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Agency history, 1906-

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Subject:
Marsh, George Perkins 1801-1882  Search this
Stanley, John Mix 1814-1872  Search this
King, Charles Bird 1785-1862  Search this
Catlin, George 1796-1872  Search this
Roosevelt, Theodore 1858-1919  Search this
Johnston, Harriet Lane 1830-1903  Search this
Evans, William T. 1843-1918  Search this
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933  Search this
Tolman, Ruel P (Ruel Pardee) 1878-1954  Search this
Mellon, Andrew W (Andrew William) 1855-1937  Search this
Beggs, Thomas M  Search this
Scott, David W. 1916-  Search this
Davis, Robert Tyler  Search this
Taylor, Joshua C (Joshua Charles) 1917-1981  Search this
Lowe, Harry 1922-  Search this
Eldredge, Charles C  Search this
Broun, Elizabeth  Search this
Stebich, Stephanie A  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of American Art (U.S.)  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Patent Office Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
National Institute  Search this
Library of Congress  Search this
United States Congress  Search this
District of Columbia Supreme Court  Search this
National Museum of Natural History Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Renwick Gallery  Search this
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Date:
1906
1906-
Topic:
Art museums  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Local number:
SIA AH00007
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_217768

Textile fragments (2)

Collector:
Dr. Francis "Frank" M. Palmer  Search this
Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Culture:
North American Indian, Ancient Pueblo  Search this
Object Type:
Textile
Place:
Canyon De Chelly, Apache County, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1 Aug 1906
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
046248
USNM Number:
A574232-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36e5d2735-bd46-4b42-ac29-1ece0aebbfb9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_10108231

Embossed Copper Plate, Peregrine Falcon

Donor Name:
Accession Number Unknown  Search this
Culture:
Middle Mississippian  Search this
Object Type:
Plate
Place:
Peoria, Peoria County, Illinois, United States, North America
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
000000
USNM Number:
A91507-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3269ed94c-6f31-458e-bfee-168b767f61ae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8319484
Online Media:

Eagle Plate Of Sheet Copper.

Collector:
L. H. Thing  Search this
Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Culture:
Middle Mississippian  Search this
Object Type:
Plate
Place:
Bluff Lake Near, Union County, Illinois, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1884
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
014255
USNM Number:
A88139-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/39283da9e-2623-4ba5-8384-63c68879b1ea
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8317495
Online Media:

Festival of American Folklife

Collection Creator:
Rinzler, Ralph  Search this
Container:
Box 2 (Series 3)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
1965, 1967, 1972, 1976, 1979, 1980, 1983
Scope and Contents note:
File consists of handwritten notes, photograph catalog from the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Endowment for the Arts proposal, speech, festival debriefing, articles authored by Ralph Rinzler. Materials reference the Festival of American Folklife.
Collection Restrictions:
Large portions of this collection are digitized, and while these materials are being prepared for public access through this finding aid, researchers can request digital copies by contacting the Rinzler Archives at rinzlerarchives@si.edu or (202) 633-7322.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for information.
Collection Citation:
Ralph Rinzler papers and audio recordings, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.RINZ, File RINZ_03_002_020
See more items in:
Ralph Rinzler papers and audio recordings
Ralph Rinzler papers and audio recordings / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-rinz-ref1257

Major John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) Survey Leader, Director Of United States Geological Survey, Founder and First Director Of Bureau of American Ethnology, in Field on Survey

Creator:
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Collector:
Taylor, James E. (Artist)  Search this
Names:
Powell Expedition, 1873  Search this
Collection Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (002 in x 004 in mounted on 014 in x 018 in)
Container:
Volume 1, Page 71
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
1873
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.01603502

NAA MS.MS 4605

OPPS NEG.50
Local Note:
This Photo Has Been Cropped; Original Photo Shows Powell Talking to Tau-Gu, Paiute Chief
Black and white Photoprint on Paper Mount in Album
Place:
Utah
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West / Page 71
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4605-ref1186
Online Media:

John P. Harrington Papers

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Geronimo, 1829-1909  Search this
Extent:
683 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of Central America  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Maps
Stats (copies)
Newspaper clippings
Printed material
Photographs
Botanical specimens
Field notes
Correspondence
Financial records
Personal records
Poetry
Writings
Date:
1907-1959 (some earlier)
Summary:
Harrington was a Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist involved in the study of over one hundred American tribes. His speciality was linguistics. Most of the material concerns California, southwestern, northwestern tribes and includes ethnological, archeological, historical notes; writings, correspondence, photographs, sound recordings, biological specimens, and other types of documents. Also of concern are general linguistics, sign language, writing systems, writing machines, and sound recordings machines. There is also some material on New World Spanish, Old World languages. In addition, there are many manuscripts of writings that Harrington sketched, partially completed, or even completed but never published. The latter group includes not only writings about anthropological subjects but also histories, ranging from a biography of Geronimo to material on the history of the typewriter. The collection incorporates material of Richard Lynch Garner, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and others. In his field work, Harrington seems sometimes to have worked within fairly firm formats, this especially being true when he was "rehearing" material, that is in using an informant to verify and correct the work of other researchers. Often, however, the interviews with informants (and this seems to have been the case even with some "rehearings") seem to have been rather free form, for there is a considerable intertwining of subjects. Nevertheless, certain themes frequently appear in his work, including annotated vocabularies concerning flora and fauna and their use, topography, history and biography, kinship, cosmology (including tribal astronomy), religion and philosophy, names and observations concerning neighboring tribes, sex and age division, material culture, legends, and songs. The fullness of such materials seems to have been limited only by the time Harrington had to spend with a goup and the knowledge of his informants.
Arrangement:
(Some of the titles are tentative). Papers relating to Alaska/Northwest Coast, including (1) Aleut; (2) Tlingit/Eyak; (3) Northern Athapascan (Beaver, Carrier, Chipewyan, Sarsi, Sekani, Cree); (4) Nicola/Thompson; (5) Lummi/Nespelem; (6) Duwamish; (7) Chimakum/Clallam; (8) Makah/Quileute; (9) Quinault/Chehalis/Cowlit; (10) Chinook/Chinook Jargon; (11) "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai"; (12) Tillamook, (13) Alsea/Siuslaw/Coos; (14) Southwest Oregon Athapascan (Chasta Costa, Chetco, Upper Coquille, "Gold Beach", Smith River, Tolowa, Tutini, Upper Umpqua), (14) Galice/Applegate; (15) Takelma, general and miscellaneous;

(16) Klamath; (17) Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; (18) Coast Yuki/Northern and Central Pomo/Kato; (19) Coast Miwok; (20) Lake and Coast Miwok/Southeastern Pomo/Wappo; (21) Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; (22) Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; (23) Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; (24) Chimariko/Hupo; (25) Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; (26) Chamariko/Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; (27) Costanoan (Chocheno, Mutsun, Tumsen); (28) Salinan (Antoinano, Migueleno); (29) Yokuts (Chunut, Tachi, Wikchamni, Yawdanchi, Yawelmani, Koyeti); (30) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to southern California and the Basin area,

including (31) Chumash (Barbareno, Cruzeno, Ineseno, Obispeno, Purisimeno, Ventureno); (32) Chauilla; (33) Chemehuevi; (34) Gabrielino; (35) Juaneno; (36) Kitanemuk; (37) Luiseno; (38) Serrano; (39) Tubatulabal; (40) Diegueno; (41) Mohave/Yuma; (42) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to the Southwest, including (43) Apache; (44) Hopi; (45) Jemez; (46) Acoma/Laguna; (47) Cochiti; (48) Navaho; (49) Pima/Papago; (50) Illeta; (51) Taos; (52) Picuris; (53) Tewa; (54) Zuni; (55) general and miscellaneous; papers relating to the Plains, including (56) Comanche; (57) Caddo/Pawnee/Wichita; (58) Dakota/Lakota; (59) Hidatso/Mandan/Crow;

(92) general and miscellaneous; notes and writings on special linguistic studies, including (93) correspondence; (94) financial records; (95) personal records; (96) poetry; (97) newspaper clippings; (98) printed material/reprints/photostats/microfilm; (99) maps; (100) photographs (101) sound recordings; (102) botanical specimens

Joseph S. Danner, Edward S. Davis, Ella C. Deloria, Frances Densmore, Paul Desiardins, Lydia Dornherr, Harry W. Dorsey, Frederick Huntington Douglas, David C. Dozi, Edward P. Dozi, Robert Drak Aitken), Rose S. Gaffney, David E. Gales, S. H. Gapp, Clark M. Garber, Lucrlson Fenton, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Reginald G. Fisher, Barbara Freire-Marreco (see also Barbara Aitken), Rose S. Gaffney, David E. Gales, S. H. Gapp, Clark M. Garber, Lucretia Garcia, Maria Garcia, Paul Garcia, Walter C. Garwick, William Gates, Ja Gapp, Clark M. Garber, Lucretia Garcia, Maria Garcia, Paul Garcia, Walter C. Garwick, William Gates, James A Geary, Otto William Geist,

Richard H. Geoghegan, Harold S. Gladwin, Pliny Earle Goddard, T. R. Goodwin, Howard W. Gorman, Blanche C. Grant, George Grasty, Louis H. Gray, Alexander Grigolia, Alexandra Gromoff, F. A. Gross, Ruther Gruber, Erwin G. Gudde, Grace Guest, Ralph Gustafson, Berard Haile, Alfred Irving Hallowell, Howard M. Hamblin, Lucile Hamner, Adelaide Harrington, Arthur Harrington, Awona Harrington, Edmund Ross Harrington, Elliot Harrington, Mark Raymond Harrington, Robert Fleming Heizer, Marta Herrera (Orozoco), Melville Jean Herskovits, Edgar Lee Hewett, George Gustave Heye,

Thomas Willing Hicks, Willard Williams Hill, William B. Hill, Philip K. Hitti, Hulda R. Hobbs (Heidel), Frederick Webb Hodge, Robert Hofsinde, W. C. Holden, Nils Homer, R. B. Horsefield, James Hovey, Grace Hudson, John W. Hudson, William Hughes, Edward P. Hunt, George Hunt, Wayne Henry (Wolf Robe) Hunt, Arnold J. Jacobins, Jean Allard Jge, George M. Lamsa, William T. Linkins, Ralph Linton, Alan Lomax, Theodore R. Lonewolf, uis Kroeber, Benjamin T. Kurtz, Walter and Hilda Kurze, Oliver LaFarge, George M. Lamsa, William T. Linkins, Ralph Linton, Alan Lomax, Theodore R. Lonewolf,

Boas Long, Ivan Alexis Lopatin, Robert Harry Lowie, Charles F. Lummis, Phoebe Maddux, Frank Marashulo, Frank Marr, John Marr, Edna P. Marsh, Gordon H. Marsh, William B. Marye, Elizabeth Mason, John Alden Mason, Anna P. Mattinger, Wayne L. Mauzy, William Ralph Maxon, Parker McKenzie, F. Romero Mendez, Clinton Hart Merriam, E. Vigo Mestres, Truman Michelson, Harry E. Miller, Ralph L. Milliken, William S. Mills, Willie Miranda, Albert Mohr, Dionisia Mondragon, Manuel Mondragon, Lucy Montgomery, Harriet Moore, Mildred C. Moore, R. E. Moore, Rosalind Moore, Carlos Morales, Marion Moreno, Sylvanus Griswold Morley, Philip A. Munz, O. J. Murie,

Roy Nash, Mrs. W. J. Nichols, Eugene A. Nida, Frans M. Olbrechts, Cornelius Osgood, Asbjorn P. Ousdal, Charles F. Outland, Henry E. Parmenter, Elsie Clews Parsons, A. W. Payne, Ellen Peace, Elizabeth Wells Pearce, Arthur B. Perkins, Mrs. Rodolphe Petter, Kenneth L. Pike, Arnold R. Pilling, Nellie B. Pipes, I. J. Pitman, J. O. Prescott, Erik Kellerman Reed, Nathaniel Julius Reich, Jane Richardson, Arthur Stanley Riggs, Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., Helen H. Roberts, Clarence M. Ruth, Everett Sanders, Edward Sapir, Charles F. Saunders, F. H. Saville, Paul Schumacher, Donald Scott, Blanche Seeley, Ettie Seeley, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant,

A. W. Setychell, Jessie Shaw, Anna O. Shepard, Frank T. Siebert, Rita Siedenberg, Albion M. Sitton, Nich Sivonen, H. D. Skinner, Mrs. N. P. Sloan, Clement Smith, Stella Smith, Jack Snow, Maria Soto, Frank Gouldsmith Speck, Robert F. Spencer, Marjorie Spinks, Waldo C. Spraque, Winifred Stamm, Moses Steinberg Marian Stirling, Matthew Williams Stirling, William Duncan Strong, Edgar Howard Sturtevant, Georgianna Barbara Such, John R. Swanton, Turkey Tayac, Douglass Taylor, Lincoln Thompson, Morjorie L. Tichy, Janet Tietjins, Bennie Tilden, J. R. R. Tolkien, W. Cameron Townsend, George L. Trager, Lovell B. Triggs, Edwin H. Tuttle,

Ruth Underhill, Richard Fowler Van Valkenburgh, Rosendo Vargas, Charles Frederick Voegelin, Paul Vogenitz, James W. Waldo, Paul A. F. Walter, Althea Warren, Fred Washington, Thomas Talbot Waterman, Edith White, Joseph J. White, Leslie A. White, Grace T. Whiting, Robert B. Whitsett, Benjamin Lee Whorf, H. E. Williams, William L. Wonderly, Arthur Woodward, Robert W. Young, and Father Zephyrin of the Santa Barbara Mission.
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Indians of North America -- Languages  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Toponymy  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Maps
Stats (copies)
Newspaper clippings
Printed material
Photographs
Botanical specimens
Field notes
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Financial records
Personal records
Poetry
Writings
Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1976-95
Online Media:

Correspondence

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
United States. Office of Censorship  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
14.58 Linear feet ((37 boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
undated
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents note:
The contents of this section are more fully described in the guide to Vol. IX of the microfilmed papers. Please note that there is correspondence in the microfilm that is NOT part of the Harrington papers. Read the guide to Vol. 9 carefully and consult the reference archivist if there are any questions.
Scope and Contents:
The Correspondence series within the John Peabody Harrington papers, perhaps more strikingly than any other part of the collection, highlight the amazing scope of Harrington's linguistic work, the wide variety of his peripheral interests, and the large number of correspondents with whom he kept in frequent contact. Harrington maintained correspondence with fellow linguists and anthropologists and colleagues and administrators at the Bureau of American Ethnology (B.A.E.). In addition, he exchanged many letters with scientists in other fields, numerous Indian agents, staff at many governement agencies, individuals involved in Indian rights organizations, museum and library personnel, local historians, and representatives of various technical companies. The bulk of the Harrington's correspondence was with friends, including a number of people who assisted him in the field and on various projects. There is also correspondence with members of his family, including his daughter Awona.

The primary focus of Harrington's correspondence is his work--both that which he undertook on an official basis for the B.A.E. and that which he pursued because of strong personal interests. References to his research and fieldwork take the form of passing references in letters to acquaintances, detailed accounts in letters to close friends, requests for authorization of proposed fieldwork, and reports of work accomplished in letters to supervisors, and lists of instructions to field and clerical assistants.

Much of the correspondence involves queries and the exchange of information and questions. Harrington wrote to scientists for identification of plant, animal or mineral specimens collected during fieldwork, and to postmasters, Indian agents, and social works in search of informants. There is also correspondence regarding acquisition of books, photostats, microfilm, and various supplies and equipment. There are also letters to editors of various journals enclosing articles for publication as well as letters of introduction, obtained by Harrington to facilitate his own work or prepared by him for use by his assistants. A number of letters involve answers which Harrington prepared to questions which were addressed directly to him by members of the public or were referred to him in the capacity of Senior Ethnologist at the B.A.E.

Several hundred items of correspondence relate to Harrington's duties when detailed to the Office of Censorship from 1943 to 1945. Most of these reflect his efforts to obtain translations of letters in foreign languages which he could not identify or for which dictionaries were not available.

Finally there are letters exchanged with landladies; real estate agents; bank personnel; and city, county and federal officials regarding payment or collection of rent, selling of property, confirmation of bank balances, and payment of taxes, as well as letters written to friends and family dealing with purely personal matters.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged into 3 subseries: (1) Letters Received; (2) Letters Sent; (3) Third Person Letters.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Series 9
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15989

Letters Received

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Correspondent:
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Collins, Henry Bascom, 1899-1987  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930.  Search this
Harrington, Arthur  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Marr, John Paul  Search this
Martin, Fredericka I.  Search this
Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973  Search this
Van Valkenburgh, Richard F.  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
United States. Office of Censorship  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
26 Boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Correspondence series contains letters received by John P. Harrington. His incoming letters include handwritten and typed letters, postcards, and telegrams.

The primary focus of Harrington's correspondence is his work--both that which he undertook on an official basis for the B.A.E. and that which he pursued because of strong personal interests. References to his research and fieldwork take the form of passing references in letters to acquaintances, detailed accounts in letters to close friends, requests for authorization of proposed fieldwork, and reports of work accomplished in letters to supervisors, and lists of instructions to field and clerical assistants.

Much of the correspondence involves queries and the exchange of information and questions. Harrington wrote to scientists for identification of plant, animal or mineral specimens collected during fieldwork, and to postmasters, Indian agents, and social works in search of informants. There is also correspondence regarding acquisition of books, photostats, microfilm, and various supplies and equipment. There are also letters to editors of various journals enclosing articles for publication as well as letters of introduction, obtained by Harrington to facilitate his own work or prepared by him for use by his assistants. A number of letters involve answers which Harrington prepared to questions which were addressed directly to him by members of the public or were referred to him in the capacity of Senior Ethnologist at the B.A.E.

Several hundred items of correspondence relate to Harrington's duties when detailed to the Office of Censorship from 1943 to 1945. Most of these reflect his efforts to obtain translations of letters in foreign languages which he could not identify or for which dictionaries were not available.

Finally there are letters exchanged with landladies; real estate agents; bank personnel; and city, county and federal officials regarding payment or collection of rent, selling of property, confirmation of bank balances, and payment of taxes, as well as letters written to friends and family dealing with purely personal matters.

Some of the letters are incomplete. A number of lengthy responses to Harrington's queries were cut apart by him and pasted on separate sheets for filing in various subject categories in his field notes. Such letters were reconstructed as much as possible by N.A.A. staff. Attempts were also made to determine the identity of each correspondent. The full name of an individual is supplied if known even though only the first name, initials, or a nickname were used on a letter. In those cases in which signatures are illegible, a suggested form is given in brackets; if the form is doubtful, it is marked with a question mark. There is a small file of four items at the end for which the identity of the correspondent has not been determined. In those cases where onlly a partial date was given by Harrington or his correspondents, brackets have been used to supply a fuller suggested date.

More than 140 incoming letters were never opened by Harrington. These items were removed from their envelopes after any relevant data appearing on an envelope were transferred to the letter. These are annotated with the date when they were opened at the N.A.A.
Arrangement:
The documents are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the correspondent and thereunder chronologically; any undated items have been placed at the end of the group of letters for each person. In those instances when only a company name is given, the item in question is filed under that name. Some letters written by third parties to various acquaintances of Harrington were then forwarded to him without a cover letter. These records have been filed under the name of the original recipient as though they were enclosures. Letters, photographs, notes, drawings, maps, and other miscellaneous items which were sent under cover of a letter are labeled as enclosures and immediately follow the letter with which they were sent.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 9.1
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 9: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15991
Online Media:

Letters Sent

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Correspondent:
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Collins, Henry Bascom, 1899-1987  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930.  Search this
Harrington, Arthur  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Marr, John Paul  Search this
Martin, Fredericka I.  Search this
Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Van Valkenburgh, Richard F.  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
United States. Office of Censorship  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
11 Boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Correspondence series contains copies of letters that John P. Harrington sent. For the most part the file consists of carbon copies of typed letters or handwritten drafts. There are also a number of signed originals. It is not always clear whether these documents were not sent or whether they were returned to Harrington. In those cases in which an original letter was returned with a reply written on it, the original letter is filed as though it were the reply and can be located under the name of the correspondent who returned it; a photocopy has been made for filing in correct chronological order within the file of letters sent.

The primary focus of Harrington's correspondence is his work--both that which he undertook on an official basis for the B.A.E. and that which he pursued because of strong personal interests. References to his research and fieldwork take the form of passing references in letters to acquaintances, detailed accounts in letters to close friends, requests for authorization of proposed fieldwork, and reports of work accomplished in letters to supervisors, and lists of instructions to field and clerical assistants.

Much of the correspondence involves queries and the exchange of information and questions. Harrington wrote to scientists for identification of plant, animal or mineral specimens collected during fieldwork, and to postmasters, Indian agents, and social works in search of informants. There is also correspondence regarding acquisition of books, photostats, microfilm, and various supplies and equipment. There are also letters to editors of various journals enclosing articles for publication as well as letters of introduction, obtained by Harrington to facilitate his own work or prepared by him for use by his assistants. A number of letters involve answers which Harrington prepared to questions which were addressed directly to him by members of the public or were referred to him in the capacity of Senior Ethnologist at the B.A.E.

Several hundred items of correspondence relate to Harrington's duties when detailed to the Office of Censorship from 1943 to 1945. Most of these reflect his efforts to obtain translations of letters in foreign languages which he could not identify or for which dictionaries were not available.

Finally there are letters exchanged with landladies; real estate agents; bank personnel; and city, county and federal officials regarding payment or collection of rent, selling of property, confirmation of bank balances, and payment of taxes, as well as letters written to friends and family dealing with purely personal matters.

There are small subsections for undated letters and unmatched portions of letters (second and third pages without salutation) at the end of the file of outgoing letters.
Arrangement:
The section of outgoing letters is arranged chronologically. Under each date, letters are further arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the addressee. When multiple letters were sent to the same correspondent on the same date, these are labeled "(1st)," "(2nd)," etc. In some cases Harrington addressed a letter to a company; when the identity of the respondent at the company is known, this individual's name has been added to the letter in brackets and is the basis for filing. When Harrington addressed a letter to one individual and another replied, the letter is filed under the name of the addressee, but the name of the respondent has been added in a cross-reference note on the letter or on a target.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 9.2
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 9: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref16046
Online Media:

Third person letters (arranged alphabetically, "unidentified " at end)

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Bushnell, David I. (David Ives), 1875-1941  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930.  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Laird, Carobeth, 1895-1983  Search this
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Siebert, Frank T. (Frank Thomas), 1912-1998  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Inches
Container:
Box 1165
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents note:
Microfilm Reel: 16
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Correspondence series is a small file of letters sent or received by persons other than Harrington. Some of these items may have been hand delivered to him; others were possibly enclosures which became separated from their covering letters.

Certain letters were sent to and from individuals who were staying with him such as Indian informants (Lucerecia Garcia, Isabelle Meadows, Perry Keahtigh) or young assistants (Jack and Glenn Marr). In some cases Harrington actually wrote the letters and signed the informant's name.
Arrangement:
The letters have been arranged in alphabetical order according to the name of the writer. There are several items at the end of the set in which the sender is not clearly identified.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 9: Correspondence / 9.2: Letters Sent
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref16073

Native American History, Language, and Culture of Alaska and the Northwest Coast

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
26.86 Linear feet (76 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
Alaska
Oregon
Washington (State)
Canada, Western
Northwest Coast of North America
Date:
1910, 1933-1957
Scope and Contents:
The arrangement of material in this section corresponds to Volume 4 of the microfilmed papers. The reel numbers of corresponding microfilm are listed where appropriate. "N/A" indicates material that was not included in microfilm.
This series within the John Peabody Harrington papers represents the results of Harrington's work on the native languages and cultures of Alaska, Western Canada, Washington, and Oregon which was undertaken just prior to and during his employment as ethnologist (1915-1954) by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The documents focus primarily on linguistic data, although there also include significant amounts of ethnographic and historical information.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged into 16 subseries: (1) Aleut; (2) Tlingit/Eyak; (3) Northern Athapascan; (4) Nicola/Thompson; (5) Lummi/Nespelem; (6) Duwamish; (7) Chimakum/Clallam/Makah/Quileute; (8) Quinault/Chehalis/Cowlitz/Yakima/Chinook/Chinook Jargon; (9) "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai"; (10) Tillamook; (11) Alsea/Siuslaw/Coos; (12) Southwest Oregon Athapascan; (13) Galice/Applegate; (14) Takelma; (15) General and Miscellaneous Materials
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Series 1
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref12319

General and Miscellaneous Materials

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Greiner, Ruth H.  Search this
Marr, John Paul  Search this
Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983  Search this
Gunther, Erna, 1896-1982  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Names:
Angulo, Jaime de  Search this
Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Frachtenberg, Leo Joachim, 1883-1930  Search this
Hoijer, Harry, 1904-1976  Search this
Jacobs, Melville, 1902-1971  Search this
Ray, Verne Frederick, 1905-2003  Search this
Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1.83 Linear feet ((6 boxes))
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Coos (Kusan)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Maps
Place:
Olympic Peninsula (Wash.)
Wishram (Wash.)
Northwest Coast of North America
Oregon
Puget Sound (Wash.)
Date:
1933, 1938-1943
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series consists of materials pertaining to the area Alaska / Northwest Coast as a whole and those which are too limited in scope to constitute a full subseries in themselves. Included are writings by Harrington, notes from his conversations with others, notes from secondary sources, and field notes and writings he collected from others. Some items date as early as 1933; most are from the period 1938 to 1943.

The writings represent Harrington's attempt to synthesize the results of his years of work in the Northwest--particularly with regard to his Athapascan studies. There are several typed drafts of an untitled paper [former B.A.E. ms. 4360] dated April 4, 1943 on the tribal distribution along the Oregon coast. This work, accompanied by a map, describes tribal boundaries in detail and makes reference to the geographical and cultural setting. There follow notes, outlines, rough and final drafts of three papers of varying length relating to Harrington's theories on the origin and relationship of the Athapascan languages. Two of these were published (1940, 1943). Illustrations sent to the printer are also included here. The section of writings also contains several pages of notes and very rough drafts of short articles on the etymology of the term "Athapascan."

The notes from conversations vary in length and content. Information from Franz Boas consists of two undated pages concerning phonetics in Coast Salish and Chinook. From a March 1933 discussion with Joe Maloney, Harrington obtained data on tribes of southwestern Oregon, predominently on the Coos. W. O. Thorniley of the Puget Sound Navigation Company provided biographical and general information of the Olympic Peninsula, with special attention to the Ozette and Queets areas. Thomas Yallup spoke on Wishram, the tribal boundaries and practices of neighboring tribes, and possible informants.

Most significant are records of Harrington's meetings with Melville Jacobs in December 1939. Those discussions referred to Jacobs' own studies and included comments on the work of other linguists and anthropologists such as Jaime de Angulo, Leonard Bloomfield, Franz Boas, Leo J. Frachtenberg, Harry Hoijer, Verne F. Ray, Morris Swadesh, and C. F. Voegelin. The notes also reflect a mutual interest in orthographies, the relationship of Athapascan languages (particularly Kwalhioqua and Tlatskanai), and the theory of the Siberian origin and migration of the North American Indian. This section includes a few interspersed notes from Erna Gunther and Viola Garfield.

Notes from secondary sources consists of a few pages on each of several miscellaneous topics. The notes reflect Harrington's attempt to locate a speaker of Cayuse, and his interest in the early voyages to the Northwest Coast. Also included are comparative data on Athapascan languages compiled into a chart from a variety of manuscript and published sources.

Notes and writings from others include a small set of sketch maps and field data collected for Harrington by his assistant John Paul Marr. These notes were obtained while Harrington was in Washington, D.C. and unable to get to the field himself. There is also a section of original field notes on Puget Sound ethnogeography obtained from Thomas Talbot Waterman. They cover his collection of placename data in Clallam and in the Shoalwater Bay area in the period 1919-1921 and are supplemented by original notes from Ruth H. Greiner dated 1920-1921. Her records consist of lists of numbered placenames in a variety of Puget Sound Salish languages, with translations, etymologies, and brief commentaries. These field data were part of the basis for a manuscript Waterman prepared for the Bureau of American Ethnology (Waterman 1922) and are keyed to a number of large maps contained therein. Harrington also collected a short typed paper by his co-worker Robert W. Young dated 1938. This article, relevant to their study of Navaho, puts forward a theory on the origin and dispersion of a branch of Athapascan languages. It contains charts and numbered examples of linguistic features in Navaho, Carrier, Sekani, Chipewyan, Hare, and Hupa, among other languages.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Athapascan languages  Search this
Chinook language  Search this
Puget Sound Salish languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Maps
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 1.15
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 1: Native American History, Language, and Culture of Alaska and the Northwest Coast
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13103
Online Media:

Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
100.13 Linear feet (300 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Field notes
Place:
California
Date:
1912-1957
Scope and Contents:
The arrangement of material in this section forms the basis for Volume 2 of the microfilmed papers. The reel numbers of corresponding microfilm are listed where appropriate. "N/A" indicates material that was not included in the microfilm.
This series within the John Peabody Harrington papers represents the results of Harrington's work on the native languages and cultures of northern and central California from the Oregon border to the Tejon region in the San Joaquin Valley. The fieldwork was undertaken just prior to and during his employment as ethnologist (1915-1954) by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The documents focus primarily on linguistic data, although they also include significant amounts of ethnographic and historical information.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged into 15 subseries: (1) Klamath; (2) Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; (3) Coast Yuki/Northern and Central Pomo/Kato; (4) Coast Miwok; (5) Lake and Coast Miwok/Southeastern Pomo/Wappo; (6) Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; (7) Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; (8) Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; (9) Chimariko/Hupa; (10) Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; (11) Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko; (12) Costanoan; (13) Esselen; (14) Salinan; (15) Yokuts
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Field notes
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Series 2
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13139

Yokuts

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Laird, Carobeth, 1895-1983  Search this
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Names:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
20 Boxes
Culture:
Yokuts  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Songs
Maps
Place:
California -- History
Date:
1914-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on the Yokuts.

Notes from his fieldwork in 1914 include references to residents who he thought might be able to assist him in his research, detailed descriptions of house construction and the fabrication of sleeping mats, and small sketches of pictographs which Harrington had seen in the region. Amidst the miscellaneous notes are lists of baskets which he purchased, notes on photographs he took and bibliographic references from C. Hart Merriam. Harrington also copied extracts of his field notes onto slipfiles, which he filed under a variety of subject headings. The Tachi file contains ethnographic notes from Roberto Bautista and Agnes Light as well as a few Tachi lexical items. The file labeled "Tule" consists of mixed linguistic and ethnographic data from Jim Alto and Mr. Edmundson at the Tule River Reservation and notes on the Tachi dialect recorded from Pacifico Archuleta.

The section of linguistic, ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes consists of raw field data collected by Harrington and Carobeth from twenty residents of Yokuts territory during the period 1916-1917. Topics include vocabulary, placenames, tribenames, myths, ceremonial regalia and dances, songs, and religion. The notes from Josefa Damian, marked "Jos. Mar.," feature extensive data on relationship terms, age and sex terms, and moieties in Chunut, Tachi, Tejonefio, and Wowol. The most extensive notes were recorded from Francisca Lola. The notes contain voluminous amounts of linguistic data (vocabulary and paradigms) in Koyeti, Yawdanchi, Choynok, and Tachi as well as equivalent forms in "R. C." (Rio Chiquito). The material is also rich in ethnographic detail, providing information on uses of plants (Tejon ranch specimens), ceremonies, fiestas, dances, and material culture accompanied by diagrams and sketches. In addition, there are biographical notes on informants, myths, and texts of songs.

A year after collecting his field data on Yokuts, Harrington made copies of his notes and arranged them into several sizable slipfiles. One major file was created for the Chunut and Tachi languages, and another for the Yawelmani, Koyeti, Yawdanchi, and Wikchamni languages. There are also small slipfiles for Choynok and Palewyami. The slipfiles are organized semantically; headings included are cosmography, plants, animals, "artifacts" (material culture), sociology, religion, tribenames, and placenames. They include information regarding plant speciments collected by Harrington at the Tejon Ranch.

An additional step that Harrington took in the analysis of his Yokuts field data was the development of an outline grammar of the Yawelmani dialect. He extracted vocabulary and linguistic notes from the semantically arranged slipfiles, marking the slips which he copied with a check mark or the notation "gr." The data which he extracted are largely Yawelmani, although vocabulary and sentences from Koyeti, Yawdanchi, Chunut, and Tachi are included for comparative purposes. Harrington also submitted multiple manuscripts of his Yawelmani grammar to the Bureau of American Ethnology (former B.A.E. Mss. 2973, 3041, 3047, 3048, and 3054).

Harrington's files relating to the Tejon Ranch Case contain correspondence dating from 1921 to 1924, legal documents, a copy of a census taken at the ranch, and documentary evidence from a variety of secondary sources including military records, newspaper accounts, and Senate documents. The major portion of the records consists of notes from interviews with about twenty Tejon residents. The content is primarily biographical, with placename references. In many cases the notes were taken down in the form of depositions. Harrington simultaneously recorded lengthy Yokuts myth texts as well as stories in English and Spanish. Information from a number of the informants was formerly cataloged as B. A. E. ms. 3046. There is also a carbon copy of a "Report on Tejon Indians, Kern County, California" submitted by Herbert V. Clotts, Acting Superintendent of Irrigation, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on January 15, 1918.

Records relating to sound recordings pertain to songs performed by five Yokuts speakers and two Kitanemuks. The songs were recorded on wax by Harrington in Yokuts territory during the periods 1916-1917. The cylinders were sent to ethnomusicologist Helen H. Roberts in 1921 to review. The bulk of this section contains her lengthy notes on the texts of songs, accompanied by musical transcriptions.

The final section of this subseries consists of miscellaneous notes. There are notes from interviews and correspondence with information on boat construction, a sketch map received in a 1925 letter, notes relative to a conversation with J.N.B. Hewitt in 1926, notes from an interview with Angel Sanchez and Bill Skinner, and information from Roberts on song text. There are also copies of Harrington's own field notes and notes on secondary sources.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington worked on the Yokuts language a number of times during his forty years of fieldwork in California. This study certainly matches the breadth of the data for Karok and Salinan and is surpassed in volume only by his output for Costanoan and Chumash.

Harrington's first contact with the so-called "Tulareno" people occurred in late September to early October 1914 on a two-week trip to the San Joaquin Valley. At that time he made short visits to the Santa Rosa rancheria near Lemoore, to the Tule Indian Reservation near Porterville, and to Bakersfield as part of a dialect survey. A limited amount of additional data was obtained in 1914 and 1915 during the course of his work on Salinan and Chumash. Migueleno speaker Pacifico Archuleta, whose wife, Suncion, was Yokuts, gave a limited Tachi vocabulary, and Rosario Cooper, an Obispeno speaker, also provided several words.

In November 1916 Harrington traveled to the Tejon region, ostensibly to work with Jose Juan Olivas, an inland Chumash speaker. It appears, in addition, that for a virtually uninterrupted period from that time until September 1917, Harrington (assisted by his wife, Carobeth) made an in-depth study of a number of Southern Valley and Foothills Yokuts dialects, obtaining extensive vocabularies and texts, as well as a considerable amount of ethnographic and historical data. This work took them to the valley near the Santa Rosa rancheria and to the Tule River Reservation. Harrington also made trips with informants to obtain placename data and to collect, identify, and describe botanical specimens. The observance of ceremonial rituals during that winter afforded him the opportunity of recording on wax cylinders and in writing a significant number of songs.

The flare-up of the Tejon Ranch case, which threatened to disinherit many Indians of their tribal lands, brought Harrington back to the area in February 1922. As a special temporary appointee to the Department of the Interior, he was responsible for obtaining depositions from the elderly residents of the Tejon. He simultaneously elicited additional biographical, historical, and linguistic data for his own work. The case was argued before the Supreme Court on February 28, 1924. In June of that year the court held that the Indians had abandoned the land. The decision was based on the Indians' failure to present their claim to the commission appointed under the act of March 1851 to ascertain and adjust private land claims in territory ceded by Mexico to the United States.

In the fall of 1923, he took a number of Yokuts to the Ventura County Fair to perform dances, to demonstrate house and boat building techniques, and to exhibit their crafts. He also made trips to Yokuts territory in the early 1930s and again in January 1942. These were possibly side trips made during the course of other work to follow upon the Tejon Ranch case.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Yokuts language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Songs
Maps
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.16
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13960
Online Media:

Papers relating to the Native American history, language and culture of southern California and Basin

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
162.64 Linear feet ((332 boxes))
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
California
Date:
1907-1961
undated
Scope and Contents note:
The arrangement of material in this section forms the basis for Volume 3 of the microfilmed papers. The reel numbers of corresponding microfilm are listed where appropriate. "N/A" indicates material that was not included in microfilm.
Scope and Contents:
This series within the John Peabody Harrington papers represents the results of Harrington's work on the native languages and cultures of southern California from the Tejon region to the Mexican border; notes collected in Baja are also included. The fieldwork was undertaken just prior to and during his employment as ethnologist (1915-1954) by the Bureau of American Ethnology and during his retirement years in California until his death in 1961. The documents focus primarily on linguistic data, although they also include significant amounts of ethnographic and historical information.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged into 15 subseries: (1) Chumash; (2) Tubatulabal; (3) Kitanemuk; (4) Serrano; (5) Gabrielino; (6) Fernandeno; (7) Cahuilla; (8) Luiseno/Juaneno; (9) Cupeno; (10) Chemehuevi; (11) Mohave; (12) Diegueno (U.S. and Baja); (13) Paipai/Kiliwa; (14) Ute/Paiute/Shoshoni; (15) General and Miscellaneous Materials
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Series 3
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14008

Mohave

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Henderson, Junius, 1865-1937  Search this
Robbins, Wilfred William, 1884-1952  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
33 Boxes
Culture:
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Date:
1907-circa 1914, 1946-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Mohave.

Harrington organized his early linguistic and ethnographic notes into more than eighty categories, covering a broad spectrum of Mohave culture from daily practices to mythological and religious beliefs. The variety of content and order of arrangement are encyclopedic. Most of the material is original data from numerous native speakers. Animal and plant notes are also filed in this section. Notes on these topics stem from the Mohave Valley Expedition made with Henderson and Robbins. A typescript of Henderson's report precedes the botanical notes and one by Robbins precedes the zoological notes.

The semantic slipfile consists of data from the original field notes rewritten on slips and arranged in thirteen semantic divisions. Some new information provided by Irving and Wagner was inserted. Material relative to other Yuman tribes is included and almost all categories contain some inextricably interwoven Chemehuevi data which were originally provided by Chemehuevi speakers Jack Jones, John Pete, William Johnson, and Patty Smith. In most instances, the Chemehuevi equivalences are clearly marked. Information on kinship is relatively substantial.

Two Mohave notebooks are also present. One contains vocabulary and texts credited to "Mr. Edgar, Needles, Cal." The other is a packet of loose pages evidently removed from a notebook covering random linguistic and ethnographic data.

Another section consists of a small set of grammar notes arranged under such headings as language, phonology, and morphology. Some notes apparently were taken as early as 1907 and were transferred to slips in 1910 and 1911.

The section of miscellaneous notes on Yuman languages contains Yuma, Cocopa, and Walapai field notebooks. They are principally ethnographic and are difficult to read. Unrelated small groups of notes include Mohave, Yuma, Maricopa, Havasupai, and Walapai ethnographic data, probably provided by Joe Homer. There are lecture notes and students' papers probably from one of the courses which Harrington gave at the University of Colorado. Three small groups of slips include a list of Yuman clan names and a series of excerpts from a Yuman notebook which has not been located. The third is a copy of some Yavapai terms supplied by Barbara Freire-Marreco.

Late linguistic and ethnographic notes contain what appears to be the first draft of a manuscript on Mohave culture. Such subjects as sociology, religion and mythology, physical and mental characteristics, the Mohave universe, warfare, and design are covered. A variety of notes on historical events and on the geographic, political, and economic life of the Needles area was compiled from published sources and correspondence with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and with Indian Agency superintendents. The focus is on Mohave with some general Yuman references. The material has evidently undergone several reorganizations and notes from informants of the earlier period are interfiled. New linguistic and ethnographic information was supplied principally by Hal Davidson, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lewis, and Russell. Comparative terms appear in Yuma, Maricopa, Chemehuevi, and Paiute. Kroeber apparently lent Harrington some of his personal manuscripts, and information from this source is introduced as "Kr. notes." Correspondence with Charles Battye and excerpts from his scrapbooks in the possession of the Needles Public Library are also contained among these notes.

Another section consists of notes and drafts on material culture. They are arranged alphabetically and predominantly ethnographic. Notes came from the earlier period and such 1946 informants as Davidson and the Lewises. George Turner contributed numerous placenames.

The subseries also contains notes and drafts of tribenames. They represent an attempt to identify ethnic names applied to Yuman and some neighboring non-Yuman tribes. Some of the Mohave names may have been given by bilingual Chemehuevi speakers in July 1946, when Harrington and Murl Emery traveled the Colorado River-Mohave Valley area. A brief typescript follows the notes.

The section of semantically arranged notes consists of small amounts of data on minerals, pigments, fire, plants, animals, hunting, food, and medicine.

The section of late grammatical notes is also small. The notes originated mainly from Russell, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, and Warren McCord. He based some hearings on Kroeber's (1911) "Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language" and Sapir's (1930) "Southern Paiute Language." He also drew on A. M. Halpern's (1946 and 1947) six monographs on Yuma grammar published in the International Journal of American Linguistics. In the mid-1950s he again turned to Halpern and produced a small section of comparative Yuman terms.

The final section of the subseries consists of miscellaneus notes, including drafts of a paper on Mohave history and culture and another on the Kuchan vocabulary of George H. Thomas.
Biographical / Historical:
As a teacher of modern languages at Santa Ana High School in California (1906-1909), John P. Harrington spent his vacations studying Mohave and Yuma in Needles and Yuma, California. Working with a young Mohave woman in Needles in 1907, Mohave was the first Indian language that he ever recorded.

From 1909 until 1915, when he joined the Bureau of American Ethnology, Harrington held various positions with the Museum of the University of New Mexico and the School of American Archaeology, based mainly in Santa Fe. Along with work in other indigenous languages and cultures, he pursued his Mohave studies in Lincolnia, Cottonia, Needles, and Fort Mohave. The focus was on Mohave with ethnographic references to Yuma, Maricopa, Cocopa, Havasupai, and Walapai.

Under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the School of American Archaeology, and the University of Colorado, he was ethnologist for a Mohave Valley expedition undertaken in March and April 1911, in conjunction with Junius Henderson and W. W. Robbins. Henderson identified the botanical life of the Mohave Valley and Robbins the zoological.

According to field notes and reports, the years 1910 and 1911 were the most productive ones for this first period of accumulation of Mohave data. Harrington worked with a number of people who spoke Mohave and Chemehuevi, resulting in numerous comparative references. Among the many Mohave speakers, Lee Irving (abbreviated L. I.), Mr. Edgar (Rev. Edgar), Ferd Wagner (Mr. Ferd), and Peter Dean (Peter) contributed substantially. Harrington primarily worked with Wagner in 1907. Edward H. Davis accompanied him on various placename trips and apparently advised him on the collection of artifacts. Financial records indicate that he spent about six weeks in Needles in late spring, 1914, collecting objects for the Panama-California Exposition.

A second period of endeavor commenced in 1946 with new recordings from Hal Davidson (Hal), Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lewis, George Turner, and Russell. Returning from the field to Washington, D.C., in 1947, Harrington compiled a variety of notes on historical events and interfiled some of his earlier material. The physical arrangement indicates an interest in drafting a paper on Mohave culture, more ethnographic than linguistic.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Mohave language  Search this
Yuma language  Search this
Chemehuevi language  Search this
Cocopa language  Search this
Hualapai language  Search this
Havasupai language  Search this
Maricopa language  Search this
Yuman languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Grammar, Comparative and general  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 3.11
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 3: Papers relating to the Native American history, language and culture of southern California and Basin
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14386
Online Media:

Native American History, Language, and Culture of the Southwest

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
56.75 Linear feet ((128 boxes))
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Dictionaries
Manuscripts
Field notes
Place:
Southwestern States
Date:
undated
1907-1957
Scope and Contents note:
The arrangement of material in this section forms the basis for Volume 4 of the microfilmed papers. The reel numbers of corresponding microfilm are listed where appropriate. "N/A" indicates material that was not included in microfilm.
Scope and Contents:
This series within the John Peabody Harrington papers represents the results of Harrington's work on the native languages and cultures of the Southwest, the area in which he first undertook fieldwork. The field notes were recorded just prior to and during his employment as ethnologist (1915-1954) by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The documents focus primarily on linguistic data, although they also include significant amounts of ethnographic and historical information.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged into 12 subseries: (1) Apache and Kiowa Apache; (2) Navajo; (3) Hopi; (4) Zuni; (5) Acoma/Laguna/Santo Domingo; (6) Cochiti; (7) Jemez; (8) Isleta/Isleta del Sur/Piro; (9) Picuris; (10)Taos; (11) Tewa; (12) General and Miscellaneous Materials
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Dictionaries
Manuscripts
Field notes
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Series 4
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14439

Apache and Kiowa Apache

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Correspondent:
Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949  Search this
Hoijer, Harry, 1904-1976  Search this
Haile, Berard, 1874-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (box)
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Dictionaries
Date:
1936-1945
Scope and Contents:
This set of files contains Harrington's Apache and Kiowa Apache research and writings. Most of the materials consist of notes and drafts for his and Robert W. Young's unpublished manuscripts on the life of Geronimo, as well as their project to translate the Chiricahua Apache chief's published autobiography into Apache. Harrington's Apache notes provide a useful block of placenames and names of persons, with random linguistic, ethnographic, biographical, and historical observations. The notes are arranged according to topic, each probably corresponding to a proposed chapter heading in Harrington's write-up. Entries from secondary souces and the related information supplied by rehearings in the field and in Washington were clipped together. Wherever possible these groups of notes are now pasted on a single sheet. Harrington apparently hoped to use the notes for additional monographs under such headings as "The Etymology of Geronimo's Name," "The Etymology of the Word Apache," and a review of Clum's Apache Agent. There are several incomplete typed or handwritten preliminary drafts, but neither Harrington or Young published the proposed papers. The numbered typewritten slips filed with the Apache notes may be responses to a questionnaire (not found in his papers) that Harrington sent to Young and William R. Hill. Also present are Harrington's correspondence with Father Berard Haile and other scholars involved in Athapascan studies, such as Harry Hoijer and Leonard Bloomfield.

While Harrington did not compile an Apache dictionary, his papers do contain vocabulary collected from the historical and ethnographic observations he made on the tribe. There is a rough beginning of a dictionary collected from Howard Soontay in 1944, and from Philip Cosen and Raymond Loco in 1945.
Biographical / Historical:
Harrington's study of Apache and Kiowa Apache spanned almost a decade. It began with an examination of secondary sources in 1936 and culminated in 1945 with the recording of brief vocabularies from native speakers. Speakers of several dialects were interviewed. Asa Deklugie and Raymond Loco provided Chiricahua data while Percy Bigmouth and Victor Dolan gave Mescalero terms. White Mountain Apache words were obtained from Philip Cosen and Kiowa Apache items from Howard Soontay. Related Navajo and Yavapai terms were given by Adolph Dodge Bitanny, Howard Gorman, and Mollie Starr. Deklugie, the son of Geronimo's sister, served as the principal source of primary data on Apache.

In collaboration with Robert W. Young, Harrington evidently planned a linguistic treatment of the life of Geronimo, the famous Chiricahua Apache chief, and, even more ambitiously, hoped to translate Geronimo's published autobiography into Apache. Harrington was in Washington, D.C., for all of 1936 and 1937 and, in fact, was hospitalized for six weeks in January and February 1937. He therefore accumulated his initial facts principally from secondary sources, using particularly S. M. Barrett's Life of Geronimo, identified in the field notes as "Autobiography," and W. Clum, Apache Agent. In most cases he gave page references for the material he copied.

Between June 1936 and June 1937, Harrington carried on a lively correspondence with William R. Hill, Engineer-in-Charge at the Mescalero Indian Reservation. Hill's father worked for the Bureau of American Ethnology and was Harrington's friend. Robert Young also collected data for him in the fall of 1936 through interviews with Asa Deklugie and Eugene Chihuahua. Young and Hill reheard the copied entries from the secondary sources, and Harrington attempted to synthesize the historic and ethnological information into a coherent text. He also tried to establish definitive etymologies and orthography for Apache placenames and personal names.

Harrington was in touch with Father Berard Haile, a linguist and Navajo lexicographer at the Franciscan Mission in St. Michaels, Arizona. A limited number of letters were exchanged with several other scholars involved in Athapascan studies, such as Harry Hoijer and Leonard Bloomfield.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Apache languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Dictionaries
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 4.1
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 4: Native American History, Language, and Culture of the Southwest
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14441

Hopi

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (box)
Culture:
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Place:
Arizona
Date:
1913-1946
Scope and Contents:
This set of files contains Harrington's Hopi research. The materials consist of Oraibi linguistic notes, Walpi linguistic notes, notes on phonetics, writings, and miscellaneous notes.

His Oraibi notes include geographical terms provided by Bert Fredericks in slipfile format, a short etymology of the village name Awatobi, and a small rudimentary file of phonetic sounds. While at Elden Pueblo, Harrington also elicited several Oraibi terms from Otto Lomavitu, described as an educated Indian associated with the Moravian missionaries. Kuyawaima, an elderly Oraibi, provided information on basket-making during another interview in August 1926. The majority of the early records in the Oraibi dialect consist of numbered pages of Harrington's handwritten notes which emerge as a combination of vocabulary, phrases, and grammar in the early stages of development, followed by a brief text on Coyote with interlinear translation. Pages 38, 39, and 40 contain a selected number of terms in Zuni.There is one brief mention of an individual named Ignacio but it is not clear whether the vocabularies originated with him. The elicitation was based partly on a rehearing of a typed "Oraivi Vocabulary" found accompanying the handwritten notes. Harrington was in California in 1912 and early 1913 and was engaged in various projects, one of which was copying manuscripts at the Bancroft Library, a possible source of this material.

Harrington's Walpi data from the work in 1926 and 1939 are of a much less systematic nature. A pocket-sized notebook which he used while at the Grand Canyon contains notes from a brief survey of Walpi speakers, random vocabulary items from Percy Hilling, and an outline of the sequence of songs performed by kutKa, the chief of Walpi, and others. Also recorded during this period are additional lexical items, possibly obtained from a man named Sam, and five pages describing a placename trip which Harrington made from Polacca to Holbrook.

The material from 1939 consists of notes from several brief interviews with Walpi speakers encountered in the Fort Defiance area. On September 27, 1939, Harrington recorded one page of placenames from the son of Tom Polacca, an interpreter at First Mesa in the 1880s and 1890s. Additional placename data were obtained from an unidentified Hopi speaker at the home of Jack Snow. Following each of the vocabularies are copies which Harrington made of the names in 1944 in order to locate them on a map by Van Valkenburgh (1941). Three pages of miscellaneous vocabulary from an unidentified source also date from the 1939 period.

His notes on phonetics were likely made during his comparative study of Hopi and other Uto-Aztecan languages. Harrington made a number of observations on the phonetics of the language. These were recorded in the form of a "Hopi Mouthmap." Secondary sources referred to were Parsons (1936), Trubetskoi (1939), Whiting (1939), and Whorf (unspecified works). The mouthmap appeared in Hewett, Dutton, and Harrington's The Pueblo Indian World (1945).

His Hopi writings consist of preparatory notes and drafts in various stages of completion. From 1945-1946 are notes, handwritten drafts, and finished typescripts of his review of The Hopi Way by Laura Thompson and Alice Joseph, as well as the article "Note on the Names Moqui and Hopi." Both of these were published in the American Anthropologist. There is also a typed draft of an unpublished note, intended for release in Indians at Work, titled "Hopi Discovered To Be Most Nearly Akin to Northern Paiute."

Dating from both the periods around 1922 and 1939 are a number of pages of miscellaneous notations. These contain observations of an ethnographic nature, bibliographies, and brief extracts from secondary sources. One set, consisting of comments on seven "landnames," was obtained from an informant referred to as "Hopi at Jack Snow's." Also included is correspondence dated 1914 requesting information on Hopi rocks and a related photograph (originals in files of correspondence and photographs).

There are few field notes relative to the Hopi recordings Harrington made with Fewkes and Prescott and the related sound recordings have not been located.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington's field notes indicate that he worked on the Hopi language as early as 1913 and reviewed his material as late as 1944. Although he published a short article on Hopi in 1945 and a review of The Hopi Way (1944) in 1946, his notes on this language are not extensIve.

His first contact with speakers of Hopi evidently occurred in 1913, as suggested by his heading "Hopi Language. 1913." A more precise date and location are not given, but it is possible that Harrington made a side trip to the Third Mesa during February when he was working at a number of other pueblos or that he located a speaker of the Oraibi dialect at one of those locations.

From May through September of 1926, Harrington was called away from fieldwork in northern California to assist J. Walter Fewkes, head of the Bureau of American Ethnology, in archeological excavations at Elden Pueblo near Flagstaff, Arizona. According to The B.A.E. Annual Report for 1925 -1926 (p. 5), prior to the excavations, Harrington and J. O. Prescott assisted Fewkes in the recording of Hopi songs. Four of the older Hopi were brought from Walpi to the Grand Canyon, where they performed 11 katcina songs.

Harrington had a second opportunity to record several short vocabularies in the dialect of First Mesa in 1939 when he and Robert W. Young were beginning joint work on Athapascan in the Fort Defiance area of Arizona. His interest in Hopi was renewed again in March of 1944 when he made a comparative study with other Uto-Aztecan languages of the Takic subfamily.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Hopi language  Search this
Zuni language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Toponymy  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Basket making  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 4.3
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 4: Native American History, Language, and Culture of the Southwest
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14601

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