brand-name indexes that are available in the Archives Center.

The second sub-group is divided into 68 categories and consists of materials arranged by geographical areas. The geographical areas include regions, states, cities and countries. Materials consists of bills and receipts, printed advertisements, maps, tourist handbooks and guides, photographs, etc. These materials remain largely unprocessed and written descriptions are not available.
OVERSIZE:
This material makes up a substantial portion of the collection currently contained in approximately 336 oversize boxes and 34 map case drawers. It consists primarily of posters, newspapers, point of purchase displays, packaging, printed advertisements, illustrations from periodicals, lithographs, labels, shipping documents, promotional items, trade catalogs, pattern sheets, maps, art reproductions, fashion design drawings, membership certificates, photographs, broadsides, price lists and an assortment of other types of business ephemera. The material dates from the mid-nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries.

The material is arranged in alphabetical order in the same subject and geographical categories as materials in the Business Ephemera Vertical Files. Within a few of the subject categories, the material is organized by company if there was enough material to warrant it. These materials are housed in map case drawers, and 20x24 and 14x18 flat oversize boxes. Further descriptions and container lists for the oversize materials are available in the reference room.

Many of the materials are extremely fragile and require careful handling. Assistance from the reference archivist is highly recommended. Photocopies may not be made of the oversize materials due to size and condition. It is advisable to consult the notebooks containing black and white prints of collection materials. Photocopies of these prints can be made instead of the original materials. Researchers may request photographs, slides or transparencies from the Office of Printing and Photographic Services using existing negative numbers.
Arrangement note:
Arranged in 2 subseries.

1.1: -- Subject Categories

1.2: -- Geographical Categories
General note:
(*) Categories organized and described in Scope Content Notes and Container Lists available in the Archive Center.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Series 1: Business Ephemera forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana .

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060, was purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Select Sears, Roebuck & Co. catalogs restricted due to fragile condition. Researchers should consult microfilm in NMAH library for 1880-1983 editions, drawer 692.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Business records
Ephemera
Ephemera -- 20th century
Ephemera -- 19th century
Printed ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d2b8907c-2fd0-499d-908d-e0966c278231
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1,150 Cubic feet (approximately. Series 1 contains approximately 1108 cubic feet consisting of approximately 2050 boxes, approximately 326 oversize boxes, and map case material. Additional material in Series 2-4 is unquantified. With also, some digital images of select collection materials.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Letterheads
Advertisements
Maps
Business ephemera
Calendars
Trade cards
Broadsides
Ephemera
Stationery
Advertising cards
Sheet music
Photomechanical prints
Sales catalogs
Chromolithographs
Place:
business ephemera -- Adirondack Mountains (N.Y.)
Albany (N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1708-1977
Scope and Contents:
The Warshaw Collection consists of approximately 1,150 cubic feet of material currently contained in approximately 2,050 vertical document boxes, approximately 326 flat oversize boxes, 34 map case drawers of oversize materials, 56 volumes of photographic photo prints, 17 boxes of 4 x 5 color transparencies and black and white photonegatives, 11 boxes of stereographs, and a videodisc. It consists of a large body of business ephemera. Ephemera is used to refer to the transient everyday items which are usually printed on paper however in some cases fabric, leather and wood have been used. This material is manufactured for a specific limited use and then meant to be thrown away. The collection also contains samples of ephemera that were meant to be saved for a short period of time and discarded later such as stock certificates. This material dates from the late eighteenth century to about 1977, but the bulk of the material is late from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

The largest advertising history collection in the Archives Center, the Warshaw Collection is organized into five major categories: I. Business Ephemera -- - Vertical Files, II. Business Ephemera - - Oversize, III. Other Collection Divisions, IV. Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers and V. Photographic Reference Materials. Scope and content notes and a detailed description of the contents for all of these divisions are found in the following sections of the register.

Series 1: Business Ephemera, circa 1724-1977, makes up the largest portion of the collection. It is divided into 538 subject and geographic categories created by Mr. Warshaw and is contained in 2,050 vertical document boxes. Materials include vast numbers of advertising cards, scraps, stock cards, trade catalogs, price lists, menus, pamphlets, labels, lithographs, photographs, business letterheads, bills, receipts, greeting cards, post cards, calendars, printed advertisements, periodicals, newspaper clippings, broadsides, shipping documents, handbills, premiums, promotional items, announcements, business cards, packaging and point of purchase displays.

II. BUSINESS EPHEMERA - - OVERSIZE FILES, ca. 1850-1960, consists of approximatley 326 flat oversize boxes and 34 map case drawers of materials. Materials include posters, newspapers, point of purchase displays, packaging, printed advertisements, periodical illustrations, lithographs, labels, shipping documents, promotional items, trade catalogs, pattern sheets, maps, art reproductions, fashion design drawings, membership certificates and price lists. The material is organized by the same subject and geographical categories as materials in the vertical document boxes.

III. OTHER COLLECTION DIVISIONS, ca. 1790-1957, represents a significant accumulation of one type of material rather than a mix of various types of ephemera. Materials generally relate to one subject. Most of the material is stored in flat oversize boxes. Materials include cinema lobby cards, fire insurance maps, photographs and scrapbooks of liquor and wine labels.

IV. ISADORE WARSHAW PERSONAL PAPERS, ca. 1917-1966, consists of three document boxes of materials relating to how Mr. Warshaw maintained the collection as a business. Most of this material is correspondence sent to him in response to his research inquiries. A smaller portion of the material is printed advertisements and circulars created by Mr. Warshaw to advertise his services and the collection. Magazine articles, letterhead stationery and photographs make up the remainder of the material.

V. PHOTOGRAPHIC REFERENCE MATERIAL, consists of photographs, slides and transparencies of items found in the collection. These materials were created for a number of purposes. Some were created in response to requests by researcher for images to be used in publications, exhibitions, and for other purposes. Others were created as a quick reference source for researchers. Several thousand photographic images from the Warshaw Collection were also transferred to an experimental videodisc by the Institution's Office of Photographic and Printing Services (OPPS). The videodisc is available for viewing on equipment in the Archives Center.

Use of the prints, slides, and videodisc reduces wear and tear on the collection, permits rapid searching through many images, and assures the researcher - - in most cases that a photographic negative of transparency already exists, and that copies can be reproduced relatively quickly and inexpensively. Searching the collection's photographic reproductions is especially appropriate for researchers who want to see general images of subjects such as "women in advertising" or an advertisement from a particular year.

The Warshaw Collection originally contained books, three-dimensional objects and food crate labels. Those books that did not directly relate to the collection were transferred to the Smithsonian Libraries. Remaining publications are stored in the Business Ephemera-Vertical Files document boxes within the appropriate subject category.

Mr. Warshaw collected three-dimensional objects to illustrate packaging, to convey information about product content, shape and size, and to document advertising in three-dimensional forms. Such items included hair product packaging, games, patent medicine containers, cosmetics, tobacco tins, food containers, and liquor bottles. There were also a number of objects, mostly made of glass, tin, and wood, including trays and stained glass signs advertising products such as patent medicine, tobacco, phonographs, refrigerators, stoves, hair products, meat, agricultural tools and implements, whiskey, bakery goods, and beer. Some of these objects were framed. All these objects have been transferred to the appropriate divisions in the Museum. Information on the locations of these items can be obtained in the Archives Center reference room.

Food crate labels were once an important advertising device. Used to develop loyalty to particular growers, these labels were appealing because of the commercial artwork. Some of the labels were mounted on wood. These labels also were transferred to a curatorial unit. The un-mounted labels are in the "foods" section of the Business Ephemera - - Vertical Files.

Research Strengths and Limitations

The strength of the Warshaw Collection lies in its size, its variety, and its extraordinarily rich visual imagery. These images illustrate how Americans perceived themselves or wished to be perceived, how they saw others, their work patterns, their recreation habits, and other aspects of American culture from the late eighteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. They provide an alternative source to written and printed historical materials, sometimes conveying information about values and practices not otherwise documented. These images stand as a powerful reminder that the origins of modern, visual mass communications go much farther back than the invention of television.

Most of the imagery, of course, is a vision of American life as seen through the eyes of advertising agencies and of the businesses they represented. Researchers working with the collection find it an especially rich source for examining the dynamic relationship between advertising and American culture over the centuries.

There are some problems, however, interpreting American culture through these materials. Most of the advertisements in the collection represent Anglo-American mainstream culture. African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and members of other ethnic groups are only occasionally depicted in the advertisements. Much of this imagery is stereotypical and fails to recognize ethnic groups as consumers. Despite these limitations the ethnic imagery offers penetrating insights into American culture and its changing values and tastes. The Archives Center's Ethnic Imagery Project has identified thousands of items within the Warshaw Collection, and in other Center collections, which depict race and ethnicity. The Project also is seeking to expand the range of such imagery within the Center's collections to provide a better rounded view of how Americans see themselves and each other.

There are few indications in the collection of consumer response. The materials mostly consist of end products, what customers received. Testimonials and celebrity endorsements are among the materials but do not constitute a large portion of it, nor do they appear in every subject category. There is also little documentation on the success or failure of advertisements. Evidence about advertisers' decisions to use specific advertisements is extremely rare.

There is no complete history of any one company represented in the collection. For many of the businesses, the material consists of fragments of the advertising materials created to sell their products or services. Biographical information on founders or the early developments of the company may be included on letterhead stationery or bills and receipts but not always. Occasionally one finds company publications that discuss the history of the business. These were usually produced for anniversaries and more often for larger companies that had existed for a long time, such as Proctor & Gamble.

Most of the businesses represented in the Collection were east of the Mississippi River. This is probably due to the collecting possibilities for Mr. Warshaw. It also may be due to the concentration of many industries in this region.

Despite its limitations, the Warshaw Collection is the most heavily used collection in the Archives Center. Researchers in the Collection often find information unavailable elsewhere. Researchers in the Collection have included academic historians, Smithsonian curatorial staff , and outside museum staff interested in the collection for exhibition purposes. Smithsonian Shops buyers and others interested in motifs for licensed products, collectors and hobbyists find the collection a rich source for such research.
Series 1: Business Ephemera:
Dates -- circa 1544-1988

Contents -- Series 1: Business Ephemera1.1: Subject Categories1.2: Geographical Categories
Series 2: Other Collection Divisions:
Dates -- circa 1850-1957

Contents -- Series 2: Other Collection Divisions2.1: Business Records [Obsolete as of 2017]2.2: Cinema Lobby Cards2.3: Fire Insurance Maps2.4: Liquor and Wine Labels and Advertisements2.5: Photographs2.6: Stereographs2.7: Sheet Music2.8: Rewards and Wanted Posters
Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers:
Dates -- circa 1917-1966

Contents -- Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers3.1: Correspondence3.2: Secondary Writings about Warshaw and the Collection3.3: Business Materials3.4: Miscellaneous
Series 4: Photographic Reference Material:
Dates -- undated

Contents -- Series 4: Photographic Reference Material4.1: Photoprints4.2: 35mm color slides4.3: Color transparencies4.4: Videodisc
Arrangement note:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Biographical / Historical:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana is the result of the foresight and energy of Isadore Warshaw. Warshaw believed that the history of America was closely tied to the history of American business. He observed, however, that the business community often looked to the future rather than the past and tended not to retain historical company records. As a result, a number of businesses had no coherent record of their past. Warshaw realized that these records could be of value one day.

"Sonny" Warshaw, as he was known to family and friends, was born June 12, 1900 and reared in Albany, New York, the second youngest of ten children of Rubin and Ray (Mackler) Warshaw. Although he received little formal education, he started in business as a book scout in 1915 searching for rare publications for dealers and collectors. Later he became a rare book dealer and collector himself. His hobbies included sketching and painting, and several pieces of this self-taught artist's work were exhibited in local banks.

Warshaw's interest in collecting business ephemera began in 1928 when an important event inspired him. In the process of searching for books, he often ran across various pieces of ephemera. In these posters, labels, ledgers, invoices, calendars, business cards, correspondence on letterhead stationery, and advertising cards, he could see the romantic side of big business. One day he ran across an invoice signed by John Forsythe, founder of a New York haberdashery, and sent it to the store. In reponse, he received a thank-you note along with an invitation to select six shirts in appreciation for the item he found. This combination of events encouraged Warshaw to begin a lifelong mission. He opened an office at 61 Columbia Street in Albany, New York, announcing to the business community that he had their history and would make it available.

In 1942, Isadore Warshaw moved from Albany to New York City where he opened an office at 752 West End Avenue. In 1944, he married Augusta Levy, a former buyer for a group of women's ready-to-wear shops in Miami, Florida. They had no children. A portion of their apartment was used as an office where Mrs. Warshaw handled all the correspondence. The Warshaws lived with the fear of a fire destroying the collection because this was their sole source of income. Insurance companies informed them that in order to insure the collection, each piece would have to be counted. As a result, the collection was never insured. A fire did occur once in the building but only a small portion of their vast holdings suffered from smoke damage.

Warshaw spent a great deal of time at the New York Public Library, museums, and historical societies, gathering ideas and information relating to his business pursuits. He never referred to his time spent researching and collecting as a hobby. As his business began to grow, he relied on as many as forty scouts across the country to hunt for material. He acquired material from companies going out of business, buildings about to be demolished, garage sales, auctions, antique shows, stamp dealers and collectors, old safes, small country merchants, and bookstores. He also advertised in catalogues for the book industry throughout the country.

Warshaw's approach at first was to purchase pieces of Americana in hope of finding a buyer. He mailed thousands of advertisements to his five hundred corporate clients. Rejected items went to a brownstone building that he referred to as his warehouse. Warshaw later discovered that there was more profit in renting materials or selling reproduction rights to the very materials he had once carted away. Companies rented objects or entire packaged displays to commemorate anniversaries, for sales conventions, annual reports, trade shows, lectures, and window displays. A few of his major clients included Johnson & Johnson, Kaiser Steel Company, the Riegel Paper Company, the American Can Company, and the Western Electric Company. Reward posters and gold-rush prints were used as props for TV westerns.

Warshaw used the collection to do various kinds of research for a number of businesses. Sometimes he investigated the history of a firm to supply it with founding dates. He found evidence of expansion and product diversification in various documents in the collection. For example, company records showed that Procter and Gamble began as a soap and candle manufacturer before it expanded to a wide variety of products.

Warshaw also had clients outside the business community. Members of the legal profession relied on his collection for various purposes. Lawyers contacted him when they wanted to convert personal property from estates to cash, and he also served as an expert witness, providing evidence in disputes involving trademarks, copyrights, and slogans.

American Heritage, Life, and other publications wishing to illustrate articles found graphics in the collection. Warshaw swapped items with local libraries and historical societies. Joseph N. Kane used the collection to document information for his book, Famous First Facts. Commenting on the many uses of his collection, Warshaw stated:

I have been fortunate. As a collector of things that now document the rapid growth of industry, I have been able to find wide use for my collection. People are beginning to realize that while the romance of war, fashion and science, for instance, is well preserved in swords, wax dolls, and fascinating models...the romance of business in the form of ledgers, sample books, posters, and tin cans tends to perish in debris. Now people come to me to illustrate histories and to get pictures of things as they were.

As Warshaw aged, he began to look for a buyer for the collection. Ralph M. Hower, at one time a professor of business at Harvard, recommended that the collection be purchased and indexed by the Baker Library at Harvard's Business School. He regarded it as a wealth of evidence on such topics specialization, diversification, and integration of business firms and the location of trade and industry.

Discussions about the Warshaw Collection among the staff of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (then the Museum of History and Technology) began in 1961. The primary reason for the Museum's interest in purchasing the collection was to prevent the dispersal of a unique resource that could never be assembled again. In the opinions of Smithsonian staff, it provided evidence of things that could be found nowhere else.

Although negotiations for buying the collection and bringing it to the Museum began in 1966, the collection was not actually purchased and transported to the Museum until August 1967. Warshaw had moved his business several times and at the time of the sale, it was located in three rooms on the second floor of 270 West 96th Street in New York. Packing the collection took four days and it was transported to Washington by two tractor trailers.

When the collection arrived at the Museum, it consisted primarily of advertising ephemera. There were also a number of three-dimensional objects, including shoes, clothing, jewelry, furs, ashtrays, coffee and tobacco tins, carpets, patent medicines, cosmetics, hair products, paperweights, whiskey bottles, and food packages. The collection was divided into hundreds of subject headings created by Warshaw. Some of Warshaw's personal papers revealing his business transactions were included, as well as advertisements used by Warshaw to solicit business from manufacturers and retailers. Most of the rest of Warshaw's own papers were destroyed by Mrs. Warshaw when she left New York in 1973.

Following the sale of the collection to the Museum, Warshaw found himself unable to relinquish his life's work. He continued to do research for a number of old clients, relying on such sources as the public library, historical societies, collectors, and dealers in this type of material. In the process he acquired additional material. The volume of this portion of the collection was equal to the size of a station wagon. It was offered to the Museum by Mrs. Warshaw in 1971, and Museum staff went to the New Jersey home of Mrs. Warshaw's brother to pick up the new collection in November 1971.

Curators from the Museum were encouraged to spend time with the collection after its arrival to determine its content in their subject areas. At that time the collection was stored in shirt boxes. Efforts were made to put the materials in vertical document boxes, keeping them in the subject categories created by Warshaw. As time went on, it was clear that the method used by Warshaw was not adequate for research use. Warshaw located materials by hunch rather than by system and there was little cross-referencing in the collection. Not only was it inaccessible to outside researchers, but many of the objects were fragile and required more protection than they had in their original storage containers.

When the Archives Center was established in 1982, it was intended to be a repository for documents and other archival material in the Museum, assuring proper storage and a place where researchers could come to use collections.

The Warshaw Collection was one of the greatest concerns of the Archives Center because of its heavy use. In 1983 the Archives Center and the Division of Conservation worked together to develop a plan to integrate archival principles with conservation methods and techniques, thus taking the first steps in creating a re-housing project.

The first part of the re-housing project began with a survey of the collection to analyze content and condition of the materials. Faith Zieske, a conservator, conducted the survey. She chose a standard statistical analytical method, randomly using 70 vertical document boxes as samples, to analyze the entire collection. Zieske consulted both the Library of Congress Preservation Office and the conservation staff of the Folger Shakespeare Library. A plan was then developed for implementing the survey. After examining the results of the survey, Zieske developed a phased plan for reorganizing and preserving the collection.

Conservation technician Carolyn Long and museum specialist Lorene Mayo began the pilot project in the summer of 1983, testing recommendations made in the survey. During this period Long wrote guidelines for handling the collection. Long and Mayo also developed new storage containers for housing objects of unusual shape.

As the re-housing project developed, finding aids were created for the processed portions of the collection. This was a crucial step that allowed staff and researchers to find items without actually going through the collection. Archives Center staff continue to develop means of making the collection more accessible to researchers who come to the Museum to use the collection, as well as to increase awareness of the existence of the collection in the research community outside the Museum.

List of Sources

"Cashing In On Old Office Records." Business Week, (December 6, 1958).

"A Glimpse at Industrial Advertising of the 80's." Industrial Marketing, (February 1946).

Interview by Vanessa Broussard-Simmons with Mrs. Augusta Levy Warshaw and Correspondence in Control File for Warshaw Collection.

Kahn, Joseph. "Trademark Detective: The Colorful Past of American Business is the 'Beat' of a Sleuth Who has Pioneered a New Kind of History." The Rotarian, ( December 2, 1957) .

Kramer, A. Stanley. "What's Old on Madison?" Madison Avenue. (March 1961).

Menuez, Caroline Bird. "There's Gold in Your Attic." Esquire, (1946).
General:
Several specific companies or proprietors repeatedly appear in various subseries of this collection. These records were dispersed through many subseries and prior arrangement efforts, including those done by the collector as well as post-acquisition staff, which focused on a category or business name of the vendors rather than retaining the record source original provenance and order. As of 2016, there is not a plan to cull through the collection and reconstitute such records, however if such an effort was made, it would likely result in reasonably comprehensive business records for several entities. A few have been noted here but an exhaustive survey of the collection in regards to the this trend of dispersal has not been conducted.

Jacob House (occasionally with variant spellings), which often account for some of the earliest business record within the Warshaw Business Americana Collection, particularly those documents dating in the 1700s and early 1800s.

Luddington, F.L. ... (see Hardware)

Stemmeler...(see Whiskey...)

[Note to be completed, NB 2016-10-18]
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Provenance:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060, was purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Sears, Roebuck & Co. catalogs restricted due to fragile condition. Researchers should consult microfilm in NMAH library for 1880-1983 editions, drawer 692.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Insurance, Fire -- Maps  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Fires -- Insurance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters
Letterheads
Advertisements
Maps
Business ephemera
Calendars
Trade cards
Broadsides
Ephemera
Stationery
Advertising cards
Sheet music
Photomechanical prints
Sales catalogs
Chromolithographs
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84ef31afc-ceb9-48ed-be87-c53687e41549
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060
Online Media:

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