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Glenn Curtiss Early Aviation Photography Collection

Names:
Aerial Experiment Association  Search this
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
Gordon-Bennett Trophy Race  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (4 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Photographs
Date:
bulk 1904-1920
Summary:
Glenn Hammond Curtiss (1878-1930) is best known as an aviation pioneer and inventor and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co. This collection consists of fifty-four images, predominantly photographs printed as postcards. The postcard images feature subjects relating to Glenn Curtiss and his aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of fifty-four images, predominantly photographs printed as postcards. The postcard images feature the following subjects relating to Glenn Curtiss and his aviation career: early Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) and Curtiss aircraft predominantly at Hammondsport, New York (H. M. Benner photographs) but also elsewhere (including one image of flight at Atlantic City dated 1920); International Air Meet (Los Angeles, 1910); US Army airship Signal Corps No. 1 (Baldwin); Gordon Bennett Aviation Trophy; ice boats on Lake Keuka, Curtiss "wind-wagon;" Curtiss motorcycles (with G. H. C. team); Glenn Curtiss with others (including Mrs. Curtiss, Louis Paulhan); group photographs which probably show Curtiss employees; and informal Curtiss family photographs.

All images have received minimal subject headings, but only some have had additional captions added.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The fifty-four photographs have been assigned "7A" image numbers. They are arranged in numerical order (some images were assigned multiple numbers). Some photographs are in sleeves that hold two images.
Biographical / Historical:
Glenn Hammond Curtiss (1878-1930) is best known as an aviation pioneer and inventor and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co. Initially a bicycle repairman and designer, by 1902 Curtiss had begun to manufacture motorcycles using a lightweight internal combustion engine of his own design and founded the Curtiss Manufacturing Co. By 1904, Curtiss' engine had been co-opted by Thomas Baldwin for his airship experiments. This activity led to a connection between Curtiss and Alexander Graham Bell and, in 1907, to the foundation of the Aerial Experiment Association. In 1909, Curtiss joined with Augustus M. Herring to form the Herring-Curtiss Co to manufacture powered vehicles, but Herring's unsubstantiated claims to priority over the Wright Brother's aeronautical patents led to the Wright and Curtiss patent suits which continued until the merger of Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor with Wright Aeronautical in 1929. Curtiss and Herring split after the Wright's filed suit and Herring sued Curtiss, claiming that Curtiss had failed to turn his air race winnings over to the company. Despite these, and other, suits, Curtiss continued to advance the cause and technology of aviation, founding the first public flying school (1910) and later a chain of schools across the US, inventing the aileron (1909), the dual-control trainer (1911) and the hydroaeroplane (1911). In 1920, Curtiss retired from active aviation pursuits.
Provenance:
Unknown - found in collection, Unknown, Unknown, NASM.XXXX.0682.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Curtiss, General, Aircraft  Search this
Motorcycles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Photographs
Citation:
Glenn Curtiss Early Aviation Photography Collection, Acc. XXXX.0682, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0682
See more items in:
Glenn Curtiss Early Aviation Photography Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2023f4685-37d6-45b6-873e-8e124d7a36d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0682
Online Media:

Roger B. Whitman Early Aviation Photograph Collection

Creator:
Whitman, Roger B.  Search this
Names:
Blériot, Louis, 1872-1936  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Farman, Henry  Search this
Latham, Hubert  Search this
Paulhan, Louis  Search this
Whitman, Roger B.  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet ((7 folders))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1909-1911
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 163 photographs, collected by Whitman, covering early aviation activities in predominantly the United States and France. Aircraft manufacturers represented include: Wright, Curtiss, Bell, Bleriot, Antoinette, Deperdussin, Farman, Voisin, and other American, French, and British designers of the period 1909-1911. The following events are represented: 1909, 1910 Grande Semaines d'Aviation, 1910 Quinzaine de la Baie de la Seine, 1909 meet at Blackpool England and the 1910 meets at Belmont Part Long Island, Nice and other locations. Flights represented include: Bleriot's Channel flight, Latham's flight over San Francisco and flights in and around New York and Paris. Aviators represented include: the Wright Brothers, Henry Farman, Louis Bleriot, Hubert Latham, Glenn Curtiss, Louis Paulhan, and other French and American pilots.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Roger B. Whitman Early Aviation Photograph Collection is arranged in its original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Roger B. Whitman was a prominent photographer who maintained a lifetime love of aviation. During World War I he was in the Air Service and established the first school of aerial photography. Whitman was later the Associate Editor of the American 'Country Life.'
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Herbert S. Whitman, Gift, 1979, XXXX-0517, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Bell Aircraft Family  Search this
Bleriot Aircraft Family  Search this
Curtiss, General, Aircraft  Search this
Antoinette Aircraft Family  Search this
Voisin Aircraft Family  Search this
Deperdussin Aircraft Family  Search this
Aeronautics -- France  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Roger B. Whitman Early Aviation Photograph Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0517, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0517
See more items in:
Roger B. Whitman Early Aviation Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg284134629-0b53-4d30-a905-807791b1a73d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0517
Online Media:

Golden flyer march two-step by F.H. Losey

Author:
Losey, F. H (Frank Hoyt) 1870-1931  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond 1878-1930  Search this
Pfeiffer, E. H  Search this
Bella C. Landauer Collection of Aeronautical Sheet Music (Smithsonian Institution. Libraries) DSI  Search this
Subject:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond 1878-1930  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond 1878-1930 Associated objects  Search this
Physical description:
5 pages of music 36 cm
Type:
Songs and music
Portraits
Advertisements
Sheet music covers
Sheet music
Place:
United States
Date:
1910
1901-1910
1910-1920
Topic:
Biplanes  Search this
Dance music  Search this
Marches (Piano)  Search this
Popular instrumental music  Search this
Curtiss No. 1 (Airplane)  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
American  Search this
Call number:
M1 .B4
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_982963

King of the air march and two step by Julius K. Johnson

Author:
Johnson, Julius K  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond 1878-1930  Search this
Artcraft Cleveland Co  Search this
Bella C. Landauer Collection of Aeronautical Sheet Music (Smithsonian Institution. Libraries) DSI  Search this
Subject:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond 1878-1930  Search this
Physical description:
5 pages of music 36 cm
Type:
Songs and music
Portraits
Pictorial works
Advertisements
Cityscapes
Sheet music covers
Sheet music
Place:
United States
Date:
1910
1901-1910
1910-1920
Topic:
Air pilots  Search this
Dance music  Search this
Marches (Piano)  Search this
Popular instrumental music  Search this
Hudson Flyer (Airplane)  Search this
Biplanes  Search this
American  Search this
Call number:
M1 .B4
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_982297

Charles M. Manly Papers

Creator:
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Names:
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Adler, Cyrus, 1863-1940  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Lahm, Frank Purdy, 1877-1963  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Myers, Carl, 1842-1925  Search this
Post, Augustus  Search this
Walcott, Charles D. (Charles Doolittle), 1850-1927  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Clippings
Notebooks
Date:
1895-1925
bulk 1903-1915
Summary:
This collection consists of material relating to Manly's aeronautical career, specifically his work with Samuel Langley's Aerodrome. The material consists of programs, publications, newspaper clippings, work notebooks, waste books, (mostly letterpress) and correspondence between Manly and the aviation and Smithsonian communities, circa 1885-1925. Correspondents include the following personalities: Glenn Curtiss, Carl Myers, Charles Walcott, Frank Lahm, Cyrus Adler, Augustus Post, and Samuel Langley.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material relating to Manly's aeronautical career, specifically his work with Samuel Langley's Aerodrome. The material consists of programs, publications, newspaper clippings, work notebooks, waste books, (mostly letterpress) and correspondence between Manly and the aviation and Smithsonian communities, circa 1885-1925. Correspondents include Samuel Langley, Charles Walcott and Richard Rathbun of the Smithsonian; Cyrus Adler, Glenn Curtiss, Benjamin D. Foulois, Carl Myers, Frank Lahm, and Augustus Post. Of particular interest is the correspondence between Manly and Smithsonian Secretary Charles Walcott on Manly's work on the preparation of the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight for publication between 1908 to 1911; and his correspondence with Glenn Curtiss concerning the test flights of the rebuilt Great Aerodrome on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York, in 1914, and the resulting controversy between the Smithsonian and Orville Wright.

Researchers may also wish to consult the National Air and Space Archives Division's Samuel P. Langley Collection (Accession No. XXXX-0494), and these collections held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.
Arrangement:
The Charles M. Manly Papers are organized in three series:

Series I --Letter Copy Books and Notebooks

Letter copy books were used to make and preserve copies of letters and memoranda --one placed a sheet of oiled paper under a page of the copy book, dampened the tissue copy page, then laid the original letter in the book under pressure for a few seconds. The quality of the copies ranges from quite readable to very faint. Because of the fragility of the paper, Archives Division staff should be consulted before working with the material.

The two notebooks in the series (Folder 4) were carried by Manly in his day to day work on the Aerodrome project and contain his notes on the progress of the work.

Series II --Correspondence

Letters in this series are arranged by year.

Series III --Additional Material

Newspaper clippings, Manly Family records, a photograph of Langley's Aerodrome No.5 in flight, and miscellaneous material.
Biographical/Historical note:
On May 9, 1898, Smithsonian Secretary Samuel P. Langley wrote to Professor Robert Thurston of Cornell University, looking for a "young man who is morally trustworthy ('a good fellow') with some gumption and a professional training" to serve as Langley's assistant in his aeronautical work. Thurston recommended a senior majoring in electrical and mechanical engineering, Charles Matthews Manly (1876-1927) of Staunton, Virginia. Langley hired Manly and placed him in charge of the construction of his Great Aerodrome, the large manned aircraft being built under the sponsorship of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortification. One of Manly's main contributions to the project was his vastly improved redesign of Stephen M. Balzer's five-cylinder water-cooled radial gasoline engine. Manly piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two unsuccessful launch attempts in 1903. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. Manly served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911. Manly was granted over fifty 50 patents relating to automotive transportation, power generation, and transmission. In 1929, Manly was posthumously awarded the Langley Medal for outstanding aeronautical achievements.
Provenance:
Brian Bailey, gift, 1998, 1999-0004, deed pending.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Test pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Clippings
Notebooks
Citation:
Charles M. Manly Papers, Acc. 1999-0004, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsoinan Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0004
See more items in:
Charles M. Manly Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg214f16918-98d9-4f0a-8bf0-5d29f0e8fd55
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0004
Online Media:

Rutha Curtiss Diary

Creator:
Curtiss, Rutha  Search this
Names:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
bulk 1909-1910
Scope and Contents:
This collection is a diary kept by Rutha in 1909 while she was teaching at the Institute. She often mentions her brother Glenn and his activities.
Biographical / Historical:
Rutha Luella Curtiss (b. 1881) was the younger sister of Glenn Hammond Curtiss. When she was 6 years old, she fell victim to meningitis, and although she recovered, she lost her hearing in the process. Glenn helped her with finger-spelling and lip-reading and in 1889 the family moved to Rochester so that she could attend the Western New York Institute for Deaf Mutes. In 1897, Rutha became a boarding student there when her family moved again. When she graduated, she continued at the school as a teacher until 1915 when she married Augustus Hesley. In 1918 the couple moved, with Rutha's mother Lua Curtiss, to California. When Lua later decided to move to Miami, she again persuaded Rutha to join her, this time leaving her husband to do so, although the two were never actually divorced.
Provenance:
Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Citation:
Rutha Curtiss Diary, Accession XXXX-0690, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0690
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a8a34e51-3a66-4450-8e22-07c3d60263b5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0690

James S. Stephens Photograph Collection

Creator:
Stephens, James Shand, 1860-  Search this
Names:
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Stephens, James Shand, 1860-  Search this
Stinson, Katherine  Search this
Stinson, Marjorie  Search this
Woodruff, Frank  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (4 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1910-1929
bulk 1910-1920
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following four series of early aviation photographs collected by James Stephens: five photographs of Katherine and Majorie Stinson; 33 photographs relating to the Goodyear Blimp and the construction of a blimp hangar; 25 photographs relating to Glenn Curtiss and Frank Woodruff; and 47 continental aviation photographs depicting air shows and expositions in Monaco, Madrid and Paris, -- these images were taken by a French agency and have French captions inscribed verso. Unfortunately, there are no photographs of Stephen's inventions included in this collection.
Biographical / Historical:
James Shand Stephens (1860 - 192?) was an early pioneer in aviation in the Midwest. Born in Nova Scotia, Canada, Stephens was educated as a professional engineer and worked as a mechanical engineer for several companies in Canada and the United States, including the White Bear Power and Light Company; the Hamm Brewing Company; the Milwaukee Railroad; and he served as chief electrician at the Columbia Exposition of 1892. After 1910, Stephens devoted most of his time to aeronautics. Stephens was an officer of the Illinois Aero Club, an editor of 'Aerial Age,' and also helped plan the International Aviation Meet in Grant Park (1911) and the Gordon Bennett Aeroplane Race (1912). Stephens was also the inventor of the Steco Aerohydroplane as well as the Steco Cyclecar. Stephens designed the Steco Aerohydroplane in 1909-1910, built it in 1911, and made the final assembly and mounted the engine in 1914. After the aircraft's test flights in July, 1914, it was dismantled and stored.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Robert H. Adams, Gift, 1996, 1997-0011, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions -- Monaco  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions -- Madrid  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions -- Paris  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1997.0011
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21cfe5d34-3d5d-4702-9c75-9d0e6d8882d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1997-0011

Harvard Boston Aero Meet Photographs

Creator:
Foxworth, Thomas G.  Search this
Names:
Harvard Boston Aero Meet  Search this
Baldwin, Thomas  Search this
Brookins, Walter, 1889-1953  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Foxworth, Thomas G.  Search this
Graham-White, Claude  Search this
Harmon, Clifford  Search this
Roe, A. V.  Search this
Willard, Charles Foster  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Negatives
Date:
1910
Summary:
This collection consists of 118 photographic prints copied from Thomas Foxworth. The images include the field, aircraft, aviators, and spectators at the Harvard Boston Aero Meet.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 118 photographic prints copied from Thomas Foxworth. The images document the field, aircraft, aviators, and spectators at the Harvard Boston Aero Meet.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by the SI (Smithsonian Institution) negative number that was applied at the time of copying.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Harvard Boston Aero Meet was held at the Harvard Aero Field in Atlantic (now Squantum), Massachusetts, September 3-13, 1910. This meet was the second air meet held in the country, and the first on the East Coast. The international contestants raced for money prizes, and the event attracted thousands of spectators, including President Taft. Among the nineteen aviators were: Glenn Curtiss, Charles Foster Willard, A.V. Roe, Claude Graham-White, Clifford Harmon, Walter Brookings, Arthur Johnson, M. Didier Masson, William Christmas, Greely Curtis, and Thomas Baldwin. Air meet competitors challenged each other in nine events: Speed, Altitude, Duration, Distance, Slow Lap, Getaway, Airway, Dropping Bombs on Battle ship, and the Boston Globe Special. Claude Graham-White, an Englishman, was the big winner, netting $22,000.
Provenance:
Thomas G. Foxworth, gift, 1991, 1992.0016, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Negatives
Citation:
Harvard Boston Aero Meet Photographs, acc. 1992.0016, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0016
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg283110f9a-0538-48e3-8572-c46dd1834e0d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0016
Online Media:

Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records - Patent Files

Creator:
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
Names:
Aerial Experiment Association  Search this
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Herring-Curtiss Co.  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Extent:
9 Cubic feet (18 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial records
Drawings
Date:
1906-1947
Summary:
The years before World War I were spent in patent litigation for aviation pioneers Glenn Curtiss and Orville and Wilbur Wright.
Scope and Contents:
The Curtiss-Wright Corporation Archives - Patent Files collection consists primarily of materials relating to patents issued to and maintained by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation and its subsidiaries from the 1910s to the 1950s, though the bulk of the materials pre-date World War II. The majority of the collection is original patent certificates. Other materials include records of litigation proceedings, correspondence, memoranda, aircraft drawings and blueprints, reports, sales brochures, meeting minutes, and annual reports.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in four series: Patents, Patent File Wrappers, Patent Litigation, and Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records. Series I contains original patents and related materials issued or assigned to the Curtiss-Wright Corporation and related organizations. Covering the years between 1911 and 1939, the series is further divided into two subseries: United States Patents and International Patents. Series II consists of file wrappers prepared by the United States Patent Office, containing a complete record of the patent's history. The third series includes materials from Curtiss-Wright's numerous litigation proceedings in defense of its patents. The fourth series contains business records created by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation including photocopies of historic patent and stock documents, division minutes, and reports for the U.S. Navy Department.

Series I - Patents, 1911-1939

Subseries I - United States Patents, 1911-1939

Subseries II - International Patents, 1916-1935

Series II - Patent File Wrappers, 1916-1930

Series III - Patent Litigation, 1916-1947

Series IV - Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records, 1906-1945
Historical Note:
The years before World War I were spent in patent litigation for aviation pioneers Glenn Curtiss and Orville and Wilbur Wright. The Wright brothers claimed wing warping patents and sought to prevent Curtiss and others from manufacturing and selling aircraft and products based on these patents. During World War I, the aircraft manufacturing industry set up the Manufacturer's Aircraft Association, a patent pool in which all participants were allowed to use any patents to build aircraft for the war effort. After the war, Wright Aeronautical Corporation and the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company continued to be major players in the aircraft industry, long after Curtiss and the Wrights ended association with their namesakes.

In 1929, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company merged with the Wright Aeronautical Corporation to form the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. After the merger, responsibility for engine and propeller manufacture was consolidated under the Wright name while Curtiss concentrated on airplanes. Although the two companies were merged by name and under the direction of a corporate headquarters located in New York City, the separation and specialization of the two divisions continued to cause problems for the company. The election of former Wright personnel to key corporate positions soon led to Wright becoming the dominant division. The Great Depression and the collapse of the market for commercial aviation revealed how reliant the aviation industry was on military production. Sales dropped and Curtiss-Wright was forced to close certain satellite plants and transfer some of their product lines to the St. Louis facility.

During the U.S. military build-up prior to World War II, existing Curtiss-Wright plants were expanded and new aircraft factories were built to meet the growing production demand. The company failed, however, to plan for the future after the war. In 1946, Curtiss-Wright had only two experimental military models at hand for postwar delivery and no assurance of production orders. Wright Aeronautical continued to build engines, but was no longer at the forefront of development. The eventual sale of the Airplane Division to North American included design rights to the former Curtiss-Wright airplanes. The Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division, which manufactured airframes, finally closed down in 1951.

The Curtiss-Wright Corporation still exists in the 21st century, but has become a diversified technology corporation in various markets, including aviation and defense.
Provenance:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, gift, 1987.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Patent suits  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records
Drawings
Citation:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation Archives - Patent Files, Acc. 1987-0029, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0029
See more items in:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records - Patent Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2856fe9ac-89f2-4f30-ae6f-ec8eebb8ae47
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0029
Online Media:

Charles F. Walsh Scrapbooks

Creator:
Walsh, Charles, 1877-1912  Search this
Names:
Aero Club of America  Search this
Beachey, Lincoln  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Ely, Eugene.  Search this
Havens, Beckwith.  Search this
Extent:
0.88 Cubic feet (2 flat boxes and 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Tickets
Blueprints
Date:
1903-1945
bulk 1909-1912
Summary:
This collection chronicles the exploits of Charles F. Walsh during the years 1909-1912. There are five scrapbooks and three packets of information.
Scope and Contents:
This collection chronicles the exploits of Charles F. Walsh during the years 1909-1912, including the following: numerous photos of the Walsh 1911 Silver Dart, Curtiss biplanes and aircraft engines; photos of personalities such as Lincoln Beachey, Glenn Curtiss, Thomas Sopwith, Eugene Ely, John McCurdy, and Beckwith Havens; an original drawing of the Silver Dart dated 1908; miscellaneous memorabilia including a business card, tickets to air shows, benefits, and state fairs during 1911-1912; Walsh's Aero Club of California and Aero Club of America licenses; and a ticket to the Panama-California Exposition of 1915.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged according to type of material; albums are arranged according to size of enclosure required to safely house them.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles F. Walsh (1877-1912) is credited with being the first man in California to build a practical flyable airplane, the Walsh 1911 Silver Dart, and received Pilot's License No. 1 issued by the Aero Club of California. Walsh was taught to fly by Lincoln Beachey in 1909, and he quickly gained fame as an aviator, travelling throughout the US and Cuba from 1910 through 1912. Walsh flew as an exhibition pilot for the Curtiss Company and was killed October 3, 1912 when his plane experienced structural failure at Trenton, New Jersey.
Provenance:
Frank E. Martin, Gift, 1968
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Walsh 1911 Silver Dart  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Tickets
Blueprints
Citation:
Charles F. Walsh Scrapbooks, NASM.XXXX.0046, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0046
See more items in:
Charles F. Walsh Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2069a8d52-595a-4d10-b236-a90c4e598b46
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0046
Online Media:

William J. Hammer Collection

Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Names:
Hudson-Fulton Celebration (1909)  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
5.66 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Publications
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1881-1934
bulk 1905-1915
Summary:
The collection is the result of Major Hammer's passion for amassing material related to aeronautics and technology, and it is arranged into eleven series: articles, clippings, correspondence, drawings and blueprints, leaflets, legislation, minutes, miscellaneous, photographs, programs and publications. Housed in 23 folders, the correspondence is the most comprehensive series, reflecting the original order which grouped the letters into series by topic. Much of the correspondence concerns the planning of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration of 1909, and the involvement of Wilbur Wright and Glenn Curtiss. There is also a scrapbook of black and white photographs providing front and side views of specified airplanes. Each page has 3 photos showing different views of the same plane accompanied by a label with additional information. (See written copy for details. Also, please see information written on 8x11 notebook paper.)
Scope and Contents:
The William J. Hammer Collection reflects Hammer's great interest in aeronautics --a passion he cultivated for several decades by accumulating a veritable storehouse of materials. Hammer's important contributions to the early development of aviation are also evident in this collection.

The collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into two series. The first series includes correspondence, reports, handbooks, drawings, brochures, programs, leaflets, magazines, articles, newspaper clippings and miscellaneous materials. The second series is comprised of photographs of various sizes, scrapbooks, scrapbook pages and miscellaneous materials (the front pages of newspapers, certificates, posters, etc.).

Hammer's papers are arranged both chronologically and alphabetically. Correspondence, drawings, brochures, programs, leaflets, miscellaneous materials, scrapbook pages, articles and newspaper clippings are organized by the former method. Reports, handbooks, magazines and booklets are grouped alphabetically by either title of publication or author. Photographs are arranged either by subject or chronologically.

The reader should note that at some point, Hammer produced a series of large format photographs. These mounted photographs are duplicates. Due to the very fragile condition of these particular images, the photographs and are not available to researchers.

Additional photographic material regarding Hammer Collection photographs can be found in the NASM Archives Images database. An Archives staff member will assist you with research using this database.

Box 13 of the William J. Hammer Collection has not been scanned.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The William J. Hammer Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical/Historical note:
William J. Hammer was born in Cressona, Pennsylvania, on February 26, 1858, was an associate of Thomas Edison and an early aviation supporter and enthusiast. He began his career as an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In 1879, he moved on to a new position as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. His duties ranged from aiding in conducting experiments on such devices as the phonograph, telephone and ore separator to acting as Edison's key person in further developing the incandescent electric lamp. By 1880, he was made chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. A year later, Edison dispatched Hammer to London to be chief engineer of the English Electric Light Company. In this position, he helped construct the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This was the first central station ever built for incandescent electric lighting. In 1883, Hammer became chief engineer for the German Edison Company. This task included planning and supervising the construction of all Edison plants in Germany. He returned to the United States late in the following year and acted as chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. In 1886-87, Hammer was general manager and chief engineer of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. In 1888, he worked as an independent engineer and supervised the completion of the then-largest isolated electric lighting plant, located at the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine, Florida. During that year, Hammer also was chosen as consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition. Subsequently, Edison selected him as his personal representative to the Paris Exposition of 1889. This assignment rounded out Hammer's eleven years with Edison. During his time as one of Edison's most trusted and important employees, Hammer devised a number of innovations to the incandescent electric lamp. He designed and built the first electric sign, which spelled out the name "Edison". While in Germany, he invented the automatic motor-driven flashing electric lamp sign. This particular sign flashed the word "Edison" letter by letter and then all at once. At the International Electrical Exhibition, held in Philadelphia in 1884, Hammer also constructed the first flashing column of electric lights.

Upon his return to the U.S. in 1890, Hammer worked as an independent consulting electrical engineer by assisting in a variety of electrical projects, carrying out tests, giving lectures and providing expert testimony in patent disputes. He based this modest enterprise in an office in New York City and continued in this occupation until 1925. His career as an electrical engineering consultant was interrupted by World War I. In June 1918, he was commissioned a major in the U.S. Army. He was assigned to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division of the General Staff in charge of Aeronautical and Electrical Inventions at the Army War College, Washington, D.C.. By December of that year, he was attached to the Operations Division General Staff at the War Department (Inventions Section). During the war and on into 1919, Hammer also worked for the U.S. Patent Office by identifying any aviation-related patents likely to convey too much information to potential enemies. In conjunction with his War Department duties, he acted as a member of the Advisory Board of Experts affiliated with the Alien Property Commission.

Busy as he was with his private consulting work, Hammer also immersed himself in other scientific activities. He took a particular interest in radium after visiting Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris in 1902. The two discoverers of radium gave him some samples of this substance. Soon after returning to the United States, Hammer experimented with radium. His research yielded numerous useful applications for this material such as radium-luminous powders and paints that were used to coat everything from watch and clock dials to aeronautical instruments, switches and toys. Hammer also advocated the use of radium for cancer and tumor treatment. Beyond his interest in this material, he invented selenium light-sensitive cells and recommended many practical uses for them. He also conducted a great deal of laboratory work on X-rays, ultraviolet and cathode rays, phosphorescence and wireless communications. Accordingly, he lectured and published extensively on many of these fields of research and study.

Hand in hand with his overall interest in science and technology, Hammer had a particular passion for aeronautics. Beyond paying careful attention to the rapid progress made in this field at the turn of the twentieth century, he also played an active role as participant and supporter. He made his first balloon flight over France during the Paris Exposition of 1889. His last lighter-than-air journey took place in 1931 aboard the U.S. Navy dirigible Los Angeles. Moreover, he attended and officiated over many balloon, airship and airplane exhibitions and races. Hammer was a member of the Aero Club of America and a director of the Aeronautical Society. This latter group made the first ever purchase of an airplane in January 1909. He served as expert and secretary of the Aeronautics Committee on the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission of 1909 and wrote the contracts for Wilbur Wright and Glenn Curtiss to fly their airplanes for this event. This occasion in New York was important as it marked the first time a large gathering of people in the U.S. witnessed heavier-than-air powered flight. As a friend of the Wright brothers, Hammer testified as an expert witness on their behalf during various patent litigation suits. His contact with aviation pioneers went beyond the Wrights and Curtiss. He also knew and interacted with, among others, Samuel Langley, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Henri Farman and Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin. Even his work with radium had applications for aviation. Hammer developed radium-based luminous compounds and used them on aircraft instruments so pilots could more easily view their cockpits' dials and gauges.

Hammer's last years were filled with serving as Historian General of the Military Order of the World War, as well as participating in many scientific, engineering and aeronautical committees and societies. During this time, he was the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, John Scott Medal from the Franklin Institute and the Cross of the Legion of Honor from France. Up until his death on March 24, 1934, he also labored in his efforts to organize a vast personal collection of rare and valuable scientific artifacts, photographs and other materials accumulated since his days with Edison. Following Hammer's death, this important collection was left in the care of his daughter Mabel (his wife of twelve years, Alice, having died in 1906). Some years later, International Business Machines (IBM) acquired it. In 1962, IBM donated the William J. Hammer Scientific Collection to the Smithsonian Institution. The bulk of the collection resides with the National Museum of American History's Archives Center. In the mid 1980s, the aeronautical portion of this collection was transferred to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives.
Provenance:
IBM (Mr. William J. Hammer Collection), gift, 1961, XXXX-0074, not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Publications
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0074, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0074
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b19d3684-d8df-43fc-ba10-9da9e20ed7c2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0074
Online Media:

Charles F. Willard Biographical Material

Names:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Newspaper clippings
Date:
1909-1977
Summary:
This material relates to the aviation career of Charles F. Willard.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of newspaper articles, correspondence, the publication by Martin Cole and H. L. Schreiner entitled, "Charles Willard: The Exhibition Years," and three photos related to Charles Willard's aviation career.
Arrangement:
No arrangement; just one folder.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles F. Willard (1883-1977) was a pioneer aviator taught to fly by Glenn Curtiss in 1909. Willard participated in the 1910 Dominguez Air Meet, where he won the spot landing award. Among his flying accomplishments was that he was the first to fly in Vermont After his exhibition flying career ended in 1911, he remained involved in aviation as an engineer. He worked for a number of aviation companies, including Wright-Martin Aircraft Aircraft Co; Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co; LWF Engineering Co; and the Aeromarine Plane and Motor Company. He was a founder member of the Early Birds.
Provenance:
Byron Walls, Gift, 2018, NASM.2018.0014
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Charles F. Willard Biographical Material, NASM.2018.0014, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2018.0014
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2082af186-592e-43d2-95f2-dd6452fd0c27
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2018-0014

Premier Naufrage D'Un Hydravion [Henri Fabre] Manuscript

Creator:
Fabre, Henri.  Search this
Names:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Paulhan, Louis  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1966
Summary:
Henri Fabre was an engineer trained at l'Ecole Supérieure d'Electricité who made the first seaplane flight in 1910 in an aircraft he designed and built. This collection consists of a manuscript, entitled Premier Naufrage D'Un Hydravion, by Henri Fabre that contains Fabre's account of flights he made in his seaplanes between 1906 and 1910 as well as information about other seaplanes and flights made in them by other pilots through 1911.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a manuscript, entitled Premier Naufrage D'Un Hydravion, by Henri Fabre. The manuscript is 59 pages long, plus a title page with a preface on the reverse, and is bound inside a glossy cardstock cover with plastic spiral binding. The manuscript is dated March 30, 1966 and is marked No. 16 on the reverse of the last page. Inside the front cover there is a lengthy inscription, in French, from Henri Fabre to the Smithsonian, dated June 2, 1966. The manuscript contains Fabre's account of flights he made in his seaplanes between 1906 and 1910 as well as information about other seaplanes and flights made in them by other pilots through 1911. Most pages are copies of handwritten text and photographs but some pages contain original handwriting. Depicted in the photographs are various aircraft as well as pilots including Fabre, Louis Paulhan, and Glenn Hammond Curtiss. Each page of the manuscript has been translated by an unidentified person and these translations, marked by page number, are included in the collection.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Henri Fabre was an engineer trained at l'Ecole Supérieure d'Electricité who made the first seaplane flight in 1910 in an aircraft he designed and built. Henri Fabre began experimenting with seaplane design in 1906 and patented a system of hollow, wooden floats. After several failed attempts, Fabre succeeded on March 28, 1910 with the 1910 Goeland (Gull) (Canard Seaplane), powered by a Gnome 50 h.p. engine and using the flotation devices he had patented earlier, and made four successful flights and landings from the water on the Étang de Berre. This aircraft was later piloted by Louis Paulhan. Glenn Hammond Curtiss and Gabriél Voisin both used Fabre's floats in their own aircraft. The 1910 seaplane was wrecked in May of that year with Fabre, who was unhurt in the crash, at the controls. Fabre introduced a new version of the Goeland (Gull) (Canard Seaplane) in Monaco in 1911 but it was wrecked there during a series of aquatic races. Fabre subsequently set up a company that supplied his floats to various aircraft manufacturers and also manufactured seaplanes during World War I.
Provenance:
Henri Fabre, Gift, 1966, NASM.XXXX.0933
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Seaplanes  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Fabre 1911 Goeland (Gull) (Canard Seaplane)  Search this
Fabre 1910 Goeland (Gull) (Canard Seaplane)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Premier Naufrage D'Un Hydravion [Henri Fabre] Manuscript, NASM.XXXX.0933, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0933
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2491a55bf-3615-4663-a364-69f1ed0a1a96
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0933

Walter E. Johnson Scrapbook

Creator:
Johnson, Florence  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Thomas Brothers Co.  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Johnson, Walter E.  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet ((1 scrapbook))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Date:
1910-1978
bulk 1910-1915
Scope and Contents:
This scrapbook was kept by Johnson's wife Florence, and is a collection of photographs and newspaper clippings outlining his career. It also contains correspondence written to Mrs. Johnson concerning her husband.
Biographical / Historical:
Walter E. Johnson was a pioneer in early aviation and a World War I aviation instructor. He was also a member of the 'Early Birds,' a group recognized as flying before December 17, 1916. His first job dealing with aviation was working for Glenn H. Curtiss as a mechanic and later flying for the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Elizabeth J. Harrison, gift, 1987, 1987-0068, not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Flight training  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0068
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2c358b209-02fc-42c6-8822-8d92e817ac6e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0068

Signal Corps Photographs

Creator:
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Beachey, Lincoln  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Law, Ruth  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographs
Date:
1908 to circa 1921; bulk date 1921
Summary:
This collection contains two groups of photographs. The first group, mounted on pages removed from a photo album, contains views of aircraft and facilities at the United States Army Air Service Fairfield Intermediate Air Depot, Fairfield, Ohio, circa 1921. The second group consists of loose photographs of aircraft, most of which are historic views of early Aerial Experiment Association and Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company aircraft by photographer Harry M. Benner.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 86 photographs collected by the donor's father, roughly divided into two groups. The first group, most of which is mounted on black paper pages removed from a photo album, shows facilities and aircraft at the Fairfield Air Intermediate Depot in 1921, including aerial views of the field. Many of the aircraft pictured (circa 1918-1921) were undergoing technical assessment by the Army Air Service at nearby McCook Field and Wilbur Wright Field. Several photographs show the wreckage of Dayton Wright DH-4 and Curtiss JN-4D Jenny training aircraft crashed in the local area. Aircraft pictured in this group include Bristol Fighter F.2B (Brisfit) [McCook Field no. P-37], Engineering Division USD-9A (D.H.9) [McCook Field no. P-43], Fokker D.VII (V.18) [McCook Field No. P-108], LePère 11 (C-11, C II, LUSAC 11), Martin (MB-1) MP Mailplane, Martin (Glenn L.) (MB-1) GMB-TA Transatlantic Aircraft, Nieuport 24, Orenco Type B [McCook Field no. P-41], Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a, SPAD XIII (S.13), Standard (NJ) Handley Page O/400 "Langley", Standard (NJ)-Built Caproni Ca.5 Night Bomber, Thomas-Morse S-4C, Verville (Alfred) VCP-R (R-1), and Vought VE-7 [McCook Field no. P-23].

The second, smaller group of photographs consists of historical images (circa 1908-1913) relating to the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, Hammondsport, New York, most of which were taken by Curtiss photographer Harry M. Benner. This group contains photographs of Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) aircraft (the Aerodrome No 1 Red Wing, the Aerodrome No 2 White Wing, the Aerodrome No 3 Loon, the Aerodrome No 4 Silver Dart, and the Cygnet II) and an assortment of Curtiss models, including Lincoln Beachey at the controls of his Curtiss Beachey Special, Curtiss C-2 (AB-2), Ruth Law at the controls of her Curtiss Model D Headless, Curtiss Flying Boat No.2 "The Flying Fish," Curtiss Flying Boat Model F, the twin-engined Curtiss Model H "America" (H-1), Curtiss J (floatplane version), Curtiss JN-2 Jenny, Curtiss NC-1, Curtiss 18-T Wasp (Curtiss-Kirkham), and the Curtiss 1914 Rebuild of the Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A. These widely reproduced images also appear in other NASM Archives collections from the period.
Biographical / Historical:
The Fairfield Aviation General Supply Depot, opened by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in Fairfield (Ohio) in January 1918, was designed to provide supply and logistical support for wartime aviation training operations. The largest of the depot's buildings was constructed around a double spur of track connecting it with the main railroad lines (still in use decades later as Building 1, Area C, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base). As World War I came to a close, the Army Air Service made plans for reducing training operations and managing war surplus materiel; accordingly, in January 1919 they shut down training at adjacent Wilbur Wright Field and shifted control and use of that field to the depot, now renamed as the Wilbur Wright Air Service Depot. In November 1919, the facility was transferred to the Air Service's list of permanent depots and renamed as the Aviation General Supply Depot, Fairfield, Ohio. As post-war demobilization continued, millions of dollars of property flowed into Fairfield from Europe and closed-down Air Service facilities in the continental United States, and a large civilian workforce was hired to deal with the massive influx of materiel. The name changed to Air Service Supply and Repair Depot after an aviation repair unit was transferred to Fairfield in September 1920; the depot's Engineering and Repair Section was tasked with the repair and maintenance of Air Service aircraft and the overhaul of engines. After undergoing four name changes in just over two years, in January 1921 the depot's name and mission as a center for supply and repair was clarified by the War Department with the establishment of four "air intermediate depots" at San Antonio (Texas), Rockwell (California), Middletown (Pennsylvania), and Fairfield, which became the Fairfield Air Intermediate Depot (FAID).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Donald G. Williams, Gift, 1992, NASM.1992.0040
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aerial Experiment Assoc Aerodrome No 3 June Bug  Search this
Aerial Experiment Assoc Aerodrome No 4 Silver Dart  Search this
Bristol Fighter F.2B (Brisfit)  Search this
Curtiss Model H "America" (H-1)  Search this
Curtiss JN-4 Jenny Family  Search this
Curtiss JN-4D Jenny  Search this
Curtiss NC-1 (P2N-1)  Search this
Dayton Wright DH-4  Search this
Fokker D.VII (V.18)  Search this
Handley Page Aircraft Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild  Search this
Martin Aircraft Family  Search this
Royal Aircraft Factory (RAF) S.E.5  Search this
SPAD XIII (S.13)  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Signal Corps Photographs, Acc. 1992.0040, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0040
See more items in:
Signal Corps Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21bf47bee-ee0a-4e28-8a40-6c1868dc07bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0040
Online Media:

Theodore G. Ellyson Correspondence

Creator:
Ellyson, Theodore Gordon, 1885-1928  Search this
Names:
United States. Navy  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Ellyson, Theodore Gordon, 1885-1928  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1911-1914
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of copies of letters written between Ellyson and others concerning then-Lieutenant Ellyson's aviation experiments of 1911-1914. Many of the letters are directed to Captain Washington I. Chambers and include monthly progress reports and travel and expense statements.
Biographical / Historical:
Theodore G. 'Spuds' Ellyson (1885-1928), Glenn Curtiss' first seaplane pupil, became the first United States Naval Aviator. Ellyson flew the first night flight by a naval seaplane (the Curtiss A-1) and the first successful catapult launch from an anchored barge. Commander Ellyson made many significant contributions in naval aviation before his death in 1928, in an airplane crash off Hampton Roads, Virginia.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, unknown, unknown, XXXX-0615, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Seaplanes  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Curtiss A-1 (AH-1) Type  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0615
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28de09e07-aa78-412c-8ce4-2070d321ceff
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0615

James Means Collection

Topic:
Aeronautical Annuals (annual)
Creator:
Means, James, 1853-1920  Search this
Names:
Aerial Experiment Association  Search this
Aero Club of America  Search this
Aero Club of Washington  Search this
Aeronautic Society of New York  Search this
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Jones, Ernest La Rue, 1883-1955  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Lilienthal, Otto  Search this
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 1850-1924  Search this
Maxim, Hiram S., 1840-1916  Search this
Means, James, 1853-1920  Search this
Zahm, Albert Francis, 1862-  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet ((4 legal document boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Publications
Photographs
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Date:
1892-1913
bulk 1895-1897
Summary:
James Means (1855-1920) was an American industrialist who sacrificed his business to devote himself to the promotion of aviation. The collection consists of correspondence, publications, photographs, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence and scrapbooks. The correspondence is arranged into 15 sub-series: Aerial Experiment Association, Aero Club of America, Aero Club of Washington, Aeronautic Society of New York, Aeronautical Annuals, Octave Chanute and his daughters, Glenn Curtiss, House Resolution #7653, Ernest Jones, Otto Lilienthal, Henry Cabot Lodge, Hiram Maxim, Technical Matters, U.S. Signal Corps, and Albert Zahm. Of the three scrapbooks, one is a photograph album containing early glider photos and travel postcards. The second contains photos and news clippings regarding aviation in the 1890's, especially the work of Langley and Maxim with kites, balloons, and aerial bicycles. Clippings are in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German and Dutch. The third scrapbook is labeled 'James Means 1892' and consists of photos, letters, manuscripts, clippings in English and German, copies of legislation, and book excerpts.

Note: The digital images shown for this collection were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product which did not reproduce all materials found in this collection; some items have not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The James Means Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
James Means (1855-1920) was an American industrialist who sacrificed his business to devote himself to the promotion of aviation. Determined to disseminate information on flying, he collected and edited the most significant works of Otto Lilienthal, Octave Chanute, Samuel Langley and others, producing the 'Aeronautical Annuals' which appeared in 3 volumes in 1895, 1896 and 1897. Dr. Means studied bird-flight, kites and gliders, and designed model gliders in the early 1890s. He was awarded patents for his aircraft smoke signal device (1909), his aircraft launcher (1909), and his simplified control column for airplanes (1909-1911).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
James H. Means, gift, unknown, XXXX-0394, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Kites  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Publications
Photographs
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Citation:
James Means Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0394, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0394
See more items in:
James Means Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2002eaa1c-093c-4c78-bcfe-f05adedc536b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0394
Online Media:

Langley Experiments Scrapbooks

Creator:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Names:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Walcott, Charles D. (Charles Doolittle), 1850-1927  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1914-1915
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two scrapbooks kept by Glenn H. Curtiss and filled with photographs of himself and Samuel Langley. The photos show the two men and their experiments with Langley's aircraft, the Langley Aerodrome. The trial flights were conducted on Lake Kewka, near Hammondsport, NY. Each photo is labeled with a caption and a date. The second (chronologically) book of the set is a continuation of the photos of the Langley experiments by Glenn H. Curtiss, and while the photos are numbered, they have no captions or labeling on them. Some dates are available on the photos. Curtiss' autograph appears inside the cover of one scrapbook.
Biographical / Historical:
Nine days before the Wright brothers' first successful flight, Smithsonian Secretary Samuel Langley had the trial for his steam-powered machine, called the Great Aerodrome. Heavily funded by the United States government, the Aerodrome broke apart almost immediately upon takeoff in a highly-publicized event, and Langley and the Smithsonian Institution suffered embarrassment over the incident. After Langley passed away in 1906, his successor, Charles Walcott, claimed that although Langley may not have flown that December morning the Aerodrome was certainly capable of it. Walcott's "proof" was in a rebuilt version of Langley's Aerodrome, which was later successfully flown by American airplane manufacturer Glenn Curtiss. Curtiss, who was engaged in a patent suit with the Wright brothers, rebuilt and flew Langley's Aerodrome with 1914 modifications with the hope of showing the courts that the Wrights did not invent the airplane. While Curtiss eventually lost the patent suit, the flight was used by the Smithsonian to redeem Langley's role in the history of flight.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Glenn H. Curtiss, gift, unknown, XXXX-0294, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome)  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0294
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg20f365351-3f87-4196-9b31-11562889dc8d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0294

St. Louis Centennial Week Scrapbook

Names:
Cook, Frederick Albert, 1865-1940  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Extent:
0.56 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Date:
1909
Scope and Contents:
This scrapbook consists of newspaper clippings and gives a complete account of the many contests of the Centennial Exhibition held in St. Louis, Missouri in 1909. The following three St. Louis newspapers are represented: St. Louis Daily Globe Democrat, St. Louis Post Dispatch, and the St. Louis Star. The newspapers also includes much historical information on the city of St. Louis, as well as focusing attention on the participation by Glenn Curtiss in the Centennial Week Air Meet, and the arctic explorer, Dr. Frederick Cook. The clippings include many cartoons.
Biographical / Historical:
In July of 1809, the city of St. Louis, Missouri, was incorporated. The 100th anniversary of the event was celebrated from October 3 - 9, and was called Centennial Week. The officials planned a number of different activities, including parades, banquets, balls, concerts, receptions, naval demonstrations, and aerial act ivies. The aerial activities included balloon races, dirigible maneuvers and sustained airplane flights.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0237, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions -- St. Louis, MO  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0237
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28a1fde7c-ad82-46fe-aa1b-5d925d4828ba
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0237

Victor Vernon Scrapbooks

Creator:
Vernon, Victor  Search this
Names:
American Airlines  Search this
Colonial Airlines  Search this
Curtiss Flying School  Search this
Oregon-Washington-Idaho Airplane Company  Search this
Acosta, Bert  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Mitchell, William, 1879-1936  Search this
Smith, C. R.  Search this
Vernon, Victor  Search this
Extent:
0.71 Cubic feet (2 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1903-1948
bulk 1915-1920
Summary:
Victor Vernon was an aviation pioneer, flight instructor, U. S. Navy aviator, and airline executive. This collection consists of three scrapbooks that chronicle Vernon's aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of three scrapbooks that chronicle Victor Vernon's aviation career and include numerous photographs, with an emphasis on Curtiss flying boats, the Curtiss Model H America, the Curtiss rebuilt Langley Aerodrome, and Curtiss tractor type aircraft. Besides the photographs, the scrapbooks contain many newspaper clippings covering Vernon's involvement with Curtiss, and his association with the Oregon-Washington-Idaho Airplane Company, as well as correspondence with William (Billy) Mitchel, Glenn Curtiss, and C.R. Smith. Miscellaneous items include route charts, correspondence, and photographs relating to Colonial Airlines and American Airlines, photographs of Bert Acosta and Vernon's naval aviator certificates. There is also material relating to Vernon's hydroaeroplane.
Arrangement:
Scrapbooks are in original order, additional material is arranged by type.
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Vernon was an aviation pioneer who began his career on Curtiss flying boats. In 1915 Vernon went to Toronto, Canada with the Curtiss School to teach Canadian pilots. During World War I, Vernon served with the U. S. Navy as an aviator and test pilot for the Naval Aircraft Factory. From 1919-1920, Vernon was instrumental in forming the Oregon-Washington-Idaho Airplane Company. In 1930 Vernon joined Colonial Airlines, a division of American Airways. He remained with American Airlines as Personnel Director and Assistant to the President until his retirement in 1948.
Provenance:
Victor Vernon, Gift, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0221.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Curtiss Model H "America" (H-1)  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Victor Vernon Scrapbooks, NASM.XXXX.0221, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0221
See more items in:
Victor Vernon Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f9607532-c677-476e-b0c4-1d108572ff80
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0221
Online Media:

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