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Oral history interview with William Morris, 2009 July 13-14

Interviewee:
Morris, William, 1957-  Search this
Morris, William, 1957-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Benaroya, Jack  Search this
Benaroya, Rebecca  Search this
Campbell, Joseph  Search this
Carpenter, James  Search this
Chihuly, Dale  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Graves, Nancy Stevenson  Search this
Hauberg, John H. (John Henry)  Search this
Hydman-Vallien, Ulrica  Search this
Jung, C. G. (Carl Gustav)  Search this
Karan, Donna  Search this
Kirkpatrick, Joey  Search this
Libenský, Stanislav  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin  Search this
Lipski, Donald  Search this
Mace, Flora  Search this
Marioni, Dante  Search this
Moore, Benjamin P.  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis  Search this
Pfaff, Judy  Search this
Saxe, Dorothy  Search this
Saxe, George  Search this
Scanga, Italo  Search this
Seguso, Livio  Search this
Signoretto, Pino  Search this
Smith, Kiki  Search this
Stroemple, George R.  Search this
Tagliapietra, Lino  Search this
Vallien, Bertil  Search this
California State University, Chico  Search this
Central Washington University  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.)  Search this
San Carlos Borromeo Basilica (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
British Isles -- Description and travel
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Glass artists -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15699
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)283555
AAA_collcode_morris09
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_283555
Online Media:

Jack Tworkov papers, circa 1926-1993

Creator:
Tworkov, Jack, 1900-1982  Search this
Tworkov, Jack, 1900-1982  Search this
Subject:
Forge, Andrew  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Katz, Paul  Search this
Herzbrun, Helene  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Bartlett, Jennifer  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Ashbury, John  Search this
Cézanne, Paul  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio  Search this
Calfee, William H. (William Howard)  Search this
Blinken, Donald M.  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Praeger, David A.  Search this
Westenberger, Theo  Search this
Summerford, Joe  Search this
Thorne, Joan  Search this
Matter, Herbert  Search this
Lindeberg, Linda  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Newman, Michael  Search this
Wise, Howard  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Yunkers, Adja  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Egan Gallery  Search this
Stable Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Nancy Hoffman Gallery  Search this
Leo Castelli Gallery  Search this
Poindexter Gallery  Search this
Zabriskie Gallery  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Topic:
Painting -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13402
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211452
AAA_collcode_tworjack2
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211452
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Morris

Interviewee:
Morris, William, 1957-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
California State University, Chico -- Students  Search this
Central Washington University -- Students  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.)  Search this
San Carlos Borromeo Basilica (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
Benaroya, Jack, 1921-2012  Search this
Benaroya, Rebecca  Search this
Campbell, Joseph, 1904-1987  Search this
Carpenter, James, 1949-  Search this
Chihuly, Dale, 1941-  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Graves, Nancy Stevenson, 1940-1995  Search this
Hauberg, John H. (John Henry), 1916-  Search this
Hydman-Vallien, Ulrica, 1938-2018  Search this
Jung, C. G. (Carl Gustav), 1875-1961  Search this
Karan, Donna, 1948-  Search this
Kirkpatrick, Joey  Search this
Libenský, Stanislav, 1921-2002  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Lipski, Donald, 1947-  Search this
Mace, Flora, 1949-  Search this
Marioni, Dante, 1964-  Search this
Moore, Benjamin P.  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Pfaff, Judy, 1946-  Search this
Saxe, Dorothy  Search this
Saxe, George  Search this
Scanga, Italo, 1932-2001  Search this
Seguso, Livio, 1930-  Search this
Signoretto, Pino, 1944-  Search this
Smith, Kiki, 1954-  Search this
Stroemple, George R.  Search this
Tagliapietra, Lino  Search this
Vallien, Bertil, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 wav files (5 hr., 5min.), digital)
105 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
British Isles -- Description and Travel
Date:
2009 July 13-14
Scope and Contents:
An interview of William Morris conducted 2009 July 13-14, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Morris' home, in Stanwood, Washington.
William Morris speaks of his decision to stop working in glass in 2005; his deep connection to the natural world; working now with stone; the longstanding theme of man and nature in his work; his influence on the studio glass movement; use of installations; relationship to the greater art world; Cache [1993]; the importance of working in a team, particularly with Jon Ormbrek; studio practice and philosophy of working in the studio; series Man Adorned and first use of the human form; how his work evolves artistically; the influence of his travels on his work and his particular affinity for Mesoamerican culture; the process of choosing his subjects; growing up in Carmel, California, and frequenting the museum at the Carmel Mission Basilica; his early fascination with Native American artifacts and history in the museum; childhood spent hiking in the hills around Carmel and youth spent camping and rock-climbing; art instruction during childhood; ceramics work in high school; introduction to ideas of Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell by his high school teacher, Lloyd Baskerville; undergraduate work at California State University, Chico, working with Vernon Patrick; first experience with glass in high school, through the Fort Ord military base crafts department; brief studies at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington; arriving at Pilchuck Glass School, Stanwood, Washington, in 1977 as a shop assistant/maintenance person; his first encounter with Dale Chihuly; 10 years as Chihuly's main assistant and de facto apprenticeship; his greater overall technical education at Pilchuck; the development of his own team as he continued to work with Chihuly; working with Chihuly and Italo Scanga; the synergy of working in a group and artistic cross-pollination at Pilchuck; the influence and mentorship of Judy Pfaff; working with Italian glass masters at Pilchuck; the influence of Pino Signoretto; his trip with Chihuly to the British Isles, which inspired his series Stone Vessels and series Standing Stones in the mid-1980s; his practice of working in series; series Petroglyph Vessels, and the beginning of narrative in his work; the importance of naiveté, experimentation, and a "confidence in innocence"; series Artifacts; the influence of Donald Lipski on Morris' installations; series Burial Urns and series Burial Rafts; series Canopic Jars; commissions for George Stroemple; the genesis of the series Rhyton; the transcendental/mythic qualities in his work; series Crow and Raven; more discussion of series Man Adorned; series Rattles; collaboration with fashion designer Donna Karan; the importance of glass as a material, and the importance of "play"; the value of an apprentice-type program; his work in bronze and with Nancy Graves; series Cinerary Urns and coming to terms with the deaths of close friends; series Mazorca; series Idolo and Idolito; series Native Species (2006); series Fish Traps; more discussion of his decision to leave glassworking; documentary film Creative Nature, 2008; "Myth, Object, and the Animal" exhibition; the adventurous spirit of the American studio glass movement, particularly in the early years; his preference for short workshops rather than longer teaching sessions; the aesthetic continuity of his work throughout his career; his appreciation of the community of collectors of glass art. He also recalls Ken Wiese, Robert and Terrie Kvenild, Bertil and Ulrica Vallien, Gary Galbraith, Stan Price, Dennis Oppenheim, Kiki Smith, Dante Marioni, Livio Seguso, Marvin Lipofsky, Benjamin Moore, Jamie Carpenter, Checco Ongaro, Lino Tagliapietra, Ricky DeMarco, Flora Mace, Joey Kirkpatrick, Trumaine Mason, Karen Willenbrink, Ross Richmond, Randy Walker, John Hauberg, Stanislav Libenský, Graham Graham, Charlie Cowles, George and Dorothy Saxe, and Jack and Rebecca Benaroya.
Biographical / Historical:
William Morris (1957- ) is a glass artist in Stanwood, Washington.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 5 hr., 5 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Glass artists -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.morris09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-morris09

Jack Tworkov papers

Creator:
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Names:
Egan Gallery  Search this
Leo Castelli Gallery  Search this
Nancy Hoffman Gallery  Search this
Poindexter Gallery  Search this
Stable Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Zabriskie Gallery  Search this
Ashbury, John  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Bartlett, Jennifer, 1941-  Search this
Blinken, Donald M., 1925-  Search this
Calfee, William H. (William Howard), 1909-1995  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio, 1904-1989  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter, 1891-1978  Search this
Forge, Andrew  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Herzbrun, Helene  Search this
Katz, Paul  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Lindeberg, Linda, 1915-1973  Search this
Matter, Herbert, 1907-1984  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Newman, Michael  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Praeger, David A.  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Summerford, Joe  Search this
Thorne, Joan, 1943-  Search this
Westenberger, Theo  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Wise, Howard  Search this
Yunkers, Adja, 1900-1983  Search this
Extent:
9.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Date:
1926-1993
Summary:
The Jack Tworkov papers measure 9.7 linear feet and are dated 1926-1993. Tworkov's work as a painter and influential teacher, as well as his personal life, are documented by extensive journals and substantive correspondence that record his ideas about art and teaching, and illuminate his relationships with friends, colleagues, and students. Many sketchbooks, writings, interviews, photographs, and moving images are also included.
Scope and Content Note:
The Jack Tworkov papers measure 9.7 linear feet and are dated 1926-1993, with the bulk from the period 1931-1982. Tworkov's work as a painter and influential teacher, as well as his personal life, are documented by extensive journals and substantive correspondence that record his ideas about art and teaching, and illuminate his relationships with friends, colleagues, and students. Many sketchbooks, writings, interviews, photographs, and moving images are also included.

Biographical material includes Tworkov's citizenship certificate, awards, diplomas, a copy of Jack Tworkov: Video Portrait, produced by Electronic Arts Intermix, and a motion picture film, USA Artists: Jack Tworkov, produced by National Education Television.

Correspondence consists largely of incoming letters. It is both professional and personal in nature and often combines both spheres. Correspondents include artists Jennifer Bartlett, William H. Calfee, Giorgio Cavallon and Linda Lindeberg, Grace Hartigan, Helene Herzbrun (also named Helene McKinsey), Karl Knaths, Joe Summerford, Joan Thorne, and Adja Yunkers; cartoonist Robert C. Osborn; collectors Donald M. Blinken and David A. Praeger (who was also Tworkov's lawyer); illustrator Roger Dovoisin; critics Dore Ashton and Andrew Forge; critic and poet John Ashbury; galleries that represented Tworkov: Egan Gallery, Leo Castelli, Nancy Hoffman Gallery, Poindexter Gallery, Stable Gallery and Zabriskie Gallery; and many museums, arts organizations, colleges and universities.

Interviews with Tworkov include one with Ricky Demarco videotaped in 1979 and two conducted on video by Twokov's daughter Helen in 1975. The remaining interviews are sound recordings, one conducted by Grace Alexander for the show Artists in New York in 1967, one conducted by Michael Newman in 1980, and the remainder by unidentified interviewers. None have transcripts.

All writings are by Tworkov and include poems, an artist's statement, and documentation for two children's books by Tworkov illustrated by Roger Duvoisin. Two additional notebooks contain miscellaneous notes, teaching notes, and some specific to identified courses. Lectures exist as untranscribed sound recordings.

Tworkov's journals (33 volumes) span a period of 35 years, from 1947 until 1982, with the final entry dated a few weeks before his death. They record his reflections on painting, his challenges as a painter, aesthetics, the role of the artist in society, Jewish identity, painters he admired (especially Cézanne and Edwin Dickinson), politics, and teaching. They also recount everyday life: the comings and goings of friends and family members, social engagements, professional activities, illness, and travel.

The lone subject file concerns Mark Rothko and includes a photograph of Rothko and the guest list for the dedication of the Rothko Chapel in Houston.

Artwork consists of a small number of sketches by Tworkov in pencil and ink. Tworkov's sketchbooks (28 volumes) contain sketches and some finished drawings. Most are in pencil, but scattered throughout are a few pencil sketches embellished with colored marker or pastel, and a small number in ink.

Photographs are of people, places and events. Most photographs are of Tworkov alone and with others including Giogio Cavallon, though most friends and students are unidentified. Of note are views of Tworkov producing a series of prints at Tamarind Institute. Also found is an informal portrait of Wally Tworkov. Events recorded include the jurying of "Exhibition Momentum" in Chicago, 1956. Among the places shown are Tworkov's studios at Black Mountain College and in Provincetown. When known, photographers are noted; among them are Paul Katz, Herbert Matter, Arnold Newman, Renate Ponsold, Theo Westenberger, Dennis Wheeler, and Howard Wise.

A separate series of audiovisual recordings was established for those recordings that could not be readily identified to be arranged in other series. They consist of three videocassettes (2 VHS and 1 miniDV).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1933-1981 (Boxes 1, 9, 11, FC 13; 0.7 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1926-1993 (Boxes 1-5; 3.8 linear ft.)

Series 3: Interviews, 1978-1982 (Boxes 5, 9-10; 1 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, Notes, and Lectures, 1955-1982 (Boxes 5, 9; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Journals, 1947-1982 (Boxes 5-7; 2.0 linear ft.)

Series 6: Subject File, 1961-1977 (Box 7; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1952-1981 (Box 7, OV 12; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1950s-1960s (Box 7: 3 folders)

Series 9: Sketchbooks, circa 1950s-1960s (Boxes 7-8, 11; 1.0 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographic Materials, 1941-1981 (Boxes 8-9; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Audiovisual Recordings, 1961-1975 (Box 9; 0.1 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
New York School painter Jack Tworkov (1900-1982), best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings and as a highly regarded teacher, lived and worked in New York City and Provincetown, MA.

At age 13, Tworkov (born Yakov Tworkovsky) emigrated from Poland with his mother and sister to join his father already in the United States. In America, they chose to use the name of distant relatives, the Bernsteins, who were their sponsors. Eventually, Jack and his sister, Janice, reclaimed and shortened their name to Tworkov; later, she adopted the name of their hometown in Poland and became the painter Janice Biala.

As a high school student in New York City, Tworkov attended drawing classes. After graduating from Columbia University, where he had been an English major and considered becoming a writer, Tworkov instead turned to art. He studied with Ivan Olinsky at the National Academy of Design between 1923 and 1925, and from 1925 to 1926 attended painting classes taught by Guy Péne Du Bois and Boardman Robinson at the Art Students League. During his college years, Tworkov began visiting museums and became a great admirer of Cézanne. Tworkov's early paintings - still life, landscapes, and portraits - showed the influence of European modernism and Cézanne.

Tworkov spent his first summer in Provincetown while still a student and subsequently returned to study with Ross Moffet. In Provincetown he met and was greatly influenced by Karl Knaths and developed a lifelong friendship with Edwin Dickinson. By 1929, Tworkov was painting there year round. Over the years, Tworkov and his family continued to return for long stretches, and in 1958 he purchased a house in Provincetown.

During the Great Depression, Tworkov participated in the Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project until 1934, and then moved to the easel division of the WPA Federal Art Project. He felt uncomfortable with the growing ideological and political influences on art and found it depressing to paint for the WPA rather than for himself, so he left the WPA in 1941. Tworkov, who had studied mechanical drawing while in high school, spent most of the War years employed as a tool designer and draftsman at an engineering firm with government contracts.

By the 1940s, Tworkov was painting in the Abstract Expressionist style. Between 1948 and 1953, he leased a studio on Fourth Avenue that adjoined that of his friend Willem de Kooning. During this time, they mutually influenced each other as they developed into mature Abstract Expressionists. At Yale in the 1960s, Tworkov became close friends with fellow student Josef Albers. Alber's influence on Tworkov resulted in a turn to geometric compositions of small, systematic, and repetitive strokes defined by a grid. He experimented with diagonal compositions, and later geometric work that featured large areas of color and soft texture.

Tworkov's first teaching experience was during 1930-1931 when he served as a part-time painting instructor at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. His teaching career began in earnest when he joined the faculties of Queens College, 1948-1955, and Pratt Institute, 1955-1958. During the summers he taught at various schools, most notably Black Mountain College's 1952 summer session. Tworkov was a visiting artist at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture, 1961-1963, and became chairman of its Art Department from 1963 until his retirement in 1969. In retirement he lived in Provincetown and was a visiting artist for both short and extended periods at various universities and art schools.

An avid reader of literature and poetry, Tworkov also wrote poems and essays. He published essays in It Is, Art Digest, and Art In America; his most notable piece, "The Wandering Soutine," appeared in Art News, November 1950. Tworkov also kept a journal for 35 years (1947-1982) that recorded his thoughts on a wide range of subjects concerning professional, personal, and philosophical issues, as well as details of everyday life.

Tworkov was among the founders of the Artists' Club or The Club in 1949, and for a decade actively participated in the stimulating discussions for which the group was known. In 1968 he helped to establish the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown. Its residency program enabled younger artists and writers to advance their careers and kept Provincetown's historic artists' colony active year round.

He was the recipient of the William A. Clark Award and Corcoran Gold Medal from the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1963; Skowhegan School of Art's Painter of the Year Award, 1974; and Distinguished Teaching of Art Award from College Art Association, 1976. Tworkov was appointed to serve on the Massachusetts Art Commission, 1970-1971, and in 1981 was named a Fellow of The Cleveland Museum of Art and of the Rhode Island School of Design.

Following his second divorce in 1935, Rachel (Wally) Wolodarsky became Tworkov's third wife and their marriage endured. They had two daughters. Hermine Ford (b. 1939) is an artist married to fellow painter Robert Moskowitz. Helen Tworkov (b. 1943) is the founder of Tricycle: The Buddhist Review and the author of a book about yoga.

Tworkov remained physically and intellectually active after a diagnosis of bone cancer around 1980, and continued to paint until shortly before his death in Provincetown on September 4, 1982.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are two oral history interviews with Jack Tworkov, one conducted by Dorothy Seckler, Aug. 17, 1962, and another by Gerald Silk, May 22, 1981. There is also a small collection of three letters written by Jack Tworkov to friend Troy-Jjohn Bramberger.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel N70-38 and 62) including writings by Tworkov, notebooks, notes for teaching and talks, notes on art and miscellaneous subjects, poems, artist's statements, biographical data, the transcript of a 1970 interview with Tworkov conducted by Phyllis Tuchman, and a few letters and drafts of letters, 1950-1963. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Jack Tworkov lent the Archives of American Art papers for microfilming in 1970-1971. Jack Tworkov's daughters, Hermine Ford and Helen Tworkov, donated the rest of the collection in 2009, which included some of the material from the original loan.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Jack Tworkov papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painting -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Citation:
Jack Tworkov papers, 1926-1993. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tworjack2
See more items in:
Jack Tworkov papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tworjack2
Online Media:

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