Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
United States -- Southeast -- artifacts
Scope and Contents:
Includes specimen numbers and notes. The material was collected in the South from whites and Indians, including Choctaws and Catawbas. Also includes transmittal letter, Cyrus Thomas to Spencer F. Baird, November 21, 1884.
Photographs of skulls in the United States Army Medical Museum collection, which appear to have been collected for physical anthropological purposes. Included are archeological remains and remains of historical American Indian tribes and some other ethnic groups. Other than tribe or location, data for the specimens include Army Medical Museum specimen number, AMM negative number, and sex; for some, there is also collection data and information on physical or medical conditions. There are also notes identifying donors who included army officers, physicians, scientists, and explorers such as Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, Edward Palmer, Frederic Ward Putnam, George Rolleston, Paul Schumacher, and many others. Some of the photographs may have been made as part of the Army Medical Museumʹs program of distributing images of its specimens.
Represented are Africans, Chinook, Choptank, Dakota, Eskimo of Greenland, Taiwanese peoples, Hawaiians, Hidatsa, Nisqually, Philippine peoples, Ponca, Potowatomi, Pueblo, Tonkawa, and Ute. Archeological specimens are from the Aleutian Islands, California, the Dakotas, England (Roman period), Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, Peru, Vancouver Island, and Vermont. For some, there is also information about the status or physical condition of the individual or observations of medical conditions shown in the specimens. Some additional photographs appear to show specimens at the American Museum of Natural History.
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased American Indians. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-26C, NAA Photo Lot 73-26D
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in Photo Lot 73-26D have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 73-26C. These are also Army Medical Museum negatives of skulls and form part of this collection.
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6A, Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo lot 73-26C, United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
One drawing on one leaf of unruled paper. The drawing depicts two men wearing breastplates. One of the men is wearing face paint and holding a mirror board. The other man is wearing a set of hairplates. The drawing is inscribed "Drawings Made by a Comanche Indian" and "Presentd by Dr E Palmer".
Biographical / Historical:
In 1868, Dr. Edward Palmer was hired to serve as the agency physician at the newly established Kiowa and Comanche Agency in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Palmer and the rest of the agency personnel set out in January, arriving in the vicinity of Ft. Cobb on February 19th. The agent, Colonel Leavenworth, dismissed Palmer on May 4th, complaining that he spent too much time collecting zoological and botanical specimens and not enough tending to the medical needs of the Kiowa and Comanche. Following his dismissal, Palmer took up residence at the adjacent Wichita Agency. In early June, Palmer received word that some of the Kiowa and Comanche were plotting to kill him. Consequently, he left the Wichita Agency and travelled to Cherokee Town. From Cherokee Town Palmer made several excursions to collect specimens. He left Indian Territory in September, arriving back in Leavenworth, Kansas on October 10, 1868. In addition to the zoological and botanical specimens Palmer collected during his stint in Indian Territory, he also acquired ethnological specimens from the Kiowa, Comanche, and Wichita. For further biographic information, see Rogers McVaugh, Edward Palmer - Plant Explorer of the American West, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, pp. 35-40. For additional information on the ethnological materials Palmer collected in 1868, see Candace Greene, Southern Plains Graphic Art before the Reservation. American Indian Art Magazine 22(3):49, 1997.
OPPS NEG 91-2261
OPPS SLIDE 91-2261
NAA INV 08500400
OPPS NEG BAE 1781
NAA MS 127601
The drawing was created in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). It was likely collected somewhere between Fort Cobb and the Wichita and Kiowa and Comanche agencies in Eureka Valley (Anadarko, Oklahoma). The date and place of creation were assigned based on information regarding Dr. Palmer's travells in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). This information was drawn from: Rogers McVaugh, Edward Palmer - Plant Explorer of the American West, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, pp. 35-40. pp. 35-40.
United States Oklahoma.
United States Indian Territory.
Manuscript 127,601, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution