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Ebony Vol. IV No. 12

Published by:
Johnson Publishing Company, American, 1942 - 2019  Search this
Subject of:
Lena Horne, American, 1917 - 2010  Search this
Duke Ellington, American, 1899 - 1974  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 13 1/4 x 10 1/8 in. (33.7 x 25.7 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, United States, North and Central America
Date:
October 1949
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Football  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Modern dance  Search this
Music  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Stephanie Capparell, author of The Real Pepsi Challenge
Object number:
2011.35.1.11
Restrictions & Rights:
© Ebony Media Group LLC. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5c3dcdc57-b6ff-4a06-82c9-2c8f40681a4e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.35.1.11
Online Media:

Recording made by Jimi Hendrix at Electric Lady Studios

Recorded by:
Jimi Hendrix, American, 1942 - 1970  Search this
Produced by:
Electric Lady Studios, American, founded 1970  Search this
Medium:
(a. reel) magnetic tapes and plastic
(b. box) cardboard with ink on paper and adhesive
Dimensions:
Diameter (a. disc): 7 × 3/8 in. (17.8 × 1 cm)
H x W x D (b. box): 7 1/4 × 7 1/4 × 5/8 in. (18.4 × 18.4 × 1.6 cm)
Type:
sound recordings
tape recordings
Place made:
West Village, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1970
Topic:
African American  Search this
Blues (Music)  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Rhythm and blues (Music)  Search this
Rock and roll (Music)  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2020.53.9ab
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown – Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Audio Recordings
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5be308bf2-fae9-4780-bc85-b1a332578a8f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2020.53.9ab
Online Media:

Announcement for Roland Hayes Performance at the Oakland Auditorium Theatre

Distributed by:
Today's Artists Concerts, American, founded 1958  Search this
Subject of:
Roland Hayes, American, 1887 - 1977  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product) and
Dimensions:
L x W: 10 3/8 x 6 15/16 in. (26.4 x 17.6 cm)
Type:
fliers (printed matter)
promotional materials
Place depicted:
Oakland, Alameda County, California, United States, North and Central America
Date:
November 10, 1961
Topic:
African American  Search this
Classical (Music)  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Jackie Bryant Smith
Object number:
2010.66.111
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52d521323-c03a-4e4e-aeb6-aadea5f72a7f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.66.111
Online Media:

Ticket for funeral services for Martin Luther King, Jr. owned by Nina Simone

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Used by:
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 2 1/8 x 5 1/4 in. (5.4 x 13.3 cm)
Type:
passes (tickets)
Place used:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
April 9, 1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Popular music  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2011.132.4.1
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d3636b20-0f7a-4e43-bb15-b9889a7ab409
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.132.4.1
Online Media:

Signed contract between JATAP publishing, Dizzie Gillespie and Buster Harding

Written by:
JATAP Publishing Co., Inc., American  Search this
Signed by:
Dizzy Gillespie, American, 1917 - 1993  Search this
Lavere Harding, American, 1912 - 1965  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
14 1/8 × 8 5/16 × 1/8 in. (35.9 × 21.1 × 0.3 cm)
Type:
contracts
Place made:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1954
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Paxton and Rachel Baker
Object number:
2014.3.14
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Business and Legal Documents
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd527cb4fbb-456d-4861-9691-200b8a76ca4e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.3.14
Online Media:

Legal agreement with James Brown Revue for a holiday charity concert

Signed by:
James Brown, American, 1933 - 2006  Search this
Deidre Jenkins Brown, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper, metal
Dimensions:
9 × 3 5/8 × 3/16 in. (22.9 × 9.2 × 0.5 cm)
Type:
contracts
Place made:
Augusta, Richmond County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Greenville, Greenville County, South Carolina, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1975
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Children  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Holidays and festivals  Search this
Humanitarianism  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Paxton and Rachel Baker
Object number:
2014.3.16
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Business and Legal Documents
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd54d651428-c2ba-428d-8eeb-066649489fb6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.3.16
Online Media:

Upright piano used by Thom Bell at Philadelphia International Records

Manufactured by:
Steinway & Sons, American, founded 1853  Search this
Used by:
Thom Bell, Jamaican American, born 1943  Search this
Subject of:
Philadelphia International Records, American, 1971 - 2001  Search this
Medium:
wood with ebony, ivory, metal, cabled yarn and paint
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 52 3/16 × 62 1/16 × 27 1/2 in. (132.6 × 157.6 × 69.9 cm)
Type:
upright pianos
Place used:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1900
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Popular music  Search this
Rhythm and blues (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Legendary producer Thom Bell
Object number:
2015.203
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Musical Instruments
Exhibition:
Musical Crossroads
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Culture/Fourth Floor, 4 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a58b8b4e-5631-4c0f-bbd3-7a6bcd2d371a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.203

"Say Her Name" protest, artist Janelle Monae and Wondaland Records members perform "Hell You Talmbout" protest song, Atlanta, GA

Photograph by:
Sheila Pree Bright, American, born 1967  Search this
Subject of:
Janelle Monáe, American, born 1985  Search this
Felecia Christian, American  Search this
Alexia Christian, American, died 2015  Search this
Nate "Rocket" Wonder, American  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Wondaland Records, American, founded 2015  Search this
Medium:
digital
Dimensions:
H x W: 6000 pixels × 6000 pixels
File size (Total): 103.09 MB
Type:
digital images
digital media - born digital
Place captured:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
2016
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Actors  Search this
American South  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Gospel (Music)  Search this
Justice  Search this
Photography  Search this
Police brutality  Search this
Popular music  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Rappers (Musicians)  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
U.S. History, 2001-  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Violence  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Sheila Pree Bright
Object number:
2021.56.1
Restrictions & Rights:
© Sheila Pree Bright
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
#1960Now
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Movement:
Black Lives Matter
Exhibition:
Reckoning: Protest. Defiance. Resilience.
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Culture/Fourth Floor, 4 052
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd554d7c112-e745-4ad5-a391-32394e6e049b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2021.56.1

Holiday card from William Grant Still

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
William Grant Still, American, 1895 - 1978  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Sheet): 5 1/2 × 3 1/2 in. (14 × 8.9 cm)
H x W (Image): 5 1/16 × 3 1/16 in. (12.9 × 7.8 cm)
Type:
greeting cards
Place depicted:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Los Angeles, California, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1937
Topic:
African American  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Holidays and festivals  Search this
Music  Search this
Opera (Music)  Search this
Orchestral (Music)  Search this
Religious rituals and ceremonies  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.38.3
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Movement:
Harlem Renaissance (New Negro Movement)
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd50337c75a-1c4b-4657-99f0-14993f91a6b9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.38.3
Online Media:

Lyrics for “Dance with My Father” handwritten by Luther Vandross

Written by:
Luther Vandross, American, 1951 - 2005  Search this
Owned by:
Luther Vandross, American, 1951 - 2005  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 5/8 × 5 7/8 in. (19.4 × 14.9 cm)
Type:
songs
Date:
2003
Topic:
African American  Search this
Children  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Families  Search this
Fatherhood  Search this
Religion  Search this
Rhythm and blues (Music)  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Fonzi Thornton in Memory of Luther Vandross
Object number:
2018.87
Restrictions & Rights:
© Estate of Luther Vandross. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Sheet music
Exhibition:
Musical Crossroads
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Culture/Fourth Floor, 4 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd51fb8d47e-6801-43a2-934d-6f57ff062b29
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.87
Online Media:

Cab Calloway Home Movie #1

Created by:
Cab Calloway, American, 1907 - 1994  Search this
Nuffie Calloway, American, 1915 - 2008  Search this
Medium:
acetate film
Dimensions:
Length (film strip): 150 Feet
Duration: 00:04:46
Type:
silent films
home movies
16mm (photographic film size)
Place filmed:
Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1951
Topic:
African American  Search this
Children  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Conductors (Musicians)  Search this
Education  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Film  Search this
Hinduism  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Labor  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Sugarcane  Search this
Travel  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Cabella Calloway Langsam
Object number:
2015.273.2.1.1a
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
The Cabell “Cab” Calloway III Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Film and Video
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd55043ac38-9164-4da5-b528-a402314ef5a2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.273.2.1.1a

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
New York Giants, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Jackie Robinson, American, 1919 - 1972  Search this
President Harry S. Truman, American, 1884 - 1972  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Howard University Medical Alumni Association, Inc., American, founded 1871  Search this
Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps, American, founded 1916  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Steven N. Lockett, American  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Simeon Golar, American, 1929 - 2013  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Gordon Parks, American, 1912 - 2006  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Dr. Kenneth Clark, American, 1914 - 2005  Search this
Whitney Moore Young Jr., American, 1921 - 1971  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Association of Broadcasters, American  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Spelman College, American, founded 1881  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Gladys W. Dixon, American, born 1901  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Clara Hale, American, 1905 - 1992  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 3/8 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.2 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Date:
1973
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.7
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cfb9effd-68b5-4246-b12a-9179d2fdce82
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.7
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Duke Ellington Collection

Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Extent:
400 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Music
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- 20th century
Date:
1903 - 1989
Summary:
The collection documents Duke Ellington's career primarily through orchestrations (scores and parts), music manuscripts, lead sheets, transcriptions, and sheet music. It also includes concert posters, concert programs, television, radio, motion picture and musical theater scripts, business records, correspondence, awards, as well as audiotapes, audiodiscs, photographs, tour itineraries, newspaper clippings, magazines, caricatures, paintings, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
Dating approximately from the time Duke Ellington permanently moved to New York City in 1923 to the time the material was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1988, the bulk of the material in the Duke Ellington Collection is dated from 1934-1974 and comprises sound recordings, original music manuscripts and published sheet music, hand-written notes, correspondence, business records, photographs, scrapbooks, news clippings, concert programs, posters, pamphlets, books and other ephemera. These materials document Ellington's contributions as composer, musician, orchestra leader, and an ambassador of American music and culture abroad. In addition, the materials paint a picture of the life of a big band maintained for fifty years and open a unique window through which to view an evolving American society.

The approximate four hundred cubic feet of archival materials have been processed and organized into sixteen series arranged by type of material. Several of the series have been divided into subseries allowing additional organization to describe the content of the material. For example, Series 6, Sound Recordings, is divided into four subseries: Radio and Television Interviews, Concert Performances, Studio Dates and Non-Ellington Recordings. Each series has its own scope and content note describing the material and arrangement (for example; Series 10, Magazines and Newspaper Articles, is organized into two groups, foreign and domestic, and arranged chronologically within each group). A container list provides folder titles and box numbers.

The bulk of the material is located in Series 1, Music Manuscripts, and consists of compositions and arrangements by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and other composers. Series 6, Sound Recordings also provides a record of the performance of many of these compositions. The materials in Series 2, Performances and Programs, Series 3, Business Records, Series 8, Scrapbooks, Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, Series 11, Publicity and Series 12, Posters provide documentation of specific performances by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Ellington was a spontaneous and prolific composer as evidenced by music, lyrical thoughts, and themes for extended works and plays captured on letterhead stationery in Series 3, Business Records, in the margin notes of individual books and pamphlets in Series 14, Religious Materials and Series 15, Books, and in the hand-written notes in Series 5, Personal Correspondence and Notes.

During its fifty-year lifespan, Duke Ellington and His Orchestra were billed under various names including The Washingtonians, The Harlem Footwarmers and The Jungle Band. The soloists were informally called "the band", and Series 3 includes salary statements, IOU's, receipts and ephemera relating to individual band members. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains the soloists' parts and includes "band books" of several soloists (for example; Harry Carney and Johnny Hodges) and numerous music manuscripts of Billy Strayhorn. The changing role of Strayhorn from arranger hired in 1938 to Ellington's main collaborator and composer of many well-known titles for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra including "Take The A' Train" and "Satin Doll" can be traced in these music manuscripts. Series 7, Photographs and Series 2, Performances and Programs contain many images of the band members and Strayhorn. This Collection also documents the business history of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 3, Business Records contains correspondence on letterhead stationery and Series 11, Publicity contains promotional material from the various booking agencies, professional companies, and public relations firms that managed the Orchestra.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection provide insight into public and institutional attitudes towards African Americans in mid-twentieth-century America. The business records in Series 3 beginning in 1938 and published sheet music in Series 1 depict Duke Ellington's progression from an African-American musician who needed "legitimization" by a white publisher, Irving Mills, to a businessmen who established his own companies including Tempo Music and Duke Ellington, Incorporated to control his copyright and financial affairs. Programs from the segregated Cotton Club in Series 2, Performances And Programs and contracts with no-segregation clauses in Series 3: Business Records further illustrate racial policies and practices in this time period. The public shift in perception of Duke Ellington from a leader of an exotic "Jungle Band" in the 1930s to a recipient of the Congressional Medal Of Freedom in 1970 is evidenced in Series 2, Performances And Programs, Series 12, Posters, Series 7, Photographs and Series 13, Awards. Reviews and articles reflecting Ellington's evolving status are also documented in Series 8, Newspaper Clippings, Series 9, Scrapbooks, Series 10, Newspaper and Magazine Articles.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection reflect rapid technological changes in American society from 1923-1982. Sound recordings in Series 6 range from 78 phonograph records of three minutes duration manufactured for play on Victrolas in monaural sound to long-playing (LP) phonograph records produced for stereo record players. Television scripts in Series 4, programs in Series 2 and music manuscripts (for example, Drum Is A Woman) in Series 1 demonstrate how the development of television as a means of mass communication spread the Orchestra's sound to a wider audience. The availability of commercial air travel enabled the Ellington Orchestra to extend their international performances from Europe to other continents including tours to Asia, Africa, South America and Australia and archival material from these tours is included in every series.

Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts and Series 6, Audio Recordings contain scripts and radio performances promoting the sale of United States War bonds during World War II, and Series 7, Photographs includes many images of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra's performances for military personnel revealing the impact of historic events on Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 2: Programs and Performances, Series 9, Newspaper clippings and Series 8, Scrapbooks document the 1963 Far East tour aborted as a result of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.

The Duke Ellington Collection contains works by numerous twentieth-century music, literature, and art luminaries. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains original music manuscripts of William Grant Still, Eubie Blake, Mary Lou Williams, and others. Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts contains a play by Langston Hughes, and Series 12, Posters contains many original artworks.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Music Manuscripts, circa 1930-1981, undated

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1933-1973, undated

Series 3: Business Records, 1938-1988

Series 4: Scripts and Transcripts, 1937-1970

Series 5: Personal Correspondence and Notes, 1941-1974, undated

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1927-1974

Series 7: Photographs, 1924-1972, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1931-1973

Series 9: Newspaper Clippings, 1939-1973, undated

Series 10: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1940-1974

Series 11: Publicity, 1935-1988

Series 12: Posters and Oversize Graphics, 1933-1989, undated

Series 13: Awards, 1939-1982

Series 14: Religious Material, 1928-1974

Series 15: Books, 1903-1980

Series 16: Miscellaneous, 1940-1974
Biographical / Historical:
A native of Washington, DC, Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899. Edward was raised in a middle-class home in the Northwest section of Washington described by his sister Ruth--younger by sixteen years--as a "house full of love." Ellington himself wrote that his father J.E. (James Edward) raised his family "as though he were a millionaire" but Edward was especially devoted to his mother, Daisy Kennedy Ellington. In 1969, thirty-four years after his mother's death, Ellington accepted the Presidential Medal of Freedom with these words, "There is nowhere else I would rather be tonight but in my mother's arms." Both his parents played the piano and Ellington began piano lessons at the age of seven, but like many boys he was easily distracted by baseball.

In his early teens, Ellington sneaked into Washington clubs and performance halls where he was exposed to ragtime musicians, including James P. Johnson, and where he met people from all walks of life. He returned in earnest to his piano studies, and at age fourteen wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" also known as "Poodle Dog Rag." Ellington was earning income from playing music at seventeen years of age, and around this time he earned the sobriquet "Duke" for his sartorial splendor and regal air. On July 2, 1918, he married a high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson; their only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born on March 11, 1919. Duke Ellington spent the first twenty-four years of his life in Washington's culturally thriving Negro community. In this vibrant atmosphere he was inspired to be a composer and learned to take pride in his African-American heritage.

Ellington moved to New York City in 1923 to join and eventually lead a small group of transplanted Washington musicians called "The Washingtonians," which included future Ellington band members, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwicke and "Bubber" Miley. Between 1923 and 1927, the group played at the Club Kentucky on Broadway and the ensemble increased from a quintet to a ten-piece orchestra. With stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith as his unofficial guide, Ellington soon became part of New York's music scene; Smith proved to be a long-lasting influence on Duke's composing and arranging direction. At the Club Kentucky, Ellington came under the tutelage of another legendary stride pianist, "Fats" Waller. Waller, a protege of Johnson and Smith, played solos during the band's breaks and also tutored Ellington who began to show progress in his compositions. In November 1924, Duke made his publishing and recording debut with "Choo Choo (I Got To Hurry Home)" released on the Blu-Disc label. In 1925, he contributed two songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-black revue which introduced European audiences to black American styles and performers. By this time Ellington's family, Edna and Mercer, had joined him in New York City. The couple separated in the late 1920's, but they never divorced or reconciled.

Ellington's achievements as a composer and bandleader began to attract national attention while he worked at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, from 1927 to 1932. The orchestra developed a distinctive sound that displayed the non-traditional voicings of Ellington's arrangements and featured the unique talents of the individual soloists. Ellington integrated his soloists' exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, their high-squealed trumpets, their sultry saxophone blues licks and Harlem's street rhythms into his arrangements. In the promotional material of the Cotton Club, the band was often billed as "Duke Ellington and His Jungle Band." With the success of compositions like "Mood Indigo," and an increasing number of recordings and national radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, the band's reputation soared.

The ten years from 1932 to 1942 are considered by some major critics to represent the "golden age" for the Ellington Orchestra, but it represents just one of their creative peaks. These years did bring an influx of extraordinary new talent to the band including Jimmy Blanton on double bass, Ben Webster on tenor saxophone, and Ray Nance on trumpet, violin and vocals. During this ten year span Ellington composed several of his best known short works, including "Concerto For Cootie," "Ko-Ko," "Cotton Tail," "In A Sentimental Mood," and Jump For Joy, his first full-length musical stage revue.

Most notably, 1938 marked the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. While a teenager in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Strayhorn had already written "Lush Life," "Something To Live For" and a musical, Fantastic Rhythm. Ellington was initially impressed with Strayhorn's lyrics but realized long before Billy's composition "Take the A' Train" became the band's theme song in 1942 that Strayhorn's talents were not limited to penning clever lyrics. By 1942, "Swee' Pea" had become arranger, composer, second pianist, collaborator, and as Duke described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine." Many Ellington/Strayhorn songs have entered the jazz canon, and their extended works are still being discovered and studied today. Strayhorn remained with the Ellington Organization until his death on May 30, 1967.

Ellington had often hinted of a work in progress depicting the struggle of blacks in America. The original script, Boola, debuted in Carnegie Hall in November of 1943, retitled Black, Brown and Beige. The performance met with mixed reviews, and although Ellington often returned to Carnegie Hall the piece was never recorded in a studio, and after 1944 was never performed in entirety again by the Ellington Orchestra. Nonetheless, it is now considered a milestone in jazz composition.

After World War II the mood and musical tastes of the country shifted and hard times befell big bands, but Ellington kept his band together. The band was not always financially self-sufficient and during the lean times Ellington used his songwriting royalties to meet the soloists' salaries. One could assign to Ellington the altruistic motive of loyalty to his sidemen, but another motivation may have been his compositional style which was rooted in hearing his music in the formative stage come alive in rehearsal. "The band was his instrument," Billy Strayhorn said, and no Ellington composition was complete until he heard the orchestra play it. Then he could fine tune his compositions, omit and augment passages, or weave a soloist's contribution into the structure of the tune.

In 1956, the American public rediscovered Duke and the band at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. The searing performances of tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves on "Diminuendo and Crescendo In Blue," his premiere soloist, alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges on "Jeep's Blues", and the crowd's ecstatic reaction have become jazz legend. Later that year Duke landed on the cover of Time magazine. Although Ellington had previously written music for film and television (including the short film, Black and Tan Fantasy in 1929) it wasn't until 1959 that Otto Preminger asked him to score music for his mainstream film, Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart. Paris Blues in 1961, featuring box-office stars Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier in roles as American jazz musicians in Paris, followed.

Ellington's first performance overseas was in England in 1933, but the 1960s brought extensive overseas tours including diplomatic tours sponsored by the State Department. Ellington and Strayhorn composed exquisite extended works reflecting the sights and sounds of their travels, including the Far East Suite, 1966. They wrote homages to their classical influences; in 1963, they adapted Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and celebrated Shakespeare's works with the suite Such Sweet Thunder in 1957. With Ella Fitzgerald, they continued the Norman Granz Songbook Series. Ellington also began to flex his considerable pianist skills and recorded albums with John Coltrane (1963), Coleman Hawkins (1963), Frank Sinatra, and Money Jungle (1963) with Charles Mingus and Max Roach. The First Sacred Concert debuted in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral in 1965. In his final years, Ellington's thoughts turned to spiritual themes and he added a Second (1968) and Third (1973) Concert of Sacred Music to his compositions.

In his lifetime, Duke received numerous awards and honors including the highest honor bestowed on an American civilian, the Congressional Medal Of Freedom. In 1965, Ellington was recommended for a Pulitzer Prize to honor his forty years of contribution to music but the recommendation was rejected by the board. Most likely he was disappointed, but his response at the age of sixty-six was, "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."

Ellington never rested on his laurels or stopped composing. Whenever he was asked to name his favorite compositions his characteristic reply was "the next five coming up," but to please his loyal fans Ellington always featured some of his standards in every performance. Even on his deathbed, he was composing the opera buffo called Queenie Pie.

Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974 at seventy-five years of age. His funeral was held in New York's Cathedral of St. John The Divine; he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His long-time companion Beatrice "Evie" Ellis was buried beside him after her death in 1976. He was survived by his only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, who not only took up the baton to lead the Duke Ellington Orchestra but assumed the task of caring for his father's papers and his legacy to the nation. Mercer Ellington died in Copenhagan, Denmark on February 8, 1996, at the age of seventy-six. Ruth Ellington Boatwright died in New York on March 6, 2004, at the age of eighty-eight. Both Mercer and Ruth were responsible for shepherding the documents and artifacts that celebrate Duke Ellington's genius and creative life to their current home in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William H. Quealy Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings (AC0296)

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington (AC0328)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

Duke Ellington Collection of Ephemera and realated Audiovisual Materials (AC0386)

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings (AC0385)

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0388)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Prints (AC0389)

New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection (AC390)

Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0391)

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music (AC0406)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0415)

Music manuscripts in the Ruth Ellington Collection complement the music manuscripts found in the Duke Ellington Collection.

Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington (AC0422)

Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia (AC0494)

Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0502)

Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0704)

Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements (AC0740)

John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0763)

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC1240)

Materials at Other Organizations

Institute of Jazz Studies
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) and include trophies, plaques, and medals. See accessions: 1989.0369; 1991.0808; 1993.0032; and 1999.0148.

"
Provenance:
The collection was purchased through an appropriation of Congress in 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original and master audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Big bands  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Bandsmen -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep850a376a1-6b6d-48bc-9076-cffef76fea2c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0301
Online Media:

Motor Booty Affair

Recorded by:
Parliament-Funkadelic, American, founded 1955  Search this
Published by:
Casablanca, American, founded 1973  Search this
Thang, Inc., American  Search this
Produced by:
George Clinton, American, born 1941  Search this
Illustrated by:
Overton Loyd, American, born 1954  Search this
Medium:
(2015.172.28a): vinyl with ink on paper
(2015.172.28b): ink on cardboard
(2015.172.28c): ink on paper
Dimensions:
Diameter (a. vinyl disc): 11 7/8 in. (30.2 cm)
H x W (b. cardboard jacket): 12 5/16 × 12 1/4 in. (31.3 × 31.1 cm)
H x W (c. paper sleeve): 11 7/8 × 12 in. (30.2 × 30.5 cm)
Type:
record covers
long-playing records
Place collected:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Place made:
Los Angeles, California, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1978
Topic:
African American  Search this
Comics and graphic novels  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Funk (Music)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Music  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.172.28abc
Restrictions & Rights:
© 1978 Thang, Inc. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Audio Recordings
Movement:
Afrofuturism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5032e7ade-66ef-4030-b599-1da1bd1e2ec6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.172.28abc
Online Media:

Black Academy of Arts and Letters

Collection Creator:
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1971-1972
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Collection Citation:
Hale Woodruff papers, 1920-1977, bulk 1960s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Hale Woodruff papers
Hale Woodruff papers / Series 2: Professional Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90b1962ce-0ee5-482b-b785-cb4f71e04d38
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-woodhale-ref14

Paul Cadmus letters to Webster Aitken, 1945-1979

Creator:
Cadmus, Paul, 1904-1999  Search this
Subject:
Kirstein, Lincoln  Search this
Kirstein, Fidelma  Search this
Aitken, Webster  Search this
Citation:
Paul Cadmus letters to Webster Aitken, 1945-1979. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Pianists  Search this
Art -- Technique  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5622
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208456
AAA_collcode_cadmpaul
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208456
Online Media:

Joseph Schillinger papers, 1934-1948

Creator:
Schillinger, Joseph, 1895-1943  Search this
Citation:
Joseph Schillinger papers, 1934-1948. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8610
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210790
AAA_collcode_schijose
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210790

Special Events

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The annual Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert celebrates Ralph's mind and spirit, his untiring and wide-ranging cultural work, his all-encompassing humanity, his commitment to traditional musicians and artisans, and his never-ending will to increase and diffuse knowledge in support of cultural democracy.

The 2008 concert honored New York City's René López, a grassroots cultural activist, lay scholar, educator, collector, and music producer. René was among Ralph Rinzler's special friends and colleagues in many ground-breaking field research projects and musical endeavors. Both were keen on research, documentation, and respectful presentation of musicians and their genres and on the importance of disseminating grassroots arts and traditions to diverse audiences across the world. Their collegiality led to years of Smithsonian performances, archival documentation, recordings, and public programs.

Grupo Folklórico y Experimental Nuevayorquino, one of numerous culture and advocacy projects that René López gave birth to, became legendary after its founding in 1974 for experimental recordings that brought together some of the most gifted, often little-noticed elder composer-musicians (with deep connections to Puerto Rican and other Caribbean and Latin American communities and audiences) with some of the brightest young musicians, who would go on to master traditional musical genres, become major innovators in various Latino and other musical genres, and continue to explicitly identify themselves and their art as grounded in traditional, community-based music and participation.

Performing at the Rinzler Concert for only the second time in thirty years (the reunion concert was in Berlin, Germany, last fall), Grupo was joined by renowned Cuban drummer, community leader, and Afro-Cuban priest Orlando "Puntilla" Ríos, who died a few weeks later in New York on August 12.

James Counts Early and René López were Curatorial Advisors and Rebecca Smerling Marcus was Coordinator. Joan López and James Counts Early were Presenters.
Participants:
Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert

Grupo Folklórico y Experimental Nuevayorquino -- Grupo Folklórico y Experimental NuevayorquinoJerry Carlson, New York, New YorkJuan Flores, Brooklyn, New YorkGene Golden, 1940-, Palisades Park, New JerseyAndy Gonzalez, 1951-, Bronx, New YorkGuido Gonzalez, 1966-, New York, New YorkNelson Gonzalez, Bronx, New YorkReynaldo Jorge, 1949-, Bloomfield, New JerseyRene Lopez, Dobbs Ferry, New YorkRene Lopez, Jr., Brandon, FloridaJorge Maldonado, 1950-, Newark, New JerseyEddie Martinez, 1942-, Fairview, New JerseyManny Oquendo, 1931-, Bronx, New YorkOrlando "Puntilla" Rios, New York, New YorkAbraham Rodriguez, Jr., 1955-, Brooklyn, New YorkAnthony Rosa, 1964-, Brooklyn, New YorkEddie Venegas, 1973-, Flushing, New YorkEddy Zervigon, Maspeth, New York

Namgay Dorji

Sonam Dorji

Damcho Rinzin
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2008 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2008, Series 4
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2008 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5ac2d118d-2876-49a2-b3a9-736153e4bd8f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2008-ref31

All N' All

Recorded by:
Earth, Wind & Fire, American, founded 1969  Search this
Maurice White, American, 1941 - 2016  Search this
Verdine White, American, born 1951  Search this
Fred White, American, born 1955  Search this
Philip Bailey, American, born 1951  Search this
Ralph Johnson, American, born 1951  Search this
Larry Dunn, American, born 1953  Search this
Johnny Graham, American, born 1953  Search this
Al McKay, American, born 1948  Search this
Gary L. Morgan, American  Search this
Andrew Woolfolk, American, born 1950  Search this
Produced by:
Maurice White, American, 1941 - 2016  Search this
Kalimba Productions, American, founded 1976  Search this
Designed by:
Shusei Nagaoka, Japanese, 1936 - 2015  Search this
Published by:
Warner Bros. Records, Inc., American, founded 1958  Search this
Medium:
vinyl with ink on paper (fiber product) and cardboard
Dimensions:
H x W (album jacket): 13 1/2 x 13 1/2 in. (34.3 x 34.3 cm)
Diameter (disc): 12 in. (30.5 cm)
Type:
record covers
long-playing records
Place printed:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Funk (Music)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Popular music  Search this
Rhythm and blues (Music)  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
Soul (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.1.13ab
Restrictions & Rights:
© 1977 CBS Inc. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Audio Recordings
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd538049eca-118f-483a-9dff-18f84c041e13
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.1.13ab
Online Media:

Poster for the film Space is the Place

Published by:
North American Star System Production, American  Search this
Subject of:
Sun Ra, American, 1914 - 1993  Search this
The Sun Ra Arkestra, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 20 7/8 × 17 3/16 in. (53 × 43.7 cm)
Type:
posters
Place made:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1974
Topic:
African American  Search this
Composers (Musicians)  Search this
Design  Search this
Film  Search this
Graphic design  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Music  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Science fiction  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2020.26.36
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Afrofuturism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5006c3d7c-62e7-425f-b2fa-972dd24d41af
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2020.26.36
Online Media:

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