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William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4e897a264-bea6-4416-b04d-25e2701c060d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Online Media:

Battle of Gettysburg Lithograph

Maker:
Kurz & Allison-Art Studio  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22 1/4 in x 28 1/4 in; 56.515 cm x 71.755 cm
Object Name:
print
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Associated Place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
1884
Subject:
Civil War  Search this
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Civil War and Reconstruction  Search this
ID Number:
AF.65353M
Accession number:
226765
Catalog number:
65353M
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
Art
ThinkFinity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-dcb3-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1301372

Painted Canteen

Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
cork (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22.5 cm x 16.8 cm x 6.5 cm; 8 27/32 in x 6 5/8 in x 2 9/16 in
Object Name:
canteen
Other Terms:
canteen; Individual Equipment; Army
Used:
United States: Pennsylvania
Related event:
Civil War  Search this
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
Civil War and Reconstruction  Search this
Credit Line:
Estate of Stephen Earl Hagerman
ID Number:
1996.0340.01
Accession number:
1996.0340
Catalog number:
1996.0340.01
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Civil War
Military
Exhibition:
Price of Freedom
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-0584-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_687129

medal

Physical Description:
metal, silver (overall material)
Measurements:
medal: 6.25 cm; x 2 7/16 in
Object Name:
Medal
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania
United States
Date made:
1962
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
NU.NU68075
Catalog number:
NU68075
242372
Serial number:
50
See more items in:
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-419e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_966447

Gettysburg Battle-Field, 1886

Object Name:
Print
Other Terms:
Print; Chromolithographs
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
AF.26607
Catalog number:
26607
Accession number:
64951
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a2-8432-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_448721

Strong Vincent's Sword

Associated person:
Vincent, Strong  Search this
Maker:
William H. Horstmann & Sons  Search this
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
brass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 1/2 in x 37 1/4 in x 3 1/2 in; 11.43 cm x 94.615 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
sword
Other Terms:
sword; Edged Weapons; Army; Field Grade Officer; Staff Officer; Officer; Presentation
Used:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Related event:
Civil War  Search this
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
Civil War and Reconstruction  Search this
Credit Line:
Elizabeth Carter Vincent
ID Number:
AF.14438
Catalog number:
14438
Accession number:
55740
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
ThinkFinity
Exhibition:
Price of Freedom
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a2-6b98-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_440590
Online Media:

Cavalry Officer's Saber

Measurements:
overall, scabbard: 1 in x 2 3/4 in x 33 7/8 in; 2.54 cm x 6.985 cm x 86.0425 cm
overall, saber: 3 7/8 in x 5 in x 37 in; 9.8425 cm x 12.7 cm x 93.98 cm
Object Name:
Sword
saber
Other Terms:
Sword; Saber; Edged Weapons; Army; Cavalry; Officer
Place made:
Europe
Associated date:
1861 - 1865
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
AF.40929
Catalog number:
40929
Accession number:
146693
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b0-ec56-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_440623
Online Media:

Confederate Battle Flag

Physical Description:
wool (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 48 in x 48 in; 121.92 cm x 121.92 cm
Object Name:
flag
Other Terms:
flag; Military; CSA, Army; Battle; Rgt, North Carolina
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
1861
Associated date:
1863-07-02
Subject:
Flags  Search this
Related event:
Civil War  Search this
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
Civil War and Reconstruction  Search this
ID Number:
AF.59858M
Catalog number:
59858M
Accession number:
219818
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
ThinkFinity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-9abd-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_439645

Grand Army of the Republic Medal and Ribbon Device

Associated institution:
Grand Army of the Republic  Search this
Physical Description:
cloth (suspension ribbon material)
metal (pendant material)
Object Name:
badge
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania
Associated date:
1883
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Civil War and Reconstruction  Search this
ID Number:
AF.58263M
Catalog number:
58263M
Accession number:
210127
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
ThinkFinity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-8dfc-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_420395

sheet music

Depicted (sitter):
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Davis, Jefferson  Search this
Publisher:
Bregman, Vocco and Conn, Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
black (overall color)
white (overall color)
Measurements:
overall: 12 in x 9 in; 30.48 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
sheet music
Made at:
United States: New York, New York City
Referenced:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Copyright date:
1961
Subject:
Civil War  Search this
Music  Search this
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
2014.3069.157
Accession number:
2014.3069
Catalog number:
2014.3069.157
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746af-c838-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1590263

Photographic War History: The War for the Union; The Hero of Gettysburg

Photographer:
O'Sullivan, T. H.  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8.636 cm x 17.78 cm; 3 13/32 in x 7 in
Object Name:
photograph
stereograph
Place taken:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
ca 1863
1863
ca 1865
Photograph taken:
1863-07
Subject:
Civil War  Search this
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
1988.3071.0067
Catalog number:
1988.3071.0067
Accession number:
1988.3071
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-e297-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1446623

The High Water Mark, nd

Maker:
Historical Art Prints  Search this
Artist:
Troiani, Donald  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
grey (overall color)
brown (overall color)
red (overall color)
blue (overall color)
lithograph (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
average spatial: 62.5 cm x 78.5 cm; 24 5/8 in x 30 7/8 in
Object Name:
Print
Other Terms:
Print; Art
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, Southbury
United States: Connecticut, Southbury
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
1994
1994
Associated dates:
1863 07 03 / 1863 07 03
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
1994.3112.01
Catalog number:
1994.3112.01
Nonaccession number:
1994.3112
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-1eca-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1170482

Band of Brothers, nd

Maker:
Historical Art Prints  Search this
Artist:
Troiani, Donald  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
red (overall color)
blue (overall color)
green (overall color)
white (overall color)
Measurements:
image dimensions: 51 cm x 68 cm; 20 1/16 in x 26 3/4 in
Object Name:
Print
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, Southbury
United States: Connecticut, Southbury
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
1993
1993
Associated dates:
1863 07 03 / 1863 07 03
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
1994.3027.01
Catalog number:
1994.3027.01
Nonaccession number:
1994.3027
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-0398-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1161621

The Fight for the Colors, 1985

Artist:
Troiani, Don  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 65 cm; x 25 9/16 in
Object Name:
Print
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, Stamford
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
1985
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
1992.3193.17
Catalog number:
1992.3193.17
Nonaccession number:
1992.3193
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-9901-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1114201

Retreat By Recoil, 1992

Artist:
Troiani, Don  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 62 cm x 78.8 cm; 24 7/16 in x 31 in
Object Name:
Print
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, Stamford
Associated place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
United States: Pennsylvania, Gettysburg
Date made:
1992
Associated dates:
1863 07 02 / 1863 07 02
Related event:
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863  Search this
ID Number:
1992.3193.29
Catalog number:
1992.3193.29
Nonaccession number:
1992.3193
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-8b1b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1114345

Bugle resounding : music and musicians of the Civil War era / edited by Bruce C. Kelley and Mark A. Snell

Author:
National Conference on Music of the Civil War Era  Search this
Snell, Mark A  Search this
Kelley, Bruce C  Search this
Physical description:
x, 260 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Songs and music
Place:
United States
Date:
2004
C2004
19th century
Civil War, 1861-1865
Topic:
Music--History and criticism  Search this
History  Search this
History and criticism  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_775193

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