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Group, in Partial Native Dress, One Wearing Civil War-Style Jacket, One on Horseback, Watching Two Men ? Butcher Cow

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander  Search this
Collector:
Taylor, James E. (Artist)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (005 in x 007 in mounted on 014 in x 018 in)
Container:
Volume 1, Page 17
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
1868
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.01600807

NAA MS.MS 4605

OPPS NEG.3695
Local Note:
Photo Taken During Treaty Council of 1868 Jackson Catalog #824 on Photo
Black and white Photoprint on Paper Mount in Album
Place:
Wyoming -- Fort Laramie
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West / Page 17
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31a698100-c9fb-4d93-a118-a6dac8fe110b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4605-ref764
Online Media:

Portrait of Non-Native Man, General Oliver O. Howard, Civil War Hero, Head of Freedmen's Bureau, Founder of Howard University, and Chosen by President Grant to Map Out Four Indian Reservations in Az. and NM with Vincent Colyer

Collector:
Taylor, James E. (Artist)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (002 in x 002 in mounted on 014 in x 018 in)
Container:
Volume 1, Page 97
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.01604803

NAA MS.MS 4605

OPPS NEG.77-13334
Local Note:
Black and white Photoprint on Paper Mount in Album
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West / Page 97
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38a88370c-d062-4f44-9758-c02befb02188
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4605-ref1295
Online Media:

Portrait of General John Gibbon, Civil War Commander of The "Iron Brigade" and Leader of Troops from Ft. Shaw and Ft. Ellis at Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876, in Military Uniform

Collector:
Taylor, James E. (Artist)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (002 in x 003 in mounted on 014 in x 018 in)
Container:
Volume 1, Page 20
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.01600904

NAA MS.MS 4605

OPPS NEG.29B1
Local Note:
Black and white Photoprint on Paper Mount in Album
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West / Page 20
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw307173450-431d-412a-8be2-736031e69e67
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4605-ref784
Online Media:

[Civil War. Articles. 1987. Notes on Civil War Burials.]

Collection Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Container:
Box 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Collection Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers / Series 2: Field Work / 2.1: South Carolina / 38CH920 Folly Island (18 folders)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38841742d-81ff-44d6-a00a-07b5675547d8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2005-08-ref1222

[Civil War. Articles. 1987-1988.]

Collection Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Container:
Box 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Collection Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers / Series 2: Field Work / 2.1: South Carolina / 38CH920 Folly Island (18 folders)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3863ade54-7d1b-4cfe-bcaa-70b1bd8ceb84
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2005-08-ref1223

Seminoles in the Civil War

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1943 August 30
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 5: Seminole Indians / History: Seminoles, Florida
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30091ce74-c939-4c48-bc54-a932595fb4ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref1378

[Civil. War. Site Notes. 1987-1988]

Collection Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Container:
Box 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Collection Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers / Series 2: Field Work / 2.1: South Carolina / 38CH920 Folly Island (18 folders)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31c03ec5a-139a-4daa-aada-ea57ee1c1621
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2005-08-ref1226

[Fighting Men of the Civil War]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 481
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
William C. Sturtevant papers / Series 9: Subject Files / 9.11: Miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3e0249abb-8cf8-42b4-9a78-c090f4b6c126
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref12714

Information for Book: Civil War. Autobiography of Lincoln

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 3: Manuscripts / Unfinished monographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw35fb210cc-94eb-467a-93cb-ea104cadea6c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref1050

[Civil War. "Record of the Service of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry." 1868; reprint 1971.]

Collection Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Container:
Box 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Collection Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers / Series 2: Field Work / 2.1: South Carolina / 38CH920 Folly Island (18 folders)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3428a9868-2c2c-4271-bfbb-0b17395d47c3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2005-08-ref1225

[Civil War. Presentation Notes on Cortical Defects of the 55th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment. Patti Byra. 1992.]

Collection Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Container:
Box 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Collection Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers / Series 2: Field Work / 2.1: South Carolina / 38CH920 Folly Island (18 folders)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34a2c529e-3eac-4310-92e1-61932382457b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2005-08-ref1224

[Draft by L. Hauptman--"Chapter 2-The Tuscarora Company: The Civil War Through the Eyes of Isaac Newton Parker, Seneca Indian 1862-1864"]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 478
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
William C. Sturtevant papers / Series 9: Subject Files / 9.9: Northeast
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw310af518c-b9da-42f5-a360-858decc945f3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref12628

[Archaeology Reports. 1987-1988. "Management Summary Archaeological investigations on Folly Island […] Sites 38CH964, 38CH965, 38CH966". 1988. Steven D. Smith and Lisa D. O'Steen. Management Summary of Archaeological Investigations at a Civil War Cemet...

Collection Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Container:
Box 8
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Collection Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers / Series 2: Field Work / 2.1: South Carolina / 38CH920 Folly Island (18 folders)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw350528ff8-fae8-44f3-a743-e29a3ab1c798
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2005-08-ref1209

William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians

Creator:
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Photographer:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
J. Gurney & Son  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Ulke, Henry, 1821-1910  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Names:
Hayden Survey  Search this
Powell-Thompson Survey  Search this
Extent:
9 Albums (circa 4000 prints, albumen (some copies))
Culture:
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Waco Indians  Search this
White River Ute (Yampa)  Search this
Wyandot  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Stockbridge Indians  Search this
Sisitonwan Dakota (Sisseton Sioux)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Uintah Ute  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Montauk  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Brotherton Indians  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Miami  Search this
Oto  Search this
Kitchai Wichita  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Odawa (Ottawa)  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1877
Scope and Contents note:
Albums probably assembled by William Henry Jackson, mostly containing portraits of Native American delegates in Washington, D.C. and photographs made on US Geological Surveys (including the Hayden and Powell surveys). Photographs from the field include John K. Hillers' photographs of the Southwest, photographs of Fort Laramie (possibly by Alexander Gardner), Orloff R. Westmann's photographs of Taos Pueblo, and Jackson's photographs of Crow, Shoshoni, Pawnee, and Nez Perce Tribes and related sites. Most of the photographs were made circa 1860s-1870s.

The albums were probably by Jackson while working under Ferdinand V. Hayden for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. The reason for their creation is uncertain, though it may have been a project set up by Hayden or a continuation of William Henry Blackmore's tradition of publishing albums. Some of the albums include captions pasted from Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians (1877) while others have handwritten captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer. Born in New York, he sold drawings and retouched photographs from an early age. After serving in the Civil War, he opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska, with his brother Edward. As photographer for the US Geological and Geographical Surveys (1870-1878), he documented the American west and published the first photographs of Yellowstone. When the surveys lost funding in 1879, Jackson opened a studio in Denver, Colorado, and also worked for various railroad companies. Many of Jackson's photographs were displayed at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), for which he was the official photographer.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4420
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds William Henry Jackson photographs and negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4605, MS 4801, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 29, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo lot 143, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 87-20, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Correspondence from Jackson held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4517, MS 4881, MS 4821, and collections of personal papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4420, William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4420
See more items in:
William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3579a455e-5931-4e6e-9659-42bb7718b6fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4420
Online Media:

MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw367638eb8-dce6-4d4e-bea5-2204e49134ef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
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Ted Allan Rathbun Papers

Creator:
Rathbun, Ted A., 1942-  Search this
Names:
U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory  Search this
University of Kansas. Department of Anthropology  Search this
University of South Carolina. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
26 Linear feet (53 document boxes, 4 record storage boxes, 1 oversize box, 1 folder, 3 computer disks)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
South Carolina
Hierakonpolis (Extinct city)
Glorieta National Battlefield (N.M.)
Date:
1961-2004
Summary:
This collection is comprised of the professional papers of Ted Allan Rathbun. The collection documents his career as a forensic anthropologist and educator through correspondence, publications and teaching materials. The collection includes the publications resulting from his research in South Carolina, Egypt, and Glorieta, New Mexico, as well as a small portion of his research data. His other writings that can be found in the collection include his monographs, journal articles, papers presented at conferences, and reviews he wrote for various journals and publications. The collection also includes materials relating to his consulting activities for law enforcement agencies, and military and historical organizations. Additionally, the collection contains materials related to organizations that he was a member of and his syllabi and lecture notes as a professor at the University of South Carolina. The collection also includes Rathbun's course notes when, as a student at the University of Kansas, he studied under William Bass, Ellis Kerley and other notable anthropologists. Among his correspondents were J. Lawrence Angel, Eve Cockburn, Henry Dobyns, Henry Field, T. Dale Stewart, and T. Cuyler Young.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of the professional papers of Ted Allan Rathbun,. The collection documents his career as a forensic anthropologist and educator through correspondence, publications and teaching materials. The collection includes the publications resulting from his research in South Carolina, Egypt, and Glorieta, New Mexico, as well as a small portion of his research data. His other writings that can be found in the collection include his monographs, journal articles, papers presented at conferences, and reviews he wrote for various journals and publications. The collection also includes materials relating to his consulting activities for law enforcement agencies, and military and historical organizations. Additionally, the collection contains materials related to organizations that he was a member of and his syllabi and lecture notes as a professor at the University of South Carolina. The collection also includes Rathbun's course notes when, as a student at the University of Kansas, he studied under William Bass, Ellis Kerley and other notable anthropologists. Among his correspondents were J. Lawrence Angel, Eve Cockburn, Henry Dobyns, Henry Field, T. Dale Stewart, and T. Cuyler Young.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 10 series: 1) Correspondence (1969-2004); 2) Field Work (1976-1996, 2001); 3) Consulting Work (1974-2004); 4) Research Data (1977-1980); 5) Publications (1963-2001); 6) Grants (1977-1991); 7) Professional Organizations (1981-2000); 8) Grants and Publications Reviews (1974-2000); 9) University of South Carolina (1970-2004); 10) Education (1961-1970)
Biographical / Historical:
Ted Allan Rathbun (1942-2012) earned his B.A. (1964), M.A. (1966), and Ph.D. (1971) in anthropology from the University of Kansas, where he studied under anthropologist William M. Bass. He taught English as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Iran, where he became fluent in Farsi and did research for his doctorate. He conducted research on topics as wide-ranging as population growth in Iran; the physical characteristics of Woodland Indians; Coastal South Carolina paleopathology; growth rates among ancient urban states; shark attacks and human remains; social class and health; the history of African American health; and predynastic cemeteries at Hierakonpolis, Upper Egypt. Through his South Carolina field work and publications, Rathbun became noted for expanding the knowledge of Afro-American history from the colonial and Civil War times.

Rathbun was also a pioneer in establishing and expanding the use of forensic anthropology technology by law enforcement. He was licensed in South Carolina to assist coroners, law enforcement officials and medical examiners in identifying human remains. He and his students refined a process for the reconstruction of victim's faces, which were then used to assist in their identification. He served as a consulting physical anthropologist to the Charleston County Medical Examiner (1973-93); Deputy State Archaeologist for Forensics (1985-2000); and Consultant to the U.S. Military Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii (1990-2003/2004) where he reviewed cases of military (and civilian) remains from the Vietnam, Korea, and WWII eras. He also participated in the Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team (DMORT) efforts for identification of the victims of September 11, 2001.

Rathbun taught at the University of South Carolina for 30 years. He was a popular classroom professor and led research field trips with his students. In 1996 he received the Louise Fry Scudder Faculty Award, which recognized him for excellence in undergraduate and graduate teaching, student mentoring and advising, and service contributions beyond the university. He retired from full-time teaching in 2000.

Rathbun was also a research associate of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology; director of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (1985-91); and for 15 years a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Forensic Sciences. In 2005, he was honored by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences with the T. Dale Stewart Award — its highest honor in Forensic Anthropology — for his lifetime achievements and contributions to the field.

1942 -- Born April 11

1964 -- Married

1964 -- Earns B.A. from University of Kansas, Honors in Anthropology

1966 -- Earns M.A. from University of Kansas, Physical Anthropology

1966-1968 -- Peace Corps Volunteer in Iran

1970 -- Instructor at the University of South Carolina

1971 -- Earns PhD. from University of Kansas, (Physical Anthropology of SWAsia, Applied Cultural and Cultural Ecology). Dissertation: An Analysis of the Physical Characteristics of the Ancient Inhabitants of Hasanlu, Iran

1971-1975 -- Assistant Professor at the University of South Carolina

1975-1984 -- Associate Professor at the University of South Carolina

1984-2000 -- Professor at the University of South Carolina

1987-1989 -- Chairman of the Anthropology Department

1990-1996 -- Undergraduate Director

1996 -- Awarded Louise Fry Scudder professorship

1999 -- Named Distinguished Professor

2000 -- Named Distinguished Professor Emeritus

2005 -- Honored by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences with the T. Dale Stewart Award

2012 -- Passed away on November 14
Related Materials:
Rathbun's South Carolina research materials are at the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology. His other field research data can be found at the Field Museum in Chicago and the Penn Museum in Philadelphia.

His body was donated to the Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee and the Physical Anthropology Collections, National Museum of Natural History.
Separated Materials:
Biological specimens found within Series 3. Consulting Work, Subseries: Forensic Cases were transferred to Physical Anthropology Collections, National Museum of Natural History. Videos, also from the forensic case files, were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives.
Provenance:
Dr. Rathbun donated his professional papers to the National Anthropological Archives in 2005. Additional files were donated in 2013 by his wife, Babette Rathbun, after his death.
Restrictions:
Rathbun's forensic case files donated in 2013 are restricted until 2088. Two folders containing student grades have been separated and are restricted until 2055. For preservation reasons, his computer disks have been separated and restricted. Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Topic:
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Biological anthropology  Search this
Citation:
Ted Allan Rathbun papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2005-08
See more items in:
Ted Allan Rathbun Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw320f73449-af20-4c18-8457-6510acff1d18
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2005-08

William A. Smalley papers

Creator:
Smalley, William Allen  Search this
Extent:
18.11 Linear feet (19 boxes, 2 map folders, 40 sound recordings, and 3 computer disks)
Culture:
Hmong (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Thailand -- Languages
Laos
Thailand
Vietnam
Date:
1943-1998
Summary:
William A. Smalley (1923-1997) was a missionary and anthropological linguist. This collection mainly concerns his work with Hmong scripts and the Khmu' language and contains correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William A. Smalley's work and research as an anthropological linguist and missionary, two roles that were often intertwined, through his correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings. Smalley's research on Hmong scripts, particularly Pahawh, and the Hmong people make up a significant portion of the collection. Noteworthy are a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh script and primers and writing samples of other Hmong scripts. Aside from some letters and 1953 conference reports by Smalley and G. Linwood Barney, there is little material from his work in developing Hmong RPA. Other materials relating to RPA include a Hmong-English dictionary by Ernest E. Heimbach and a Hmong-French dictionary by Father Yves Bertrais. Also in the collection are Smalley's research on Khmu' and Thai languages and dialects and several Khmu' primers. As a missionary linguist, Smalley created guides for missionaries learning Khmu' and Vietnamese, as well as a guide to pronouncing Egyptian Arabic, all of which are in the collection. Reprints for a large portion of his articles can also be found in the collection, reflecting his interests in linguistics, anthropology, missionary work, and Southeast Asia. In addition, the collection contains drafts of his unfinished book, Liberation of an Evangelical and his work editing The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective by Jack Loewen. Photographs in the collection are composed mostly of 35mm slides and some prints and negatives. Most of the images are of Southeast Asia along with some photos of Africa, Haiti, New Guinea, and Hong Kong. There are also photos of Hmongs in the United States and photos for his book, Mother of Writing: the Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script. The sound recordings are composed mostly of interviews he conducted for his research on Thailand, Hmongs in the United States, and the Pahawh Hmong script. Additional materials in the collection are his writings as a college student published in the Houghton Star, the school newspaper for which he also served as chief editor.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 11 series: (1) Correspondence, 1973-1999; (1) Hmong, 1952-1997; (3) Khmu', 1952-1997; (4) Thailand, 1960-1987; (5) Writings, 1949-1997; (6) Talks, 1974-1997; (7) Writings by Others, 1977, 1994-1998; (8) Houghton College, 1943-1945, 1982; (9) Photographs, 1950-1990; (10) Sound Recordings, 1976-1994; (11) Maps, 1977-1978
Biographical Note:
William A. Smalley was born April 4, 1923, in Jerusalem, Palestine. His parents were American missionaries for the Christian and Missionary Alliance, working among Arabs in Jerusalem and Transjordan. In 1934, Smalley and his family moved back to the United States. In reflecting upon his upbringing, Smalley writes, "My parents were thoroughly, deeply devoted both to Christ and to the Alliance, but they drew their boundaries more widely than many." According to Smalley, "My home was intellectually more open than some Alliance homes; my upbringing was somewhat less doctrinaire." (Smalley 1991)

Smalley attended Houghton College, where he developed an interest in anthropology, which he saw as relevant to missionary work. After graduating from Houghton in 1945 with a degree in English literature, he attended the Missionary Training Institute (1945-1946) and received linguistic training in Bible translation at the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) at the University of Oklahoma (1946-1947). In 1946 he also enrolled in Columbia University's graduate program in anthropology with a concentration in linguistics. According to Smalley, he discovered his "intellectual niche" studying at SIL, while "the anthropological training at Columbia gave linguistics a broader cultural context." "I became absorbed in the challenge to understand my faith in Christ in light of all I was learning about human culture." (Smalley 1991)

In 1950, Smalley was sent to Vietnam by the Christian and Missionary Alliance. There, Smalley worked on language analysis problems in the southern region of the country. The following year, he was sent to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language. While in Laos, Smalley also worked with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing a writing system for the Hmong people. Together, they developed the Hmong Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA), which is the most widely used Hmong writing system today.

With the outbreak of civil war in Laos, Smalley and his wife were forced to return to the United States in 1954. He completed his dissertation on the Khmu' language and was awarded his doctorate in 1956. An abbreviated version of his dissertation was later published in 1961 as Outline of Khmu' Structure.

Over the next several years, Smalley worked primarily in Southeast Asia as a translation consultant for the American Bible Society (1954-1969) and as a regional translations coordinator (1969-1972) and translation consultant (1972-1977) with the United Bible Societies. Due to his work, he resided in Thailand from 1962 to 1967 and from 1969 to 1972. (He also lived in Thailand as a Fulbright research fellow in 1985 and 1986.) In 1977, he decided to leave the United Bible Societies after 23 years. Unable to find employment, he worked briefly at a discount toy store.

In 1978, Smalley relocated to St. Paul, Minnesota, to accept a position as professor of linguistics at Bethel University (1978-1987). In Minnesota, he unexpectedly found that thousands of Hmong refugees were also settling in the Twin Cities, which guided his research over the next decade. As an Honorary Fellow (1982-1984) with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program, he took part in a project studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States, publishing "Adaptive Language Strategies of the Hmong: From Asian Mountains to American Ghettos" (1985) and "Stages of Hmong Cultural Adaptation" (1986). He also studied the different Hmong scripts that had developed since RPA, in particular Pahawh Hmong script, which was created in 1959 in Laos by Shong Lue Yang. Smalley published two books on the script and its creator— Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script (1990) and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing" (1990), both of which he co-authored with Chia Koua Vang and Gnia Yee Yang.

In addition to his work on the Hmong, Smalley researched the different languages and dialects of Thailand, publishing Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand (1994); "Thailand's Hierarchy of Multilingualism" (1988); and "Language and Power: Evolution of Thailand's Multilingualism" (1996). As a student at Columbia University, he had also studied Comanche phonology and morphology, coauthoring with Henry Osborn "Formulae for Comanche Stem and Word Formation" (1949).

In 1955, Smalley took over editorship of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology), which he edited from 1955 to1968. He also served as associate editor for Bible Translator (1957-59) and Language Sciences (1983-92).

When he retired from Bethel College in 1987, he was awarded the college's first annual Distinguished Teaching Award. In his retirement, he continued to write extensively and also edited Jacob A. Loewen's book, The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective, for which he wrote an introduction.

In 1997, Smalley died of a heart attack at the age of 74.

Sources Consulted

Smalley, William. "My Pilgrimage in Mission." International Bulletin of Missionary Research 15, no. 2 (1991): 70-73.

Beckstrom, Maja. "Scholar of Hmong language praised for 'invaluable' work." St. Paul Pioneer Press, December 21, 1997: 1B, 6B.

Chronology

1923 -- Born April 4 in Jerusalem, Palestine

1945 -- Earns B.A. from Houghton College in English Literature

1945-1946 -- Studies at Missionary Training Institute

1946-1947 -- Studies at Summer Institute of Linguistics at University of Oklahoma

1950 -- Serves as missionary linguist in Vietnam

1951 -- Assigned to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language

1951-1953 -- Works with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing Hmong RPA

1954-1969 -- Translation consultant for American Bible Society

1955-1968 -- Editor of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology)

1956 -- Receives doctorate in linguistic anthropology at Columbia University

1961 -- Publishes Outline of Khmu' Structure

1969-1972 -- Regional translations coordinator with the United Bible Societies

1972-1977 -- Translation consultant with the United Bible Societies

1978-1987 -- Professor of linguistics at Bethel College

1982-1984 -- Honorary fellow with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States

1985-1986 -- Fulbright Fellow studying linguistic diversity and national unity in Thailand

1990 -- Publishes Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing"

1994 -- Publishes Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand

1997 -- Dies of a heart attack at the age of 74 on December 16
Related Materials:
Smalley's Pahawh Hmong project was funded by the Indochina Studies Center, Social Science Research Council. Upon the completion of the project, the Indochina Studies Center arranged for some of his Pahawh Hmong research materials to be deposited at the Library of Congress as part of the archives of programs that the center has funded. The materials deposited at the Library of Congress include photographs, sound recordings, and a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh and Sayaboury script. Indices and descriptions of the materials deposited can be found in Series 2: Hmong, Sub-series 2.2 Pahawh, "[Pahawh Hmong Project]." Not all of the materials that were sent to the Library of Congress are present in this collection and vice versa. Among the materials absent from this collection are some of the photographs, four sound recordings, and most of the Sayaboury manuscripts.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jane Smalley.
Restrictions:
Three tape recordings and the associated transcripts of the interviews that Smalley conducted for his research on the Pahawh Hmong script are restricted until 2040.

Access to the William A. Smalley papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Vietnamese language  Search this
Missionaries  Search this
Anthropological linguistics  Search this
Hmong language -- writing  Search this
Khmu' language  Search this
Citation:
William A. Smalley papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2006-06
See more items in:
William A. Smalley papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3666e0d48-196b-42c2-b1f4-83cbb27f4d93
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2006-06

United States Army Medical Museum records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
4.75 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1868-1897
Scope and Contents:
The records consist mainly of memoranda prepared by the AMM staff and letters and notes which document the specimens. There are also invoices, lists, labels, and printed items. Indexed are names of correspondent, collectors, and donors.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged by United States Army Museum number.
Historical Note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM; now the National Museum of Health and Medicine of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) was established by the Surgeon General in 1862 during the course of the Civil War. Its initial focus was on specimens of morbid pathology mainly derived from victims of the war, but as the museum developed, its purpose expanded and around 1864 it was organized into surgical, photographic, medical, and microscopic sections. In 1867, it reorganized into medical, microscopical, anatomical, comparative anatomical, and miscellaneous sections.

Of particular interest here is the anatomical section, for to it were assigned specimens of normal human anatomy, including a growing collection comprised mainly of human skulls but also including other normal human bone specimens. Most of the antomical specimens were remains of American Indians but also included were remains of people of European and African descent as well as those from populations of Asia and Ocenia. The purpose of the collection was anthropological research.

The collection grew as the result of a Circular No. 2 issued in 1867 by the Surgeon General. It called upon military medical officers to collect crania together with specimens of Indian weapons, dress, implements, diet, and medicines. More immediately, however, the collection was developed from arrangements with the Smithsonian Institution by which the Smithsonian transferred its collection of human remains that had begun in the early 1850s. The Smithsonian also agreed to transfer such specimens as it would obtain the future. In return, the AMM agreed similarly to transfer to the Smithsonian artifactual and other ethnological specimens that came into its possession.

Among specimens acquired by the AMM under the terms of this agreement were items collected by the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 (also known as the Wilkes Expedition). Other official expeditions that contributed specimens were those of Ferdinand V. Hayden (including the United States Geological Survey of the Territories), George M. Wheeler's United States Army Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, and John Wesley Powell's Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. Also going to the AMM were specimens acquired by the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, including the many specimens of human remains recovered by its large-scale survey of mounds east of the Rocky Mountains. Individual mound explorers, army personnel, medical officers, and private physicians contributed to the collection through donations to the Smithsonian or through direct gifts to the AMM.

Although several early AMM staff members--including George A. Otis, Washington Matthews, and Daniel S. Lamb--were relatively active in research on the anthropological collections, later curators had but little interest in it. Consequently, by the late 1890s, the collection was virutally unused. In 1897, William Henry Holmes, the head curator of the newly formed Department of Anthropology in the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum (USNM), noticed the collection during a visit to the AMM. He informally requested transfer of the specimens--especially the American Indian skulls that had come to form the bulk--to the USNM, and officials at the AMM, eager to devote space to active collections, agreed. This arrangement was formally proposed and approved through exchanges of letters between the Surgeon General and the Secretary of the Smithsonian; and, in May 1898, 2206 skulls were transferred to the Smithsonian.

With such a collection in hand, Holmes pursued a cherished plan to establish a division of physical anthropology in his department. With the great wave of immigration to America,imperialistic expansion abroad, and questions about race and mixtures of races scientifically current, he argued the utility of physical studies of the American people. As a result of his efforts, Aleš Hrdlička, a physician and physical anthropologist, was appointed a curator in the USNM in 1903. Following Hrdlička's appointment, a second major transfer of bone materials from the AMM was arranged. This time some 674 items, including articulated skeletons, pelves, brains, and physical anthropological instruments, were involved. This second transfer of specimens was made in January, 1904.
Related Materials:
Related photographs may be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6A, Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 73-26C, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
Provenance:
The records were originally transferred from the United States Army Museum to the Smithsonian along with the specimens. They were transferred from the Smithsonian Archives to the National Anthropological Archives on March 17, 1986.
Restrictions:
The United States Army Medical Museum records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution are open for research.

Access to the United States Army Medical Museum records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Biological anthropology  Search this
Citation:
United States Army Medical Museum records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0330
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3e55a9329-a5c0-4388-8d08-eb635022d639
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0330

Portraits of John Wesley Powell

Photographer:
Parker, Charles  Search this
Depicted:
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Extent:
5 Prints (albumen, silver gelatin, and platinum)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1890
Scope and Contents note:
Enlarged prints made from studio portraits of John Wesley Powell. One of the portraits is by Charles Parker of Washington, D. C.
Biographical/Historical note:
John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) was born in Mount Morris, New York. In 1838, he moved with his family to Southern Ohio, where he was mentored by amateur naturalist George Crookham. The family again moved, this time to Wisconsin, before finally settling in Illinois in 1851. There, Powell worked as a schoolteacher and attended several colleges, though he never received a degree. He also collected fossils and studied geology during trips to areas along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Powell enlisted in the army at the start of the Civil War. His right arm was amputated after he sustained an injury at the Battle of Shiloh. Powell was promoted to second lieutenant and later to major during his army tenure. At the end of the war, Powell taught natural sciences at Illinois Wesleyan University and Illinois State Normal University. He became curator of the Illinois Natural History Society Museum in 1867. During this time, Powell continued to organize expeditions, including studies of the Colorado River and the Native American tribes of the region (in 1869 and in 1871-1872). With government funding, his second expedition produced the first reliable maps of the river. As a result, Powell published a book, Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and Its Tributaries: Explored in 1869, 1870, 1871, and 1872 Under the Direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1875), which was reprinted as Canyons of the Colorado in 1895. Powell was appointed director of the Bureau of American Ethnology at its inception in 1879, a position he held until his death. He also served as director of the US Geological Survey from 1881-1894.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 68
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional portraits of Powell held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 33 and Photo Lot 39.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Powell's journals, 1869-1872 (MS 1795ab), his honors, 1869-1904 (MS 7249), his monthly and annual reports as director of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1894-1897 (MS 4735), and other manuscript collections relating to Powell's ethnological research and his work with the BAE.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 68, Portraits of John Wesley Powell, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.68
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw35988e914-ed80-4da1-a264-0861b0003ff6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-68

Tichkematse and Etahdleuh drawings

Creator:
Tichkematse, 1857-1932  Search this
Etahdleuh, 1856-1888  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1879-1880
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of loose drawings on various types of paper, some double-sided, with scenes of warfare, hunting, and camp life. They were probably produced at different times during the period 1879-1880. Four are inscribed with the name Etahdleuh Doanmoe and the majority of the remainder with the name Tichkematse, plus other descriptive elements in the artists' hand. Two pencil drawings, which lack any identifying name, are in a Western style and may not be by either artist. In two instances, the figures in the drawing have been cut out and pasted to a new backing [08519400; 08601400].

Most of the images adhere to Plains conventions of close up views of encounters, but in three drawings, Etahdleuh used a more distant perspective to show a Kiowa village along the Washita River (08601800), a buffalo hunt (08601900), and a battle against US troops (08517900). Also unusual are two drawings by Tichkematse showing details of tipi life, including women cooking and children playing (08601500-08601600).
Arrangement:
Drawings by Tichkematse and Etahdleuh were mixed under the combined designation MS 290844-290845.
Biographical / Historical:
Tichkematse, or Squint Eyes (Quchkeimus), 1857-1932 was a member of the Southern Cheyenne. Together with other Southern Plains warriors he was held prisoner at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida from 1875-78, during which period he and others became well known as artists. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to work at the Smithsonian Institution. During his time at the Smithsonian (1879-1880) he was trained to prepare bird and mammal specimens for study and display, participating in field expeditions to Florida and the American Southwest. He also served as a gallery guide, a source on Plains gesture language, and acquired cultural materials for the collections from Cheyenne friends and relatives, as well as producing drawings. Upon his return to Oklahoma (then Indian Territory), he served as an Army scout at Fort Supply. For additional information, see Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, by Karen Daniels Petersen (Oklahoma Press, Norman 1971). On his time as a scout, see "Artists in Blue: the Indian Scouts of Fort Reno and Fort Supply," by Candace S. Greene (American Indian Art Magazine, Winter 1992, pp.50-57).

Etahdleuh (1856-1888) was also known as Etahdleeuh, Etadeleuh, Etahdleuh Doanmoe, Boy, and Boy Hunting. He was imprisoned at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida from 1875-1878. After his release from Fort Marion, he attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia, arriving in April, 1878. In 1879, he traveled to the Indian Territory to recruit pupils to attend the Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, where he would study and work on and off from 1879 to 1887. He made two extended trips back to the reservation during this period. From February to May 1880, he worked at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. He was trained as a Presbyterian missionary and returned to the reservation in January 1888 to serve in this capacity. For further biographical information Etahdleuh see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

Edwin Porter Upham (1845-1918) was a museum assistant who worked with the Smithsonian Institution's archeology collections for forty years. Born in Massachusetts, he received a public education there before joining the army during the American Civil War. In 1878, he was hired as an assistant to Dr. Charles Rau, an archeologist at the Smithsonian. After Rau's death, Upham worked with Dr. Thomas Wilson, with whom he cowrote a book entitled Prehistoric Art; Or, The Origin of Art as Manifested in the Works of Prehistoric Man (1898). In 1906, Upham was appointed aid in the division of prehistoric archeology, a position he held until his death.
Related Materials:
Other drawings by Tichkematse can be found in MS7500, MS39D2, and in Photo Lot R79-24. For other drawings by Etahdleuh, see MS39C and MS39D2. Two photographs of Tichkematse in Photo Lot 24 (00438200 and 00438300) are attributed to this accession.
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 290,844-290,845, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS290844
See more items in:
Tichkematse and Etahdleuh drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37f24bc08-0fd2-4261-bf6b-06d5e82d4921
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms290844
Online Media:

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