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Ebony Vol. XXI No. 8

Published by:
Johnson Publishing Company, American, 1942 - 2019  Search this
Photograph by:
Charles W. Smith  Search this
Subject of:
Diana Smith, American  Search this
Rock Rest Tourist Home, American, 1948 - 1976  Search this
Owned by:
Clayton Sinclair, American  Search this
Hazel Sinclair, American  Search this
Created by:
Ebony, American, founded 1945  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product) with metal
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 13 7/16 × 10 1/4 × 1/4 in. (34.2 × 26 × 0.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place collected:
Kittery, York County, Maine, United States, North and Central America
Place printed:
Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, United States
Date:
June 1966
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Black Enterprise  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Christianity  Search this
Hair  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Law  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Religion  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Travel  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Portsmouth Black Heritage Trail, Inc.
Object number:
2011.12.53.5
Restrictions & Rights:
© Ebony Media Group LLC. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5206dc8ea-fef3-4ca3-b3f8-7c284fe361a7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.12.53.5
Online Media:

Photograph of Madam C.J. Walker

Photograph by:
Addison N. Scurlock, American, 1883 - 1964  Search this
Subject of:
Madam C.J. Walker, American, 1867 - 1919  Search this
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 5 15/16 x 3 15/16 in. (15.1 x 10 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
portraits
Place made:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1912
Topic:
African American  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Black Enterprise  Search this
Business  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of A'Lelia Bundles / Madam Walker Family Archives
Object number:
2013.153.8
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd56c3eabb0-d7ff-4fa5-ad7a-b790794fe5e7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.153.8
Online Media:

Revision Path: Episode 37; Jon Daniel

Produced by:
Maurice Cherry, American  Search this
Interview of:
Jon Daniel, British, 1966 - 2017  Search this
Subject of:
Toussaint Louverture, Haitian, 1743 - 1803  Search this
Medium:
digital
Dimensions:
Duration: 1 hr., 5 min., 38 sec.
Type:
sound recordings
digital media - born digital
Place made:
United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Barbados, Caribbean, North and Central America
Grenada, Caribbean, North and Central America
England, Europe
Date:
July 28, 2014
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Comics and graphic novels  Search this
Design  Search this
Fatherhood  Search this
Identity  Search this
Museums  Search this
Sitcoms  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Maurice Cherry and Glitch, Inc.
Object number:
2019.47.7.1
Restrictions & Rights:
© Maurice Cherry and Glitch, Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
Revision Path
Classification:
Media Arts-Audio Recordings
Movement:
Black Power (Black Pride)
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd535fc0adf-6bac-48a7-a364-5d64c1f1bf73
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2019.47.7.1

Revision Path: Bonus Episode; The Design of Black Panther

Produced by:
Maurice Cherry, American  Search this
Interview of:
Jordan Green, American  Search this
Regine Gilbert, American  Search this
Paul Anthony Webb, American, born 1988  Search this
Subject of:
Hannah Beachler, American, born 1970  Search this
Ryan Kyle Coogler, American, born 1986  Search this
Lupita Amondi Nyong'o, Mexican Kenyan, born 1983  Search this
Medium:
digital
Dimensions:
Duration: 1 hr., 2 min., 29 sec.
Type:
sound recordings
digital media - born digital
Place made:
United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
South Korea, Asia
Africa
Date:
February 22, 2018
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Africa  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Comics and graphic novels  Search this
Costume  Search this
Design  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Hair  Search this
Hip-hop (Music)  Search this
Hollywood (Film)  Search this
Music  Search this
Technology  Search this
Typography  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Maurice Cherry and Glitch, Inc.
Object number:
2019.47.9.1
Restrictions & Rights:
© Maurice Cherry and Glitch, Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
Revision Path
Classification:
Media Arts-Audio Recordings
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d7aa7727-6178-4202-a070-ab1a3b6b31d6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2019.47.9.1

Silver hand mirror owned by members of the Ellis family

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
silver and reflective glass
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 11 5/8 x 4 3/8 x 1 in. (29.5 x 11.1 x 2.5 cm)
Type:
hand mirrors
Place used:
Orange County, Virginia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
late 19th-early 20th century
Topic:
African American  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Domestic life  Search this
Families  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Clara Ellis Payne
Object number:
2012.42.8.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Personal Effects and Items
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5fcbbcfae-4837-4c12-99df-4a975a27f79e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.42.8.1
Online Media:

Catherine Hann Papers

Creator:
Hann, Catherine (Huynh bach Thuy)  Search this
Names:
United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human RIghts.  Search this
United States Catholic Conference. Migration and Refugee Services  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Interviews
Oral histories (document genres)
Correspondence
Identity cards
Diaries
Audiotapes
Checkbooks
Date:
1953-2006
Summary:
Papers relating to Catherine Hann's life in Vietnam (1953-1981), her flight by boat to Malaysia and stay at Pulau Bidong refugee camp (February --September 1981), her immigration to the United States (September 1981), and her work in Maryland as a circuit board assembler, manicurist and esthetician.
Scope and Contents:
The Catherine Hann Papers are divided into five series: Life in Vietnam, pre-1981; Stay in Malaysia, 1981; United States, 1981-2006; Oral History Interviews, 2002, 2006; and Photographs, 1955-2005.

Series 1 consists of four documents from Hann's life in Vietnam: an official copy of Hann's 1953 birth certificate, her college student ID, her Gia Long High School student ID and her 1974 South Vietnamese identity card.

Series 2 documents Hann's stay in the Pulau Bidong refugee camp off the coast of Malaysia and her family's medical processing in Kuala Lumpur. Especially interesting is a small diary Hann kept in 1981 documenting the building of the fishing boat, the voyage in the Gulf of Thailand, the stay at Pulau Bidong and Kuala Lumpur, and the family's first few months in the United States. There is an English translation of the diary. Other materials in this series include letters sent by relatives and friends to Hann in the refugee camp, papers documenting a family member's attempt to sponsor the family in the U.S., and hand-made Certificates of Commendation awarded to Hann's husband for his work in the refugee camp. The original letter with attached photographs from the U.S. Embassy in Kuala Lumpur granting permission for the family to immigrate is included.

Series 3 describes Hann's life in the United States as she transitioned from refugee to financially successful American citizen. Uncommon pieces of ephemera are cancelled checks repaying a loan from the United States Catholic Conference for the purchase of plane tickets from Malaysia to the United States. Also included are papers from Hann's seventeen years in the electronics industry, textbooks for manicurist training, a ledger and checkbook from Hann's short-lived Nails & Beauty Spa, Inc., and daily schedules with earnings from her current job at Totally Polished.

Series 4 consists of the original audiocassettes, reference CDs and typed transcript of an oral history conducted by Susan B. Strange, associate curator, with Hann on March 7, 2006, as well as a typed transcript of a December 14, 2002, interview with Hann conducted by Daniel Ekman, a student at St. Andrew's Episcopal School in Potomac, Maryland.

Original photographs in Series 5 document Hann's life in Vietnam, her husband's work in the refugee camp, the family's departure from Pulau Bidong, and Hann at work at Fairchild Space Co. Also in Series 5 is a folder with photocopies of seven photographs taken in 2005 by a Smithsonian staff member of Hann working at her manicure table. Smithsonian negative numbers are included with the photocopies; releases from the photographer, Hann, and the woman having a manicure, are in the Archives Center's control file for this collection. In the same folder are photocopies of five photographs (originals retained by Hann) showing Hann's life in Vietnam; the Archives Center scan number is printed on each photocopy. Hann granted copyright in these five photographs to the National Museum of American History on April 22, 2006; the release form is in the Archives Center's control file.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series with chronological arrangement.

Series 1: Life in Vietnam, 1953-1981

Series 2: Stay in Malaysia, 1981

Series 3: United States, 1981-2006

Series 4: Oral History Interviews, 2002, 2006

Series 5: Photographs, 1955-2005
Biographical / Historical:
Catherine Hann was born in Saigon, State of Vietnam, on November 14, 1953 as Huynh bach Thuy. (She changed her name to Catherine Hann when she became a naturalized American citizen on June 19, 1987.) Hann, her parents and younger siblings lived in Saigon where her father worked as an instructor at Truong Quan Y, a South Vietnamese Army medical school. In 1968 Hann's family moved further south to Rach-Gia in Kien Giang province to care for Hann's recently-widowed paternal grandmother. Hann, the eldest of twelve children, stayed behind in Saigon, living with a great-uncle, so that she could continue attending Gia Long High School, one of the most prestigious and academically challenging public schools for girls in the country.

After graduation from Gia Long in 1973, Hann attended the University of Science in Saigon where she studied to become a biologist. In 1975, Hann's father, who had worked in a South Vietnamese military hospital in Rach-Gia since his arrival there in 1968, was sent to a "re-education camp." Hann returned to Rach-Gia to be with her mother and to help support the family. She then began attending a teacher training program in Rach-Gia where she trained as a biology teacher. At the training program, Hann met Han Huu Vinh who became her husband in 1976. After graduation, Hann taught biology in a high school in Rach-Gia while her husband taught mathematics in the same school. Their son, Kinh, was born in 1977.

In addition to supplementing the family income with her teacher salary, she also purchased unprocessed rice or "rough rice," had it milled, and sold the resulting white rice. To make a little more money for the family, the hulls and other residue from the milling process were sold as hog food. The future looked bleak, and Hann and her husband decided to take their young son and flee the country.

After two failed attempts to escape by boat, the Hanns were luckier the third time. A family friend obtained permission to build a fishing boat, a small wooden craft only 11.5 meters by 2.1 meters. Hann's family, one of the initiators and organizers of the scheme to use the fishing boat as a means of escape, hired a man who had served in the South Vietnamese Navy to navigate. At 2:05 a.m. on the morning of February 14, 1981, ninety-two people left Rach-Gia on the overloaded boat and headed southwest. Three days later the fishing vessel, towing another boat found stranded after being attacked by pirates, docked at Pulau Bidong, an island off the coast of Malaysia. After five months in the United Nations refugee camp on Pulau Bidong, Hann, husband, son, brother, and husband's nephew were taken to Kuala Lumpur for processing in preparation for immigration to the United States.

Hann's husband's sister, a naturalized American living in Rockville, Maryland, was their sponsor, and on September 11, 1981, the five-member family group arrived in the United States. The five continued to live together for about four years before Hann's brother and her husband's nephew went out on their own. After being on welfare and receiving intensive English-language training, Hann and her husband gradually became self-sufficient. Hann's first job was working in the cafeteria at Montgomery College in Rockville which she left to work at Denro Labs doing electronic assembly. Hann's husband's first job was at Solarex testing solar panels.

After almost ten years in the electronic assembly field, a Vietnamese friend encouraged Hann to train as a manicurist, and in 1992 Hann graduated from the Aesthetics Institute of Cosmetology in Gaithersburg, Maryland. At first she only manicured her own nails, but a year or so later Hann began working on Saturdays at a busy nail salon while continuing to work full-time in the electronics industry. When she learned that doing facials and waxing was faster and more profitable than doing manicures, Hann obtained training and a license to become an esthetician. After her week-day employer, Orbital Science Corp., moved to Sterling, Virginia, in 2000, a long commute for Hann, she started working full-time as an esthetician and manicurist at Totally Polished in Potomac, Maryland.

Hann works six days a week at Totally Polished, and on her day off she spends the morning doing manicures and waxing for private clients in their homes. This hard work has enabled Hann and her husband to pay off the mortgage on their single-family house in Gaithersburg and purchase a rental house in Florida. Their only child, Kinh, also has done well, earning a Master's Degree from the University of Maryland and now (2006) working on his PhD in biomedical engineering. Kinh is employed by Digene Corporation; he bought a house three years ago; and, as his mother proudly states, he drives a brand new BMW. Hann's stated reason for fleeing her country was "for my son's future;" the family's hard work and sacrifices seem to have made her hopes come true.
Separated Materials:
In 2005, the Division of Work and Industry collected manicure tools and soldering test equipment from Hann; in 2006 the division collected facial and waxing-related objects from Hann. Clothing worn on the boat fleeing Vietnam was donated in 2006 to the Division of Home and Community Life, along with tweezers Hann purchased in Saigon and carried throughout her immigration experience. The wedding of Kinh Hann to Leila Poursedehi in 2008 is documented in the Archives Center Weddings Documentation Collection, collection number 1131. The Vietnamese wedding dress that Leila Poursedehi wore at their wedding dinner was donated to the costume collection in the Division of Home and Community Life in 2008.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Catherine Hann, March 18, 2006.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Manicuring  Search this
Naturalization  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Vietnam War, 1961-1975  Search this
Vietnamese Americans -- Biography  Search this
Small business  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Interviews
Oral histories (document genres)
Correspondence
Identity cards
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Diaries -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Checkbooks
Citation:
Catherine Hann Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0921
See more items in:
Catherine Hann Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85731561f-8d9f-426e-87e6-76c6c86e99d3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0921
Online Media:

Poro Graduates of 1931 Washington, D.C.. [acetate film photonegative,]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 4, Folder 21
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Panoramas
Banquet camera photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1950 -- Photographs
Date:
1931
Scope and Contents:
Scan Number: 618ns0242006pg.tif
Group photograph, all women in formal attire in front of pipe organ in a church. Ink caption and Scurlock signature on negative. Eastman--Safety--Kodak edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Poro School of Beauty Culture  Search this
Beauty schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Panoramas
Banquet camera photographs -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.12: Banquet Negatives / 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a4849dad-0a01-4f56-a9ed-01a8953e91ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-12-ref246

Class of 1937--Apex college of Beauty Culture--Washington, D.C. [acetate film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 4, Folder 29
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Panoramas
Banquet camera photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1950 -- Photographs
Date:
1937
Scope and Contents:
Scan Number: 618ns0242206pg.tif
Ink caption on negative. Labeled as "Scurlock, Photo".
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
Beauty schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Panoramas
Banquet camera photographs -- 1930-1940
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.12: Banquet Negatives / 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84c8e5ffd-3f48-4368-8a92-60c3b8210609
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-12-ref262

Rev. S.S. Jones Home Movies: Reel 6

Directed by:
Rev. S. S. Jones, American, 1869 - 1936  Search this
Subject of:
Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company, American, founded 1906  Search this
Madame C.J. Walker School of Beauty Culture, American, 1910 - 1985  Search this
Medium:
acetate film
Dimensions:
Duration: 11 Minutes
Length (Film): 300 Feet
Type:
silent films
home movies
black-and-white films (visual works)
16mm (photographic film size)
Place filmed:
Muskogee, Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States, North and Central America
Rentiesville, McIntosh County, Oklahoma, United States, North and Central America
Place printed:
Summit, Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1924-1928
Topic:
African American  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Amusements  Search this
Baptist  Search this
Beauty schools  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Families  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Travel  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Naomi Long Madgett
Object number:
2011.79.6.1a
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Rev. S.S. Jones Home Movies
Classification:
Media Arts-Film and Video
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd50d787028-cf15-42f0-8527-ae7fcbb0eaa7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.79.6.1a

Scrapbook compiled by Louise Alexander Gunn

Created by:
Louise Alexander Gunn, American  Search this
Subject of:
Valaida Snow, American, 1904 - 1956  Search this
Texas Guinan, American, 1884 - 1933  Search this
Wealthy Davis, American  Search this
Marian Anderson, American, 1897 - 1993  Search this
Medium:
newsprint, ink on photographic paper, cardboard, metal
Dimensions:
12 x 8 1/2 x 1 in. (30.5 x 21.6 x 2.5 cm)
Type:
scrapbooks
Place depicted:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1920s - 1950s
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Amusements  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Christianity  Search this
Communities  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Families  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Motherhood  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Theatre  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.65.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd54e066dff-37fd-48fd-84cc-072edf9f652b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.65.2

Necklace associated with the Boa Morte sisterhood of Cachoeira

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
brass (alloy)
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 20 × 3 × 5/8 in. (50.8 × 7.6 × 1.6 cm)
L: 42 in. (106.7 cm)
Type:
necklaces
Place used:
Cachoeira, Bahia, Brazil, Latin America, South America
Date:
19th - 20th century
Topic:
African American  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Catholicism  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Jessica B. Harris
Object number:
2014.210.3
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Religious and Sacred Objects
Adornment
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b38a578a-a228-4e77-86d1-aaf1884ff03d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.210.3
Online Media:

Letter from Sara S. Washington for the Apex News and Hair Co, Inc.

Created by:
Apex News and Hair Company, American, founded 1919  Search this
Subject of:
Sara Spencer Washington, American, 1889 - 1953  Search this
Cosmopolitan Community Church, American, founded 1925  Search this
Signed by:
Sara Spencer Washington, American, 1889 - 1953  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 11 × 8 1/2 in. (27.9 × 21.6 cm)
Type:
form letters
Place made:
Atlantic City, Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, North and Central America
Date:
September 11, 1933
Topic:
African American  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Beauty schools  Search this
Business  Search this
Communication  Search this
Religion  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the Stokes/Washington Family
Object number:
2017.14.14
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a8db22d1-9eb0-4c01-8b69-af7defa3d17e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2017.14.14
Online Media:

Untitled (Sikolo Brathwaite, Orange Portrait)

Photograph by:
Kwame Brathwaite, American, born 1938  Search this
Subject of:
Sikolo Brathwaite, American  Search this
African Jazz-Arts Society and Studios, American, founded 1956  Search this
Medium:
pigment on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 15 × 15 in. (38.1 × 38.1 cm)
Type:
portraits
inkjet prints
Place captured:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1968; printed 2020
Topic:
African American  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black power  Search this
Fashion  Search this
Photography  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2021.26.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Courtesy of the Kwame Brathwaite Archive & Philip Martin Gallery, © Kwame Brathwaite
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Movement:
Black is Beautiful
BAM (Black Arts Movement 1965-1976)
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cc464a06-5751-403d-8cf7-68139d226cca
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2021.26.5
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Physical Culture

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (consisting of 2 boxes, 2 folders, 3 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
circa 1795-1965
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Physical Culture forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This subject category- Physical Culture consists of material related to the various aspects of physical culture. The materials contain information about physical culture and instructions for readers on how to improve their bodies. Numerous images show how to perform exercises and images of healthy and unhealthy bodies. This category contains information not only on the philosophy of physical culture but numerous items that illustrate the start of America's obsession with weight and body image and the commercialization of physical health.

Publications, Informational and Instructive consists of books, periodicals, and broadsides that were published to inform the public about physical culture, to direct readers in how to follow some aspect of physical culture, or both. Though a portion of these items are related to specific exercise equipment or regiments, publications for the purpose of marketing an item or service are located in series two. The majority of items in this series were published in New York, between 1890 and 1920; however there are also items from as early as 1854 and one item from 1940 as well as items from London, Philadelphia, Boston, and Battle Creek, Michigan. Publications are in alphabetical order by author.

The subject most represented in this series is exercise with many items providing information on how to perform proper exercises through both written description and images. The instructions are often different for men and women and many involve the use of various types of exercise equipment. Other topics covered include nerves, breathing, massage, and many other tenants of physical culture. Two volumes, The Body Beautiful and The Top Link, have instructions for properly performing everyday tasks such as sitting, standing, and breathing. Two volumes, Health Culture and the Sanitary Woolen System and The Influence of Dress in Producing the Physical Decadence of American Women, focus on dress and its affect on the body, specifically the dangers of corsets and artificial fibers. Manuel for Physical Measurements gives directions on how to measure the size and strength of various mussels. Training in Theory and Practice is a general text providing information and instruction on almost all areas connected to physical culture. The latest publication, The Fifty Years in Business Magazine from 1940, contains an article about Bernarr Macfadden.

Advertisements is divided into four categories depending on what the advertisement is attempting to sell: exercise equipment, classes at physical culture institutions and schools, instruction in physical culture through books or by mail, and lectures on physical culture. The items are mostly broadsides, letters, or pamphlets and the majority are illustrated, many in color. Most items are from the 1890s and early 1900s with a large number from New York including all the physical culture schools. Within each sub series the items are in alphabetical order by the company advertised.

Advertisements exists for numerous exercise machines, including many that are similar to machines seen today and some that are less familiar. Two machines, the Albany Normalizing School's Niles Normalizing Machine and the Sanitarium Equipment Company's Battle Creek Health Builder, use electricity to vibrate a belt placed against the body. Other contraptions included The Cartilage Company's Cartilage Treatment which increases height, the Greenhut-Siegel Copper Company's Professor Charles Munter's Nulife, a garment that improves the wear's posture, and a vibrator from Shelton Electric Company.

Instruction is offered in massage, hydrotherapy, Swedish movements, and facial beauty culture, as well as general physical exercise and education. In addition the advertisements from Macfadden Publications, Inc. and Physical Culture Publishing Company both include opportunities to become involved with the company itself, by purchasing stock or becoming a sales associate. The proposed benefits from the equipment and instructions cover a large range of topics including health, self respect, increased lifespan, youthfulness and for women a more attractive face and larger bust.

General Information includes an article from 1795 on the health benefits of massage as well as other newspaper articles about physical culture. Images of various types depict the ideal male and female body. Items are arranged by type, image or article, then by date.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Physical Culture is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Physical Culture, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Physical
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Physical Culture
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d2cd0dc2-d864-4e56-86f8-527ae93b9386
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-physical

Kathryn Murray Inc. Facial Beauty Culture, Chicago, Illinois

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1921
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Physical Culture, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Physical Culture
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Physical Culture / 2: Advertisements / 2.3: Advertisements for Services and Publications,
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8de43c971-3fa6-4eb6-9e01-0491045c9016
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-physical-ref568

Apex Beauty Culture School

Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1934
Scope and Contents note:
Subject/Sitter: graduating class
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client / 4.6.1: Black and White Negatives Part 1
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep815caa115-5e71-4b75-8161-e587810782e2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-06-ref28

Breck Girls Collection

Creator:
Williams, Ralph William  Search this
Breck Company.  Search this
Dial Corporation.  Search this
American Cyanamid Company  Search this
Sheldon, Charles  Search this
Names:
Basinger, Kim  Search this
Gray, Erin  Search this
Hamill, Joan  Search this
Shields, Brooke  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (16 boxes, 188 pieces of original artwork)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Pastels (visual works)
Advertisements
Business records
Date:
circa 1936-1995
Summary:
The collection documents the development and evolution of the Breck Girl, a highly successful and long-lived advertising campaign whose hallmark was its vision of idealized American womanhood through correspondence, photographs, paintings, and print advertisements.
Scope and Contents:
188 pieces of original advertising art (mostly pastel drawings), and photographs, correspondence, and business records, documenting the development and evolution of the Breck Girls advertising campaign. Original advertising art includes portraits of famous models, such as Cheryl Tiegs, Brooke Shields, Kim Basinger, and Erin Gray. Artists represented include Charles Sheldon and Ralph William Williams. The 2006 addendum consists of approximately one sixth of one cubic foot of papers relating to Cynthia Brown's selection as a Breck Girl, 1988 and her induction into the Breck Hall of Fame.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into four series.

Series 1: Company history, 1946-1990

Series 2: Photographs, 1960-1995

Series 3: Print ads, 1946-1980

Series 4: Original artwork, 1936-1994
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. John Breck is credited with developing one of the first liquid shampoos in the United States, in Springfield Massachusetts in 1908; Breck is also credited with introducing the first ph-balanced shampoo, in 1930. During the early years of the business, distribution remained localized in New England, and the product was sold exclusively to beauty salons until 1946. Advertising for the brand began in 1932, but appeared only in trade publications, such as Modern Beauty Shop.

Edward Breck, son of the founder, assumed management of the company in 1936. Breck became acquainted with Charles Sheldon, an illustrator and portrait painter who is believed to have studied in Paris under Alphonse Mucha, an artist noted for his contributions to Art Nouveau style. Sheldon had achieved some measure of fame for his paintings of movie stars for the cover of Photoplay magazine in the 1920s, and had also done idealized pastel portraits for the cover of Parents magazine. He created his first pastel portraits for Breck in 1936, launching what would become one of America's longest running ad campaigns. When the company began national advertising (and mass distribution) in 1946, the campaign featured Sheldon's 1937 painting of seventeen-year old Roma Whitney, a spirited blonde. Ms. Whitney's profile was registered as Breck's trademark in 1951. When he retired in 1957, Sheldon had created 107 oil paintings and pastels for the company. Sheldon was known to favor ordinary women over professional models, and in the early years of the campaign, the Breck Girls were Breck family members, neighbors or residents of the community in which he worked; company lore holds that nineteen Breck Girls were employees of the advertising agency he founded in 1940. A Breck advertising manager later described Sheldon's illustrations as, "illusions, depicting the quality and beauty of true womanhood using real women as models." The paintings and pastels form a coherent, if derivative, body of work which celebrates an idealized vision of American girlhood and womanhood, an ideal in which fair skin, beauty and purity are co-equal.

Ralph William Williams was hired to continue the Breck Girls campaign after Sheldon's retirement. Between 1957 and his death in 1976, Williams modified the Breck Girl look somewhat through the use of brighter colors and a somewhat heightened sense of movement and individuality. The advertising manager during his tenure recalled that Aat first Williams continued in Sheldon' manner, but in later years, as women became more independent, he would take care to integrate each girl' particular personality; he studied each girl and learned her special qualities. During these years, Breck Girls were identified through the company's sponsorship of America's Junior Miss contests. Williams work includes pastels of celebrities Cybil Shepard (1968 Junior Miss from Tennessee), Cheryl Tiegs (1968), Jaclyn Smith (1971, 1973), Kim Basinger (1972, 1974) and Brooke Shields (1974) very early in their careers.

By the 1960s, at the height of its success, Breck held about a twenty percent share of the shampoo market and enjoyed a reputation for quality and elegance. Ownership of the company changed several times (American Cyanamid in 1963; Dial Corporation in 1990). The corresponding fluctuations in management of the company and in advertising expenditures tended to undermine the coherence of the national advertising campaign. In addition, despite William's modifications, the image had become dated. Attempts to update the image misfired, further limiting the brand's coherence and effectiveness. Finally, increased competition and an absence of brand loyalty among consumers through the 1970s and 1980s helped push Breck from its number one position into the bargain bin. The Breck Girl campaign was discontinued around 1978, although there have been at least two minor revivals, first in 1992 with the Breck Girls Hall of Fame, and again in 1995 when a search was begun to identify three new Breck Women. Scope and Content: The 188 pieces of original advertising art (62 oil paintings on board, 2 pencil sketches on paper, and 124 pastels on paper) and related photographs, correspondence and business files in this collection document the development and evolution of the Breck Girl, a highly successful and long-lived advertising campaign whose hallmark was its vision of idealized American womanhood. The collection is a perfect fit with other 20th century Archives Center collections documenting the efforts of American business to reach the female consumer market. The Estelle Ellis Collection (advertising and promotions for Seventeen, Charm, Glamour and House & Garden and many other clients) the Cover Girl Collection (make-up), the Maidenform Collection (brassieres), and the Tupperware Collections offer a prodigious body of evidence for understanding the role women were expected to play as consumers in the 20th century.

These advertising images also offer fertile ground for research into the evolution of popular images of American girlhood and womanhood. The research uses of the collection derive primarily from its value as an extensive visual catalog of the ideal types of American women and girls, arising and coalescing during a period in which 19th century ideals of womanhood were being revisited (the depression, the war years, the immediate post-war period) and continuing, with slight modifications and revisions, through several decades during which those historical ideals were being challenged and revised.
Related Materials:
Several items of packaging, 1930s-1980s are held in the former Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life); an 18k gold Breck insignia pin is in the former.
Provenance:
The Dial Corporation through Jane Owens, Senior Vice President, Gift, June 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Shampoos -- advertising  Search this
Hair -- Shampooing  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Feminine beauty (Aesthetics)  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Pastels (visual works)
Advertisements -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Breck Girls Collection, ca. 1936-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0651
See more items in:
Breck Girls Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8391c0d4c-0f44-4123-acb3-bd54f8a86aa3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0651
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Faculty and graduates of the Matteele School of Beauty Culture [acetate film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Creator:
Defender (film manufacturer)  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 17
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
June 1935
Scope and Contents:
Ink on negative, bottom: "Faculty and graduates of the / Matteele School of Beauty Culture, June 1935 / Scurlock / Photo." Also "F / Matteele Beauty School 1935" on edge. Defender safety base edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty culture  Search this
African Americans -- Education -- 1930-1940 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Portraits, Group -- 1930-1940 -- Washington (D.C.).  Search this
African American beauty operators  Search this
Teachers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83a3a40ae-034a-4dad-a581-21d56b23ca09
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref304
Online Media:

Hawaiian Beauty School "Grads", Oct[ober] 1963 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Hawaiian Beauty School  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5".)
Container:
Box 109
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
October 1963
Scope and Contents:
Posed group of women seated and standing in rows. Three of the women are wearing black academic robes, the others are all dressed in white academic robes and hats. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "1 11 x 14 1" border". "KODAK - SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint Retouching on faces and arms with New Coccine.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women -- 1960-1970  Search this
African American women -- Beauty culture  Search this
African American beauty operators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8795bf4b4-5279-4c7c-8a4e-24a01b4049ed
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3559
Online Media:

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