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Tom Whaley Collection

Composer:
Whaley, Thomas L.  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Music
Programs
Photographs
Correspondence
Business records
Date:
1941-1979
Scope and Contents:
Papers documenting Whaley's association with Duke Ellington and his career as a copyist, pianist, composer and arranger. The collection includes letters, photographs, music manuscripts, business records, writings, and printed materials including magazine and newspapers articles, concert programs, and catalogs.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.

Series 1: Music Materials, 1942-1968

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1948-1972

Series 3: Business records, 1951-1968

Series 4: Scripts, ca. 1944-1970

Series 5: Correspondence, ca. 1956-1967

Series 6: Photographs, undated

Series 7: Publications, ca. 1944-1972

Series 8: Miscellaneous Material, 1960-1969.
Biographical / Historical:
Composer, pianist and arranger, best remembered as Duke Ellington's chief copyist from 1941-1971.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mercer Ellington on XXXX.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 1940-1980
Music -- Manuscripts
Programs -- Concerts
Photographs -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Tom Whaley Collection, ca. 1941-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0652
See more items in:
Tom Whaley Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0652
Online Media:

William Russo Music and Personal Papers

Creator:
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Russo, William, 1928-2003  Search this
Photographer:
Claxton, William  Search this
Leonard, Herman, 1923-2010  Search this
Composer:
Kenton, Stan  Search this
Musician:
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Names:
Chicago Jazz Ensemble  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
87 Cubic feet (188 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Music
Audiotapes
Business records
Photographs
Correspondence
Librettos
Awards
Posters
Programs
Scrapbooks
Scores
Lecture notes
Date:
1920-2002
Summary:
Papers and audiovisual materials documenting Russo's career in music.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes Russo's original and published music scores, parts and arrangements; audiovisual materials including recordings of broadcasts of Russo's radio show, performances of Russo's compositions, including performances by Duke Ellington, and film and video recordings of Russo's productions in theater and opera; and personal papers such as correspondence, photographs, scrapbooks, publicity files, contracts, etc. Among the most significant items in the collection are experimental jazz arrangements for Stan Kenton in the late 1940s-early 1950s, undated arrangements for Gerry Mulligan, Russo's original arrangement of Duke Ellington's Sacred Concert, scores to his first and second symphonies, and scores and libretti to several early rock operas. The photographs include images of persons such as Ellington, Kenton, and Billy Strayhorn, and photographs by jazz photographers Herman Leonard and William Claxton. 2007 addendum includes correspondence, mostly between Russo and his family; eighteen diaries for 1946-1967 (not all years are present) with sparse entries, some in Italian; and additional music manuscripts, parts, scores and libretti.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1: William Russo's Music

Series 2: Teaching Notes

Series 3: Correspondence

Series 4: Publicity, Programs, and Reviews

Series 5: Posters and Artwork

Series 6: Photographs

Series 7: Books and Lecture Notebooks

Series 8: Memorabilia

Series 9: Audiovisual Materials
Biographical / Historical:
William Russo, renowned American jazz composer, arranger, and founder of the Chicago Jazz Ensemble, had a music career that spanned five decades and included performance, conducting and composition. During his career he worked with such diverse talents as Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Leonard Bernstein, Cannonball Adderly, Yehuidi Menuhin, Dizzy Gillespie, Seiji Ozawa, and Billie Holiday. Although critics acknowledged Russo mainly for his pioneering contributions to the big-band jazz canon, his talents extended to a far wider range of musical styles, creating groundbreaking jazz scores, rock operas, classical works, film scores, and educational textbooks on jazz orchestration and arrangement. In all, he composed over 200 pieces for jazz orchestra with more than 25 recordings of his work. In 1990, Russo received a Lifetime Achievement award from NARAS, the organization that presents the Grammy Awards.

As a young trombonist, Russo studied with Lennie Tristano, the pianist and theorist who became a leader in the progressive jazz movement. During the late 1940s, Russo led the revolutionary Experiment in Jazz band. At age 21, he became one of the chief composers/arrangers for the Stan Kenton Orchestra, one of the most innovative and influential jazz orchestras of the postwar era. In his four years with Kenton, Russo penned such classic Kenton works as "23° North – 82° West," and "Frank Speaking."

Russo made several major jazz recordings under his own name before his classical "Symphony No. 2 in C (TITANS)" received a Koussevitsky award in 1959; it was performed by the New York Philharmonic that same year under Leonard Bernstein, who had commissioned the work. This award marked Russo's "official" entry into the world of classical music. Russo continued to write major symphonic works throughout his career, including his 1992 grand opera, "Dubrovsky."

After his tenure with Kenton, in the early 1950s, Russo led his own successful bands, The Russo Orchestra in New York, and the London Jazz Orchestra, before returning to Chicago to form the Chicago Jazz Ensemble in 1065. With the Ensemble, he presented Duke Ellington's "First Concert of Sacred Music" in 1967. This was one of the rare times when Ellington allowed one of his compositions to be arranged and performed by a jazz orchestra other than his own, and was a reflection of Ellington's respect for Russo. Shortly after this performance, Russo composed a rock cantata, "The Civil War," that led him into the field of rock opera. After concentrating on classical music again in the 1970s, in the late 1980s, Russo began to re-explore the history of jazz through his revived Chicago Jazz Ensemble. In 1995, the Chicago Jazz Ensemble made history with the first-ever complete live performance of Gil Evans' and Miles Davis' "Sketches of Spain" in its original form. Recent Russo works that premiered in Chicago included "Chicago Suite No. 1," and "Chicago Suite No. 2," a recording that was published posthumously in the spring of 2003.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music, 1967-1968 (AC0406)
Provenance:
Bequeathed to the Smithsonian by William Russo. Papers collected after Russo's death in 2003. The 2007 addendum sent by Russo's sister and daughter were also part of the bequest.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Opera  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Music -- Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Librettos
Awards
Posters -- 20th century
Programs
Scrapbooks
Scores
Lecture notes
Citation:
William Russo Music and Personal Papers, 1920s-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0845
See more items in:
William Russo Music and Personal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0845
Online Media:

Bill Holman Collection

Creator:
Holman, Bill, 1927-  Search this
Kenton, Stan  Search this
Monk, Thelonious  Search this
Basie, Count, 1904-  Search this
Herman, Woody  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (68 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Music
Posters
Business records
Scores
Date:
1951-2000
Scope and Contents:
The Bill Holman Collection consists of original music compositions and arrangements, posters, performance contracts and a photograph dating from 1952 to 1999. The collection is organized into two series: Series 1: Music Manuscripts; and Series 2: Photographs and Business Records.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into two series.

Series 1: Music Manuscripts, 1952-1999

Series 2: Photographs and Business Records, 1975-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Born Willis Leonard Holman on May 21 in Olive, California, Bill Holman is considered one of the great jazz composers of the last half of the twentieth century. He is best known as one of the architects of the style of jazz defined as "West Coast" and as the major arranger for the Stan Kenton Orchestra from 1952 - 1955.

Holman began playing clarinet in junior high school and tenor saxophone while in high school eventually leading his own band. After serving in the Navy and studying engineering, he chose a career in music instead and attended Westlake College of Music in California from 1948-1950. While attending Westlake, he studied counterpoint with Russ Garcia and one hallmark of a Holman work continues to be the distinguished use of that compositional element.

While performing as a tenor and baritone saxophonist for Charlie Barnet & His Orchestra in 1951, Holman submitted his first composition for a name band to Woody Herman. Originally titled Prez Conference in honor of Lester Young, the piece - which featured solos for four tenors - was recorded in 1954 with a baritone and trumpet introduction and ending tagged on by Herman and re-titled Mulligantawny Stew.

From 1952 - 1954, Holman performed in the reed section of the Stan Kenton Orchestra and there he received international recognition. Within six months, Kenton encouraged Holman's voice as a composer and arranger and he quickly became a principal. His distinctive swinging approach was always evident resulting in songs still beloved by Kenton fans all over the world such as Stomping At The Savoy and Whats New. Taking advantage of his clout in the industry, Stan Kenton facilitated Holman's first recording as a leader in 1954 (Kenton Presents Jazz B Bill Holman: Bill Holman Octet) as one in a series of Capitol recordings featuring Kenton's sidemen as bandleaders. Unfortunately, this was not released until five years later. After returning to the West Coast in 1955, Holman continued as a Kenton staff arranger until 1956 and contributed compositions and arrangements on an occasional basis until the late 1950s.

Upon his return to Los Angeles, California in 1955, Holman B as an instrumentalist, composer and arranger B helped shape the sound later dubbed West Coast Jazz. At first, Holman worked in small groups for others including Conte Candoli (1955), Shelly Manne (1955), and Art Pepper (1957) but in 1957 Holman longed to Amake a statement@ for himself and formed his own big band. The band eventually recorded three albums that have become collector=s items among jazz aficionados: The Fabulous Bill Holman (1957), Big Band In A Jazz Orbit, (1958) and Bill Holman's Great Big Band. (1960) Holman continued to work in small group settings as well recording Jive For Five with a quintet co-led by Mel Lewis and Jazz Erotica (re-titled in CD release as West Coast Jazz) in an octet featuring Richie Kamuca.

In 1960, Holman entered into a twenty-seven year hiatus from recording. However, he remained active in the business and was continually sought out as a composer and arranger for both jazz and popular music. His arrangements for Gerry Mulligan, Count Basie, Woody Herman, and Shorty Rogers, among others, are considered the pinnacle of jazz composition and orchestration. Holman=s occasional forays into film, television and popular music include Aquarius as recorded by the Fifth Dimension and The Association=s Never My Love and Cherish. A long relationship with the Tonight Show band directed by Doc Severinson (1967 B 1992) developed eventually awarding him with his first Grammy award for an arrangement of Billy Strayhorn=s Take The >A= Train.

Bill McKay, the co-owner of a Los Angeles night club Donte's, encouraged Holman to re-form his band in 1975 leading to his legendary rehearsal band which still meets most weeks at the Hollywood Musician=s Union. However, the Bill Holman Band did not record until the release of World Class: The Bill Holman Big Band in 1987, followed by A View From the Side. (for which Holman earned a Best Instrumental Composition Grammy for the title track) in 1995. Although Holman's arranging style matured, his characteristic use of line writing, unison sections, uneven bar lengths, and reference for rhythm were distilled and refined rather than complicated in the interim.

Beginning in 1980, Holman received regular commissions from the WDR band in Cologne Germany including ones for extended works and special programs featuring noted jazz instrumentalists such as Lee Konitz, Al Cohn and Phil Woods. Since 1990, he has been conducting that renowned Orchestra. In 1997, Holman embarked on what has become an annual European trip B as a composer/conductor for the Netherlands Metropole Orchestra B and in that same year recorded Further Adventures with them. Holman continues to work extensively in Europe and in 2001 will conduct orchestras in Sweden, Austria and the Netherlands.

Continually sought after by contemporary vocalists, Holman supplied the arrangements (with the exception of the title tune) for Natalie Cole=s 1991 Unforgettable B a tribute to her father Nat King Cole. He continues to provide settings for elite jazz vocalists including Tony Bennett and Carmen McRae. Holman remains active. In 1998, he received a composer=s grant from the International Association of Jazz Educators. The Bill Holman Band still rehearses weekly and appears periodically in the Los Angeles area. Brilliant Corners: The Music of Thelonius Monk is a big band and arrangers tour-de-force and garnered Holman his third Grammy award in 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
The Archives Center does not own the reproduction rights to the music of the Bill Holman Collection. All requests for performance or publication of Mr. Holman's compositions and/or arrangements should be directed to Bill Holman at 323-466-8809.
Topic:
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Musical arrangers  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Music -- Manuscripts
Posters -- 20th century
Business records -- 1950-2000
Scores
Citation:
Bill Holman Collection, 1951-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0733
See more items in:
Bill Holman Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0733
Online Media:

William "Cat" Anderson Collection

Creator:
Anderson, William "Cat", 1916-1981 ((musician))  Search this
Names:
Benny Carter All Stars  Search this
Cat Anderson Quintet  Search this
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Lionel Hampton Orchestra  Search this
Mingus Quintet  Search this
Bechet, Sidney (musician)  Search this
Calloway, Cab, 1907-  Search this
Carter, Benny, 1907-2003  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Fitzgerald, Ella, 1917-1996  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert H. (Hubert Horatio), 1911-1978  Search this
Humphrey, Muriel  Search this
Johnson, Lucy Bird  Search this
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973  Search this
Tatum, Art, 1910-1956  Search this
Webster, Ben  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Transcripts
Oral histories (document genres)
Oral history
Phonograph records
Photographs
Recordings
Interviews
Clippings
Audiotapes
Awards
Audiocassettes
Articles
Date:
1940-1981
bulk 1963-1977
Scope and Contents note:
Primarily audiotapes, sheet music, and photographic images. Also: correspondence, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, itineraries, awards, and ephemera.,Of particular interest are recordings or photographic images, including the personalities listed below, and President and Mrs. Tubman of Liberia; also, two interviews and three recordings of Cat Anderson as guest with various university and college jazz bands.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Music

Series 2: Original tapes and recordings

Series 3: Photographs

Series 4: Miscellaneous
Biographical/Historical note:
Cat Anderson (Sept 12, 1916 - April 29, 1981) was one of the premier trumpet players of the Duke Ellington Orchestra. Known for his effortless high notes, he was a strong section leader and a great soloist whose style exhibited humor and precision. He grew up in Jenkins= Orphanage in Charleston, SC, received basic music training there, and participated in many of their famous student ensembles. He formed and played with the Cotton Pickers, a group of orphanage teens while still a young man. Before joining Ellington in 1944, he played in several big bands, including Claude Hopkins and Lionel Hampton. Anderson left the Ellington organization from 1947 through 1949 again to lead his own group. From 1959 to1961 and after 1971 Anderson free lanced, working with the Ellington orchestra intermittently. He died in 1981 after receiving honors from the US Air Force, the Prix du Disque de Jazz, and the City of Los Angeles.
Related Archival Materials:
Related artifacts include: awards, plaques, mutes, trumpet mouth pieces, and the Jon Williams/Cat Anderson simulator in the Division of Cultural and Community Life. See accession: 1998.3074.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History in January 1998, by Dorothy Anderson, Cat Anderson's widow. It was acquired through negotiations with her, her brother, Mr. John Coffey and her nephew, Andrew Brazington. The materials were picked up from Mr. John Coffey of upper N.W. Washington, DC on January 21, 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Master tapes not available to researchers.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright status of items varies. Signed copies of releases on file.
Topic:
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Acoustics and physics  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Piano and synthesizer music  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Synthesizer music  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Electric engineering -- 1980-2000  Search this
Band musicians  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Transcripts
Oral histories (document genres)
Oral history
Phonograph records
Photographs -- 20th century
Recordings
Interviews
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Clippings -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1940-1980
Awards
Audiocassettes
Audiotapes
Articles -- 1940-1980
Citation:
William "Cat" Anderson Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0630
See more items in:
William "Cat" Anderson Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0630
Online Media:

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington

Collector:
Rutgers University. Institute of Jazz Studies  Search this
Names:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Oral history
Audiotapes
Date:
1971-1986.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of twenty-five (25) 7-inch reel-to-reel audiotapes of nine (9) radio interviews documenting the career of Duke Ellington as composer and musician.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dan Morgenstern, Institute of Jazz Studies, Rutgers University, November 7, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 1970-1990 -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1970-1990 -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 1970-2000  Search this
African American composers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Oral history -- 1970-1990
Audiotapes -- 1970-1990
Citation:
Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington, 1971-1986, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0328
See more items in:
Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0328

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Composers  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Online Media:

Harry Warren Papers

Donor:
Riva, Julia  Search this
Jones, Jophe  Search this
Composer:
Warren, Harry, 1893-1981  Search this
Extent:
32 Cubic feet (70 boxes, 26 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Memorabilia
Awards
Sheet music
Correspondence
Scripts (documents)
Posters
Theater programs
Legal records
Programs
Date:
1894-2000
bulk 1926-1980, undated
Scope and Contents:
The Harry Warren Papers consists of original music manuscripts, scores, song sheets, commercial sheet music, bound scores, scripts, business records, correspondence (business, personal and fan), clippings, magazines, photographs, cassette tapes, LP records, posters and programs and personal memorabilia. The material documents the personal life and professional career of composer, songwriter and lyricist Harry Warren from 1894 to 1981 and to a lesser extent the operation of his Four Jays Music Corporation, circa 1954-2000. The bulk of the collection covers the years 1927-1980. The collection is organized into eight series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.

Series 1: Music Manuscripts, 1928-1987

Subseries 1.1: Original Holographic Theatre and Motion Picture Music Manuscripts, 1930-1960

Subseries 1.2: Bound Presentation Scores, 1931-1982

Subseries 1.3: Original Individual Song Manuscripts, 1938-1965

Subseries 1.4: Published Sheet Music, 1930-1980

Subseries 1.5: Published Songs, Instrumentals, and Song Collections, 1928-1987

Series 2: Correspondence, 1930-1994

Series 3: Business Records, 1894-1996

Series 4: Scripts, 1946-1958

Series 5: Theatre Programs and Posters, 1915-1999

Series 6: News Clippings and Magazines, 1934-2000

Series 7: Recordings, Audio-Visual Materials, and Photographs, 1926-1977

Subseries 7.1: Recordings, Playback Discs, 1934-1961

Subseries 7.2: Cassette Tapes, 1933-1981, undated

Subseries 7.3: Photographs, 1930-1977, undated

Subseries 7.4: Reference Video Tapes, 1933-1957

Subseries 7.5: Compact Discs, undated

Subseries 7.6: Film, 1927-1964

Series 8: Memorabilia, 1918-1990
Biographical / Historical:
With the possible exception of Irving Berlin, no one has contributed as much material to the canon of American popular song in the 20th century as Harry Warren (1893-1981). Warren was born in Brooklyn, New York, December 24, 1893, to Italian immigrant parents. His birth name was Salvatore Anthony Guaragna. By the time he graduated from grade school, he was known as "Harry Warren". He legally changed his name in 1938. He was educated in the public schools of New York but had no formal musical training. He taught himself to play the organ and piano and also sang in the church choir. Both Warren's sister and brother were performers so the theatrical world was not unknown to him. He worked as an actor and assistant director for the Vitagraph film studio in New York and played mood music for actress Corinne Griffith. During World War I, Warren served in the United States Navy at Montauk Point, New York. For a few weeks after the war, he worked as an insurance examiner for The Travellers Agency.

In December 1918, Warren married Josephine Wensler (1897-1993). Their first child was a son named Harry Warren, Jr. (1920-1937). In 1920, Warren became a song plugger for the music publishing firm of Stark & Cowan. Warren continued writing and in 1922 along with lyricist Edgar Leslie produced his first song hit, "Rose of the Rio Grande." From that point on, Warren composed a continuous stream of hits introduced by such artists as Paul Whiteman and others. By 1925, a second child, Joan (1924-1991), nicknamed "Cookie", was born. Warren continued his success with such songs as "I Love My Baby (My Baby Loves Me)," "In My Gondola" and the very popular 1928 hit "Nagasaki."

By 1929, Warren was the director of the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). He held that position until 1933. He also served on the ASCAP Board of Directors. During this time Warren worked with various musicians including Gus Kahn, Bert Kalmer, and Harry Ruby. In 1930, he wrote his first motion picture score for the film Spring is Here. Al Jolson asked him to compose a song for the show, Wonder Bar (1931). During the 1930s, Warren composed three other Broadway shows, Sweet and Low (1930), Crazy Quilt (1931) featuring Fanny Brice, and Laugh Parade (1931) starring Ed Wynn.

In 1932, Warren was hired by Warner Brothers Studios to help write songs for the Dick Powell, Ruby Keeler film 42nd Street (1933). Along with lyricist, Al Dubin, Warren wrote such hits as "We're in the Money" and "The Shadow Waltz". Warren continued composing memorable songs for motion pictures such as Gold Diggers of 1933, The Singing Marine (1937), and Footlight Parade (1933). Gold Diggers of 1935 included Warren's first Academy Award winning song, "Lullaby of Broadway". Warren made cameo appearances in a few films during his stay at Warner Brothers. He and lyricist Dubin can be seen in 42nd Street, Go Into Your Dance (1935), and A Very Honorable Guy (1934). He also appeared in a Vitaphone short entitled Harry Warren: America's Foremost Composer.

Warren left Warner Brothers for 20th Century Fox in 1940. At Fox he helped compose the scores for such motion pictures as, Sun Valley Serenade (1941), Orchestra Wives (1942), and The Gangs All Here (1943) that included the Carmen Miranda standard, "The Lady in the Tutti-Frutti Hat". During this period, he worked with lyricists Ralph Rainger, Mack Gordon and Leo Robin, and others. Hello Frisco, Hello (1943) garnered Warren his second Academy Award for the song, "You'll Never Know". While at Fox, Warren composed "Chattanooga Choo Choo" a song that became the first gold record in the history of the recording industry.

In 1945, legendary musical film producer Arthur Freed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer courted Warren for his MGM production unit. Freed quipped that Warren would have the office right next door to his--and he did. For Warren the offer to write music at the studio that practically invented the movie musical was irresistible and he left 20th Century Fox for MGM. He joined Freed in writing the songs for Yolanda and the Thief (1945) starring Fred Astaire and Freed's protégée Lucille Bremer. The film was directed by the incomparable Vincent Minnelli. His next high profile score was for The Harvey Girls (1946) composed with renowned lyricist Johnny Mercer. The picture starred Judy Garland and John Hodiak. Directed by George Sidney, it was a major success, due in part to Warren's tuneful "On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe". This song brought Warren his third and what would be his final Academy Award.

While at MGM, Warren worked with lyricists Mack Gordon, Ralph Blane, and others. In 1948, he and Blane composed the song score for Freed and director Rouben Mamoulian's ambitious film adaptation of Eugene O'Neills stage play Ah Wilderness entitled Summer Holiday (1948) starring Mickey Rooney and Gloria DeHaven. This is reported to have been Warren's favorite film assignment, but the film was not an unqualified success. Warren remained at MGM until the 1950s composing for such films as The Barkleys of Broadway (1949), starring Astaire and Rogers, Summer Stock (1950), starring Judy Garland and Gene Kelly and his final film for MGM, Skirts Ahoy! (1952), starring Esther Williams and Vivian Blane. After leaving MGM, Warren wrote the score for the Bing Crosby film, Just for You at Paramount. Warren also served on the Board of Directors for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Warren went on to write the music for two Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin films, The Caddy (1953) for which he composed "That's Amore", Artists and Models (1955) and for three Jerry Lewis films, Rock-a-Bye Baby (1958), Cinderfella (1960), and The Ladies Man (1961). Warren also composed instrumental pieces one being a "Mass in Honor of St. Anthony".

Warren returned to Broadway in 1956 with the musical Shangri-La, based on the novel Lost Horizon. The show was not a success and closed after fewer than thirty performances. He composed the title song for the Cary Grant, Deborah Kerr film, An Affair to Remember (1957); this song brought him his last nomination for an Academy Award. The song was later used in the motion picture Sleepless in Seattle (1993) starring Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan.

During the 1950s, Warren started his own music publishing company, Four Jays Music Corporation. After writing the songs for The Ladies Man, Warren retired from films but continued to write for piano, even composing the song for the Miss Oklahoma Pageant. His last film effort was to compose one song for the motion-picture Rosie (1968). During the last years of his life Warren composed and ran his music publishing business, but remained largely forgotten as the man who had composed a great deal of America's musical heritage.

With the resurgence in the appreciation of the movie musical in the early 1970s, the tunes composed during Warren's heyday were back in vogue, brought on in a large part by the phenomenal success of MGM's That's Entertainment! (1974). In 1980, he was asked to compose the musical numbers for an upcoming movie musical entitled, Manhattan Melody but it was never produced. 1980 brought the Warren name back to the marquees of Broadway with the David Merrick production of 42nd St.. The full budgeted big Broadway musical used the basic storyline from the 1933 film and drew upon the whole of the Warren and Dubin catalogue for the score. The production proved to be wildly popular, running in excess of five years on Broadway. Warren died in California on September 22, 1981. He was interred in the Sanctuary of Tenderness at Westwood Memorial Park in Los Angeles beside his wife and son. After Warren's death, his daughter Joan "Cookie" Warren Jones administered the music publishing company until her death in 1991.
Key:
OF = Original Film, RV = Reference Video, MV = Master Video
Separated Materials:
The Division of Cultural History has three dimensional objects related to Harry Warren. See accession: #
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution by Julia Riva and Jophe Jones, granddaughters of Harry Warren, on December 15, 2000.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Musical films  Search this
Popular music -- Writing and publishing  Search this
Musical reviews, comedies, etc.  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Memorabilia -- 20th century
Awards
Sheet music -- Manuscripts -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Scripts (documents)
Posters -- 20th century
Theater programs -- 1910-1990
Legal records
Programs
Citation:
Harry Warren Papers, 1909-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Jophe Jones and Julia Riva.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0750
See more items in:
Harry Warren Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0750
Online Media:

Irving Berlin Collection

Creator:
Berlin, Irving, 1888-1989  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (6 boxes and 10 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Awards
Paintings
Sheet music
Posters
Date:
1905 - 1987
Summary:
Irving Berlin was a 20th century American composer and songwriter. This collection has sheet music for over 200 songs composed by Irving Berlin, as well as a sheet music by other composers. In addition to sheet music, there is correspondence, awards, photographs, and posters pertaining to Irving Berlin.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of sheet music for over 200 songs composed by Irving Berlin, as well as sheet music by others, published before 1925. Additionally, there are awards, photographs, correspondence and posters relating to Irving Berlin.

Series 1, Sheet Music by Irving Berlin, circa 1907-1966,and undated, contains sheet music from musicals and films written by Irving Berlin. These are alphabetized by song title.

Series 2, Miscellaneous Sheet Music, 1905-1925, contains a miscellaneous assortment of sheet music from the early 1900s by various composers and lyricists, including two pieces by Irving Berlin. The series is arranged alphabetical by song title. Key: (L) indicates "Lyrics", (W) indicates "Words" and (M) indicates "Music" after composer's name(s).

Series 3, Awards, 1938-1987 and undated, contains awards to Berlin from schools, cities and professional musicians' associations. The earliest in the collection is August 1938, the Box Office Ribbon Award for the best picture of the month, "Alexander's Ragtime Band." The latest one is an accolade by the United States Senate, duly noted in the Congressional Record of October 30, 1987. Series 4 contains correspondence related to the awards.

Series 4, Correspondence, Photographs, and Posters, 1916-1980s and undated, contains correspondence, photographs, and posters. Also included are many large copy prints of Irving Berlin paintings, almost all of which are portraits or still lifes. Some date from the 1970s and 1980s. Nearly all are either signed or initialed. Photographs include Irving Berlin and one of his pianos. A document folio contains photographs of a number of canceled envelopes and a composition manuscript, "I Am Just a Dreaming Fool." There are several posters relating to Irving Berlin musicals.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Sheet Music by Irving Berlin, circa 1907-1966, and undated

Series 2, Miscellaneous Sheet Music, 1905-1925

Series 3, Awards, 1938-1987, and undated

Series 4, Correspondence, Photographs and Posters, 1916-1980s and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Irving Berlin, composer of about 1,500 popular songs, a number of stage musicals and film scores, was born in Russia on May 11, 1888. Named Israel by his parents, Moses and Leah Baline, he fled to the United States with them in 1893. Upon arrival he adopted his American name, and the family settled on the lower east side of New York City. Irving attended public school there for two years, but dropped out to work and help support his family.

In 1907 while employed as a waiter in New York's Chinatown, Irving Berlin wrote his first song, "Marie from Southern Italy". A year later he was employed as a lyricist by a music publishing house and soon was a partner in the company, Waterson, Berlin and Snyder. In 1910 Irving Berlin wrote "My Wife's Gone to the Country" and "Call Me Up Some Rainy Afternoon". These launched his career as a world famous composer of popular songs and in 1911 "Alexander's Ragtime Band" was a sensational hit. It was this song, along with the others he made at this time, that many consider the advent of Modernism within the musical field.

During World War I, Irving Berlin was stationed at Camp Upton, Long Island, where he wrote patriotic songs, including an all-soldier musical revue and the song "God Bless America" (this was not released until twenty years later). After the war he established his own music publishing company in New York City, Irving Berlin Inc. In 1921 he partnered with Sam Harris and and built the Music Box Theater.

Irving Berlin was married twice. The first marriage in 1912 was to Dorothy Goetz, who died shortly afterward. In 1926 he married Ellin Mackay, the daughter of C. H. Mackay, chairman of the board of Postal Telegraph Cable Company. They had four children: Mary Ellin Barret, Elizabeth Irving Peters, Linda Louise Emmet, and little Irving, who died in infancy.

During World War II, Mr. Berlin toured the United States and the European and Pacific battle zones. Proceeds from these appearances were assigned to the Army Emergency Relief and other service agencies. He was the recipient of the Medal of Merit, the Congressional Gold Medal, and the President's Medal of Freedom and was a member of the Legion of Honor of France.

After the war, Berlin continued to write songs, scores, and musicals. It was during these decades that the score for the movie "White Christmas" and the play "Annie Get Your Gun" were produced. He took up painting as a hobby later in life. He died on September 22, 1989 at the age of 101. He is buried at Woodlawn Cemetary, the Bronx, New York City.
Related Materials:
Material in the Archives Center

Sam DeVincent Illustrated Sheet Music Collection

Groucho Marx Collection

Material in Other Institutions

Library of Congress

University of New Hampshire, Milne Special Collections
Provenance:
Donated to National Museum of American History (formerly the the Museum of History and Technology) by Irving Berlin on March 27, 1975.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Portraits -- 1900-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Awards
Paintings
Sheet music
Posters -- 1940-1960
Citation:
Irving Berlin Collection, 1905-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0257
See more items in:
Irving Berlin Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0257
Online Media:

Maceo Jefferson Papers

Creator:
Jefferson, Yvonne Runtz  Search this
Jefferson, Maceo  Search this
Donor:
Cargill, Thomas  Search this
Cargill, Darlene Johnson  Search this
Names:
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (26 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Hymnals
Programs
Correspondence
Legal records
Marriage certificates
Business records
78 rpm records
Passports
Sheet music
Music
Photographs
Contracts
Clippings
Birth certificates
Date:
1800s-1974
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the life and career of jazz musician, arranger, songwriter, and bandleader Maceo Jefferson. It includes biographical documents such as birth and marriaige certificates and passports; letters, mostly relating to the music business and including carbon copies of letters sent by Jefferson; photographs, many inscribed, including photographs of performers from the early jazz era; a hymnal used by Jefferson; several pieces of published sheet music written by Jefferson; concert programs, including a hand-made one for a concert given inside a Nazi internment camp where Jefferson was detained for two years; lyrics to songs; some business records, many in French; legal records; recordings, including 78 rpm records; and music manuscripts, which comprise roughly three fourths of the collection. Additionally, Jefferson's wife, Yvonne Runtz Jefferson, was a costume designer, and there are photographs relating to her work in the collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1891-1978, undated

Series 2: Correspondence, 1909-1976, undated

Series 3: Business Records and Performance Materials, 1932-1971, undated

Series 4: Legal Records, 1920s-1970s, undated

Series 5: Music Manuscripts, Published Sheet Music, and Folios, 1891-1972, undated

Subseries 5.1: Jefferson Compositions, 1920-1972, undated

Subseries 5.2: Compositions by Oother Composers, 1921-1971, undated

Subseries 5.3: Sheet Music, 1891-1970, undated

Subseries 5.4: Folios, Songbooks and Instruction, 1870s-1950s

Series 6: Photographs, 1800s-1960s

Series 7: Recordings, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Maceo Buchannan Jefferson was born on July 14, 1898 in Beaufort, South Carolina to Reverend Paul William Jefferson and Julia Rose Singleton. The oldest of five children, Jefferson showed an early aptitude for both banjo and guitar. He enlisted in the Navy on April 6, 1917 and was released from service on December 24, 1919. According to the 1920 census, Jefferson lived in Portsmouth Monroe Ward, Portsmouth, Virginia as a laborer with the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. During this time, he played with Gus Perry at the Limelight's Nightclub. Jefferson then moved to Norfolk, Virginia for two years before moving to Washington, DC. As noted in his resume, while in the District of Columbia Jeffersone, he performed with the J. R. Branson Orchestra in a dance hall on U Street and the Roscoe Lee Orchestra at the Better Old Club. He married Riccolin E. Sutherland on October 21, 1922. Jefferson spent another two years in a nightclub in Washington, where he met Duke Ellington and joined his band, the Washingtonians. By early 1923, Jefferson had joined Wilber Sweatman, and worked in a succession of nightclubs and theaters in New York, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. He also accompanied singer Ethel Waters on a recording session for Columbia Records. In 1926, he joined the Lew Leslie Blackbirds Plantation Orchestra and went on a European tour in 1927 with the band and singer Florence Mills. Jefferson joined Leon Abbey's band in 1928, and eventually relocated to Paris, France. During this time, he performed with several jazz bands and musicians including Louis Armstrong before returning to New York where he played in Willie "The Lion" Smith's band and toured with W. C. Handy. The late 1930s and 1940s found him back in France where he married a Parisian woman, Yvonne Josephine Stephanie Runtz, in 1937. Jefferson toured with different bands in France, England, Scotland, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, and Italy until the end of May 1940. In June, he drove a truck for the American Hospital of Paris to the base hospital of Angouleme for which he received no salary. From August to November, Jefferson worked for the American Red Cross as a driver transporting the sick and, injured, and distributing medicine and food. Jefferson resumed his musical career arranging, composing, copying, and playing music from December 1940-December 1941. His career took a dramatic turn when the Nazis, under the Vichy government, imprisoned him, three days after the United States declared war on Germany. Jefferson spent twenty-seven months in prison camp stalag 122 in Compiegne, France and while imprisoned led an orchestra. In 1944, the Nazis released and sent Jefferson back to the United States where he lived in New York before relocating to Bridgeport, Connecticut. In the latter part of his life and musical career, he focused on composition and developing new arrangements for old songs. He never fully regained his health after his time in the concentration camp. Jefferson died on June 15, 1974 in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Duke Ellington Collection (AC0301)

Duncan Schiedt Jazz Collection (AC1323)

W. C. Handy Collection (AC0132)

Gottlieb and Bodansky Family Papers (AC1245)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015 by Jefferson's grand-nephew Thomas Cargill and his wife Darlene Johnson Cargill.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Concentration camps -- France  Search this
Composers  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Banjoists  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Hymnals
Programs -- Concerts -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Legal records -- 20th century
Marriage certificates
Business records -- 20th century
78 rpm records
Passports
Sheet music -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Contracts -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Birth certificates
Citation:
Maceo Jefferson Papers, 1898-1974, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1370
See more items in:
Maceo Jefferson Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1370
Online Media:

Duke Ellington Collection

Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Extent:
400 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Music
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- 20th century
Date:
1903 - 1989
Summary:
The collection documents Duke Ellington's career primarily through orchestrations (scores and parts), music manuscripts, lead sheets, transcriptions, and sheet music. It also includes concert posters, concert programs, television, radio, motion picture and musical theater scripts, business records, correspondence, awards, as well as audiotapes, audiodiscs, photographs, tour itineraries, newspaper clippings, magazines, caricatures, paintings, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
Dating approximately from the time Duke Ellington permanently moved to New York City in 1923 to the time the material was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1988, the bulk of the material in the Duke Ellington Collection is dated from 1934-1974 and comprises sound recordings, original music manuscripts and published sheet music, hand-written notes, correspondence, business records, photographs, scrapbooks, news clippings, concert programs, posters, pamphlets, books and other ephemera. These materials document Ellington's contributions as composer, musician, orchestra leader, and an ambassador of American music and culture abroad. In addition, the materials paint a picture of the life of a big band maintained for fifty years and open a unique window through which to view an evolving American society.

The approximate four hundred cubic feet of archival materials have been processed and organized into sixteen series arranged by type of material. Several of the series have been divided into subseries allowing additional organization to describe the content of the material. For example, Series 6, Sound Recordings, is divided into four subseries: Radio and Television Interviews, Concert Performances, Studio Dates and Non-Ellington Recordings. Each series has its own scope and content note describing the material and arrangement (for example; Series 10, Magazines and Newspaper Articles, is organized into two groups, foreign and domestic, and arranged chronologically within each group). A container list provides folder titles and box numbers.

The bulk of the material is located in Series 1, Music Manuscripts, and consists of compositions and arrangements by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and other composers. Series 6, Sound Recordings also provides a record of the performance of many of these compositions. The materials in Series 2, Performances and Programs, Series 3, Business Records, Series 8, Scrapbooks, Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, Series 11, Publicity and Series 12, Posters provide documentation of specific performances by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Ellington was a spontaneous and prolific composer as evidenced by music, lyrical thoughts, and themes for extended works and plays captured on letterhead stationery in Series 3, Business Records, in the margin notes of individual books and pamphlets in Series 14, Religious Materials and Series 15, Books, and in the hand-written notes in Series 5, Personal Correspondence and Notes.

During its fifty-year lifespan, Duke Ellington and His Orchestra were billed under various names including The Washingtonians, The Harlem Footwarmers and The Jungle Band. The soloists were informally called "the band", and Series 3 includes salary statements, IOU's, receipts and ephemera relating to individual band members. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains the soloists' parts and includes "band books" of several soloists (for example; Harry Carney and Johnny Hodges) and numerous music manuscripts of Billy Strayhorn. The changing role of Strayhorn from arranger hired in 1938 to Ellington's main collaborator and composer of many well-known titles for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra including "Take The A' Train" and "Satin Doll" can be traced in these music manuscripts. Series 7, Photographs and Series 2, Performances and Programs contain many images of the band members and Strayhorn. This Collection also documents the business history of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 3, Business Records contains correspondence on letterhead stationery and Series 11, Publicity contains promotional material from the various booking agencies, professional companies, and public relations firms that managed the Orchestra.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection provide insight into public and institutional attitudes towards African Americans in mid-twentieth-century America. The business records in Series 3 beginning in 1938 and published sheet music in Series 1 depict Duke Ellington's progression from an African-American musician who needed "legitimization" by a white publisher, Irving Mills, to a businessmen who established his own companies including Tempo Music and Duke Ellington, Incorporated to control his copyright and financial affairs. Programs from the segregated Cotton Club in Series 2, Performances And Programs and contracts with no-segregation clauses in Series 3: Business Records further illustrate racial policies and practices in this time period. The public shift in perception of Duke Ellington from a leader of an exotic "Jungle Band" in the 1930s to a recipient of the Congressional Medal Of Freedom in 1970 is evidenced in Series 2, Performances And Programs, Series 12, Posters, Series 7, Photographs and Series 13, Awards. Reviews and articles reflecting Ellington's evolving status are also documented in Series 8, Newspaper Clippings, Series 9, Scrapbooks, Series 10, Newspaper and Magazine Articles.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection reflect rapid technological changes in American society from 1923-1982. Sound recordings in Series 6 range from 78 phonograph records of three minutes duration manufactured for play on Victrolas in monaural sound to long-playing (LP) phonograph records produced for stereo record players. Television scripts in Series 4, programs in Series 2 and music manuscripts (for example, Drum Is A Woman) in Series 1 demonstrate how the development of television as a means of mass communication spread the Orchestra's sound to a wider audience. The availability of commercial air travel enabled the Ellington Orchestra to extend their international performances from Europe to other continents including tours to Asia, Africa, South America and Australia and archival material from these tours is included in every series.

Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts and Series 6, Audio Recordings contain scripts and radio performances promoting the sale of United States War bonds during World War II, and Series 7, Photographs includes many images of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra's performances for military personnel revealing the impact of historic events on Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 2: Programs and Performances, Series 9, Newspaper clippings and Series 8, Scrapbooks document the 1963 Far East tour aborted as a result of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.

The Duke Ellington Collection contains works by numerous twentieth-century music, literature, and art luminaries. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains original music manuscripts of William Grant Still, Eubie Blake, Mary Lou Williams, and others. Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts contains a play by Langston Hughes, and Series 12, Posters contains many original artworks.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Music Manuscripts, circa 1930-1981, undated

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1933-1973, undated

Series 3: Business Records, 1938-1988

Series 4: Scripts and Transcripts, 1937-1970

Series 5: Personal Correspondence and Notes, 1941-1974, undated

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1927-1974

Series 7: Photographs, 1924-1972, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1931-1973

Series 9: Newspaper Clippings, 1939-1973, undated

Series 10: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1940-1974

Series 11: Publicity, 1935-1988

Series 12: Posters and Oversize Graphics, 1933-1989, undated

Series 13: Awards, 1939-1982

Series 14: Religious Material, 1928-1974

Series 15: Books, 1903-1980

Series 16: Miscellaneous, 1940-1974
Biographical / Historical:
A native of Washington, DC, Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899. Edward was raised in a middle-class home in the Northwest section of Washington described by his sister Ruth--younger by sixteen years--as a "house full of love." Ellington himself wrote that his father J.E. (James Edward) raised his family "as though he were a millionaire" but Edward was especially devoted to his mother, Daisy Kennedy Ellington. In 1969, thirty-four years after his mother's death, Ellington accepted the Presidential Medal of Freedom with these words, "There is nowhere else I would rather be tonight but in my mother's arms." Both his parents played the piano and Ellington began piano lessons at the age of seven, but like many boys he was easily distracted by baseball.

In his early teens, Ellington sneaked into Washington clubs and performance halls where he was exposed to ragtime musicians, including James P. Johnson, and where he met people from all walks of life. He returned in earnest to his piano studies, and at age fourteen wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" also known as "Poodle Dog Rag." Ellington was earning income from playing music at seventeen years of age, and around this time he earned the sobriquet "Duke" for his sartorial splendor and regal air. On July 2, 1918, he married a high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson; their only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born on March 11, 1919. Duke Ellington spent the first twenty-four years of his life in Washington's culturally thriving Negro community. In this vibrant atmosphere he was inspired to be a composer and learned to take pride in his African-American heritage.

Ellington moved to New York City in 1923 to join and eventually lead a small group of transplanted Washington musicians called "The Washingtonians," which included future Ellington band members, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwicke and "Bubber" Miley. Between 1923 and 1927, the group played at the Club Kentucky on Broadway and the ensemble increased from a quintet to a ten-piece orchestra. With stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith as his unofficial guide, Ellington soon became part of New York's music scene; Smith proved to be a long-lasting influence on Duke's composing and arranging direction. At the Club Kentucky, Ellington came under the tutelage of another legendary stride pianist, "Fats" Waller. Waller, a protege of Johnson and Smith, played solos during the band's breaks and also tutored Ellington who began to show progress in his compositions. In November 1924, Duke made his publishing and recording debut with "Choo Choo (I Got To Hurry Home)" released on the Blu-Disc label. In 1925, he contributed two songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-black revue which introduced European audiences to black American styles and performers. By this time Ellington's family, Edna and Mercer, had joined him in New York City. The couple separated in the late 1920's, but they never divorced or reconciled.

Ellington's achievements as a composer and bandleader began to attract national attention while he worked at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, from 1927 to 1932. The orchestra developed a distinctive sound that displayed the non-traditional voicings of Ellington's arrangements and featured the unique talents of the individual soloists. Ellington integrated his soloists' exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, their high-squealed trumpets, their sultry saxophone blues licks and Harlem's street rhythms into his arrangements. In the promotional material of the Cotton Club, the band was often billed as "Duke Ellington and His Jungle Band." With the success of compositions like "Mood Indigo," and an increasing number of recordings and national radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, the band's reputation soared.

The ten years from 1932 to 1942 are considered by some major critics to represent the "golden age" for the Ellington Orchestra, but it represents just one of their creative peaks. These years did bring an influx of extraordinary new talent to the band including Jimmy Blanton on double bass, Ben Webster on tenor saxophone, and Ray Nance on trumpet, violin and vocals. During this ten year span Ellington composed several of his best known short works, including "Concerto For Cootie," "Ko-Ko," "Cotton Tail," "In A Sentimental Mood," and Jump For Joy, his first full-length musical stage revue.

Most notably, 1938 marked the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. While a teenager in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Strayhorn had already written "Lush Life," "Something To Live For" and a musical, Fantastic Rhythm. Ellington was initially impressed with Strayhorn's lyrics but realized long before Billy's composition "Take the A' Train" became the band's theme song in 1942 that Strayhorn's talents were not limited to penning clever lyrics. By 1942, "Swee' Pea" had become arranger, composer, second pianist, collaborator, and as Duke described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine." Many Ellington/Strayhorn songs have entered the jazz canon, and their extended works are still being discovered and studied today. Strayhorn remained with the Ellington Organization until his death on May 30, 1967.

Ellington had often hinted of a work in progress depicting the struggle of blacks in America. The original script, Boola, debuted in Carnegie Hall in November of 1943, retitled Black, Brown and Beige. The performance met with mixed reviews, and although Ellington often returned to Carnegie Hall the piece was never recorded in a studio, and after 1944 was never performed in entirety again by the Ellington Orchestra. Nonetheless, it is now considered a milestone in jazz composition.

After World War II the mood and musical tastes of the country shifted and hard times befell big bands, but Ellington kept his band together. The band was not always financially self-sufficient and during the lean times Ellington used his songwriting royalties to meet the soloists' salaries. One could assign to Ellington the altruistic motive of loyalty to his sidemen, but another motivation may have been his compositional style which was rooted in hearing his music in the formative stage come alive in rehearsal. "The band was his instrument," Billy Strayhorn said, and no Ellington composition was complete until he heard the orchestra play it. Then he could fine tune his compositions, omit and augment passages, or weave a soloist's contribution into the structure of the tune.

In 1956, the American public rediscovered Duke and the band at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. The searing performances of tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves on "Diminuendo and Crescendo In Blue," his premiere soloist, alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges on "Jeep's Blues", and the crowd's ecstatic reaction have become jazz legend. Later that year Duke landed on the cover of Time magazine. Although Ellington had previously written music for film and television (including the short film, Black and Tan Fantasy in 1929) it wasn't until 1959 that Otto Preminger asked him to score music for his mainstream film, Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart. Paris Blues in 1961, featuring box-office stars Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier in roles as American jazz musicians in Paris, followed.

Ellington's first performance overseas was in England in 1933, but the 1960s brought extensive overseas tours including diplomatic tours sponsored by the State Department. Ellington and Strayhorn composed exquisite extended works reflecting the sights and sounds of their travels, including the Far East Suite, 1966. They wrote homages to their classical influences; in 1963, they adapted Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and celebrated Shakespeare's works with the suite Such Sweet Thunder in 1957. With Ella Fitzgerald, they continued the Norman Granz Songbook Series. Ellington also began to flex his considerable pianist skills and recorded albums with John Coltrane (1963), Coleman Hawkins (1963), Frank Sinatra, and Money Jungle (1963) with Charles Mingus and Max Roach. The First Sacred Concert debuted in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral in 1965. In his final years, Ellington's thoughts turned to spiritual themes and he added a Second (1968) and Third (1973) Concert of Sacred Music to his compositions.

In his lifetime, Duke received numerous awards and honors including the highest honor bestowed on an American civilian, the Congressional Medal Of Freedom. In 1965, Ellington was recommended for a Pulitzer Prize to honor his forty years of contribution to music but the recommendation was rejected by the board. Most likely he was disappointed, but his response at the age of sixty-six was, "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."

Ellington never rested on his laurels or stopped composing. Whenever he was asked to name his favorite compositions his characteristic reply was "the next five coming up," but to please his loyal fans Ellington always featured some of his standards in every performance. Even on his deathbed, he was composing the opera buffo called Queenie Pie.

Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974 at seventy-five years of age. His funeral was held in New York's Cathedral of St. John The Divine; he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His long-time companion Beatrice "Evie" Ellis was buried beside him after her death in 1976. He was survived by his only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, who not only took up the baton to lead the Duke Ellington Orchestra but assumed the task of caring for his father's papers and his legacy to the nation. Mercer Ellington died in Copenhagan, Denmark on February 8, 1996, at the age of seventy-six. Ruth Ellington Boatwright died in New York on March 6, 2004, at the age of eighty-eight. Both Mercer and Ruth were responsible for shepherding the documents and artifacts that celebrate Duke Ellington's genius and creative life to their current home in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William H. Quealy Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings (AC0296)

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington (AC0328)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

Duke Ellington Collection of Ephemera and realated Audiovisual Materials (AC0386)

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings (AC0385)

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0388)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Prints (AC0389)

New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection (AC390)

Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0391)

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music (AC0406)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0415)

Music manuscripts in the Ruth Ellington Collection complement the music manuscripts found in the Duke Ellington Collection.

Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington (AC0422)

Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia (AC0494)

Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0502)

Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0704)

Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements (AC0740)

John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0763)

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC1240)

Materials at Other Organizations

Institute of Jazz Studies

Websites

Billy Strayhorn Website

Duke Ellington Society
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Culture and the Arts and include trophies, plaques, and medals. See accessions: 1989.0369; 1991.0808; 1993.0032; and 1999.0148.
Provenance:
The collection was purchased through an appropriation of Congress in 1988.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Big bands  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Bandsmen -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0301
Online Media:

[Composer Benjamin Britten and singer Peter Pears dining at table : color slide (chromogenic phototransparency).]

Photographer:
Sultner-Welles, Donald H. (Sultner, Donald Harvey), 1914-1981  Search this
Names:
Britten, Benjamin, Sir, 1913-1976  Search this
Pears, Peter, Sir, 1910-  Search this
Collection Collector:
Sultner-Welles, Donald H. (Sultner, Donald Harvey), 1914-1981  Search this
Collection Printer:
Janus, Allan  Search this
Collection Interviewee:
Hanfstaengl, Erna  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (2-1/4" x 2-1/4".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Arrangement:
In Series 5, Box 170, Sheet 35.
Local Numbers:
AC0145-0000055.tif (AC scan no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site. Unprotected photographs must be handled with white cotton gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Singers  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1990 -- Phototransparencies.
See more items in:
Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection
Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection / Series 5: Transparencies / 5.9: Lectures / Portraits for lectures (2) Shadows no slides (wake--ships/boats) / Adagio--Conc. of Aranquez
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0145-ref11689

[Noel Coward at a piano : black-and-white photoprint]

Collector:
Marx, Groucho (Julius Henry), 1890-1977 (comedian)  Search this
Names:
Coward, Noel, 1899-1973  Search this
Collection Artist:
Benton, Thomas Hart, 1889-1975  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marx, Groucho (Julius Henry), 1890-1977 (comedian)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 9.9" x 7.8")
Container:
Box 26, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Circa 1940
Scope and Contents:
According to a note on the back, this hung in the den of the Marx home. Signed in red, lower right.
Local Numbers:
AC0269-0000003 (AC scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Piano  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Groucho Marx Collection, 1911-1978, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Groucho Marx Collection
Groucho Marx Collection / Series 7: Artworks and Photographs / 7.1: Artwork / 7.2: Photographs / Noel Coward photographic portrait undated
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0269-ref933

Music Manuscripts

Composer:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Still, William Grant, 1895-1978  Search this
Blake, Eubie, 1883-1983  Search this
Hamilton, Jimmy  Search this
Lacy, Steve  Search this
Williams, Mary Lou, 1910-  Search this
Collector:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Robison, Willard, orchestra conductor  Search this
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Whaley, Thomas L. (copyist)  Search this
Robison, Willard  Search this
Brown, Lawrence  Search this
Carney, Harry  Search this
Redman, Don  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
212 Cubic feet (Approx.; 530+ boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Music
Sheet music
Scores
Lead sheet
Notebooks
Parts (musical)
Piano vocal scores
Date:
circa 1930-1981, undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes original manuscripts (parts and scores), copy scores, lead, lyric and copyright sheets, published music and arrangements of compositions by Duke Ellington and his main collaborator, Billy Strayhorn. This series also contains arrangements by Ellington, Strayhorn, Tom Whaley and others for songs encompassing African-American spirituals and traditional songs from the nineteenth century, pre-World War II standards, Broadway tunes, film themes and pop songs from the 1950s to 1970s. Original manuscripts of compositions and arrangements created for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra by Mary Lou Williams and Don Redman among others can be found in this series. Of particular interest are original manuscripts of twentieth-century notable composers including Eubie Blake and William Grant Still that were not created for or used by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Scattered throughout the Collection are early works by contemporary jazz artists including Quincy Jones and Steve Lacy. Scores and parts for a 1982 posthumous Broadway musical tribute, Sophisticated Ladies, based on Ellington/Strayhorn compositions, is also included in this series.

The music manuscripts were the ephemera of Ellington and the band's life on the road and reflect their peripatetic existence. Frequently there are phone numbers, personal notes, and shopping lists jotted on the original manuscripts. The music manuscripts were not deliberately collected for posterity but maintained by band members or assembled by a "band boy" for distribution to band members for performances. Individual arrangements are not necessarily complete. Each title has been separated by arrangement and key when possible, but for most titles additional research is necessary to complete the arrangement or to document a specific performance or recording.

The manuscripts provide documentation that Ellington wrote his arrangements for his individual band members. Directions on the scores and most of the parts indicate the soloist's name or nickname rather than the instrument he played (for example; Johnny Hodges's parts are usually indicated by "Johnny" or "Rab" for his nickname "Rabbit" instead of Alto Saxophone).

The bulk of the scores and parts are hand-written by Ellington, Strayhorn or Tom Whaley (Ellington's chief copyist, circa 1942-1969); in many instances identifications are attached to the music or listed on the folder. A reference notebook available to researchers identifies the handwriting of composers, arrangers, and copyists found in the Collection.

The titles range from short songs to large-scale, multi-movement works and are arranged alphabetically. The title list is not a definitive research document. However, alternate titles provided by reference publications and research by Ellington scholars or Archives Center staff suggest a relationship between certain titles. Titles in italics indicate that there is additional music, in a separate location, which might be of interest to the researcher.

There are four reference abbreviations used in the title list: see, sa (see also), aka (also known as), and verso. Title fragments, abbreviations, working titles, or nicknames which are written on the music are cross-referenced to the proper title. They are distinguished by the use of "see" followed by the proper title to indicate the location of the music (for example; Mon-Sat see Never On A Sunday). Some songs are known by more than one title and the different titles denote a change significant enough to warrant its listing under two separate titles (for example; "Concerto For Cootie" was an instrumental arrangement which became Do Nothing Til You Hear From Me when words were added). In this and similar cases, the music is located under both titles and the reference "sa" with the alternate title in italics designates an alternate location (for example; "Do Nothing Til You Hear From Me" sa "Concerto For Cootie"). Some identical songs were recorded and performed under two different titles. In this instance, the music will be found under one title with reference to the alternate title (for example; Altitude see "Main Stem", "Main Stem" aka "Altitude"). Some titles have akas (also known as) and in this document "aka" is used to indicate that there is no music under the other known title (for example; "Merry-Go-Round" aka "Ace Of Spades"). Some music is located on the reverse side of a score or part with a different title. In this instance "verso" indicates that there is additional music with this title located elsewhere (for example; "Eggo" verso "Kick").

Sixty-seven extended works by Ellington and other collaborators, composers, arrangers, and lyricists---most notably Billy Strayhorn---have been identified and filed alphabetically. The extended works are distinguished in the finding aid by capital letters and bold text (for example; FAR EAST SUITE). The individual titles which are elements of an extended work have been relocated to their respective suites (for example: Agra see FAR EAST SUITE). Series 1 also contains ten non-Ellington extended works. These are distinguished by lower-case bold lettering (for example: Mikado Swing).

One box of songbooks containing published sheet music of Ellington and Strayhorn compositions is physically located at the end of Subseries 1.1: Oversize scores are physically located at the end of this series but are listed alphabetically and indicated in the title list by the abbreviation OS (for example; I Fell And Broke My Heart sa OS).

The music manuscripts in Series 1 have been organized into eight subseries. Each subseries has its own container list, but titles in Subseries 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 are referenced in the Subseries 1.1 title list (for example: Caravan see also 1.2).

The bulk of the material is located in Subseries 1.1, Music Manuscripts, consisting of scores and parts composed and arranged by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and others for performance by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Scattered throughout this series are arrangements by Tom Whaley for bands that performed during his tenure as musical director of various Harlem Theatres including the Apollo Theatre, circa 1930-1942. Eubie Blake manuscripts of his original compositions contained in this series also were not created for performance by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Contained within this series are complete unpublished and unrecorded scores and parts by composers, most notably Mary Lou Williams, submitted to Ellington for possible performance or recording. Subseries 1.2, Manuscript Sketchbooks consists of three cubic feet of bound manuscript notebooks including ones by Ellington, Strayhorn, Jimmy Hamilton and Tom Whaley. These "sketchbooks" are particularly valuable and fragile and may not be photocopied. The notebooks are available to researchers with special instructions for handling. Subseries 1.3, Sidemen's Books consists of ten cubic feet of parts for individual soloists, including Lawrence Brown and Harry Carney, or for a specific instrument.

Subseries 1.4, Unidentified Music consists of five cubic feet of untitled and unidentified parts and scores including original Ellington and Strayhorn manuscripts.

Subseries 1.5, Willard Robison Arrangements consists of nine cubic feet of scores and parts that were arranged for Robison's Deep River Orchestra and in particular for the Deep River Hour, a weekly radio show broadcast from New York City that aired from 1929 to 1932. Most of these arrangements are original manuscripts of William Grant Still (1895-1978) who is considered one of the most significant African-American classical composers of the twentieth century.

Subseries 1.6, Published Sheet Music consists of nine cubic feet of published sheet music unrelated to the titles in Subseries 1.1 including one-half cubic feet of published songs in Spanish and Portuguese that were most likely presented to Ellington during his 1967 Latin American tour.

The bulk of the material in Subseries 1.2, Music Manuscript Sketchbooks consists of spiral-bound notebooks or "sketchbooks" containing original scores, incomplete scores, sketches and lyrics by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Tom Whaley and Ellington band members Jimmy Hamilton and John Sanders. There is one notebook created by Ann Michlau. The material is very fragile and valuable.

Titles or title fragments are listed in the order they appear. In some notebooks, researchers' notes identifying the material are included, and special care is necessary to maintain this order. Each folder contains one notebook or loose pages grouped for creation or copyright. The creator of each notebook is identified by name and underlined at the beginning of the folder; change of creator within each folder is also designated. Most of the folders contain untitled works.

Subseries 1.3, Sidemen's Books consists of parts for Ellington Orchestra soloists including Johnny Hodges, Barney Bigard, Harry Carney and Lawrence Brown. In the early years, Duke Ellington's band members maintained their own "books" for performances; later the "books" were distributed by a band manager. A new band member inherited the "book" of the sideman he replaced, therefore each "book" frequently contains parts originally written for a former band member (for example, Barney Bigard clarinet parts can be found in Jimmy Hamilton's "book"). The material is in fair to poor condition.

The folders are arranged alphabetically by band members' last name, followed by folders with parts for specific instruments. The titles in each folder are filed alphabetically. To reduce handling of the material a title guide directs the researcher to a specific soloist. The title guide identifies the set number and copyist - when known-for researchers to determine if the material in this subseries corresponds with their search in Subseries 1.1, The container list marks the location of the material.

Subseries 1.4, Untitled Scores and Parts consists of untitled complete and incomplete scores and parts. The material is arranged by type of material (for example Duke Ellington scores, alto sax parts). There is no container list available for this subseries.

Subseries 1.5, Scores and Parts for Willard Robison's Deep River Orchestra, circa 1929-1931 consists of scores and parts arranged for Willard Robison's Deep River Orchestra. The bulk of these scores were created for Robison's radio show Deep River Hour. Many of the scores are the seminal arrangements of William Grant Still who was later crowned the "Dean Of Afro-American Classical Composers". The material is arranged alphabetically. Oversize scores are interfiled alphabetically but are physically located in Subseries 1.1 oversize boxes.

Subseries 1.6, Arrangements for Della Reese consists of music parts arranged by instrument.

Subseries 1.7, Non-Ellington Published Music consists of published sheet music never performed by Duke Ellington and his Orchestra. The individual titles are arranged alphabetically, followed by published songbooks. This subseries contains foreign language material; of particular interest is the material in Spanish which was most likely presented to Duke Ellington on his 1967 Latin American tour.

Subseries 1.8, Ephemera contains Duke Ellington's discography, Mercer Ellington's discography, and assorted lyrics and set lists.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Big bands  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Piano music (Jazz)  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Music -- Manuscripts
Sheet music
Scores
Lead sheet
Notebooks
Parts (musical)
Piano vocal scores
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301, Series 1
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref36665

[Duke Ellington composing at the piano during a State Department tour in Pakistan: black-and-white photoprint.]

Names:
United States. Department of State  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper.)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Pakistan
Arrangement:
Series 7, Box 6, Folder 9a.
Local Numbers:
AC0301-0000013.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Piano  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 7: Photographs, Duke Ellington Collection / 7.7.9: Duke Ellington at the Piano
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref53236

[Duke Ellington portrait : black-and-white photoprint]

Creator:
Bachrach, Fabian, 1917-2010  Search this
Names:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (photoprints, Silver gelatin on paper., 10" x 8".)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Publicity photographs
Photographs
Date:
1969
Scope and Contents:
7 nearly identical prints from same negative: Ellington wearing jacket and tie, with large cufflinks on shirt, with a sheet of music on the table. Five of the prints are warm-toned without identification; two cold-tone prints, probably intended as publicity photographs, bear Fabian Bachrach's imprint on the front and rubber stamp on the verso.
Arrangement:
Series 7, Box 6, Folder 29.
Local Numbers:
AC0301-0000028.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Musicians  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
African American composers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publicity photographs
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 7: Photographs, Duke Ellington Collection / 7.7.40: Publicity
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref53251

[Duke Ellington composing at the piano : black-and-white photoprint.]

Photographer:
Sarra, Valentino, 1903-1982  Search this
Names:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., approx. 8" x 10".)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Photographers stamp "SARRA, Inc. 200 East 56th Street, New York." Probably Valentino Sarra.
Arrangement:
Series 7, Box No. 2, Folder 26.
Biographical / Historical:
Biographical information on Sarra at http://www.fulltable.com/vts/f/fortune/photos/sarra/mn.htm.
Local Numbers:
AC0301-0000065.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 7: Photographs, Duke Ellington Collection / 7.7.9: Duke Ellington at the Piano
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref53283

W. C. Handy Collection

Creator:
Shurr, Robert L.  Search this
Handy, W. C. (William Christopher), 1873-1958  Search this
Names:
Pace, Harry (song writer)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sheet music
Letters (correspondence)
Correspondence
Photographs
Personal papers
Date:
1928
1948 - 1948
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of a photograph, several letters written by Handy, and several pieces of music which he published.

Handy remains among the most influential of American Blues songwriters. Handy is credited with giving Blues, its contemporary form. While Handy was not the first to publish music in the blues form, he took the blues from a regional music style with a limited audience to one of the dominant national forces in American music.

Handy was an educated musician who used folk material in his compositions. He was scrupulous in documenting the sources of his works, which frequently combined stylistic influences from several performers.
Arrangement:
Divided into 4 series: (1) Correspondence, 1928; (2) Photographs, 1948; (3) Sheet music, 1948; and (4) Robert L. Shurr papers.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Christopher Handy, a composer and music publisher, was born in Florence, Alabama on November 16, 1873. He is known as the "father of the blues" because he was the first person to collect and write the songs down which had been played by workers, illiterates, and share croppers. These original blues songs had a three line verse, a definite musical pattern which usually expressed a lament of some kind, and often ended in "ironical self -ridicule, fatalistic resignation, or absurd incongruous laughter" He also had a minstrel show band.

Among the more than sixty songs he wrote were "Memphis Blues, St. Louis Blues, Beale Street Blues, Mississippi Blues, and Joe Turner Blues." Handy wrote other secular songs, made arrangements of spirituals, and did orchestral work as a composer and conductor.

To get his music published. Handy, with Harry Pace, a songwriter, founded a music publishing house in Memphis in 1907 which was moved to New York in 1918. Among the songs his company published was "A Good Man is Hard to Find" which Sophie Tucker, a white singer, sang on Broadway and helped to make it a hit.

Handy died on March 29, 1958 in New York City. Later that year a movie based on his life was issued. It was titled "St. Louis Blues" and Nat "King" Cole played the role of Handy.
Related Archival Materials:
Received with George Washington Carver Collection, same donor.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Robert L. Shurr.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Popular music -- Publishing and writing  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Blues (Music)  Search this
African American music -- 20th century  Search this
African American composers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music
Letters (correspondence) -- 1900-1950
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Personal papers
Citation:
W. C. Handy Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0132
See more items in:
W. C. Handy Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0132

Meet the Composer: 20th Century Consort

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Resident Associate Program, Business Office  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 90-128, Smithsonian Resident Associate Program, Business Office, Records
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa90-128-refd1e232

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