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Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection

Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Names:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company  Search this
Wurlitzer Company  Search this
McKay, John, Captain  Search this
Stewart, James  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (37 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilms
Trade literature
Photographic prints
Papers
Place:
Boston (Mass.)
Date:
1864 - 1985
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 51 volumes of Chickering & Sons piano registers, documenting piano production (May 1823-September 1985); correspondence related to the hundredth anniversary of Jonas Chickering's presidency of the Handel and Hayden Society; publications on the history of the Company and sales literature (1854-1984); newspapers articles about the company (1847-1876); photographs (1926-1966); advertising and management forms (1938-1968); and a copy of a letter by Jonas Chickering to his father dated January 27, 1838. There are also ten documents related to the construction, mortgaging and insurance of Chickering Hall in New York City (1876-1886). Chickering Hall opened with great acclaim in 1875 and was an important musical center in New York City in the last quarter of the 19th Century. Some grand pianos from turn of the century onward are not listed in the ledgers. It is thought that Chickering may have had a duplicate set of serial numbers for grand pianos but this collection lacks that volume.
Arrangement:
This collection organized into seven series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1950

Series 2: Publications, 1854-1884

Series 3: Company history and records, 1838-1940

Series 4: Newspapers, 1847-1876

Series 5: Photographs, 1924-1966

Series 6: Management forms and material, 1938-1968

Series 7: Microfilm of ledger books, 1823-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Chickering & Sons pianos are an old line that came into being in April 1823 in Boston. Jonas Chickering, the founder, was a youthful cabinet maker. He learned piano making from John Osborn, a true master of the trade. The division of labor in Osborn's shop was not very extensive and Chickering was compelled to study every part of the instrument and to make himself acquainted with all the details. This exposure to the full range of tasks would served him well when he became a master in his own right. During his four years with Osborn, he became acquainted with Osborn's partner, James Stewart, who was awarded a patent for a "detached" soundingboard that was incorporated in the partners' pianos.

When Osborn and Stewart severed their business relationship, Stewart and his new partner, Chickering, opened a small shop on Tremont Street near King's Chapel on February 15, 1823. The partnership lasted three years until Stewart withdrew and left for London. At the age of 28, Chickering became the sole owner of the small but prosperous manufactory. The firm's annual output climbed over the next three years and reached 47 instruments in 1829.

In early 1830, Chickering made Captain John McKay, an experienced, aggressive, and successful merchandiser a partner in Chickering & Company. Captain Mackay made frequent trips to South American ports with ships laden with pianos. Returning home, the hold was filled with fragrant rosewood and richly grained mahogany. Chickering's first invention was patented in 1837 the first practical casting of a modern iron frame built to sustain the great tension of the strings of the piano so that it would stay in tune for a considerable period. In 1845, another important patent was secured, representing the first practical method of overstringing for square pianos, and in 1849 he applied the same principle to uprights. These contributions and others have become standard with all piano manufacturers.

The Chickering firm made pianos in a new way, employing production strategies that paralleled developments in other trades undergoing industrialization. "When he first commenced business for himself about 15 instruments a year were turned out while in the later years Mr. Chickering's business finished between fifteen and sixteen hundred instruments a year and at least one grand piano worth about a thousand dollars every week." (Richard G. Parker, A Tribute To The Life and Character of Jonas Chickering "By one who knew him well" (Boston: William P. Tewksbury, 1854.)

He was a long time President of the Handel & Hayden Society of Boston, this Country's oldest oratorio, founded in 1815.

On December 1, 1853, a fire swept through the Washington Street factory. Rather than rebuild on Washington Street, plans were made to erect a new factory on Tremont Street in the South End of Boston. Chickering, however, never saw the new plant in operation as he suffered a stroke and died December 8, 1853. The large Chickering factory built in 1853 was described at that time as the largest building in the United States outside the U.S. Capitol, and as "... the most perfect and extensive pianoforte estblishment in the world."

Chickering's death in 1853 left the business in the hands of his sons. In 1867, Emperor Napoleon III of France bestowed the Imperial Cross of the Legion of Honor on Frank Chickering at the Paris World's Fair that year.

With the passing of C. Frank Chickering in 1891, the company lost headway; and it was purchased by the American Piano Company in 1908 (Chickering Brothers pianos, which were made for several years following 1892 were in no way related to Chickering & Sons, though this family of boys was trained in the Chickering & Sons Boston factory).

From 1905 to 1911, the firm alone among American builders supported the revival of early instruments by hiring the English musician and craftsman Arnold Dolmetsch to build harpsichords, clavichords, and violas.

Chickering & Sons continued manufacturing pianos in Boston until 1927, when the plant and its personnel were relocated to East Rochester, New York. The Chickering was the foremost piano of the time Longfellow had one and there was one on the stage at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. the night Lincoln was assassinated. In 1932 the Company became part of the Aeolian American Corporation.

William Knabe of Kreutzburg, Germany, trained as a piano manufacturer, established his business in Baltimore, Maryland in 1837, and controlled the market in the Southern states by 1860. The Civil War and economic pressures may have contributed to the death of Knabe in 1864. The Company was eventually purchased by the American Piano Company in 1908, shortly after Chickering became a part of the organization.

The Wurlitzer Company, a major musical instrument manufacturer, acquired the Chickering firm in 1985 and continued to produce instruments with the Chickering name. The Wurlitzer Company was later purchased by the Baldwin Piano Company; Baldwin was subsequently purchased by Wurltech, Inc., of Houston, Texas.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Wurlitzer Company, May 17, 1987.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising  Search this
Keyboard instruments  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Musical instruments -- 1860-1990  Search this
Musical instrument manufacturing  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Microfilms
Trade literature
Photographic prints
Papers
Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0264
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0264
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0264, Series 1
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref10

New York Tribune, Vol. XXVI, No. 8,028, pencil note page 8, Column 2 (History of the Company),

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1866 December 31
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 4: Newspapers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref100

New York Tribune, Vol. XXX, No. 9,318, p. 5, column 4, OBITUARY, Col. Thos. E. Chickering,

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1871 February 16
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 4: Newspapers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref101

Chicago Daily Tribune, Vol. XXXI, p.3, column 3, Special Correspondence, Philadelphia, "Affairs in the Musical Department at the Centennial-The Judges and the commission Award Knabe & Co. the Leading Position"

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1876 October 26, 30
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 4: Newspapers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref102

Chickering Grand owned and used by the immortal Franz Liszt during the period of his career when his most famous compositions were written. Now located in the Liszt Museum of Budapest, Hungary,

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 5: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref103

Chickering 305 Grand Conventional picture and sketch, and other styles of grand pianos

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 5: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref104

Chickering Upright Consoles and Roll Player

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 5: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref105

Employees in front of factory with an identifying list of the names, date of employment, and years of Service, with a pencil total of 1312 years,

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1924
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 5: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref106

The Fablous Chickering Team of Northern California,

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 5: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref107

Blue print of Organizational Chart,

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 6: Management Forms and Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref108

Key Sentences to Be Memorized for Use While Demonstrating the Chickering

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1938
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 6: Management Forms and Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref109

Publications

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1854-1884
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0264, Series 2
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref11

"Medalist" Vol. 1 No.1, Winter, Chickering, East Rochester, New York

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1966
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 6: Management Forms and Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref110

Volume 1, Piano Numbers: 1-10,000

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Reel 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1823 May - 1849 December 22
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 7: Piano Registers and Microfilm Location and Footnotes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref111

Volume 2, Piano Numbers

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Volume 2 was never located among the company's records and is therefore missing from both this collection and the microfilm.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 7: Piano Registers and Microfilm Location and Footnotes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref112

Volume 3, Piano Numbers: 15,372-27,000

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Extent:
1 Microfilm
Container:
Reel 2
Type:
Archival materials
Microfilm
Date:
1854 November 24 - 1864 November 14
Scope and Contents:
The Archives Center does not have Volume 3. Only microfilm available.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 7: Piano Registers and Microfilm Location and Footnotes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref113

Volume 4, Piano Numbers: 27,001-34,000

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Reel 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1864 October 29 - 1870 June 22
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 7: Piano Registers and Microfilm Location and Footnotes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref114

Volume 5, Piano Numbers: 34,001-41,000

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Reel 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1869 April 28 - 1872 September 23
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 7: Piano Registers and Microfilm Location and Footnotes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref115

Volume 6, Piano Numbers: 41,001-48,200

Collection Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Reel 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1872 September 18 - 1876 March 7
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection / Series 7: Piano Registers and Microfilm Location and Footnotes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0264-ref116

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