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Radio Advertising Blotter, 1941

Referenced:
Heidt, Horace  Search this
Dorsey, Tommy  Search this
Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 in x 9 in; 10.16 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
Blotter
Date made:
1941
Subject:
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Radio  Search this
Patent Medicine  Search this
Credit Line:
Jay Dee and Joan Yearous
ID Number:
1984.0523.01
Accession number:
1984.0523
Catalog number:
1984.0523.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-21a4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_681004

Kraft Television Theatre Oral History Project

Creator:
Blocki, Jim  Search this
Cook, Fielder  Search this
Durante, Al  Search this
Green, Chester  Search this
Courtice, Richard  Search this
Dougherty, Marion  Search this
Holland, Dorothy  Search this
Holland, Fran  Search this
Herlihy, Ed  Search this
Hill, George Roy  Search this
Myers, Farlan  Search this
Jeffrey, Tad  Search this
Kraft General Foods, Inc.  Search this
Pratt, Lee  Search this
Powell, Bob  Search this
Wiener, Tom  Search this
Names:
National Broadcasting Company  Search this
Thompson, J. Walter (advertising agency).  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Commercials
Interviews
Audiotapes
Audiovisual materials
Date:
1947-1992
Summary:
Oral history interviews with fourteen former Kraft and J. Walter Thompson executives chart the evolution of Kraft's approach to television, from its pioneering efforts in the medium's infancy to the search to maintain identity in an increasingly competitive and fragmented media landscape. Casting, directing, and production of the live dramas and the commercials are discussed at length. Kraft's philosophy of advertising, its relationship with J. Walter Thompson advertising agency and NBC, and consumer outreach are also featured.
Scope and Contents:
Oral history interviews with fourteen former Kraft and J. Walter Thompson executives chart the evolution of Kraft's approach to television, from its pioneering efforts in the medium's infancy to the search to maintain identity in an increasingly competitive and fragmented media landscape. Casting, directing, and production of the live dramas and the commercials are discussed at length. Kraft's philosophy of advertising, its relationship with J. Walter Thompson advertising agency and NBC, and consumer outreach are also featured.

Series 1, Research Files, 1947-1992 contains newspaper and magazine clippings, reports and scholarly articles about the history and development of Kraft, Kraft Radio Music Hall, and Kraft Television Theatre. Folders are arranged alphabetically by subject.

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1992 contains the abstracts of the oral history interviews and additional information about the interviewee, such as resumes, publications and correspondence, when available. The files are arranged alphabetically by interviewees' last name. Each abstract begins with a brief biographical statement about the interviewee, and a note about the scope and content of the interview. The abstracts correspond to a timed message on track two of the research copy of each audiocassette tape. At the end of each abstract is an index to proper names (people, trade names, KTT episodes, etc.) and to some general themes addresses during the interview. A master index, located in the last folder of this series, combines these individual indices into a comprehensive listing. Complete transciprts are also available for most interviews.

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1992 is subdivided into three subseries, representing each of three audio formats: original masters, research copies, and reel-to reel preservation copes. The interviews are arranged alphabetically.

Series 4, Television Commercials, circa 1950 feature comemrcials for a variety of Kraft products. They aired on Kraft Television Theatre between 1947 and 1958.

Series 5, Administrative Files, circa 1950 - 1992 are files created by the Center for Advertising History. Included in this series are bibliographies , briefing books, project proposals and budget, files on project consultants, deeds of conveyance, publicity, and Center publications prepared for the project.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Research Files, 1947-1992

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1992

Series 3: Oral History Interviews, 1992

Subseries 3.1: Original Audio Tapes

Subseries 3.2: Researcher Copies

Subseries 3.3: Preservation Masters

Series 4, Television Commercials, circa 1950

Subseries 4.1: Master Copies

Subsieries 4.2: Researcher Copies

Series 5: Administrative Files, circa 1950 - 1992
Biographical / Historical:
The Kraft Television Theatre Oral History Project is the result of a year-long study undertaken by the former Center for Advertising History. The objective of the project was to create a collection of oral history interviews that documentated the history and development of Kraft Television Theater, especially the relationship between advertising and the origins of commercial sponsorship in the early days of television programming.

Oral history interviews with fourteen former Kraft and J Walter Thompson executives were conducted in 1992 by Tom Wiener, a free-lance writer and oral historian under contract to the former Center for Advertising History. Included were Ed Herlihy, the voice of many of Kraft's memorable commercials; James Blocki, Richard Courtice, Chester Green, and Robert Powell, the architects of Kraft's advertising and marketing strategies in the television era; directors George Roy Hill and Fielder Cook, who launched their successful careers at Kraft Television Theatre; Marion Dougherty, one of Hollywood's leading casting directors who also got her start on KTT; and Dorothy Holland, a veteran of Kraft's Consumer Affairs Department and the company's first female Vice President.

The oral history interviews chart the evolution of Kraft's approach to television, from its pioneering efforts in the mediums infancy to the search to maintain identity in an increasing competitive and fragmented media landscape. Casting, directing and production of the live dramas and the commercials are discussed at length. Kraft's philosophy of advertising, its relationship with J Walter Thompson advertising agency and NBC, and consumer outreach are also featured.

On May 7, 1947, at 7:30 p.m. in New York City, advertising made a first significant step into the television era with the debut of Kraft Television Theatre. The program, which became the first regularly scheduled dramatic series on network TV presented weekly live adaptations of plays featuring performers familiar to New York theater goers. Included in each week's installment were commercials for Kraft Cheese Company products.

Kraft's foray into a new advertising medium grew out of the company's progressive advertising policies and its long running association with its primary advertising agency, J. Walter Thompson. Kraft was founded by James Lewis Kraft, a Canadian-born entrepreneur who in 1903 began buying cheese from Chicago wholesalers and peddling it from a horse-drawn wagon. Through acquisitions of other companies and their established brands, as well as development of new products, Kraft's company steadily grew into a leader in the cheese and dairy products business.

As early as 1911, Kraft began advertising on Chicago elevated trains and billboards. In 1919, Kraft inaugurated a 70-year tradition of advertising in such national magazines as Ladies Home Journal and Good Housekeeping. Fourteen years later, looking for a vehicle to promote its newest product, Miracle Whip Salad Dressing, Kraft entered the electronic era with The Kraft Program, hosted by popular bandleader Paul Whiteman on the NBC Radio Network.

Soon renamed The Kraft Music Hall, the show also acquired a new host, crooner Bing Crosby. Crosby's relaxed style was mirrored in the Music Hall's commercials. As written by J. Walter Thompson staffers, they possessed a relaxed, conversational tone, extolling the practical uses of Miracle Whip, Velveeta and other Kraft products.

The Music Hall continued on the air until 1949, but by that time, Kraft Television Theatre was into its third season, well established as the leading dramatic series on the air. Kraft Television Theatre provided a unique laboratory for both its sponsor and Thompson. As with the Music Hall, Thompson actually produced the program: its staffers adapted the dramas, directed them, and hired the casts. NBC provided only technical facilities and crew. Each week, in effect, was opening night for a play that was performed live in front of bulky cameras, under hot lights. Working with modest budgets, producer-directors Stanley Quinn, Maury Holland, and Harry Herrmann took an important first step toward exploiting the potential of television to inform and entertain.

For its part, Kraft drew on the tradition established in its radio ads. From the start, Kraft acted as if it were a guest in the viewer's home, which led to a remarkably effective means of presenting its products. No human face was ever seen, only a pair of hands demonstrating the uses of the product, as a reassuring voice explained the virtues of Cheez Whiz, Draft Cheddar, or any number of products from Draft's expanding line.

In 1958, after eleven years and over 600 programs, Kraft Television Theatre left the air. The show's ratings had slipped under increased competition from mystery and adventure shows filmed in Hollywood as well as quiz shows. Kraft's single sponsorship didn't end with the demise of the Television Theatre. It revived the Music Hall, quite successfully, with Perry Como, whose relaxed personality was a throwback to Bing Crosby. In later years, Kraft chose to be sole sponsor of several specials a year, including the Country Music Association Awards show. Although these programs were pre-recorded, Kraft continued to produce its commercials live through the 1960's, with those same hands and that same soothing voice. Kraft's place in both television and advertising history is secure. Kraft Television Theatre launched a decade of live televised drama that is still regarded as the cornerstone of TV's Golden Age. And the Kraft "hands" commercials are a reminder of the effectiveness of a low-key, low-tech approach to promoting products as humble as Velveeta and Miracle Whip.

As part of a program to document and study modern advertising, the former Center for Advertising History selected Kraft Television Theatre as the last in a series of case studies of significant American advertising campaigns.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

N W Ayer Advertising Collection (AC0059)

Materials at Other Organizations

J. Walter Thompson Archives, Duke University

Kraft General Foods Archives, Glenview, Illinois

The Kraft General Foods Archives was established as an internal information resource for the comanpy. ARchives staff will assist outside researchers whenever time and resources permit by answering questions over the phone or through the mails. Requests for direct access to archival collections will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Source materials documenting Kraft's television advertising efforts include: film and videotape copies of Kraft Television Theatre, Kraft Suspense Theatre, Kraft Mystery Theatre, Kraft Music Hall, and other Kraft-sponsored shows. Videotape copies of these shows can be accessed through the Musuem of Broadcast Communication in Chicago, and through the NBC collection at the Library of Congress. Materials also include film and videotape copies of Kraft commercials, early 1950s-present; publications and magazine/newspaper articles about the various shows; company publications featuring articles about the various shows; NBC listings of production details about the shows (dates, producers, actors/actresses, etc.) Any requests for copies of pages from this listing must be cleared through NBC; photos of scenes from the shows as well as still photos of the actors/actresses who appeared in them; print ads supporting Kraft's televiison advertising efforts; casting lists for Kraft Television Theatre (incomplete); and musical scores for Kraft Television Theatre (incomplete).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Kraft General Foods, Inc., on April 16, 1993. Oral histories created by the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution in 1992.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons may use researcher copies of audio and video cassettes. Two of the three videotapes of television commercials have been digitized and can be viewed in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Copyright restrictions. Contact the Archives Center.
Topic:
Copy writers  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Television producers and directors  Search this
Actors in the advertising industry  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Commercials
Interviews
Audiotapes
Audiovisual materials
Citation:
Kraft Television Theatre Oral History Project, 1947-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0464
See more items in:
Kraft Television Theatre Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0464
Online Media:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project

Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Doyle Dane Bernbach.  Search this
Jack Tinker & Associates.  Search this
Manufacturer:
Alka-Seltzer  Search this
Names:
Miles Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Miles, Franklin, Dr.  Search this
Interviewee:
Beals, Richard  Search this
Case, Eugene  Search this
Chaplin, Charles  Search this
Lawrence, Mary Wells  Search this
Interviewer:
Griffith, Barbara S., Dr.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (17 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Publications
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Audiotapes
Business records
Place:
Elkhart (Ind.) -- 1950-1990
Date:
1953-1987
Summary:
The Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project is a result of a one year effort supported, in part, by Miles Laboratories, Incorporated. Twenty-four oral history interviews and a variety of related materials were gathered to document Alka- Seltzer advertising, primarily from the mid-1950s to the 1980s. The project covers "Speedy" Alka-Seltzer, "Oh what a relief it is," "The Blahs," "Alka Seltzer on the rocks," and "I can't believe I ate the whole thing" campaigns
Scope and Contents:
Oral histories with individuals associated with Alka-Seltzer and its advertising campaigns are at the core of the Alka-Seltzer Documenation and Oral History Project. Conducted by Smithsonian Institution staff, the oral histories primarily examine Alka-Seltzer's innovative and memorable print and television commercials. Abstracts exist for each interview.The collection also includes background information, archival materials from Miles Laboratories, Inc., television commercials, storyboards, and company publications.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 8 series.

Series 1: Research Files, circa 1930-1986

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1986-1987

Series 3: Oral Histories, 1986-1987

Subseries 3.1: Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2: Reference Cassettes

Subseries 3.3: Master Audio Tapes

Series 4: Miles Archives Materials, 1931-1980

Subseries 4.1: Marketing Research and Sales Data

Subseries 4.2: Alka-Seltzer Storyboards and History (Photocopies)

Subseries 4:3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program(photocopies)

Series 5: Company Publications, 1960-1986

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1950-1985

Series 7: Alka-Seltzer Posters, 1967-1986

Series 8: Audiovisual Materials

Subseries 8.1: Original Masters

Subseries 8.2: Reference Videos
Biographical / Historical:
The Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project is a result of a one year effort supported, in part, by Miles Laboratories, Incorporated Twenty-four oral history interviews and a variety of related materials were gathered to document Alka- Seltzer advertising, primarily from the mid-1950s to the 1980s. The project covers "Speedy" Alka-Seltzer, "Oh what a relief it is," "The Blahs," "Alka Seltzer on the rocks," and "I can't believe I ate the whole thing" campaigns.

Miles Laboratories, Incorporated, the maker of Alka-Seltzer, and Wade Advertising of Chicago established a light-hearted advertising approach with the iconic puppet "Speedy", which had a tablet for a body and a smaller one for a hat. Speedy came to life through stop motion animation, a technique in which each of the puppet's movements was captured on a separate frame of film. The voice of Richard Beals made "Speedy" a distinctive character.

"Speedy" was a mainstay of Alka Seltzer advertising until 1964, when Miles,Incorporated took the account to Jack Tinker & Partners in New York. The agency's work for Alka-Seltzer embodied what came to be called advertising's "creative revolution," replacing the "talking heads" and "hard sell" of earlier advertising with humor, wit, and engaging storylines, even within the limits of a 30 second television spot. In 1969, the Alka Seltzer account went to Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, an agency which changed the look of print advertising during the early years of the "creative revolution." In 1970, Alka-Seltzer moved agencies to Wells, Rich, Greene, where the product's advertising came under the direction of Mary Wells Lawrence. Ms. Lawrence had worked on the Alka Seltzer account while at Tinker and continued Alka Seltzer's reputation for innovative and captivating work. In 1984 they shifted to McCann Erickson.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Miles Laboratories in 1988 and created by the Smithsonian Institution in 1986 and 1987.
Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- History -- 1950-1990  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1950-1990  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Publications -- Business
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0184
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0184
Online Media:

The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection

Topic:
Pepsi-Cola World
Pepsi-Cola (soft drink)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Cubic feet (32 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews
Oral history
Videotapes
Date:
1938-1986
Summary:
The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of an oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Scope and Contents:
At the core of the "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documention Collection are oral history interviews with individuals involved with Pepsi-Cola and its advertising campaigns. In addition to the oral histories there are research files which include an almost complete run of Pepsi-Cola World, interview abstracts, print advertising, and television commercials from Pepsi's best-known advertising campaigns.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1985

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1984-1985

Series 3: Oral History Interviews, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.1: Reference Copies, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.2: Master Tapes,1984-1985

Subseries 3.3: Original Tapes, 1984-1985

Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video, 1946-1988

Subseries 4.1: Reference videos

Subseries 4.2: Master Copies

Series 5: Pepsi Cola Audio, circa 1970, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1983, as part of the 20th anniversary of the "Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi-Cola donated to the Archives Center approximately 200 advertising and promotional items (see collection AC0092). The Archives Center accepted these items and proposed an oral history project to document the "Pepsi Generation" story.

The Archives Center embarked upon this project in the spring of 1983. A professional oral historian, Dr. Scott Ellsworth, conducted twenty-nine interviews during 1984 and 1985 with twenty-six people involved in Pepsi advertising, including bottlers, advertising executives, producers, directors, a songwriter, a performer, a publisher, the president of Pepsi, the chairman of the board, and two former Pepsi presidents.

The interviews focus primarily on the "Come Alive, You're In The Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi's adoption of youth-oriented advertising, campaign execution, television commercial production, background of the idea for the "Think Young" campaign, and the company's response to the "Pepsi Generation"campaign.

The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of this oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Beverages

N.W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Pepsi-Cola Advertising Collection
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pepsi-Cola Company through Rebecca Madiera in 1983. Interviews made for the Smithsonian Institution in 1984 and 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
Ambiguity in advertising  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Prize contests in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Beverages -- 1930-1990  Search this
Advertising writing  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Youth-oriented advertising  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Videotapes
Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0111
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0111
Online Media:

5729, Radio Broadcast Advertising

Collection Creator:
Bird, William L.  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1946
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William L. Bird Holidays on Display Collection, 1877-2010, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William L. Bird Holidays on Display Collection
William L. Bird Holidays on Display Collection / Series 12: Publications / 12.10: International Correspondence Schools
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1288-ref10

International Broadcasting Award honoring the World's Best Broadcast Advertisements: "Wanted," Call for Volunteers, Kenyon and Eckhardt

Collection Creator:
Jones, Caroline Robinson, 1942-2001 (advertising executive)  Search this
Container:
Box 124, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1973
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
See more items in:
Caroline R. Jones Papers
Caroline R. Jones Papers / Series 2: Business Papers / 2.7: Awards, Committees, Judgeships, and Invitations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0552-ref214

The Federal Express Advertising History Collection

Interviewer:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Fallon McElligott Advertising Agency  Search this
Federal Express Corporation  Search this
Names:
Ally & Gargano, Inc. (advertising agency)  Search this
Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Interviewee:
Ally, Carl  Search this
Altenburg, Nancy  Search this
Burnham, Patrick  Search this
Frazier, Sharon  Search this
Gargano, Amil  Search this
Kelly, Patrick  Search this
Miller, William B.  Search this
Moschitta, John (actor)  Search this
Oliver, Tom  Search this
Presley, Carol  Search this
Sedelmaier, Joe (filmmaker)  Search this
Smith, Fred  Search this
Tesch, Mike  Search this
Williams, Carl  Search this
Extent:
6.6 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Minneapolis (Minn.)
Chicago (Ill.)
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1972-1989
Summary:
Created in 1971, the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system was an innovative company known for its memorable advertising campaigns. The core of the Federal Express Advertising History Collection is a series of interviews conducted in 1988 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth. Twenty-five individuals associated with Federal Express advertising were interviewed about the company and its award-winning advertising.
Scope and Contents:
The Federal Express Advertising Collection documents the dvelopment of the overnight air freight delivery company with particular emphasis on the innovative advertising campaigns used to introduce and promote the company's services. The oral histories with individuals associated with both Federal Express Corporation and the advertising agencies form the core of the collection. Abstracts that provide biographical information and summaries of the interviews supplement the oral histories. Research files and company publications provide background information. Television commercials and print advertising contain examples, particularly illustrating the campaigns discussed in the interviews.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1972-1988

Subseries 1.1, Federal Express Clippings Files

Subseries 1.2, Federal Express Research Reports

Subseries 1.3, Research Files

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1988

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1988

Subseries 3.1, Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2, Researcher Copies

Subseries 3.3, Masters

Series 4, Television Advertising, 1973-1989

Subseries 4.1, Television Commercials

Subseries 4.2, Storyboards

Subseries 4.3, Slides and Photographs

Series 5, Print Advertising, 1972-1988

Subseries 5.1, Federal Express Print Advertising

Subseries 5.2, Federal Express Mechanicals

Subseries 5.3, Slides of Mechanicals and International Marketing

Subseries 5.4, Federal Express Posters

Subseries 5.5, Print Reference Materials

Series 6, Public Relations Materials, 1973-1988

Series 7, Company Publications, 1973-1988

Series 8, Miscellaneous, Undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1971, Fred Smith of Memphis, Tennessee created the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system. He based his idea for a new approach to the air freight delivery service on the "hub and spoke system." According to Smith's innovative model, a fleet of airplanes would fly packages from cities across the nation each evening to a central "hub" in Memphis, where the parcels would be unloaded, sorted, and re-loaded onto other planes for travel to their final destinations. Smith's objective was two-fold: to expedite delivery of the parcels and to ensure their security in the process.

In 1977, Congress passed the Air Cargo Deregulation Act. This enabled Federal Express to fly much larger planes and to expand its business without substantial capital investment. During its first decade of existence, the corporation achieved remarkable success, enjoying its first billion-dollar revenue in 1981.

Federal Express originally employed two advertising agencies: Ally & Gargano, Inc. of New York City (1974-1987) and Fallon McElligott of Minneapolis (1987 - 1994). In its early years, Federal Express was attracted to Ally & Gargano due to the agency's small size and its entrepreneurial spirit. Fred Smith believed these traits would foster the creativity necessary for original and effective advertising to introduce Federal Express. It was the responsibility of the agency to convince customers not only to abandon such incumbants in the industry as Emery, United Parcel Service and the U.S. Postal Service, but also to trust Federal Express, a newcomer.

Ally & Gargano targeted the professional community and the general public through print advertisements and television commercials. Especially in the latter medium, the agency used humor as its primary marketing technique, emphasizing competitors' "slowness" and "unreliability." In 1981, the agency launched a series of widely acclaimed ads with John Moschitta as the "Fast Talking Man." The slogan "When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight" seen at the close of most commercials served as a practical reminder of Federal Express' function.

Federal Express moved its account from Ally & Gargano to Fallon McElligott in 1987. Fallon McElligott's first television campaign used the phrase "It's more than just a package -- it's your business" and depicted scenes of different work environments. The campaign stressed the seriousness with which Federal Express handled its customers' parcels. In 1988, Federal Express was a sponsor of the Winter Olympics.
Related Materials:
Ally and Gargano, Inc. Print Advertisements (AC0938)
Provenance:
Made by the Smithsonian Institution and donated by the Federal Express Corporation, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television advertising  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Service industries  Search this
Overnight delivery service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Freight  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Citation:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection, 1972-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smiithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0306
See more items in:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0306

Tums for Acid Indigestion

Referenced:
Heidt, Horace  Search this
Maker:
Lewis-Howe Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 5.7 cm x 1.8 cm; 2 1/4 in x 11/16 in
overall: 2 1/4 in x 7/8 in; 5.715 cm x 2.2225 cm
Object Name:
otc preparation
Other Terms:
Patent Medicines; Drugs; Non-Liquid
Place Made:
United States: Missouri, Saint Louis
Date made:
ca 1940
Subject:
Indigestion & Nausea Drugs  Search this
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Advertising Devices  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Gary P. and Sandra Baden
ID Number:
1979.0798.334
Accession number:
1979.0798
Catalog number:
1979.0798.334
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Balm of America
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-2858-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_718642
Online Media:

Pilgrim Man Marionette

User:
Rollins, Hazelle H.  Search this
Maker:
Rollins, Hazelle H.  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
wood (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
paint (overall material)
string (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 16 in x 5 1/2 in; 40.64 cm x 13.97 cm
Object Name:
puppet
Place made:
United States: Missouri, Kansas City
Subject:
Puppetry  Search this
Radio and television broadcasting  Search this
Television broadcasts  Search this
Consumerism  Search this
Pilgrims  Search this
Credit Line:
Anne W. and John W. Rollins, Jr.
ID Number:
1980.0910.03
Accession number:
1980.0910
Catalog number:
1980.0910.03
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Advertising
Puppets
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-7e29-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_662705
Online Media:

Pilgrim Woman Marionette

User:
Rollins, Hazelle H.  Search this
Maker:
Rollins, Hazelle H.  Search this
Manufacturer:
Hazelle Inc. Airplane Control  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
wood (overall material)
paint (overall material)
string (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 15 in x 7 in; 38.1 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
puppet
Place made:
United States: Missouri, Kansas City
Subject:
Puppetry  Search this
Radio and television broadcasting  Search this
Television broadcasts  Search this
Consumerism  Search this
Immigration  Search this
Pilgrims  Search this
Christianity  Search this
Pilgrims  Search this
Credit Line:
Anne W. and John W. Rollins, Jr.
ID Number:
1980.0910.04
Accession number:
1980.0910
Catalog number:
1980.0910.04
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Religion
Advertising
Puppets
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-75ac-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_662706
Online Media:

The Campbell Soup Advertising Collection

Interviewee:
Murphy, W.B.  Search this
Norris, Alice  Search this
Norris, E. E.  Search this
Prior, Joseph  Search this
Meehan, Vincenta  Search this
Mercer, Richard  Search this
Meyers, Peter H.  Search this
Mulcahy, Paul  Search this
Welsh, Dick  Search this
White, Richard  Search this
Rindlaub, Jean  Search this
Rombach, Scott  Search this
Shaub, Harold  Search this
Weir, Chris  Search this
Coulson, Zoe  Search this
Gearon, Dan  Search this
Cronin, Betty  Search this
Conill, Alicia  Search this
Conlon, Robert  Search this
Conill, Rafael  Search this
Jordan, James  Search this
McNutt, James  Search this
McGovern, R. Gordon  Search this
Goerke, Donald E.  Search this
Holmes, Martha  Search this
Haber, Bernie  Search this
Jones, Caroline Robinson, 1942-2001 (advertising executive)  Search this
Adams, Anthony  Search this
Baum, Herbert M.  Search this
Bergin, John F.  Search this
Bair, Dean  Search this
Interviewer:
Griffith, Barbara S., Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Campbell Soup Company  Search this
Names:
Batten, Barton, Durstine, and Osborn  Search this
Connill Advertising  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Audiotapes
Interviews
Commercials
Ephemera
Videotapes
Oral history
Tear sheets
Date:
1904-2015
bulk 1904-1989
Summary:
This collection is the result of a year-long study of Campbell's "Red and White" Soups advertising and marketing, supported in part by a grant from the Campbell Soup Company. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted by Dr. Barbara Griffith for the project, and a variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and media, of the history and development of advertising for Campbell's Red and White Soups in the decades following World War II.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is the result of a year-long study of Campbell's "Red and White" Soups advertising and marketing campaigns. Oral histories conducted by Smithsonian Institution staff with individuals involved with the Campbell's Soup Corporation and its advertising campaigns form the core of the collection. Also included are clippings and background research files, abstracts of the oral history interviews, television and radio commercials, company publications, and promotional items and packaging.

A 2015 addition to the collection was born digital and consists of materials from the groundbreaking "Real Life Campaign" which featured inter-racial couples as well as a gay couple. These materials include storyboards, scripts, consumer feedback both postive and negative, focus group material, labels, commercials, supporting documentation on the development and implementation of the campaign. These materials are available in the Smithsonian Institution DIgital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Arrangement:
Collection is organized into nine series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1939-1989

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1989-1990

Series 3, Oral Histories, 1989-1990

Series 4, Television Commercials, 1957-1990

Series 5, Radio Commercials, 1966-1975

Series 6, Print Advertisements, 1905-1989

Series 7, Promotional Items and Packaging, 1968-1991

Series 8, Company Publications, 1983-1988

Series 9, Real Life Campaign, 2015
Biographical / Historical:
The Campbell Soup Company's "Red and White" advertising campaigns are remarkable not only for their longevity, but for the consistency of the advertising message. Since 1898, when the red and white label was incorporated, the packaging and the message have changed only marginally. When Andy Warhol painted his pop art Campbell Soup cans in the early 1960s, he presented an immediately recognizable image with which all of America could identify.

Campbell's condensed soups, first marketed in 1897, have become a staple of the 20th century American household. The Joseph Campbell Preserve Company, a canning concern which grew out of an 1869 business partnership between a fruit merchant and an ice box manufacturer, was well established by the time Arthur Dorrance succeeded Joseph Campbell as president. When Dorrance's nephew, John T. Dorrance, a chemical engineer and organic chemist trained at MIT, developed a process for making condensed soup, the company was faced with the task of successfully marketing the revolutionary new convenience food. The soup won a gold medallion for excellence at the 1900 Paris Exposition, and the company incorporated the image on its labels and in its advertising.

In the developing consumer culture which began to grow during and after the industrial revolution, women were identified as the primary consumers of household goods and services. Homemakers have been the target of Campbell' s Red & White advertising since its inception, and this focus is reflected both in the content and the placement of the advertising. The identification of a predominately female consumer market was also influential in the creation of a widely recognized and long-lived symbol, the Campbell Kids, created in 1904 by Grace Gebbie Drayton. The Kids were meant to convey a sense of wholesomeness and physical well-being associated with eating Campbell Soups.

The advertising of the early teens and twenties most often consisted of black and white or two-color depictions of the can and the product, often accompanied by images of the rosy-cheeked Kids. A large portion of the ad was devoted to narrative description of the soups' healthful properties, suggesting that"Campbell Soups Give Vigor and Strength", "I Couldn't Keep House Without Campbell's Tomato Soup", and "If Every Woman Realized How Much Her Husband Likes Soup - She Would Serve It Everyday".

The advertising of the 1930s tended towards idealized illustrations of women and children; the Kids were less visible during the 1930s and 1940s, deemed too "chucklesome" for the Depression years, and too old-fashioned during World War II. Ad copy continued its appeal to women's sense of responsibility for the well-being of husbands and children, with slogans suggesting "It Takes a Bright and Sparkling Flavor to Attract Children", "When a Man Says It's Good, It's Good", and "Wouldn 't I Be Silly to make It Myself?"

Campbell broadened the scope of its advertising by sponsoring radio programming, beginning in 1931 with the "Hollywood Hotel" program on CBS. Later radio sponsorships included the George Burns and Gracie Allen show, "Campbell Playhouse", "Amos and Andy", the "Jack Carson Show", "Hildegarde", and "Edward R. Murrow with the News", among others . The jingle "M'm M'm Good" was first aired during the radio broadcasts of this period, and was reinforced in the print advertising. Beginning in 1950, Campbell began to sponsor television shows, continuing its focus on women and children as primary purchasers and consumers of suop. Most notable among these sponsorships were "The Donna Reed Show" and "Lassie" . Print ads of the 1950s featuring Johnny Carson, Donna Reed, and the cast of the Lassie Show helped to reinforce the Company's sponsorship of these popular shows.

In 1954, Campbell moved its $10 million dollar condensed soup account from Ward Wheelock Company, the Philadelphia firm which had handled the account since 1910, to Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn (BBDO) of New York. By 1966, BBDO account executives urged "selective but not major" use of the Kids and the slogan "M'm M'm Good", choosing instead to employ advertising that stressed health claims and fitness issues rather than the wholesome, comforting associations of hot soup. The Kids became more athletic and less rotund.

Reflecting changes in American social and family structures Campbell' s advertising, began to depict the working wife and the busy schedules of a family "on the go". A 1960 ad declares "Good Things Begin to Happen When Working Girls Have Soup and Crackers" or "Somethings Happened to Supper". In light of the women 's movement, which was gaining momentum during this period, Campbell advertising remained decidedly traditional. In the 1970s, "Give Me the Campbell Life" recognized women 's expanded roles as working mothers, but "They Always Eat Better When You Remember the Soup" and "Get Your Campbells Worth" reveal a more conservative pitch to homemakers responsibilities. Other societal changes are suggested in the advertising, for instance, the "Soup is Good Food" and "Health Insurance" campaigns of the 1980s reflected a new emphasis on health and fitness.

In 1981 the company transferred the soup account to another New York firm, Backer Spielvogel and Bates . The 1980s saw a renewed emphasis on network primetime, strategic radio advertising (where ads for hot soup are tagged to reports of rain or snow, or are aired just before the noon lunch hour), and regional marketing of specialized products or packaging designed to appeal to local tastes and changing nutritional standards. These new products have engendered some changes in Campbell' s time-honored red and white label to emphasize the "new and improved" characteristics of the products

In 2015, Campbells developed the "Real Life" campaign. This campaign was groundbreaking in many ways. The commercials portrayed not only inter-racial couples but also a gay couple, two fathers and their son. This campaign had a product tie in with the 2015 release of the new installment in the motion picture franchise, Star Wars. The campaign received commentary from the public both pro and con. Campbells continued the campaign without revising or pulling any of its commercials. While running in selected markets, the campaign made nationwide headlines and pointed up the continuing change in the make-up of the American family.
Provenance:
Paul N. Mulcahy, V.P. Marketing Services, Campbell Soup Company,1990. Made for the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution by the Center for Advertising History, 1989-1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
Soups -- advertising  Search this
Advertising agencies  Search this
Advertising departments  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Interviews -- 1980-1990
Commercials
Ephemera -- 20th century
Videotapes
Oral history
Tear sheets
Citation:
Campbell Soup Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0367
See more items in:
The Campbell Soup Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0367
Online Media:

Kennedy model V radio receiver

Maker:
Colin B. Kennedy Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 10 in x 14 1/2 in x 15 1/2 in; 25.4 cm x 36.83 cm x 39.37 cm
Object Name:
radio receiver
Date made:
ca 1923
Credit Line:
from Franklin Wingard
ID Number:
EM.320827
Accession number:
241556
Catalog number:
320827
Patent number:
1113149
Serial number:
15125
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-5ef4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1340192

Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection

Interviewer:
Center for Advertising History, Archives Center  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Nike, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Adidas  Search this
Asics  Search this
Nike, Inc.  Search this
Wieden & Kennedy  Search this
Interviewee:
Onitsuka  Search this
Bedbury, Scott  Search this
Bowerman, William  Search this
Brown, John A.  Search this
Champ, Janet  Search this
Clarke, Tom  Search this
Clow, Lee  Search this
Conlon, Jerry  Search this
Davenport, Bill  Search this
Dolan, Liz  Search this
Donohue, Richard  Search this
Farris, Nelson  Search this
Hale, Cindy  Search this
Hoffman, Susan  Search this
Jackson, Bo  Search this
Jaqua, John  Search this
Johnson, Jeff  Search this
Kitami, Shoji  Search this
Knight, Phillip  Search this
McConnell, Pam  Search this
Moore, Charlotte  Search this
Moore, Kenny  Search this
Moore, Peter  Search this
Onitsuka, Kimachiro  Search this
Parker, Mark  Search this
Riswold, Jim  Search this
Robinson, Charles  Search this
Sakaguchi, Tokio  Search this
Stobie, Patsy Mest  Search this
Strasser, Robert (marketing executive)  Search this
Thomashow, Mark  Search this
Wieden, Dan  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Clippings
Audiotapes
Fliers (printed matter)
Advertising fliers
Commercials
Interviews
Place:
Beaverton (Or.)
Portland (Oregon)
Date:
1958 - 1992
Summary:
The Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection is the result of a two-year study of advertising of Nike athletic shoes. The effort was supported in part by a grant from Nike, Inc. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted with advertising, marketing and product development executives at Asics, Nike, John Brown & Co., Chiat/Day/Mojo and Wieden & Kennedy. A variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that documents, in print and electronic media, the history and development of the company and its advertising campaigns.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of thirty-one oral history interviews conducted by historian Scott Ellsworth with advertising, marketing and product development executives at Asics, Nike, John Brown & Co., Chiat/Day/Mojo and Wieden & Kennedy and related materials collected by the Center for Advertising History staff. There are audiocassettes (original and reference), 1/4" open reel audiotape (master), 3/4" videotapes, and VHS videotapes.
Arrangement:
The collection is rganized into seven series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1979-1992

Subseries 1.1, Materials Compiled by the Center for Advertising History, 1979-1992

Subseries 1.2, Material Compiled by Nike, 1982-1992

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1990-1992

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1990-1992

Subseries 3.1, Original Audiotapes (audio cassette), 1990-1992

Subseries 3.2, Researcher copies (audio cassette), 1990-1992

Subseries 3.3, Preservation masters (1/4 inch audiotape), 1990-1992

Series 4, Television Commercials, 1977-1990 and undated

Subseries 4.1, Master Copies, 1977-1990 and undated

Subseries 4.2, Researcher copies, 1977-1990 and undated

Series 5, Print Advertisements, 1985-1993

Subseries 5.1, Ad Slicks, 1985-1993

Subseries 5.2, Slides, 1989 and undated

Series 6, Trade Catalogues and Photographs, 1958-1982

Series 7, Administrative Files, 1982-1990
Biographical / Historical:
The Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection is the result of a two-year study of advertising of Nike athletic shoes. The effort was supported in part by a grant from Nike, Inc. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted with advertising, marketing and product development executives at Asics, Nike, John Brown & Co., Chiat/Day/Mojo and Wieden & Kennedy. A variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that documents, in print and electronic media, the history and development of the company and its advertising campaigns.

The consistently high quality of this advertising, its award-winning artistic and creative innovations, and its contribution to the fitness movement in America combine to make this a significant chapter in the history of contemporary American advertising.

One aim of the project was to record the process of decision-making in the creation of successful ad campaigns, a process not often documented in the surviving records. Topics addressed in the oral history interviews include the origins of Nike and Nike advertising, the relationship between corporate culture and advertising, the place of advertising in overall marketing strategy, the development of brand image and identity, the nature of the creative process in producing effective advertising images, the use of athletes as endorsers, and Nikes'simpact on the popular culture. Well-known campaigns are examined in depth, including Nikes's, use of the Beatles tune "Revolution", the "I Love L.A Spots" produced in conjunction with the 1984 Olympics, the controversial billboards campaign, the award-winning "Bo Knows" spots, and a series of commercials directed by African-American filmmaker Spike Lee. The collection is also a rich source of visual imagery for researchers interested in the portrayal of athletes, women and African-Americans.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Collection, 1953-1986 (AC0184)

N. W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records, 1849-1851, 1869-1996 (AC0059)

Campbell Soup Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1904-1989 (AC0367)

Cover Girl Make-Up Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1959-1990 (AC04374)

Federal Express Oral History and Documentation Project Collection, 1972-1987 (AC0306)

Caroline R. Jones Collection, circa 1942-1996 (AC0552)

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, circa 1926-1986 (AC0198)

Pepsi Generation Oral History and Documentation Collection, 1938-1986 (AC0092)

Rob and Julie Strasser Collection, 1970-1990 (AC0525)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Nike, Inc. in 1991 and 1992.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women in the advertising industry  Search this
Sports for women  Search this
Sports  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Signs and signboards -- 1970-2000  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Basketball  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Track and field  Search this
Copy writers  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Shoes -- 1970-2000  Search this
Motion picture producers and directors  Search this
African American athletes  Search this
Running -- 1970-2000  Search this
Running shoes -- 1970-2000  Search this
Athletic shoes -- 1970-2000  Search this
Shoe industry -- 1970-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Clippings
Audiotapes
Fliers (printed matter)
Advertising fliers
Commercials
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Citation:
Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection, 1958-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0448
See more items in:
Nike Advertising Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0448
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
2.44 Cubic feet (consisting of 4.5 boxes, 1 folder, 5 oversize folders, 2 flat boxes (partial), 1 map case folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Business letters
Publications
Receipts
Business cards
Trade literature
Logs (records)
Sales catalogs
Print advertising
Ephemera
Catalogs
Advertising mail
Commercial catalogs
Invoices
Trade cards
Technical reports
Trade catalogs
Advertising
Manuals
Reports
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial correspondence
Catalogues
Printed materials
Illustrations
Bulletins
Technical manuals
Printed material
Transcripts
Letterheads
Printed ephemera
Advertisements
Advertising cards
Radio scripts
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Business records
Date:
1893-1992
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The radio category contains material primarily related to radio company products, radio broadcasts and programs, technical documentation on the use of radios, and material documenting the effect of radio on modern life. The bulk of the material covers sales catalogues and advertisements, though no complete records for single companies are present.

The radio broadcast transcripts and programs include fictional or anecdotal stories, transcripts of contests, interviews, or speeches, and notifications about future broadcasts.

Literature concerning the effect of radio on modern life includes brief radio historiographies, discussions about the need for advanced education for the radio field, and documentation of the use of radio in leisure time or in rural life. Additional publications address the uses and effects of radio during times of war. While no extensive documentation exists on any one topic, the publications may provide general histories of the radio with snapshots of specific facets of radio history.
Arrangement:
Radio is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Radio is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio -- History  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception  Search this
Radio  Search this
Radio -- Transmitters and transmission  Search this
Radio -- Apparatus and supplies  Search this
Radio broadcasting  Search this
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Radio in politics  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception -- Design and construction  Search this
Radio audiences  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Radio comedies  Search this
Broadcasting  Search this
Broadcasting -- United States  Search this
War  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Radio programs  Search this
Transmission of culture  Search this
Radio -- 1930-1940  Search this
Radio -- Antennas  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Business letters
Publications -- Business
Receipts
Business cards
Trade literature
Logs (records)
Sales catalogs
Print advertising
Ephemera
Catalogs
Advertising mail
Commercial catalogs
Invoices
Trade cards
Technical reports
Trade catalogs
Advertising
Manuals
Reports
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial correspondence
Catalogues
Printed materials
Illustrations
Bulletins
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Printed material
Transcripts
Letterheads
Printed ephemera
Publications
Advertisements
Advertising cards
Radio scripts
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Business records
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Radios
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-radios

Ghost Town [Edgar Bergen television show]

Creator:
American Film Institute. National Center for Film and Video Preservation  Search this
Advertiser:
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Names:
Bergen, Edgar  Search this
McCarthy, Charlie  Search this
Collection Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (film)
Type:
Archival materials
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Duplicate of print in AFI collection: black-and-white 16mm film of the television show "Ghost Town" featuring Edgar Bergen with Charlie McCarthy and other guests. Sponsored by Coca Cola and featuring some Coca Cola commercials.
Local Numbers:
2002.3080 (NMAH Acc.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies may be used.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction may be restricted due to copyright or trademark. Contact Archives Center staff for more information.
Topic:
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Television programs -- 1950-1960  Search this
Television advertising -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Television  Search this
Genre/Form:
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Collection Citation:
Archives Center Miscellaneous Film and Videotape Collection, 1930-1978, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Archives Center Miscellaneous Film and Videotape Collection
Archives Center Miscellaneous Film and Videotape Collection / Edgar Bergen Show
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0358-ref548

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Television

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
0.74 Cubic feet (consisting of 1.5 boxes, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Publications
Printed ephemera
Advertising mail
Manuals
Print advertising
Posters
Business ephemera
Advertising
Advertisements
Technical manuals
Technical literature
Advertising cards
Advertising fliers
Date:
1938-1966
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Television forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Contains promotional material, advertisements, and publications related to both the manufacture and use of television equipment, parts, and program. Includes major brands and well-known broadcasters. The Technology folder has several B&W photos depicting towers and manufacturing. A few books are present covering general "age of television" to more technical and engineering aspects. No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company, brand, and no particular depth is present for any singular subtopic though some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or facet of industry.
Arrangement:
Television is arranged in two subseries.

Genre



Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Television is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television broadcasting -- Special effects  Search this
Television programs -- 1950-1960  Search this
Television stations  Search this
Televisions -- advertising  Search this
Broadcasting -- 1940-1950  Search this
Television -- History  Search this
Television advertising -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Television broadcasting  Search this
Television cameras  Search this
Culture change  Search this
Television programs  Search this
Broadcasting  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Television  Search this
Broadcasting -- United States  Search this
Color television  Search this
Television studios  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Publications
Printed ephemera
Advertising mail
Manuals
Print advertising
Posters
Business ephemera
Advertising
Advertisements
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Technical literature
Advertising cards
Advertising fliers
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Television, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Television
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Television
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-television

Stan Freberg Advertising Collection

Creator:
Freberg, Stan, 1926-  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Compact discs
Commercials
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Date:
1958-1991
Summary:
Stan Freberg (1926-2015) was a writer, performer, and satirist who pioneered the use of comedy in radio and television commercials during advertising's creative revolution in the 1960s. The collection includes examples of his work including his radio and television shows as well as some of his best known television commercials.
Scope and Contents:
The Stan Freberg Advertising Collection contains commercially available recordings of Freberg's radio series, "The Best of the Stan Freberg Shows" (1958), his satire, "Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America" (1961), and the New Stan Freberg Show (1991). It also includes a compiliation reel of his television shows as well as commercials produced for Chung King, Jeno's Pizza, and Encyclopedia Britannica among others during the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1: Audiovisual, 1958 -1991
Biographical / Historical:
Stan Freberg (1926-2015) was a writer, performer, and satirist who pioneered the use of comedy in radio and television commercials during advertising's creative revolution in the 1960s. The collection includes examples of his work including his radio and television shows as well as some of his best known television commercials.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Stan Freberg in 1991.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Only reference copies may be used. Digital reference copy available in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS). See repository for details.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio -- advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Radio programs  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Television programs  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Compact discs
Commercials
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Stan Freberg Advertising Collection, 1958-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0444
See more items in:
Stan Freberg Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0444

Stanley Lomas Television Commercial Collection

Collector:
Lomas, Stanley  Search this
Manufacturer:
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Colgate-Palmolive.  Search this
DuMont  Search this
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company  Search this
Actor:
Heston, Charlton  Search this
Keith, Brian, 1921-1997  Search this
Moore, Garry, 1915-1993  Search this
Wayne, John, 1907-1979  Search this
Extent:
7 motion picture films
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Commercials
Date:
1947-1990
bulk 1950-1956
Scope and Contents:
The Stanley Lomas Television Commercial Collection consists of 226 television commercials for products including dishwashing soap, beer, cigarettes, soft drinks, and breakfast cereals. The collection also includes a short 1954 film demonstrating the DuMont Electronicam, a camera designed for simultaneous live broadcast and film recording. There is also an oral history interview conducted with Stanley Lomas in 1990. Supporting documentation includes memoranda about the use of television in advertising, photographs, articles by or about Stanley Lomas, and an abstract of the oral history interview.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1: Supporting Documentation, 1947-1990

Series 2: Audiovisual, 1950-1990

Subseries 2.1: Television Commercials, 1950-1956

Subsubseries 2.1.1: Reel 1

Subsubseries 2.1.2: Reel 2

Subseries 2.2: Oral History
Biographical / Historical:
Stanley A. Lomas (1913-2003) began working in television in 1948 at the DuMont network. He started his career producing sports broadcasts.. He went on to produce television commercials, first live and then filmed, for William Esty and Company, Inc., an ad agency with major clients including R.J. Reynolds, Coca Cola, and Colgate Palmolive. Around 1949 Lomas became Esty's vice president for televison commercial creation and production. Lomas often used celebrities to promote the products in his commercials. Many of the commercials in the Stanley Lomas Collection feature baseball players, Hollywood actors, and television personalities. Among the most well-known commercials are those that have doctors recommending specific cigarette brands. Lomas left Esty in 1957 and later founded his own agency, Stanley A. Lomas & Associates which specialized in market research. After retiring Lomas embarked on a career as an artist.
Provenance:
Donated by Stanley Lomas, January 18, 1990.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Only reference videos may be used. Reel 1 has been digitized and is available in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management Systen (DAMS).
Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Baseball players -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Athletes -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Celebrities -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Television advertising -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Cigarettes -- advertising -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Beer -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Carbonated beverages -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Cereals, prepared -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Television cameras -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Soap -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Commercials
Citation:
Stanley Lomas Television Commercial Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0342
See more items in:
Stanley Lomas Television Commercial Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0342

Men & Women: Costume and Gender TV Commercials Collection

Creator:
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Men and Women: A History of Costume, Gender and Power (Exhibition) (Washington, D.C.: 1989)  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Commercials
Videotapes
Date:
1988-1989.
Scope and Contents:
A collection of television advertisements, used in the research for and in some cases, in the exhibition "Men and Women: A History of Costume, Gender and Power". Both U-Matic and VHS video formats are included.
Arrangement:
1 series.
General:
Videotape cassettes, 3/4", U-Matic.
Videotape cassettes, 1/2", VHS.
Provenance:
Transferred from the Office of Telecommunications in 2002.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected films must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Costume -- advertising  Search this
Exhibitions -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Commercials
Videotapes -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Men & Women: Costume and Gender TV Commercials Collection, 1988-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0529
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0529

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