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Calder, Alexander Stirling (1870-1945)

Collection Creator:
Archambault, Anna Margaretta, 1856-1956  Search this
Container:
Reel P026, Frame 453-454
Type:
Archival materials
Microform [P026.archambaul]
Date:
1924 November 30
undated
Scope and Contents:
To A. Margaretta Archambault, Nov. 30, 1924, requesting the return of photographs of his father's work, and undated, concerning the catalog of the sculpture in City Hall, Philadelphia.
Collection Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
See more items in:
Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers
Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers / Series 1: Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9d7fdd389-2ced-45de-b6b1-8c5c9ab013d7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-archanna-ref50

Folder 19 Calder, Alexander Stirling (1870-1945). Article on his architectural and sculptural contributions to Throop Polytechnic Institute, California, 1909.

Container:
Box 3 of 17
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7320, National Museum of Natural History. Division of Mammals, Biographical File
See more items in:
Biographical File
Biographical File / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7320-refidd1e1788

Miami -- Vizcaya

Former owner:
Deering, James, 1859-1925  Search this
Architect:
Hoffman, Francis Burrell, 1882-1980  Search this
Landscape architect:
Suarez, Diego, 1888-1974  Search this
Sculptor:
Calder, Alexander Stirling, 1870-1945  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
5 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
Vizcaya estate (Florida)
United States of America -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County -- Miami
General:
The Vizcaya gardens span over ten acres surrounding the former winter home of the wealthy industrialist and patron of the arts, James Deering (1859-1925). The Vizcaya estate, located in the Coconut Grove area of Miami, was conceived of by Deering and artist and designer Paul Chalfin (1874-1959). Together they traveled extensively through Europe, particularly Italy, to inspire the design for Deering's South Florida retreat. Vizcaya which means "an elevated place" in Basque, was built in the years 1914 to 1916, and transformed a jungle tract of land into one of the most celebrated houses on the Eastern Seaboard. Diego Suarez (1888-1974), a Columbia-born landscape architect trained in Florence, Italy, was commissioned to create a modern, subtropical interpretation of classical, European Renaissance and Baroque landscape design suited to Miami's climate and terrain. Suarez' extensive knowledge of Italian gardens was combined with a consciousness of architectural design to create a setting for the house.

The garden scheme was divided into various terraces and areas, including a completely walled secret garden, a maze garden, theater garden, pergola garden, and the fountain garden, which features a fountain from the town square of Sutri, Italy. Plants were chosen for their ability to withstand south Florida's climate and pests and combined with native soil and plant materials in designs inspired by gardens seen by Deering and Chalfin on their tours of Italy and France. Varieties of bougainvillea, roses, water lilies, and jasmine were among the flowers found throughout the gardens, along with potted pines and podocarpus, some carefully trimmed in the art of topiary. The gardens were trimmed with hedges and trees and feature decorative walls, balustrades, urns, and sculpture. The areas were supplied with water through designed elements meant to compliment the garden such as pools, cascades, a frescoed grotto pool, fountains, and a system of canals, which invokes scenes on the waterways of Venice.

Unique among country estates, the gardens of Vizcaya integrated statues, busts, vases and urns that ranged from antiquity to the Renaissance and Baroque periods, as well as modern art from Deering's time into the lush vegetation. As the artistic advisor of the property, Paul Chalfin, acquired artifacts as decoration rather than to create a collection. Garden artworks ranged from antique elements to new sculptural decorations by contemporary artists. The gardens also featured several structures including a Baroque casino (garden house), decorative bridges, a large boathouse with a rooftop garden, and a domed garden house called the Casba. The most celebrated outdoor feature was the Barge by artist Alexander Stirling Calder (1870–1945), located in the water in front of the house. In addition to the house and gardens, the grounds also housed a swimming pool and tennis courts. Over two-thirds of the estate, originally 180 acres of subtropical forest along the shores of Biscayne Bay, remains in its natural state. The untouched hammock, shoreline, and pineland serves as a background for the more formal main gardens and along the drive up to the house. The Vizcaya property was surrounded by a wall with decorative paintings on stone and wrought-iron grills.

The house was designed to take advantage of its location on west shore of Biscayne Bay and each side of the house had a unique relationship with the surrounding grounds with loggias, terraces, arcades, and a partially enclosed swimming pool and, from some rooms, views of the gardens and bay. Architect F. Burrell Hoffman Jr. (1884-1980) was commissioned to design the house in the manner of an Italian Renaissance-style villa. Hoffman adapted traditional Mediterranean architectural elements to the subtropical climate in the palatial 70-room mansion. The beautifully planned interior was designed around an airy garden courtyard with a peripheral gallery, originally open to the sky, that was the heart and primary living space of the home. The house embraced modern conveniences and employed the latest technology of the period with an automated telephone switch board, a central vacuum-cleaning system, central heating, several elevators, generators and a water filtration system. The house also included a billiard room, bowling alley, and smoking room. The interiors were designed by the artistic advisor Paul Chalfin around objects acquired on Deering's travels in period rooms ranging in style from the Renaissance through the Neoclassical. The villa housed entire ceilings, mural paintings, chimney pieces, carved paneling, and doorways removed from foreign palaces along with rare rugs, tapestries, and antique furnishings. A working farm called the "Village" with eleven outbuildings was also located on the estate. These buildings were designed to look like an Italian village by Hoffman to compliment the architecture of the house. The Village included barns, stables, chicken houses, mechanical shops, housing for the staff, and the gate lodge making it nearly self-sufficient. A pumphouse provided water for the flower and vegetable gardens, groves for citrus, pineapple, and other fruits, greenhouses, and a large shade house for delicate plants grown at the Village to supply the mansion.

The estate, mansion, and its interiors were celebrated in magazines of the time. Deering occupied the house for four months each winter season beginning at Christmas in 1916.The whole complex was created for entertaining and recreation and Deering frequently invited family, visitors, and houseguests to the enjoy his estate. After Deering's death in 1925, the estate passed to his brother's children. Some of the acreage was sold off, and in 1952 Dade County purchased the remaining land and house. With donations of art and furniture from the family, the Vizcaya estate, became a decorative arts museum operated by Dade County Park and Recreation Department. The property, including the house, gardens, hammock forest, and Vizcaya Village, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1994.

Other notable artists who contributed to the house and grounds were: Alexander Stirling Calder (1870-1945), Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935), Robert Chanler (1872-1930), Charles Gary Rumsey (1879-1922), Ettore Pellagatta (1881-1966), Paul Thevenez (1891-1921), and Samuel Yellin (1885-1940).

Persons associated include: James Deering (former owner), F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr. (architect), Paul Chalfin (architect of interiors), Diego Suarez (landscape architect), and Alexander Stirling Calder (sculptor), and Metro Dade County Park & Recreation Department (owner).

National Register of Historic Places, Vizcaya, Miami, Dade County, Florida, National Register #70000181.
Postcards circa 1915-1930.
Varying Form:
Also known as Villa Vizcaya, Vizcaya Palace, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, and the James Deering Estate.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Florida -- Miami  Search this
Seaside gardening  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File FL083
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Florida
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb66c9fa2e5-bb1b-465f-8d76-502058ccb0ca
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1329

Alexander Stirling Calder: artist file, [photographs]

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Physical description:
1 folder
Type:
Photograph
Artist files
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Image number:
VFM VF000526
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_137471

Shakespeare Memorial [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Literature--Shakespeare--Hamlet  Search this
Literature--Character--Hamlet  Search this
Literature--Character--Touchstone  Search this
Allegory--Arts & Sciences--Drama  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000358
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127067
Online Media:

Model for Shakespeare Memorial (reduced replica) [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Literature--Shakespeare--Hamlet  Search this
Literature--Character--Hamlet  Search this
Literature--Character--Touchstone  Search this
Allegory--Arts & Sciences--Drama  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000360
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127069
Online Media:

Clay model for Leif Ericson [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Subject:
Ericson, Leif  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Portrait male--Full length  Search this
Occupation--Other--Explorer  Search this
Study--Model  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000362
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127071
Online Media:

The Nations of the East [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Roth, Frederick George Richard 1872-1944  Search this
Lentelli, Leo 1879-1961  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Ethnic  Search this
Animal--Elephant  Search this
Animal--Camel  Search this
Allegory--Place--Asia  Search this
Ceremony--Procession  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000364
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127073
Online Media:

The Pioneer Woman [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure group--Female & Child  Search this
History--United States--Westward Expansion  Search this
Object--Weapon--Gun  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000366
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127075
Online Media:

The Pioneer Woman [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure group--Female & Child  Search this
History--United States--Westward Expansion  Search this
Object--Weapon--Gun  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000367
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127076
Online Media:

John James Audubon [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Subject:
Audubon, John James  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1927
Topic:
Portrait male--Bust  Search this
Occupation--Science--Ornithologist  Search this
Occupation--Art--Painter  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000369
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127078
Online Media:

The Brooding Head [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Title:
Little Sister of Melpomene [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)
Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Subject:
Unidentified  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Portrait female--Bust  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000371
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127080
Online Media:

Scratching Her Heel [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure female--Nude  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000373
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127082
Online Media:

The Last Dryad [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Mythology--Classical--Dryad  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000375
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127084
Online Media:

The Star [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)

Title:
Start Figure [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)
Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure female--Full length  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000377
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127086
Online Media:

The Little Dear with the Tiny Black Swan [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure female--Full length  Search this
Figure female--Nude  Search this
Animal--Bird--Swan  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000378
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127087
Online Media:

Swann Memorial Fountain (detail) [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Title:
Fountain of the Rivers [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)
Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1923
Topic:
Allegory--Place--Rivers  Search this
Figure group  Search this
Animal--Fish  Search this
Animal--Bird  Search this
Architecture--Monument--Fountain  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000380
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127089
Online Media:

Depew Memorial Fountain [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)

Title:
Richard J. Depew Fountain [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)
Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Bitter, Karl 1867-1915  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Mythology--Classical--Naiad  Search this
Children  Search this
Recreation--Dancing  Search this
Animal--Fish  Search this
Object--Musical Instrument--Cymbal  Search this
Homage--Depew, Richad John  Search this
Architecture--Monument--Fountain  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000382
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127091
Online Media:

Depew Memorial Fountain [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Title:
Richard J. Depew Fountain [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)
Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Bitter, Karl 1867-1915  Search this
Photographer:
Ward, De Witt d. 1937  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Mythology--Classical--Naiad  Search this
Children  Search this
Recreation--Dancing  Search this
Animal--Fish  Search this
Object--Musical Instrument--Cymbal  Search this
Homage--Depew, Richad John  Search this
Architecture--Monument--Fountain  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0000384
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127093
Online Media:

Leif Eriksson, [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Calder, Alexander Stirling 1870-1945  Search this
Subject:
Ericsson, Leif  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1931
Topic:
Portrait male  Search this
Occupation--Other--Explorer  Search this
History--United States--Discovery of U. S  Search this
Ethnic  Search this
Still Life--Weapon  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0050000
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_50001

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