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Landy R. Hales Papers

Creator:
Hales, Landy R., 1889-1972  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Design drawings
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Clippings
Date:
1908 - 1969
Summary:
Papers document Landy R. Hales (1889-1972), an inventor and commercial artist who designed window and interior store displays, posters, children's games, and puzzles primarily from 1920s to 1930s in New York City and Baltimore. Of significance is Hales's work for Macy's Department Store. The papers consist of correspondence, patents, business records for several of Hales's companies, photographs, drawings/sketches, prototypes, and newspaper and magazine clippings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Hales's career as an inventor and commercial artist as well as his work in games, puzzles, educational tools, and posters. The collection includes sketches and design drawings, photographs, publicity materials, clippings and articles, and game prototypes.

Series 1, Brilliant Sign Company, 1908-1909, consists of stock shares, transferred by Hales to others in the amount of twenty dollars for the Brilliant Sign Company of Baltimore City, Maryland.

Series 2, Landy R. Hales, Inc., 1927-1929, 1944, consists of of invoices, orders, and check stubs from R.H. Macy and Company and Gimbel Brothers, Inc. for work by Landy R. Hales, Inc. for window displays. The orders detail what will be constructed and decorated. The R.H. Macy materials also contain a 1927 souvenir from Macy's Wonderland Christmas. Included in this series is a 1944 United States Treasury Department War Finance Program citation to Landy R. Hales.

Series 3, Hales Layer Poster Corporation, 1922-1969 (bulk 1920s), consists of materials documenting Hales poster company. Hales's formed Hales Layer Poster Corporation in New York State on July 16, 1925 to manufacture, purchase, sell and deal in layer posters and equipment for constructing layer posters in packaged or other forms. The corporation's other directors were Alfred J. Silberstein and Alvin A. Silberman, both of New York. Hales developed a new method of making a poster by placing cut-out pieces of materials such as composition board or wood on a background, then building layers to form three dimensions in the finished product. The first store to use Hales layer posters was Saks Fifth Avenue in New York City. The posters were never sold and were only used in advertising and window displays.

The materials consist of stock shares and values, a certificate of incorporation, branded letterhead, correspondence, an order book (blank forms), a point-of-purchase ad featuring Little Red Riding Hood, a patent for a display device, layer poster instructions, examples of posters, sample card stock, and instructions for the ABCD Ease Game. The display device patent (US 1,563,485) was issued to Hales on December 1, 1925. The invention relates to display devices for commercial advertising arrangements constructed out of layers of veneer or cardboard for reproducing and illustrating articles for sale, magazines, posters or art works. The principal object was to provide a display picture having depth. The correspondence, 1922-1937, 1969 and undated, contains letters with individuals companies, hotels, and department stores primarily in New York City such as B.F. Keith's New York Hippodrome, Saks & Company, Hotel Nassau, Keystone Manufacturing Company, and Rialto Theatre. Much of the correspondence relates to services provided by Hales Layer Poster Corporation. Hales's correspondence with Morris Gest, a theatrical producer who introduced La Chauve-Souris, a touring revue during the early 1900s, to the United States. There is also a letter typewritten by Hales in 1969 to Pablo Picasso about copying Picasso prints using the Hales layer poster method.

The instructions for "how to make" a Hales layer poster are well documented, detailing the step-by-step process and including the use of Hales Studio colors for painting. Specific instructions for the "Tom, Tom Piper's Son" with color guide are found here. A full, unused layer poster kit is in box 14. Additionally, Hales created the ABCD Ease Game, a board game played with dice with the objective to reach "ease." The way to reach "Ease" is through truth, courage, justice, thrift, study, work, loyalty, and honesty. Instructions and prototypes of the gameboard are represented.

Series 4, Hales Manikins, Inc., 1938-1948 and undated, consists of correspondence, a voting trust agreement, board of directors meeting minutes, stock shares, a floor plan for the company, blueprints for rubber figures, and a patent for a manikin and method of making the same (US 2,129,421). Hales Maninikin incorporated in 1941 in Baltimore, Maryland to manufacture, distribute, sell and otherwise deal in manikins and other display advertising figures. The board of directors meeting minutes contain articles of incorporation, by-laws, and minutes.

Series 5, Hales Pictures, Inc., 1937-1938, 1967 and undated, consists of an agreement with Walt Disney Enterprises, sketches by Kay Kamen, Ltd., a press release about Hales Picture Puzzles, and prototypes of Hales Puzzle Pictures. Of note is a copy of the February 1938 Rockefeller Center Magazine. The magazine contains articles about science, technology, publishing, the arts, events at Radio City Music Hall (Disney-related) and television. It offers good documentation of office business machines.

The first series of puzzles Hales introduced in 1937 were four subjects from Walt Disney's characters: Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Pluto, and Donald Duck. The object of the puzzle was to put all of the pieces together in their proper place--some of the puzzle pieces were raised to different levels. After the puzzle was completed, it could be glued to a backboard. There are prototypes for the Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse and Donald Duck puzzles. Only the Mickey and Minnie puzzles contain puzzle pieces. The Donald Duck puzzle consists of the box only.

In August 1937, Hales Pictures Inc., entered into a one year agreement with Walt Disney Enterprises that granted Hales the right to reproduce Disney characters for his puzzles and poster pictures. Hales paid Disney the sum of five-hundred dollars as an advance on future royalties. Disney also provided to Hales typical representations of the Disney characters. There are a series of Kay Kamen Ltd., Disney character drawings for Pluto, Donald Duck, Minnie Mouse, and Mickey Mouse. These drawings were provided to Hales by Kamen. The Minnie and Mickey Mouse drawings have been heavily annotated and mocked up by Hales for the purposes of creating his signature Hales Puzzle Pictures. Kamen (d. 1949) began his professional career as a retail hat merchant and later entered advertising. In 1932, Kamen contacted Disney, soon signed a contract, and was named the company's sole licensing representative. Through merchandising, Kamen made Disney's mouse star popular.

Series 6, Hales Sign Company, 1909 and undated, consists of examples of promotional and branded pieces for Hales's sign painting business that was located in Baltimore, Maryland.

Series 7, Drawings/Sketches, 1927-1930 and undated, consists of pencil, ink and paint sketches. The bulk of the sketches are Christmas-related, such as the poster study for the Macy's Christmas Wonderland, 1927 and the toy department displays for a bridge, drawbridge, house and tower. Other sketches include Noah's Ark, a matador, the "The Wise Woman of Gotham," Carlin's Amusement Park of Baltimore, Maryland, and resort scenes (tennis, golf and sailing).

Series 8, Photographs, 1925-1935, consists primarily of black-and-white prints documenting Hales's work in his studio and for clients such as Macy's. Some of the photographs were taken by Worsinger Window Service, Hughes Company of Baltimore, Le Don Studio of White Plains, New York; Apeda Studio, Inc. of New York City; Schultze Studio of Brooklyn, New York, and H.C. Campbell Company of Oakland, California.

Series 9, Greeting Cards, undated, consists of examples of greeting cards and postcards, primarily for Christmas, Easter, and Valentines Day, assembled by Hales.

Series 10, Clippings, 1922-1935, consists of loose photocopies and original news and magazine clippings in a bound volume. The clippings primarily relate to Hales's work in New York City, but there are clippings about The Corner Shop at Macy's, and there are copies of illustrations assembled by Hales, specifically the "Best Fifty Small Folio Currier and Ives Prints. " The majority of these he clipped from the New York Sun. Also included are clippings about La Chauve-Souris the touring revue during the early 1900s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Brillant Sign Company, 1908-1909

Series 2, Landy R. Hales, Inc., 1927-1929, 1944

Series 3, Hales Layer Poster Corporation, 1922-1969 (bulk 1920s)

Series 4, Hales Manikins, Inc., 1938-1948 and undated

Series 5, Hales Pictures, Inc., 1937-1938, 1967 and undated

Series 6, Hales Sign Company, 1909 and undated

Series 7, Drawings/Sketches, 1927-1930 and undated

Series 8, Photographs, 1925-1935

Series 9, Greeting Cards, undated

Series 10, Clippings, 1922-1935
Biographical / Historical:
Landy R. Hales was born on September 17, 1889 in Baltimore, Maryland to Landy J. Hales and Fanny Linthicum Hales. Hales grew up in Anne Arundel, Maryland and had one brother, Wesley Hales. Hales began his career with no formal art training and apprenticed as a sign painter in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1908, Hales formed the Brilliant Sign Company in Baltimore to design displays for area businesses. In 1913, Hales married Lenore McCully. They had two children, Elizabeth McCully Hales (b. 1915) and Landy Romain Hales (b. 1921).

During World War I, Hales designed posters for the Liberty Bond Program, created by then Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo (1863-1941). This poster campaign was intended to popularize the bonds, and Hales created posters using his "layer technique," which was a method of making a poster by placing cut-out pieces of materials such as composition board or wood on a background, then building layers to form three dimensions in the finished product. In the early 1920s, Hales moved to New York City to advance his career and expand his opportunities. In New York, Hales specialized in display devices, commercial art, and advertising. An artist-inventor, Hales patented two ideas, a display device (US Patent 1,563,485) and a manikin (US Patent 2,129,421). He founded Landy R. Hales, Inc. (1925), Hales Layer Poster Corporation (1925), Hales Manikins, Inc. (1941), and Hales Pictures, Inc. 1937. In 1937, Hales Pictures Inc., entered into a one-year agreement with Walt Disney Enterprises that granted Hales the right to reproduce Disney characters for his puzzles and poster pictures. During the same year, Hales leased office space at Rockefeller Center.

Hales worked for Morris Gest, a theatrical producer, creating advertising for the Russian show Le Chauve Sourvis which featured the Parade of the Wooden Soldiers. Hales also manufactured and installed mechanical displays in Macy's Christmas windows at 34th Street and worked as an independent contractor for other department stores such as Gimbel Brothers and Saks & Company as well as the Hotel Nassau, Keystone Manufacturing Company, Rialto Theater, Keith's New York Hippodrome, and the Music Box Theatre.

Hales left New York City in 1945 and returned to Maryland, where he did commercial work for Carlin's Amusement Park in Baltimore and created layer posters for himself and family members. Hales died in 1972 at the age of 84.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Parades:stereographs, circa 1880-1908 (AC0060)

Messmore and Damon Company Records, 1930s-1990s (AC0846)

Hudson Fulton Celebration Parade Photograph Album, 1909 (AC1149)

William L. Bird "Holidays on Display" Collection (AC1288)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Katharine Landa McNulty Hogben, Frances Helen McNulty Beverage, Margaret Ann McNulty Klipp, Lenore Hales McNulty Frey, and Elizabeth Stuart McNulty on November 27, 2005.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Games  Search this
Display of merchandise  Search this
Toys -- 20th century  Search this
Store decoration  Search this
Parades  Search this
Parade floats  Search this
Show windows  Search this
Packaging  Search this
Parade float designers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Design drawings
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Citation:
Landy R. Hales Papers, 1908-1969, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0906
See more items in:
Landy R. Hales Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0906
Online Media:

How to draw horses for commercial art

Collection Creator:
Messmore, George Harold  Search this
Messmore and Damon Company  Search this
Damon, Joseph  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.

Reference copies for the audio discs do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement with Archives Center staff.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Messmore and Damon Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Messmore and Damon Company Records
Messmore and Damon Company Records / Series 4: Projects/Exhibitions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0846-ref108

Projects/Exhibitions

Collection Creator:
Messmore, George Harold  Search this
Messmore and Damon Company  Search this
Damon, Joseph  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1924-1997
Scope and Contents:
This series contains documentation about specific projects and/or exhibitions Messmore and Damon developed and built. The materials primarily consist of correspondence, printed publications, notes, financial materials, photographs, exhibit scripts, press kits, ephemera, and newspaper clippings. The materials are arranged chronologically.

The transportation radio show talks (ten minutes in duration) consist of typed scripts specially written for Messmore and Damon by Russell E. Smith of Cleveland, Ohio. The talks are part of the Old Timers Talk, a radio show broadcast in New York City. The talks are arranged numerically.

Additional materials in this series include the World's Fair building code (1939) and two publications, How to draw horses for commercial art (1946) and How to make posters that will help you win the war (1940s). The miscellaneous folder contains some excellent examples of ephemera. Highlights include a Bird's Eye View of the Panama Canal Map (1915), You Can Defend America (1941); a booklet on the occasion of Nikita S. Khrushchev's visit to the United States (1959); and Designs for Dining by Dorothy Draper and Co., Inc. (1965).
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.

Reference copies for the audio discs do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement with Archives Center staff.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Messmore and Damon Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0846, Series 4
See more items in:
Messmore and Damon Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0846-ref16

Aladdin Industries, Inc. Records

Creator:
Johnson, Victor S., Sr., 1882-1943  Search this
Johnson, Victor, Jr., 1906-  Search this
Aladdin Industries, Inc. (Nashville, Tenn.).  Search this
Names:
Allen, Steve  Search this
Reagan, Ronald  Search this
Extent:
50 Cubic feet (120 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Newsletters
Commercial art
Picture postcards
Laboratory notebooks
Patents
Design drawings
Business records
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Date:
1889-2003
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 50 cubic feet of material documenting Aladdin Industries Inc., manufacturers of vacuum ware and lunch boxes. The majority of the material dates from 1947 to the 1970s. The strength of the collection is with the lunch box documentation and product development, marketing, and sales records. There is some interesting labor history—specifically United Steel Workers agreement. The files of Victor S. Johnson, Sr. and Victor S. Johnson, Jr. form the core of the collection and provide rich documentation on the company's activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seventeen series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Materials, 1919-1997

Series 2: Victor S. Johnson Sr. Files, 1916-1945

Series 3: Victor S. Johnson Jr. Files, 1906-1983

Series 4: Employee and Personnel Records, 1910-2001

Series 5: Research and Development Records, 1910-1976

Series 6: Patent Records, 1889-1973

Series 7: Sales Records, 1939-2000

Series 8: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1931-2001

Series 9: School Lunch Kits, 1952-1989

Series 10: Lamps and Kerosene Heaters, 1911-2000

Series 11: Temp-Rite, 1972-2000

Series 12: Competitors, 1963-2001

Series 13: Style Guides, 1966-1998

Series 14: Newsletters, 1943-1998

Series 15: Photographs, 1923-1986

Series 16: Scrapbooks, 1908-1962

Series 17: Audiovisual Materials, 1993-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Samuel Johnson Sr., (1882-1943) was born in Nebraska. As a soap salesman for the Iowa Soap Company, he became interested in kerosene mantle burners. Dissatisfied with the available kerosene lamps, he began selling and dealing U.S. made mantles and incorporated the Mantle Lamp Company of America in Chicago in 1908. Johnson selected the name "Aladdin" from the famous story, "Aladdin; or The Wonderful Lamp." Johnson began research and development of a mantle lamp that gave off a steady white light and did not smoke. The Mantle Lamp Company began manufacturing lamps in 1912, with Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Company burners, and marketed them as "Aladdin Lamps." The company diversified in 1917 and began producing insulated cooking dishes, known as Aladdin Thermalware jars, for the U.S. military. These jars had an aluminum or steel jacket wrapped around a heavy glass receptacle. The space between was filled with cork. The introduction of the thermalware began the company's venture into heat and cold retaining receptacles.

In 1919, Johnson organized a subsidiary of the Mantle Lamp Company of America, Aladdin Industries, Inc., to market and sell the Aladdin thermalware jars and vacuum ware. At the same time, Mantle lamp Company of America formed Aladdin Limited in Canada and England to sell thermalware as well as Pathfinder Radio Corporation, Cadillac Photograph Corporation, Aladdin Chemical Corporation, Aladdin Phonograph Corporation, Johnson Laboratories, Inc. (radio components), and Aladdin Radio Industries (magnetic and radio research). Pathfinder, Cadillac, Aladdin Chemical and Aladdin Phonograph all failed. In 1926, the Mantle Lamp Company acquired Lippincott Glass Company of Alexandria, Indiana, where it manufactured and fabricated glass chimneys, shades and lamp bases, mantles, wicks, and metal lamp bases. The Alexandria plant closed in 1952 and eventually moved to Nashville.

In 1943, Victor S. Johnson Sr. died and his son, Victor S. Johnson Jr. (1906-), succeeded him as president of Aladdin Industries Inc. Johnson Jr. moved Aladdin from Chicago to Nashville, Tennessee in 1949 to place the company strategically in mid-America to distribute its products. Aladdin's general offices, vacuum bottle production, and electric lamps and kerosene completed the move by 1952.

In 1950, Aladdin began illustrating flat metal school lunch kits (lunch boxes with liquid containers) with images of popular radio, movie and television figures. Hopalong Cassidy was the first character kit. This innovative marketing decision produced an explosive growth in the lunch kit market and made Aladdin a pioneer in image licensing. Character lunch boxes became a large part of the childhood experience and are collector's items today. Over the years, Aladdin extended the range of characters depicted and began manufacturing plastic and soft, vinyl lunch kits with printed themes. It also introduced "3D" embossing on the flat metal kits. Embossed metal lunch kits were completely phased out in 1986 due to high production costs. In addition to the school lunch kits, Aladdin also introduced wide mouth vacuum bottles (pint and quart size) in 1953. The wide mouth bottles also carried "adult" themes such as the "Angler" fisherman's bottle. The thermosware line eventually moved from metal to plastic jackets and from a glass insulated filler to foam.

In 1965, Aladdin purchased the Stanley steel bottle operation from Landers, Frary and Clark in New Britain, Connecticut. Aladdin's diversification strategy led to the introduction in 1968 of the Temp-Rite® meal distribution plan, an insulated thermal tray service for hospitals, the airline industry, and prisons. The Temp-Rite® system gave rise to a full line of products and services and Aladdin formed a subsidiary, known as Aladdin Synergetics, Inc., to handle its health care and food service operations. Aladdin Synergetics was sold to Welbilt Corporation in 1998; the new operation was named Aladdin Temp-Rite. Other products added over the years included electric lamps, shades, kerosene stoves, and an electronics division in 1956. This division was established from a small technical research group whose function was patent licensing. As a subsidiary of Aladdin Industries, it produced transformers and radio and telephone filters. The subsidiary was sold to Vernitron in October, 1979.

At various times, Aladdin established offices in Alexandria, Indiana; Chicago, Illinois; Nashville, Tennessee; Portland Oregon, Canada; Hungry; France; Australia, New Zealand; England; Iraq, Iran, Brazil, Japan, Peru, Venezuela, Chile, Uruguay, France, Germany, Iceland, Sweden, and South Africa to market and sell its products.

Aladdin was financially mismanaged in the 1990s and rapidly declined. Aladdin Industries Inc. reorganized in 1999 and became known as Aladdin Industries LLC. High labor costs and unsuccessful efforts to develop new products led to further decline. By January, 2002, Aladdin had sold its remaining product lines and closed its Nashville plant. Aladdin lamps are still sold today by the Aladdin Mantle Lamp Company of Clarksville, Tennessee.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Cultural History (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds 30 lunch boxes and 28 thermos bottles from Aladdin Industries, Nashville, Tennessee. Additionally, there is a pair of lamps. See Accession 2003.0255. Although the children's steel lunch boxes predominate, the collection represents the full spectrum of Aladdin box designs including vinyl, hard plastic, and fabric.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Aladdin Industries in 2003.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the oversize map folders are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Lunchboxes  Search this
Character merchandising  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Food containers  Search this
Food container industry  Search this
Thermos bottles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Commercial art
Picture postcards -- 20th century -- United States
Laboratory notebooks
Patents -- 20th century
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Aladdin Industries, Inc. Records, 1889-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0844
See more items in:
Aladdin Industries, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0844
Online Media:

Francis M. Mair Papers

Donor:
Mair, LaVeda  Search this
Creator:
Mair, Francis M., 1916-1991 (commercial artist)  Search this
Names:
Landor Associates  Search this
United States. Naval Training School  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Extent:
56 Cubic feet (104 Boxes, 40 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Beverage labels
Fruit crate labels
Labels
Place:
San Francisco (Calif.)
Date:
1935-1994
Summary:
Client files, administrative files, artwork, and collected food labels from graphic and industrial designer Francis Mair. Mair specialized in beverage labels and packaging during his many years with Landor Associates in San Francisco. Late in his career, he directed Landor's Museum of Packaging History. His prolific freelance career included designs for furniture, decorative arts, letterhead, and corporate images. His personal artwork included alphabets, typefaces, and sketchbooks. Much of his personal artwork is humorous or erotic.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists largely of client files and artwork from Mair's years with Landor Associates and his freelance design work. Mair's specialty was the design of beverage containers, labels, and packaging, and there is a significant body of material produced for West Coast and national breweries and wineries. Mair also managed Landor's Museum of Packaging Antiquities, and there are several boxes of the Museum's administrative files. Of particular interest is Mair's large collection of historical and contemporary wine, liquor, and fruit crate labels (both foreign and domestic). The labels seem to have served as an inspiration and a record of his work, as well as documentation of historical packaging for the Museum. Mair's freelance clients were diverse, though most of them were small businesses and organizations in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition to food and beverage labels, these commissions included posters, promotional materials, letterhead and personal announcements, invitations, and cards. Lastly, the collection includes personal artwork and records of entrepreneurial projects (such as the Flexigon, a flexible geometric toy).
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Professional Materials, 1956-1991, undated

Series 2, Landor Associates Files, 1946-1993, undated

Series 3, Landor Museum of Packaging Antiquities, 1960-1989, undated

Series 4, Freelance Client Files, 1946-1989, undated

Series 5, United States Naval Training School, Radio Chicago, 1943-1945, undated

Sereis 6, Personal Artwork and Designs, 1935-1994, undated

Series 7, Reference Files, 1950-1985, undated

Series 8, Labels, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Francis Marion Mair was born in Streator, Illinois to Alexander Morrison Mair and Jessie C. Williams on May 5, 1916. He began his career as an artist and designer at the University of Illinois School of Design in Chicago receiving a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Painting in 1938. That year he joined the United States Navy and where he designed visual aids for the Naval Training School in Chicago, Illinois. Even at this early stage in his career, acute design sense and humor are evident in his work. In 1949, he joined Landor Associates in San Francisco, California where he worked for forty years, retiring in 1989. At Landor, he specialized in designing packaging and labeling for beverages. He also was the director of Landor's Museum of Packaging History which shared quarters with Landor Associates on the Ferryboat Klamath. Throughout his career, Mair took on diverse freelance projects. One of his most successful was the Suva line of rattan furniture and decorative objects for Decorative Imports. Mair published articles in Advertising Age, Industrial Design, Advertising Techniques, and Wines and Vines. Mair died on April 29, 1991 in Contra Costa County, California.
Related Archival Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Industry on Parade (NMAH.AC.0507)

Reel #167, Sitting Bull's Last Stand, 1953. Peter Meindl, a German woodcarver, making cigar store wooden Indians, New Hampshire.

Walter Landor and Associates (AC0500)

NW Ayer Advertising Agenecy Records (AC0059)

Hills Bros. Coffee Company Records (AC395)

Emmett McBain Afro American Adertising Poster Collection (AC0192)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Marilyn E. Jacklear Memorial Collection of Tobacco Advertisements (AC1224)

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project (AC0198)
Related Materials:
A glass final production version of a French's mustard jar and three hand-carved, solid-wood prototypes for this jar are in the Museum's Division of Work and Industry. These were found in Mair's home studio.
Provenance:
Collection donated by LaVeda Mair, April 23, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright for a portion of the collection held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Beverages -- advertising -- 1940-1990  Search this
Commercial art -- 1940-1990  Search this
Design, Industrial  Search this
Erotica  Search this
Graphic design  Search this
Labels -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
Labels -- Crates -- Fruit  Search this
Liquors -- advertising -- 1940-1990  Search this
Nudes  Search this
Nudity  Search this
Packaging  Search this
Rattan furniture  Search this
Toys  Search this
Wine labels  Search this
Wit and humor  Search this
Wit and humor in advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Beverage labels
Fruit crate labels
Labels
Citation:
Francis M. Mair Papers, 1938-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of LaVeda Mair.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0548
See more items in:
Francis M. Mair Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0548

Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection

Creator:
Hampson, Albert W., 1911-1990 (artist)  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Sketches
Advertisements
Date:
1926-1968
Summary:
Collection consists of the commercial artwork created by artist Albert W. Hampson dating predominately from during the 1950s and 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the creation of promotional and advertising materials through photographs, original artwork and completed print advertisements and point-of-purchase displays. The research value of the collection lies in the documentation of this process. Researchers will find that these materials demonstrate how ideas are conceived and then expressed by artists for their clients. Evidence of decision making and collaboration between the artist and the client is illustrated by elements such as color choices or model poses. Often this evidence is lost when the only record saved is the completed advertisement or display. A good example of the developmental/creative process, complete with finished product, is the Tung-Sol Radio Tubes project. Materials also demonstrate the variety and occurrence of advertising projects during the mid-twentieth century. The artist created documents and artwork for different markets, both the consumer and the company.

Materials are arranged first by parent company, then by product or brand name. However, there are a very small number of items, with obscure affiliations to a company listed by product name. Corporate ownership of many of these companies and products has changed since the era that Hampson was working in, but their historical application has been maintained in this container list. Researchers must research product or company names within their historical context.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in five series.

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1928-1980, undated

Series 2, Early Artwork, 1926-1927, undated

Series 3, Commercial Artwork, 1934-1969, undated

Series 4, Artwork for Covers of Publications, 1937-1950s, undated

Series 5, Portraits, 1951-1977,; undated
Biographical:
Albert W. Hampson was born May 20, 1910, in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He demonstrated artistic ability at an early age, winning all of the available school awards. Observing teachers encouraged him to pursue a career as an artist. His mother's death and father's unemployment forced him to get a job while still attending high school. He balanced work, school, and art all through his adolescence.

After his graduation from Northeast High School in June of 1927, Hampson pursued his art education at the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art (the University of the Arts) until June of 1931. While at the university, he was quarterback of the Germantown Boys Club football team and a semi-pro team in Chestnut Hill, and he attended the Cape Cod School of Art under a scholarship provision, for one year in 1930. Also during his education, and after graduation, Hampson earned a living by providing draft and architectural drawings for several Philadelphia architects. He was driving a bread wagon and preparing advertising layouts for a Philadelphia bakery, the Old Bond Bakery, when he got his first big break: one of his oil paintings was featured on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post on November 30, 1934. Between 1935 and 1944, his work appeared on the covers of Post and Look magazines more than a dozen times.

Hampson had been working as a commercial artist for a decade and was well established before marrying Josephine Unger Corson, a jewelry designer and librarian, on February 7, 1945. They had two children, Hillary, born 1945, and Theodore "Ted" born 1956.

In his personal life Hampson was known for his strong political opinions and work ethic, sometimes working eighteen hours a day. He did not believe in short-cuts, and his determination for perfection was evident in his do-it-yourself landscaping, according to his son. He spent time away from home, working five days a week in New York when Ted was young, but Hampson always brought gifts home and was ready for a discussion on politics. He was an active member of the Philadelphia Sketch Club, the oldest continuing artist organization in the nation. He was remembered by long-time colleague and friend, Fred Decker, as a staunch democrat (borderline socialist) who firmly publicized his views. This tenacious attitude provided him with the abilities of a great salesman, and knowing how to sell ideas can make a great commercial artist, as his son noted. He also had personal success as a father figure, according to Ted.

Hampson enjoyed a long and successful career as a freelance artist, staff artist, and art director for several New York and Philadelphia advertising agencies. He illustrated books and dust jackets and was a noted portrait painter. His work also encompassed commercial art, newspapers and magazines, point-of-purchase product displays, and was employed by such noted corporations as Johnson & Johnson™, DuPont©, General Electric©, Hiram Walker & Sons Inc., & Philco Television©. Hampson credited his success to the Saturday Evening Post for giving him the courage to continue as an artist. He saved examples, along with scrapbooks, photographs and business correspondence, as a record of his work. Ted preserved his father's collection after his death on February 19, 1990. His collection was donated to the Smithsonian on September 5, 1996 by Theodore "Ted" Hampson, who worked as a News Editor in Chicago until his death at forty–four years of age in 2000.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Francis M. Mair Papers (AC0548)

Landor Design Collection (AC500)

NW Ayer Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)

Walter H. Voigt Brewing Industry Collection (AC1195)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Hampson's son, Theodore Hampson, September 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising art -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising agencies -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Photographs -- 20th century
Sketches
Advertisements
Citation:
Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection, 1926-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0561
See more items in:
Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0561
Online Media:

Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection

Interviewer:
Center for Advertising History, Archives Center  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Nike, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Adidas  Search this
Asics  Search this
Nike, Inc.  Search this
Wieden & Kennedy  Search this
Interviewee:
Onitsuka  Search this
Bedbury, Scott  Search this
Bowerman, William  Search this
Brown, John A.  Search this
Champ, Janet  Search this
Clarke, Tom  Search this
Clow, Lee  Search this
Conlon, Jerry  Search this
Davenport, Bill  Search this
Dolan, Liz  Search this
Donohue, Richard  Search this
Farris, Nelson  Search this
Hale, Cindy  Search this
Hoffman, Susan  Search this
Jackson, Bo  Search this
Jaqua, John  Search this
Johnson, Jeff  Search this
Kitami, Shoji  Search this
Knight, Phillip  Search this
McConnell, Pam  Search this
Moore, Charlotte  Search this
Moore, Kenny  Search this
Moore, Peter  Search this
Onitsuka, Kimachiro  Search this
Parker, Mark  Search this
Riswold, Jim  Search this
Robinson, Charles  Search this
Sakaguchi, Tokio  Search this
Stobie, Patsy Mest  Search this
Strasser, Robert (marketing executive)  Search this
Thomashow, Mark  Search this
Wieden, Dan  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Clippings
Audiotapes
Fliers (printed matter)
Advertising fliers
Commercials
Interviews
Place:
Beaverton (Or.)
Portland (Oregon)
Date:
1958 - 1992
Summary:
The Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection is the result of a two-year study of advertising of Nike athletic shoes. The effort was supported in part by a grant from Nike, Inc. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted with advertising, marketing and product development executives at Asics, Nike, John Brown & Co., Chiat/Day/Mojo and Wieden & Kennedy. A variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that documents, in print and electronic media, the history and development of the company and its advertising campaigns.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of thirty-one oral history interviews conducted by historian Scott Ellsworth with advertising, marketing and product development executives at Asics, Nike, John Brown & Co., Chiat/Day/Mojo and Wieden & Kennedy and related materials collected by the Center for Advertising History staff. There are audiocassettes (original and reference), 1/4" open reel audiotape (master), 3/4" videotapes, and VHS videotapes.
Arrangement:
The collection is rganized into seven series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1979-1992

Subseries 1.1, Materials Compiled by the Center for Advertising History, 1979-1992

Subseries 1.2, Material Compiled by Nike, 1982-1992

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1990-1992

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1990-1992

Subseries 3.1, Original Audiotapes (audio cassette), 1990-1992

Subseries 3.2, Researcher copies (audio cassette), 1990-1992

Subseries 3.3, Preservation masters (1/4 inch audiotape), 1990-1992

Series 4, Television Commercials, 1977-1990 and undated

Subseries 4.1, Master Copies, 1977-1990 and undated

Subseries 4.2, Researcher copies, 1977-1990 and undated

Series 5, Print Advertisements, 1985-1993

Subseries 5.1, Ad Slicks, 1985-1993

Subseries 5.2, Slides, 1989 and undated

Series 6, Trade Catalogues and Photographs, 1958-1982

Series 7, Administrative Files, 1982-1990
Biographical / Historical:
The Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection is the result of a two-year study of advertising of Nike athletic shoes. The effort was supported in part by a grant from Nike, Inc. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted with advertising, marketing and product development executives at Asics, Nike, John Brown & Co., Chiat/Day/Mojo and Wieden & Kennedy. A variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that documents, in print and electronic media, the history and development of the company and its advertising campaigns.

The consistently high quality of this advertising, its award-winning artistic and creative innovations, and its contribution to the fitness movement in America combine to make this a significant chapter in the history of contemporary American advertising.

One aim of the project was to record the process of decision-making in the creation of successful ad campaigns, a process not often documented in the surviving records. Topics addressed in the oral history interviews include the origins of Nike and Nike advertising, the relationship between corporate culture and advertising, the place of advertising in overall marketing strategy, the development of brand image and identity, the nature of the creative process in producing effective advertising images, the use of athletes as endorsers, and Nikes'simpact on the popular culture. Well-known campaigns are examined in depth, including Nikes's, use of the Beatles tune "Revolution", the "I Love L.A Spots" produced in conjunction with the 1984 Olympics, the controversial billboards campaign, the award-winning "Bo Knows" spots, and a series of commercials directed by African-American filmmaker Spike Lee. The collection is also a rich source of visual imagery for researchers interested in the portrayal of athletes, women and African-Americans.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Collection, 1953-1986 (AC0184)

N. W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records, 1849-1851, 1869-1996 (AC0059)

Campbell Soup Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1904-1989 (AC0367)

Cover Girl Make-Up Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1959-1990 (AC04374)

Federal Express Oral History and Documentation Project Collection, 1972-1987 (AC0306)

Caroline R. Jones Collection, circa 1942-1996 (AC0552)

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, circa 1926-1986 (AC0198)

Pepsi Generation Oral History and Documentation Collection, 1938-1986 (AC0092)

Rob and Julie Strasser Collection, 1970-1990 (AC0525)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Nike, Inc. in 1991 and 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the master (preservation) tapes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women in the advertising industry  Search this
Sports for women  Search this
Sports  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Signs and signboards -- 1970-2000  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Basketball  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Track and field  Search this
Copy writers  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Shoes -- 1970-2000  Search this
Motion picture producers and directors  Search this
African American athletes  Search this
Running -- 1970-2000  Search this
Running shoes -- 1970-2000  Search this
Athletic shoes -- 1970-2000  Search this
Shoe industry -- 1970-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Clippings
Audiotapes
Fliers (printed matter)
Advertising fliers
Commercials
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Citation:
Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection, 1958-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0448
See more items in:
Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0448
Online Media:

Untitled

Issuing body:
American Red Cross  Search this
Collection Creator:
Princeton University  Search this
Extent:
1 Poster (Full size; Multi-color, 109 x 71 cm)
Container:
Map-folder 353
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Place:
United States
Image:
Main Image: Three American soldiers around a log fire with the Red Cross Symbol inside it, in a snow covered field
Local numbers:
Princeton Poster# 2847
General:
Issued by: American Red Cross

Artist(s): S. Ruth Allen, Commercial Art Class Maryland Institute
Printing Info:
Printer: A. Hoen & Co. Litho., Baltimore
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status of items varies. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Relief and volunteer organizations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters
Collection Citation:
Princeton University Posters Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Princeton University Poster Collection
Princeton University Poster Collection / Series 6: Unknown / United States
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0433-ref15219

Louis Szalay Advertising Art Collection

Creator:
Szalay, Louis, 1911- (art director)  Search this
Names:
Blue Bonnet  Search this
Colgate  Search this
Palmolive  Search this
RCA  Search this
Ted Bates & Co.  Search this
Viceroy  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Comprehensives
Layouts, page
Date:
1963-1968.
Scope and Contents:
Original artwork produced under Mr. Szalay's supervision as Art Department Manager at Ted Bates & Co., 1965-1967.

Series 1 consists of 36 comprehensives or "ad comps", circa 1965. Original artwork and mechanicals created for the Blue Bonnet margarine account make up the largest part of the collection, which also includes original artwork and mechanicals for Black & White scotch, Schmidt's beer, Palmolive soap, Viceroy cigarettes, Colgate toothpaste, and Colgate Kitchen's prepared foods, a new brand exploratory.

Series 2 includes 32 art director's rough layouts or "roughs" for clients including Breeze cigarettes (a Brown & Williamson new brand exploratory with menthol and clove flavorings), Blue Bonnet margarine, and RCA televisions, all circa 1966-67.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series.

Series 1: Advertising Comprehensives, circa 1965

Series 2; Art Directors' Rough Layouts, 1966-1967
Biographical / Historical:
Trained as an artist, Mr. Szalay began his career in 1931 as an assistant art director at J. Walter Thompson, a Philadelphia-based advertising agency. In 1958 he moved to Ted Bates and Company on Fifth Avenue, New York, where he worked as Studio Manager (or Bull Pen Manager). In the early 1960s he was promoted to Manager of the Art Department, where he was responsible for the Art Directors, the Art Department staff and the Studio. At that time the Bull Pen consisted of about 25 illustrators, letterers, and mechanical men who pieced together the work of the illustrators and letterers. Painted in tempera or water color, with handlettered copy, the resulting comprehensives are nearly as fine in their execution as the final printed ads, and were used to pitch the account to the client. Those ultimately used can be identified by the comment, criticism, and authorization notations in the margins. By 1967, management at Ted Bates & Co. had determined that the ad comps system was too costly, and switched to the use of art director's roughs -- rough conceptual sketches executed in magic marker. At the same time, the account management system was restructured, with creatives and artists assigned to individual accounts instead of receiving their assignments through the Art Department Manager. Mr. Szalay retired from Ted Bates & Co. in 1968.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Louis Szalay, June 1991.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
advertising  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Comprehensives
Layouts, page
Citation:
Louis Szalay Advertising Art Collection, 1965-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0412
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0412

J. Walter Wilkinson Papers

Creator:
Wilkinson, Walter Gandy, 1917-  Search this
Interviewer:
Bird, William L.  Search this
Author:
Wilkinson, J. Walter (commercial artist)  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes, 2 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Sketches
Date:
ca. 1932-1935, 1940-1964, 1985-1987.
Scope and Contents:
Originals and copy photographs of advertisements and other commercial art work, original sketches, materials documenting a mechanical drafting instrument patented by the Wilkinson and his son, Walter G. Wilkinson, and a scrapbook of clippings, photographs, awards, and other materials documenting the Wilkinsons' careers. Also included are audiocassettes containing interviews of Wilkinson, conducted by National Museum of American History curator, Larry Bird.
Biographical / Historical:
J. Walter Wilkinson (1892- ) is an award winning commercial artist, perhaps best known for a series of six war bond posters he and his son Walter G. Wilkinson (1917-1971) created for the United States Treasury Department. J. Walter Wilkinson was born on Maryland's eastern shore, received formal academic training in art, and worked on newspapers and at an advertising agency before becoming a free lance artist. In addition to his war posters and other government commissions, he created a number of outdoor and magazine advertisements and many magazine covers. Major products for which Wilkinson did advertising art work included Ivory soap, Pabst beer, and Ballantine ale.
Provenance:
Collection donated by J. Walter Wilkinson, September 13, 1984
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Commercial artists  Search this
Topic:
War posters  Search this
advertising  Search this
Soap  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Sketches
Citation:
J. Walter Wilkinson Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0116
See more items in:
J. Walter Wilkinson Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0116

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
10.02 Cubic feet (consisting of 14.5 boxes, 10 oversize folders, 4 map case folders, 6 flat boxes (2 full, 4 partial).)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
1750-1988
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Art forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents note:
This subject category- Art concerns the creation, exhibition and selling of fine art; the manufac-ture and retailing of art reproductions and the manufacture and retailing of art supplies. There is also material relating to art education, art publications and art organizations, both professional and amateur. It further includes an image collection covering a number of subjects and a collec-tion of original works of art that includes a group of sketchbooks.

The bulk of the material consists of brochures, booklets, books, circulars, cards and catalogues; most are intended for instructional or advertising purposes. The images include prints and engrav-ings and some items in color. The original works are in a variety of media.
Arrangement note:
The material is divided into the following series:

1. Artists, circa 1840-1940

2. Academies, Institutes, and Museums, 1826-1980

3. Associations, Clubs, and Societies, circa 1820-1959

4. Miscellaneous Exhibitions, circa 1864-1940

5. Fine Art Dealers, Galleries, and Auction Houses, 1816-1965

6. Manufacturers, Publishers, Retailers, and Importers, 1855-1960

7. Art Education, 1869-1946

8. Art Publishers and Publications, circa 1850-1965

9. Commercial Art and Design, circa 1820-1950

10. Manufacturers and Retailers of Art Materials, circa 1850-1960

11. General Images, circa 1750-1910

12. Original Works, 19th century; undated

13. Foreign Materials, circa 19th century

14. Import/Export Documents, circa 1860-1900
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Art is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Art
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art

Comercial Art and Design

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1820-1950
Scope and Contents note:
Commercial Art and Design, circa 1820-1950, include materials relating to this specialized field is arranged alphabetically by name and is in three Subseries 9a examples of the work of illustrators 9b material from schools of commercial art and design 9c is a group of nineteenth century illustrated book title pages.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Art, Subseries 9
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art-ref874

Schools of Commercial Art

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Art, Subseries 9.2
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art / 9: Comercial Art and Design
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art-ref892

Correspondence Institute of America

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Scranton, Pennsylvania
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art / 9: Comercial Art and Design / 9.2: Schools of Commercial Art
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art-ref893

Correspondence School of Illustrating

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
New York
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art / 9: Comercial Art and Design / 9.2: Schools of Commercial Art
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art-ref895

Baldwin Correspondence School

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Barre, Vermont
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art / 9: Comercial Art and Design / 9.2: Schools of Commercial Art
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art-ref897

Chicago Manual Training School

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Chicago, Illinois
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Art / 9: Comercial Art and Design / 9.2: Schools of Commercial Art
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-art-ref899

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.43 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 1 oversize folder, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1754-1963
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Afro-Americana forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents note:
This material consists primarily of information relating to significant events in the history of African Americans in the United States. Most of the materials relate to the issue of slavery, race relations and the Civil Rights Movement. Images of African Americans created for commercial use also comprise a large portion of these materials. There is a small amount of information relating to events in France. Although most of the materials are about African Americans, there are only a few created by them.

Materials are arranged by topic to include slavery, abolition, colonization, Reconstruction, the Civil War, and the Civil Rights Movement. The earliest materials relate to slavery and consist primarily of receipts for truces paid on property, advertisements announcing the sale of slaves, passes, promissory notes and speeches questioning slavery.

Late nineteenth century materials relate to organizations created by African Americans in an effort to improve their quality of life. Such organizations include hospitals, homes for orphans, schools, and political associations. These materials aid in our understanding of African Americans as active members of society rather than as victims.

In contrast the largest amount of material from this time period consists of commercial images created by advertisers. Such commercial art reflects the political, social, economic and psychological concerns of the time. The perceptions and fears of the wider society were depicted primarily on advertising cards. Such advertising cards used stereotypical images of African Americans to sell products. These products often included soap, stove polish, tobacco, cosmetics, whiskey, cereal, flour, greeting cards, coffee, baking soda, blacking, bluing, paint, varnish, and music. Often there appears to be no connection between image and product. In those instances African Americans were used to supply the humor. Occasionally there was logic between the image and the product. The logic between the product and the image of African Americans generally was a reference to skin color or lack of education and or social skills.

There are also a number of advertisements portraying African Americans from magazines. These images differed from the ones used on advertising cards which is probably due to the national character of magazines. African Americans were generally portrayed as servants such as Ratus "Cream of Wheat", Aunt Jemima and Uncle Ben.

Twentieth century materials cover events and organizations formed during the Civil Rights Movement. Ephemera from C.O.R.E., S.C.L.C. and N.A.A.C.P. represent types of materials that were circulated during the period. There is little or no commercial imagery from this time period.
Arrangement note:
Materials in box one through two are arranged by topic. Part of box two contains images of African Americans consisting of engravings, chromolithographs, photographs and a few commercial images not associated with a product.

Box three contains photocopies of stereotypical images of blacks used to sell specific products. The originals are found in the subject category that it represents.

History Topics

Miscellaneous Material

Images of African Americans
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Afro-Americana is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Afro
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-afro
Online Media:

Rockwell Kent papers, circa 1840-1993, bulk 1935-1961

Creator:
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Subject:
Wildenstein, Felix  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Hays, Lee  Search this
Untermeyer, Louis  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl  Search this
Robeson, Paul  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt)  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano)  Search this
Ruggles, Carl  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur  Search this
Nearing, Helen  Search this
Nearing, Scott  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Rasmussen, Knud  Search this
Reeves, Ruth  Search this
Seeger, Pete  Search this
Daniel, Charles  Search this
Cleland, T. M. (Thomas Maitland)  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Chamberlain, J. E.  Search this
Boyesen, Bayard  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
Freuchen, Peter  Search this
Gellert, Hugo  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
FitzGerald, James  Search this
Keller, Charles  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Jones, Dan Burne  Search this
United American Artists  Search this
United Office and Professional Workers of America  Search this
United Scenic Artists  Search this
National Farmers' Union (U.S.)  Search this
National Maritime Union of America  Search this
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artists League of America  Search this
Citizens' Committee for Government Arts Projects  Search this
Farmers Union of the New York Milk Shed  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Federal Writers' Project  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
International Workers Order  Search this
Type:
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Topic:
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Politics and culture  Search this
Authors -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States -- Political aspects  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State)  Search this
Illustration of books  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Art and war  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9557
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211757
AAA_collcode_kentrock
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211757
Online Media:

Behind the Design | In Print and On View: Designing for E. McKnight Kauffer at Cooper Hewitt

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-09-29T05:22:24.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Qdkgdl6HsKM

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