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Minutes

Extent:
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1846-1995
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum trustees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution, Board of Regents, Minutes
Identifier:
Record Unit 1
See more items in:
Minutes
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0001
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Baker-Nunn Camera

Author:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Subject:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Object; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Object
Date:
c. 1958
Topic:
Observing stations  Search this
Baker-Nunn Camera  Search this
Satellites  Search this
Instrument  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Baker, James G  Search this
Nunn, Joseph  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Photography  Search this
Standard number:
2002-32252
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_8335

Smithsonian Indian Field Station (SAO)

Author:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Subject:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Object; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Object
Place:
India
Topic:
Observing stations  Search this
Baker-Nunn Camera  Search this
Instruments  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Baker, James G  Search this
Nunn, Joseph  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Photography  Search this
Standard number:
2003-19530
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_8336

Smithsonian Australian Field Station (SAO)

Author:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Subject:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Object; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Object
Date:
1964
Topic:
Observing stations  Search this
Baker-Nunn Camera  Search this
Australia  Search this
Instruments  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Baker, James G  Search this
Nunn, Joseph  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Photography  Search this
Standard number:
2003-19529
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_8337

Shah of Iran Visits Smithsonian Station in Shiraz, Iran

Author:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Subject:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Event; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Place:
Iran
Date:
1959
Topic:
Shah of Iran  Search this
Dignitaries  Search this
Observing stations  Search this
Baker-Nunn Camera  Search this
Instruments  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Kings and rulers  Search this
Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza  Search this
Event  Search this
Standard number:
2003-19527
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_8339

Laser Ranging System, Satellite-Tracking, Miscellaneous Parts

Manufacturer:
Spacerays Inc; Boller & Chivens  Search this
Materials:
Steel, Plastic, Glass, Adhesive, Paper
Dimensions:
Storage (Rehoused on aluminum pallet with one additional object): 121.9 × 121.9cm, 102.5kg, 63.5cm (48 × 48 in., 226lb., 25 in.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transfered from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Inventory Number:
A19840406001
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv96ae8faab-7ee1-4335-a6cd-4ea2d5ba5d49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19840406001
Online Media:

Laser Ranging System, Satellite-Tracking, Optical Supports, Miscellaneous Parts

Manufacturer:
Spacerays Inc; Boller & Chivens  Search this
Materials:
Steel, Paint, Copper, Plastic, Synthetic Fabric, Paper, Cork, Mylar (Polyester), Wood, Cadmium Plating, Adhesive
Dimensions:
Storage (Rehoused on 48 x 48 aluminum pallet): 125.1 × 123.8 × 129.5cm, 139.7kg (49 1/4 × 48 3/4 × 51 in., 308lb.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Inventory Number:
A19840406006
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9a6deb519-6785-47b1-8ca0-c2bbad681106
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19840406006
Online Media:

Laser Ranging System, Satellite-Tracking, Miscellaneous Parts

Manufacturer:
Spacerays Inc; Boller & Chivens  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum, Steel, Acrylic (Plexiglas), Paint, Wood, Mylar (Polyester), Cadmium Plating, Adhesive, Paper,
Synthetic Fabric
Dimensions:
Storage (Rehoused on 48 x 48 aluminum pallet): 123.8 × 125.1 × 129.5cm, 139.7kg (48 3/4 × 49 1/4 × 51 in., 308lb.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Inventory Number:
A19840406007
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv95d24230f-9605-449f-8ffd-702d06ef061d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19840406007
Online Media:

Laser Ranging System, Satellite-Tracking, Photomultiplier Tube, Mirror

Manufacturer:
Spacerays Inc; Boller & Chivens  Search this
Materials:
Paper, Rubber (silicone), Plastic, Brass, Glass, Stainless Steel, Aluminum, Steel, Paint, Natural Fabric
Dimensions:
Storage (Rehoused on aluminum pallet with one additional object): 121.9 × 121.9cm, 102.5kg, 63.5cm (48 × 48 in., 226lb., 25 in.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transfered from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Inventory Number:
A19840406012
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv92373c210-9fff-4583-ace6-2b551bef74d0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19840406012
Online Media:

Laser Ranging System, Satellite-Tracking, Film and Canister

Manufacturer:
Spacerays Inc; Boller & Chivens  Search this
Materials:
aluminum, tape, plastic, film, glass
Dimensions:
Overall: 9.5 × 10.2cm (3 3/4 in. × 4 in.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transfered from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Inventory Number:
A19840406014
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9f0930585-e47a-4b77-871c-b3704bd486e3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19840406014
Online Media:

Laser Ranging System, Satellite-Tracking, Optical Supports, Miscellaneous Parts

Manufacturer:
Spacerays Inc; Boller & Chivens  Search this
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Inventory Number:
A19840406015
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9a1362c8e-6816-4d84-afe9-9dcf4cd3c52b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19840406015
Online Media:

Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Extent:
79.59 cu. ft. (64 record storage boxes) (2 16x20 boxes) (30 blueprint storage boxes) (11 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Illustrations
Architectural drawings
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Serials (publications)
Date:
1957-1983
Descriptive Entry:
This record unit consists mostly of records documenting the administration, operation and scientific work of the STP Baker-Nunn camera and laser-ranging stations. The majority of the files were created after the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) reorganization in 1973 and maintained by the Radio and Geoastronomy Division. The records include correspondence, memoranda, reports, drawings, blueprints, plans, schematics, charts, publications, manuals, maps, and data concerning station operations; station personnel; the design of stations and facilities; satellites tracked; equipment development, especially the laser-ranging system; agreements with host nations, states, and organizations; procurement requests and property inventories; weather at stations; and general administration. Also included is correspondence of STP Manager Michael R. Pearlman; photographs and slides of stations, personnel, equipment, and facilities; and information on foreign countries where stations were located.
Topic:
Baker-Nunn camera  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Illustrations
Architectural drawings
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Serials (publications)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 478, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Satellite Tracking Program, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 478
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0478

Launch photographs from Mount Hopkins Baker-Nunn Camera, 1968.

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Assistant Director (Science)  Search this
Container:
Box 11 of 19
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 253, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Assistant Director (Science), Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Series 1: SAO Project Files, 1961-1973. / Box 11
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0253-refidd1e2555

Baker-Nunn Camera Slides, c. 1961-1967

Container:
Box 4 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-109, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Publications and Information, Publication Files
See more items in:
Publication Files
Publication Files / Box 4
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-109-refidd1e1273

Baker-Nunn Camera Prints

Container:
Box 3 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-109, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Publications and Information, Publication Files
See more items in:
Publication Files
Publication Files / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-109-refidd1e763

Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
4 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Date:
1976
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Whipple was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his central role in the modernization of the SAO and his outstanding contributions to science. For additional information, see the following related collections in Smithsonian Archives: the records of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers; and Record Unit 9542, Multiple Mirror Telescope videohistory interviews.
Descriptive Entry:
Whipple was interviewed on June 24 and 25, 1976 by Pamela M. Henson. The interviews cover his education; radar countermeasure work during World War II; role in the development of national programs for astrophysics and space exploration; research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary material; administration of SAO; development of Mt. Hopkins, MMT, and optical tracking programs; and reminiscences of colleagues such as Imre G. Izsak, Craig M. Merrihue, and Carlton W. Tillinghast.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004), received the B.A. in mathematics with a minor in physics and astronomy from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927 and the Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. His early training focused on comet orbits. After teaching for a year at Stanford University, he joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and remained in Cambridge throughout his career. During the 1930s his work focused on double station meteor research. From 1943 to 1945, he developed radar countermeasures for the U. S. Army Radiation Laboratory of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. After World War II he worked on development of the Super-Schmidt cameras to photograph meteors and continued research on the influx of material from comets into the interplanetary medium. His comet research culminated in publication of the Icy Comet Model in 1950. During the forties he also conducted studies of meteor hazards to spacecraft, inventing the meteor bumper, and served on the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel. In the early fifties, with Wernher von Braun and Cornelius J. Ryan, he coauthored a series of popular articles on the conquest of the space frontier.

His teaching career at Harvard University progressed from Instructor, 1932-1938; Lecturer, 1938-1945; Associate Professor, 1945-1950; Professor, 1950-1970; Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, 1949-1956; to Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970-1977. Thus when Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in July 1955, he moved its headquarters to the Cambridge campus and continued as Professor and member of the Harvard College Observatory staff. He reorganized the Smithsonian's observatory and reoriented its research program. Under his directorship, the staff grew from a handful to more than five hundred, including over sixty scientists.

At the request of the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple began development of Baker-Nunn cameras to track artificial satellites during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). With the help of Armand N. Spitz, he also developed the Moonwatch optical tracking program, which utilized teams of volunteers observing satellites with hand-held telescopes. When Sputnik was launched in October of 1957, the Moonwatch teams were the only U. S. mechanism available to track the Russian satellite. The SAO subsequently received large contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to operate the Satellite Tracking Program (STP), an optical tracking system with Baker-Nunn camera stations located all over the globe. Whipple's satellite tracking work earned him the 1963 Distinguished Civilian Service Award from President John F. Kennedy.

The Prairie Network, an optical tracking system designed to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits, created by Whipple and Richard E. McCrosky, began observations in 1964. Coordination of STP camera observations with Jodrell Bank Observatory radio data on flare stars led to the first identification of radio noise from any star besides the sun.

SAO relied on early computers such as the Mark IV, IBM 7090, and CDC 6400 for rapid processing of massive quantities of data. Baker-Nunn and Super-Schmidt camera data were directly processed by automated means, which made possible the 1966 SAO Star Catalog, coordinated by Katherine L. Haramundanis. Whipple required direct publication from computer tapes, a first for the U. S. Government Printing Office. Observations from the STP were progressively refined during the sixties through new laser tracking techniques and advances in automated data processing, to provide improved geodetic and geophysical data. In the early sixties, stellar atmosphere models were developed with the aid of an IBM 7090 and after 1966 a CDC 6400, in anticipation of far ultraviolet light data from orbiting observatories. Based on this experience in upper atmosphere research, Whipple was appointed project director for the orbiting astronomical observatories from 1958 to 1972.

The telegraph service of the International Astronomical Union came to the SAO in 1965 under the coordination of Owen J. Gingerich and later Brian G. Marsden. It utilized SAO's sophisticated communications network and led eventually to the creation of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena by Robert A. Citron.

Development of an observatory site at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, began in 1966. Chosen by Whipple for its altitude and seeing conditions, the site was dedicated in 1981 as the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. On this site, in conjunction with the U. S. Air Force and University of Arizona, he developed the technically innovative Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which commenced observations in May of 1979.

In addition to his own research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary materials, Whipple coordinated the SAO research programs in celestial mechanics, geodesy, meteoritics, radio astronomy, neutrino searches, stellar atmosphere models, and the atomic clock project to test the theory of relativity. He encouraged NASA's lunar program and development of the space telescope.

Whipple was distinguished both for his theoretical work in astrophysics and his technical innovations in such areas as tracking cameras, multiple mirror telescopes, and meteor bumpers. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple received the Academy's J. Lawrence Smith Medal in 1949 for his meteor research. He was awarded the Kepler Medal by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1971 and the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1973. Through his work on numerous federal and private boards, panels, and commissions, Whipple was influential in the development of national programs for research in astrophysics and creation of a space exploration program.

Whipple retired from administration of SAO in 1973 but continued active research as a Senior Scientist from 1973 to 1977. Upon his retirement in 1977, he was appointed Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Meteorites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9520
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9520

Publication Files

Topic:
SAO News (Serial)
Centerline (Serial)
Extent:
4.43 cu. ft. (4 record storage boxes) (1 12x17 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Manuscripts
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Color photographs
Color transparencies
Date:
1932, 1946, 1957-1989
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of records created and maintained by James C. Cornell, Jr., a public information specialist and publications manager for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) for nearly 40 years. SAO jointly administers the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) with the Harvard College Observatory. Materials primarily consist of photographs used in the production of newsletters (such as "SAO News" and CfA's "Centerline") and other publications as well as those documenting the construction of Satellite Tracking Program stations around the world. In addition, materials include handbooks, news clippings, station notes, and publications chronicling the history of both SAO and the Harvard College Observatory.
Topic:
Astrophysics  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Museums -- Public relations  Search this
Museum publications  Search this
Artificial satellites -- Tracking  Search this
Baker-Nunn camera  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Manuscripts
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Color photographs
Color transparencies
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-109, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Publications and Information, Publication Files
Identifier:
Accession 16-109
See more items in:
Publication Files
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa16-109

Baker-Nunn Camera at Jupiter, Florida Prints, 1966

Container:
Box 3 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-109, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Publications and Information, Publication Files
See more items in:
Publication Files
Publication Files / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-109-refidd1e1031

Prominent Clusters and Nebulae, Baker-Nunn Camera, SC-28 Ethiopia, April 14, 1967

Container:
Box 3 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-109, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Publications and Information, Publication Files
See more items in:
Publication Files
Publication Files / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-109-refidd1e841

Shutter Synchronization of Baker-Nunn Camera Graph

Container:
Box 3 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-109, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Publications and Information, Publication Files
See more items in:
Publication Files
Publication Files / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-109-refidd1e1020

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