Mathematics, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution). Search this
3 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Scope and Contents:
This material includes correspondence, handwritten notes, transcripts of speeches, meeting minutes, reports (in draft and final form) of ANSI X3L2 and other committees and international organizations dealing with computer character sets and codes as well as minutes and agendas of their meetings. There are also some clippings of articles from journals and newspapers. There is no evident classification by subject, committee or chronology; the 10 data boxes each seem to have a random distribution of material, except that box 1 has a broader time span (1969-1979).
Organizations which created some of these documents include:
AFNOR: Association Francaise de Normalisation; ANSI: American National Standards Institute; (C)BEMA: (Computers and) Business Equipment Manufacturers Association; ECMA: European Computers Manufacturers Assn.
and ISO: International Organization for Standardization.
Biographical / Historical:
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3L2 Standards Committee had responsibility for computer character sets and codes. Eric H. Clamons of Honeywell Information Systems was the fifth chairman of the committee, from 1968 to 1972; the records are from his files.
Collection donated by Eric H. Clamons of Honeywell Information Systems, September 1980.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The material includes technical notes, operating instructions and descriptions relating to projects which Hopper participated in at Harvard during and after World War II and later in the private sector. These projects involved the creation of the Navy's Mark I, II and III "mechanical calculators" (the fore runners of today's computers) and the UNIVAC and ENIAC civilian models. The photographs document both equipment and Hopper with her colleagues at work and on social occasions. There are numerous published articles and memoranda by Hopper and others on various technical aspects of computers. Clippings of newspaper and magazine articles relating to computers and their development are also included, as well as periodicals and brochures. A "humor file" contains jokes and anecdotes collected by Hopper.
Much of the material is annotated by Hopper, primarily through notations on 3 x 5 white slips of paper. Some of the annotations by Elizabeth Luebbert, who served as a summer research assistant in the Museum's Computer History Project.
The collection is divided into eleven series.
Series 1: Technical Documents, 1944-1949
Series 2: Photographs of Mark II, 1948
Series 3: Photographs at Harvard, 1944-1945
Series 4: Reports and Articles, 1946-1948
Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1949-1965
Series 6: Compiling Routines, 1952-1954
Series 7: Press Clippings, 1944-1953
Series 8: Periodicals and Brochures, 1950-1953
Series 9: Humor file, 1944-1953
Series 10: Machine Tape, undated
Series 11: Audiovisual Materials, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) obtained her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934. She was an associate professor of mathematics at Vassar College
when she joined the Women's Reserve of the United States Navy, Women Accepted
for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) in 1944 and was assigned to the computing project at Harvard University. She served under Commander Howard H. Aiken as a Wave until 1946, and remained at Harvard's Computation Laboratory as a research fellow until 1949. In that year she joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior mathematician. When Eckert-Mauchly became a division of Remington Rand, Hopper remained as senior programmer, a title she retained until 1959. Subsequently, she served as systems engineer and director of automatic programming development (1959-1964) and staff scientist in systems programming (1964-1971) for the UNIVAC division of Sperry Rand Corporation. Hopper retired from UNIVAC in 1972, having returned to active service in the U.S. Navy from which she eventually retired with the rank of Rear Admiral.
Materials at the Archives Center
Computer Oral History Collection (AC0196)
This collection contains five oral history interviews with Grace Murray Hopper conducted on: July 1, 1968;
November 1, 1968; January 7, 1969; February 4, 1969; and July 5, 1972.
Grace Murray Hopper donated her materials to the National Museum of American History, Section of Mathematics in 1967 and 1968. The majority of the collection was donated through the Museum's Computer Oral History Project in 1972.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab) Search this
20.5 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Santa Monica (Calif.) -- 1950-1980
The John Clifford Shaw papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.
Scope and Contents:
The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.
Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents Shaw's most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).
The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team's work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.
Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw's tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.
Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.
Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw's work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5" x 11" paper that illuminate Shaw's ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.
Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw's life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw's personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw's personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.
The collection is organized into five series.
Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971
Subseries 1.1: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968
Subseries 1.2: Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963
Subseries 1.3: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967
Subseries 1.4: Chess Program, 1954-1973
Subseries 1.5: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972
Subseries 1.6: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977
Subseries 1.7: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977
Subseries 1.8: Subject Files, 1954-1971
Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986
Subseries 2.1: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972
Subseries 2.2: Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971
Subseries 2.3: RAND Material, 1948-1988
Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973
Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990
Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993
Biographical / Historical:
John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw's English teacher was Nixon's high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the Army Air Force for three years during World War II as a navigation instructor and then aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.
The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War "think tanks" that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw's tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.
Shaw's early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell's concepts.
When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator's console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw's work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.
During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague's considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw's focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.
In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and "think" like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell's ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter was able to compile and translate higher level language statements into machine language. The interpreters process the statements and carry out the indicated operations without generating machine code which must then be executed. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT's innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.
The NSS team's work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.
The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.
By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw's interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND's production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.
These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS's user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.
The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC's hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.
After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.
In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.
Shaw's work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer.
Material in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Computer Oral History Collection, AC0196
Material in Other Institutions
Charles Babbage Institute
L.A. County Museum
For RAND reports see www.RAND.org
The collection was donated by John Clifford Shaw's eldest son, Doug Shaw, March 1997.
The collection is open for research use.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
An interview with Clifford Schorer conducted 2018 June 6-7, by Judith Olch Richards, for the Archives of American Art and the Center for the History of Collecting in America at the Frick Art Reference Library of The Frick Collection, at the offices of the Archives of American Art in New York, New York.
Schorer discusses growing up in Massachusetts and Long Island, New York; his family and his Dutch and German heritage, and his grandparents' collecting endeavors, especially in the field of philately; his reluctance to complete a formal high school education and his subsequent enrollment in the University Professors Program at Boston University; his work as a self-taught computer programmer beginning at the age of 16; his first businesses as an entrepreneur; the beginnings of his collection of Chinese export and Imperial ceramics and his self-study in the field; his experiences at a young age at art auctions in the New England area; his travels to Montreal and Europe, especially to Eastern Europe, Paris, and London, and his interest in world history; his decision to exit the world of collecting Chinese porcelain and his subsequent interest in Old Master paintings, especially Italian Baroque. Schorer also describes his discovery of the Worcester Art Museum and his subsequent work there on the Museum's board and as president; his interest in paleontology and his current house by Walter Gropius in Provincetown, MA; his involvement with the purchase and support of Agnew's Gallery based in London, UK, and his work with its director, Anthony Crichton-Stuart; his thoughts on marketing at art shows and adapting Agnew's to the changing market for the collecting of Old Masters; the differences between galleries and auction houses in the art market today; and his expectations for his collection in the future. Schorer also recalls Anna Cunningham; George Abrams; Sydney Lewis; Chris Apostle; Nancy Ward Neilson; Jim Welu, as well as Rita Albertson; Tanya Paul; Maryan Ainsworth; Thomas Leysen; Johnny Van Haeften; Otto Naumann; and Konrad Bernheimer, among others.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Schorer (1966- ) is an art collector in Boston, Massachusetts and London, England. Judith Olch Richards (1947- ) is former executive director of iCI in New York, New York.
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
The transcript and recording are open for research. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews Search this
Funding for this interview was provided by Barbara Fleischman.
Woman's Building records, 1970-1992. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Funding for the processing of this collection was provided by the Getty Foundation. Funding for the digitization of this collection was provided by The Walton Family Foundation and Joyce F. Menschel, Vital Projects Fund, Inc.
Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection
13 videotapes (Reference copies). 39 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Barro Colorado Island (Panama)
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have
been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical
research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that
reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.
Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological
sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries,
laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education,
and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Pamela M. Henson, Historian for the Smithsonian Institution Archives, conducted videotaped interviews with scientists and researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute (STRI) in Panama and the National Zoological Park (NZP) at its Washington, D.C. park, and Conservation and Research Center (CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia, to document
two of the Institution's endangered species programs.
This collection consists of thirteen interview sessions, separated into two collection divisions, totaling approximately 13:10 hours of recordings and 225 pages of transcript.
There is also a supplementary set of interview sessions, comprised of 4:00 hours of recordings. There is no transcription for these supplemental sessions.
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Participants from STRI included researchers who employed a variety of approaches to the study and preservation of tropical biosystems. John H. Christy received his B.S.
in biology from Lewis and Clark College in 1970, and his Ph.D. in population ecology and animal behavior from Cornell University in 1980. From 1978 to 1983 he served both
as a research assistant and assistant professor at the University of South Carolina. He came to STRI in 1983 as a visiting research scholar and remained as a researcher until
1987, when he assumed the position of biologist. In 1988, he was appointed assistant director for marine research. At STRI, he focused his research on the reproductive behavior
After receiving his B.S. in biochemistry and zoology in 1972 from the James Cook University of North Queensland (JCUNQ), Australia, Norman C. Duke worked as a technical
officer for the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Branch. From 1974 to 1989 he worked with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, first as a technical
officer and later as an experimental scientist, overseeing the design and implementation of studies about mangrove plants. During this time he completed his M.S. and Ph.D.
in botany at JCUNQ, in 1984 and 1988 respectively. In 1989, he accepted the position of mangrove ecologist for STRI's Oil Spill Project to study the effects of recent oil
spills on Panamanian mangrove forests.
Robin Foster became a biologist with STRI in 1978, and also held concurrent positions as senior ecologist at Conservation International and research associate in the Department
of Botany at the Field Museum of Natural History. He was awarded his B.A. in biology from Dartmouth College in 1966, and his Ph.D. in botany from Duke University in 1974.
From 1972-1980 he served as an Assistant Professor of biology at University of Chicago. In 1980, with Stephen Hubbell, Foster embarked on a long term study of forest dynamics
on a fifty-hectare plot on BCI.
After receiving a B.S. in biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1970 and a Ph.D. in ecology from The Johns Hopkins University in 1976, Brian D. Keller served as
a Research Oceanographer for the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from 1976 to 1979. From 1980 to 1984 he was a Postdoctoral Associate in the Department of Biology at Yale
University. In 1984 he accepted the position of acting head of the Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, and served as Assistant Head
from 1985 to 1986. In 1987, Keller joined STRI as project manager for the Oil Spill Project.
Gilberto Ocana joined STRI in 1980 as Superintendent of the Barro Colorado Nature Monument. He was awarded his B.S. from the Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture in Alger, Algeria,
in 1955, and a Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of California, Riverside, in 1967. Prior to his STRI appointment, he was a Professor of plant pathology in the
Department of Agronomy at the University of Panama. At STRI, he began an experimental farm to develop alternatives to cattle ranching and slash and burn agriculture.
A. Stanley Rand received his B.A. from De Pauw University in 1955 and his Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University in 1961. He served as Assistant Herpetologist at the
Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard from 1961 to 1962, and as zoologist for the Secretary of Agriculture, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1962 to 1964. Rand came to STRI in 1964
as a herpetologist. From 1974 to 1979 he served as STRI assistant director, and was appointed senior biologist in 1979. His interest in the behavior and ecology of reptiles
and amphibians led to pioneering studies of frog communications.
After receiving a B.S. from Queens College in 1959, and a M.A. and Ph.D. in biology from Harvard in 1961 and 1963, respectively, in 1965 Ira Rubinoff served as Assistant
to the Curator of ichthyology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Rubinoff arrived at STRI in 1965 to assume the positions of Biologist and Assistant Director
for marine biology. He was appointed Director of STRI in 1973. His research interests include sea snakes, the biological implications of interoceanic canal construction, zoogeography
of the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and preservation of tropical forests.
Alan P. Smith was awarded his B.A. from Earlham College in 1967, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Duke University in 1970 and 1974, respectively. He joined STRI in 1974 as a
staff scientist. Concurrently, from 1974 to 1981, he served as an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1981 to 1988
he served in the same position at the University of Miami. In 1988, while continuing to serve as an adjunct professor of biology at the University of Miami, he assumed the
position of Assistant Director for terrestrial research at STRI. Interested in the dynamics of tropical forests, Smith introduced the use of crane towers to study the forest
Nicholas D. Smythe joined STRI in 1970 as a biologist to study tropical mammals. He received his B.A. from University of British Columbia in 1963 and his Ph.D. from University
of Maryland in 1970. His research at STRI focused on the paca and peccary, animals that are widely distributed in Latin America. In 1983, with a grant from the W. Alton Jones
Foundation, Smythe began investigating the behavior and physiology of pacas in captivity with a view toward domesticating them to provide an alternative to cattle grazing.
In 1975, after receiving his Ph.D. in neurobiology and animal behavior from Cornell University in 1972, Donald M. Windsor joined STRI as a computer programmer and data
analyst for the Environmental Monitoring Program. In 1990, he was appointed research biologist and coordinator of the Environmental Sciences Program. He has conducted extensive
research on the ecological and genetic factors influencing the reproductive success of the wasp.
Rolando Perez, Dilia Santamaria, and Eduardo Sierra, students from the University of Panama, Hamilton W. Beltran Santiago and Ernesto Yallico, students from Peru, Zenith
O. Batista, coordinator of the Tropical Forest Dynamics Project, Kaoru Kitajima Okada, STRI predoctoral fellow, Kevin P. Hogan, STRI visiting scientist, and Mirna Samaniego,
a graduate in forestry from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, demonstrated scientific techniques used to study tropical plants. Todd Underwood, a student, demonstrated
procedures for crab behavioral studies. Elias Gonzales, a Panamanian farmer participating in the experimental farm program, Arturo Cerezo, a faculty member from the School
of Agriculture at the University of Panama, and Juvencio Trujillo, an agricultural assistant, showed how the Las Pavas experimental program actually operated.
National Zoological Park and Conservation and Research Center
Interviews conducted at both the NZP and CRC included staff members who participated in various programs to ensure species survival. Larry R. Collins received his B.A.
in biology from Columbia Union College in 1965 and his M.S. in zoology from University of Maryland in 1973. He began his tenure with the NZP in 1967 as an animal keeper in
the Scientific Research Division, and was appointed Supervisory Zoologist in that division in 1969. In 1972 he became Assistant Curator of the Department of Living Vertebrates
at NZP, and from 1973 to 1975 he served as the Associate Curator for the Office of Animal Management. In 1975, Collins was appointed Mammal Curator at CRC.
Scott R. Derrickson completed his B.A. in biology in 1970 from Gettysburg College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in ecology and behavioral biology from University of Minnesota
in 1975 and 1977, respectively. In 1977, he began work as a Research Behaviorist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and continued there until he was appointed Assistant
Curator of ornithology at CRC in 1984. Later that same year, he was appointed Curator of ornithology. Since 1987, he has held that position concurrently with the position
of Deputy Associate Director for Conservation and Captive Breeding.
Theodore H. Reed received his doctorate in veterinary medicine from Kansas State College in 1945. He taught veterinary pathology there before working as Assistant State
Veterinarian for Oregon from 1946 to 1948. Between 1948 and 1955 Reed maintained a private veterinary practice in Idaho and Oregon. While practicing with the Rose City Veterinary
Hospital in Portland, Reed was called upon to work with the Portland Zoo's animal collection which led to his career in exotic animal studies and zoo administration. Reed
was appointed as a veterinarian for NZP in 1955. He became acting director of the NZP in 1956 and director in 1958. Reed retired from the directorship position in 1983.
Linwood R. Williamson received his B.S. in wildlife management from Virginia Polytechnic and State University in 1972. He came to CRC in 1978 and began working with birds,
small mammals and hoofstock, as the Biotechnician in charge of the Ungulate Research Facilities.
For additional information on Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, National Zoological Park and Conservation Research Center, see the records of each bureau and oral
history interviews of STRI researchers, administrators, game wardens, and neighbors, and of NZP administrators, located at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Scientific efforts to preserve endangered species have focused on either maintenance of a controlled population that ensures genetic diversity or protection of habitat
that ensures viability of a population in the wild. The Smithsonian Institution has sponsored programs using both methods in the study and exhibition of the plant and animal
In 1923, the Institute for Research in Tropical America established a research laboratory on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal Zone to investigate the flora
and fauna of tropical America. In 1946, the laboratory was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution and was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 1966.
Under Smithsonian aegis, STRI developed an extensive program of terrestrial and marine research on the tropical environment and special projects to find alternatives to tropical
rainforest destruction and to study the effects of oil spills on the environment. In 1979, STRI assumed responsibility for the Barro Colorado Nature Monument, an extensive
nature preserve which includes BCI and several surrounding peninsulas. STRI also built research facilities in Panama City and on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
The National Zoological Park was founded in 1889 in Washington, D.C., "for the advancement of science and the instruction and recreation of the people." Under the administration
of Director Theodore H. Reed, a major renovation of the park was begun in 1963. Also during the 1960s, in response to rising concerns over endangered species, the NZP established
a research department to study exotic animal physiology and behavior. In 1975, a separate facility for research, and animal breeding and rearing was established at Front Royal,
Virginia, allowing the NZP to become an important part of the international Species Survival Program.
IGUANA SAFI; STANLEY HERON- COMPUTER PROGRAMMER- RASTAFARIANS
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, 1988.
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