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Police Athletic League (PAL)(Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

Container:
Box 32, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction of some materials is restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Collection Citation:
Mark Segal Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Mark Segal Papers
Mark Segal Papers / Series 3: Organizations and Associations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1422-ref1003

Archives Center 1968 Olympic Games Collection

Creator:
Olympic Games (19th : 1968) (Mexico City, Mexico)  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Audiocassettes
Black-and-white photographs
Diaries
Ephemera
Magazines (periodicals)
Letters
Memoranda
Maps
Passes
Periodicals
Photographs
Postcards
Programs
Schedules
Scorecards
Scrapbooks
Telegrams
Tickets
Place:
Mexico -- 1960-1970
Date:
1968
Scope and Contents:
This collection was created by the Archives Center to bring together materials relating to the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. Items relate to team members and include postcards, event programs, press guides, magazines, articles, and dining hall tickets.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
The 1968 Summer Olympics, (Games of the XIX Olympiad) were the first Olympic games held in Latin America and the first held in a Spanish-speaking country. They took place in October,1968, during a time of upheaval in Mexico as well as in the United States.
Provenance:
Initial donations to this collection were made by Tom Lough (Pentathlon) and Daniel Cantillon (Fending) in 2016. Addenda from Laurie Lewis Havel (Volleyball), Sharon Callahan McKniff (High jump) and John Ferris (Swimming) were added in 2017. Papers of Micki King (Diving), Vicki King (Swimming), and Jane Swagerty Hill (Swimming) were acquired in 2018.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Athletes  Search this
Divers  Search this
Fencers  Search this
Handbooks  Search this
Jumping  Search this
Identification cards  Search this
Olympics  Search this
Sports  Search this
Swimmers  Search this
Volleyball  Search this
Women athletes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 1950-2000
Audiocassettes
Black-and-white photographs
Diaries
Ephemera
Magazines (periodicals) -- 1960-1970
Letters
Memoranda
Maps
Passes
Periodicals -- 20th century
Photographs -- Color photoprints
Postcards -- 1960-1970
Programs -- 1960-1970
Schedules
Scorecards
Scrapbooks
Telegrams
Tickets
Citation:
Archives Center 1968 Olympic Games Collection, 1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1402
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1402

Athletic teams

Collection Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Collection Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Container:
Box 14, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1932-2005
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Bridgewater Family Papers / Series 2: Harrell Family / 2.10: Harrell, Jr., Charles Henry
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1385-ref177

Athletic teams

Collection Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Collection Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Bridgewater Family Papers / Series 2: Harrell Family / 2.10: Harrell, Jr., Charles Henry
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1385-ref186

Harrell, Jr., Charles Henry

Collection Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Collection Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1925-2005, undated
Scope and Contents:
This subseries contains papers, photographs, and memorabilia pertaining to Charles Henry Harrell, Jr. (1914-1948), son of Charles H. Harrell and Mary Emma Bridgewater. He was born November 9, 1914. The subseries contains photographs, legal documents, news clippings, and funeral memorabilia. This subseries also contains material related to Harrell's athletic activities and high school life. Material on his service in the United States Army and his flying career is also found in this series. He died in a plane crash in 1948.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1385, Subseries 2.10
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Bridgewater Family Papers / Series 2: Harrell Family
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1385-ref24

Harrell, Arthur Samuel

Collection Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Collection Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1930-1973, undated
Scope and Contents:
This subseries contains papers, photographs, and memorabilia pertaining to Arthur Samuel Harrell (1916-1963), son of Charles H. Harrell and Mary Emma Bridgewater. He was born August 8, 1916. He married Mary Alice Trahan, daughter of Renard and Mabel Parker Trahan on August 2, 1947 in Port Arthur, Texas. The subseries contains correspondence, photographs, financial and legal documents, news clippings, and funeral memorabilia. This subseries also contains material related to Harrell's athletic activities and high school life as well as his university career. Material on his service in the United States Army is also found in this series. He died in Helena, Montana in 1963.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1385, Subseries 2.3
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Bridgewater Family Papers / Series 2: Harrell Family
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1385-ref25

Harrell, Cornelius Eckart

Collection Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Collection Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940-2001, undated
Scope and Contents:
This subseries contains papers, photographs, and memorabilia pertaining to Cornelius Eckart Harrell (1919-2001), son of Charles H. Harrell and Mary Emma Bridgewater. He was born April 21, 1919. The subseries contains correspondence, photographs, financial and legal documents, news clippings, and funeral memorabilia. This subseries also contains material related to Harrell's athletic activities and educational life. Material on his service in the United States Army is also found in this series. He died in Bend, Oregon in 2001.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1385, Subseries 2.9
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Bridgewater Family Papers / Series 2: Harrell Family
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1385-ref26

Harrell, Mary Trahan

Collection Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Collection Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1925-2002, undated
Scope and Contents:
This subseries contains papers, photographs, and memorabilia pertaining to Mary Trahan Harrell (1927-2000), daughter of Renard and Mabel Parker Trahan. She was born January 29, 1927. She married Arthur S. Harrell on August 2, 1947 in Port Arthur, Texas. The subseries contains correspondence, photographs, financial, and legal documents, news clippings, and funeral memorabilia. This subseries also contains material related to Harrell's athletic activities and high school life as well as her teaching career and materials from the National Educational Association. She died in Helena, Montana in 2000.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1385, Subseries 2.4
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Bridgewater Family Papers / Series 2: Harrell Family
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1385-ref27

New York Athletic Club

Collection Collector:
Rockwell, David Hadley  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1992
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
David Hadley Rockwell New York Disco Ephemera Collection, 1983-2004, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
David Hadley Rockwell New York Disco Ephemera Collection,
David Hadley Rockwell New York Disco Ephemera Collection, / Series 1: Venue Advertisments and Invitations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1342-ref445

Amateur Athletic Union Physical Fitness Test

Collection Creator:
Browning, Bil  Search this
Davis, Jerame  Search this
Davis, Jerame Joe, 1975-  Search this
Browning, William Dale, 1972-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1983
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers, 1972-2015, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers
Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers / Series 1: Personal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1334-ref28

The National Wheelchair Athletic Association

Container:
Box 44, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1973 - 1973
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
See more items in:
Disability Reference Collection
Disability Reference Collection / Series 11: Wheelchairs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1319-ref652

H-2358, Casa Loma Orchestra, Seventh Reunion Dinner, Athletic Club, New York (many members current and past including Larry Clinton)

Collection Photographer:
Schiedt, Duncan P., 1921-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 62
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1937 March 21
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Duncan Schiedt Jazz Collection, 1900-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection / Series 2: Photographic Materials / 2.1: Historical Photographs and Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1323-ref3570

H-2466, Louis Lowe Band, Athletic Club House Band

Collection Photographer:
Schiedt, Duncan P., 1921-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 62
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1947
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Duncan Schiedt Jazz Collection, 1900-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection / Series 2: Photographic Materials / 2.1: Historical Photographs and Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1323-ref3705

H-3202A, Fletcher Henderson athletic squad (E. Hutto photograph) H-3202B, graduation Group, (E. Hutto photograph)

Collection Photographer:
Schiedt, Duncan P., 1921-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 65
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Duncan Schiedt Jazz Collection, 1900-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection / Series 2: Photographic Materials / 2.1: Historical Photographs and Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1323-ref4549

Jogbra, Inc. Records

Creator:
Jogbra, Inc.  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertising
Articles
Business records
Photographs
Promotional literature
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1977-2008
Summary:
The collection documents the invention of the Jogbra and includes biographical materials, business records, photographs, promotional, marketing and advertising materials, correspondence and audiovisual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the invention of the sports bra primarily through marketing and promotional materials. The collection also documents the Jogbra, Inc. company activities, and includes biographical materials, business records, promotional, marketing and advertising materials, photographs, patent records, and audiovisual materials.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1980-2006

Series 2: Business Records, 1979-1999

Subseries 2.1: JBI, Inc., 1979-1996

Subseries 2.2: Champion Jogbra, 1988-1999

Series 3: Photographs, 1978-2008

Series 4: Promotional and Marketing Materials, 1979-2000

Series 5: Patent Records, 1978-2003

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials, 1993
Biographical / Historical:
Lisa Lindahl was frustrated by the inadequacy of her everyday bra when she began jogging in the early 1970s. When her sister, Victoria Woodrow began jogging she met with the same issues and called Lisa to ask what she did about it. Commiserating over their problems, Victoria asked, "What do you do about all the breast movement? It's so uncomfortable." And Lisa said, "I don't know. It really is uncomfortable." Victoria said, "Why isn't there a jock strap for women?" Lisa laughed back and said, "Yeah, same idea, different part of the anatomy. Wouldn't that be great?" The sisters hung up laughing and Lisa sat down and opened up a spiral notebook to record her thoughts and design criteria for this "jock bra." "Here's a bra made just for jogging. What would it do?" And Lindahl wrote, "Okay, the straps would not fall off my shoulders and there wouldn't be any hardware to dig in and it would be comfortable and maybe even breathable, and it would stop my breasts from bouncing."

Lindahl engaged her childhood friend Polly Palmer Smith in her effort to solve the bra problem. They found no suitable products in retail stores, but were inspired by Lisa's husband, Al Lindahl, who took a jock strap and pulled it over his head and down over his chest and said, "Hey ladies, here's your jock bra." Lisa said, "I had to get into the act, so I jumped up and said, "Let me try it. Let me try." And I pulled his jock strap up and over my head and pulled the pouch over my breast and the waistband of the jockstrap went around my rib and I kind of jumped up on bed and I said, "Polly, Polly, look at this, look at this." They went to multiple stores and inquired but could not find a bra that fit their needs--a bra that kept the breasts pressed flat against the chest and eliminated motion. They also wanted something without seams and hooks, wire or other metal elements. Lindahl, along with Polly Palmer Smith, a childhood friend from New Jersey, sewed a pair of jockstraps together creating a few prototypes.

Smith introduced Lindahl to Hinda Schreiber, a fellow costume designer and classmate at New York University. Schreiber worked as an assistant to Smith at the Champlain Shakespeare Festival held at the University of Vermont in the summer of 1977. With interest in and enthusiasm for the idea of creating more jogbras, Schreiber joined Lindahl and Smith. They called their product the "jockbra" but later changed it to "Jogbra," figuring that the word "jock" might be a turn-off for some women. On November 20, 1979, US Patent 4,174,717 for an athletic brassiere was issued to the three co-inventors. Subsequent US patents include:

Eugenie Z. Lindahl, Hinda S. Schreiber, and Polly P. Smith, Des. 259,370 for a brassiere, 1981; and US 4,311,150 for an athletic brassiere, 1982.

Eugenie Z. Lindahl and Hinda Schreiber, Des. 260,445 for an athletic shirt, 1981 and Des. 301,518 for a brassiere, 1989.

LaJean Lawson and Hinda Miller, US 6,083,080 for a protective brassiere with local energy absorption, 2000.

Lesli R. Bell and Eugenie Z. Lindahl, US 6,860,789 for a compression garment, 2005.

Lindahl started the company Jogbra, Inc. in 1977 and then re-named it SLS, Inc. (for Smith, Lindahl, Schreiber) in early 1978. As President of the company, Lindahl issued equal shares to herself, Smith and Schreiber. The name changed again to Jogbra Inc., for a brief time, before finally becoming JBI, Inc. in the early 1980s. Marketing their new product (with start-up capital lent by Miller's father, Bruce L. Schreiber) was a challenge. According to Lindahl, buyers for sporting goods stores were "squeamish" about displaying bras, which did not look like lingerie, but an athletic garment. Stores that did feature the jogbra were pleased by how well it sold. Miller placed strong emphasis on the point of purchase advertising and packaging. The jogbra line of products expanded to include a women's and men's sport brief, the Thermobra and Thermobrief. Soon, a number of other manufacturers, including Vanity Fair, Olga, and Warner, were entering the sports bra market.

JBI, Inc. was bought by Playtex Apparel, Inc. in 1990 and Playtex Apparel sold it to the Sara Lee Corporation in 1991. Throughout these transitions, Schreiber served as began as Vice-President and, in 1983, became President of the then JBI, Inc. when Lindahl became CEO and Chair of their Advisory Board of Directors. Smith was never active in the company and had become a minority shareholder. When JBI, Inc. was sold to Playtex Apparel, Miller and Lindahl became co-presidents of the new Jogbra Division until Lindahl left the company in 1991. Miller (née Schreiber) continued to serve as president and became CEO of the Champion Jogbra Division of Sara Lee in 1994. Miller left the company in 1997 to pursue other interests.

Lisa Z. Lindahl (November 23, 1948-) was born Eugénie Louise Zobian in Montclair, New Jersey to Florence and Ernest Zobian. The Zobians had four children, Ernest Jr., Mark, Victoria, and Eugénie, known as "Lisa." Lindahl graduated from Vernon Court Junior College in Newport, Rhode Island (1968), the Katherine Gibbs Secretarial School (1969), and later graduated from the University of Vermont with a bachelor's degree in education [1977]. She received a master's degree in culture and spirituality from Holy Names University in California in 2007. In 1970, Lindahl married Alfred Lindahl and divorced in 1978. Lindahl was diagnosed with epilepsy at age four and would later serve as Senior Vice President of the Board of Directors of the Epilepsy Foundation from 1991 to 2000 where, as Chair of the Women and Epilepsy Task Force she brought legitimacy to the gender differences in epilepsy and epilepsy treatments. In 2001, Lindahl co-founded, with Dr. Lesli Bell, the Lightning2 Company (dba Bellisse) to design and market their patented Compressure Comfort Bra, a compression garment for women suffering from lymphedema. Lindahl is the author of two books: Beauty As Action, The Way of True Beauty and How Its Practice Can Change Our World (2017) and Unleash the Girls, The Untold Story of the Invention of the Sports Bra and How It Changed the World (And Me), (2019). She continues to write and pursue other artistic interests.

Hinda Schreiber Miller (April 18, 1950-) was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. She graduated from the Parsons School of Design (B.F.A., 1972) and from New York University (M.F.A., 1976). A costume designer by training, Miller taught costume design at the University of South Carolina. Miller later became a Vermont state senator (2002-2013) representing the Chittenden District which includes all of Chittenden County. Miller ran unsuccessfully for mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 2006. She is presently president of DeForest Concepts, a consulting firm specializing in small business and the promotion of women entrepreneurs. Miller is married to Dr. Joel Miller and has two children.

Polly Palmer Smith (November 10, 1949-) was raised in Montclair, New Jersey. She graduated from the Moore College of Art & Design with a (B.F.A., 1971) and New York University (M.F.A., 1975). She joined the Jim Henson Company in 1978 where she worked as a costume designer for twenty-five years. Smith worked on films such as the Dark Crystal, The Muppets Take Manhattan, and Labyrinth. Some of her television work includes Fraggle Rock and Muppet Treasure Island. Smith received Emmy nominations for her designs for The Jim Henson Hour (1988) and Muppets Tonight (1996) and she received seven Emmy awards for her designs on Sesame Street. Smith also co-designed costumes for the television series The StoryTeller (1986-1988) which won a British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Best Costumes in 1989.
Historical:
The introduction of the sports bra made greater sports participation possible for many American women. Many women were reluctant to engage in sports such as running, basketball, and tennis because of the embarrassment and discomfort associated with excessive breast motion. The passage of Title IX (1972) and James Fixx's popular 1977 book, The Complete Book of Running, contributed to the increased popularity of sports for women. This increase in women's sports exposed the inadequacies of conventional brassieres for athletic use: weight shifts from bouncing caused straps on ordinary brassieres to slip around or off the shoulder; excessive motion caused friction and chafed skin; and hooks or other metallic elements tended to poke into the skin; and excessive bouncing caused soreness.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Division of Cultural and Community Life

Prototypes and finished Jogbras and Olympic pins. See accession: 2013.0322.

Materials at Other Organizations

Vermont Historical Society

Champion jogbra [publicity folder], 1988-2004

Summary: This packet of information contains photocopies and reprints of articles and advertisements from various publications, and press releases, published or released between 1988-2004, about the creation and development of the women's sports bra, Jogbra, by its inventors Hinda Miller and Lisa Lindahl.

Original jogbra

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Jogbra Brassiere, 1979. See Accession: 1980.51.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life), National Museum of American History, holds JogBra-related artifacts. See accession 2013.0322.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Hinda Miller in 2013.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Sports for women  Search this
Sporting goods industry  Search this
Sporting goods  Search this
Women athletes  Search this
Women's history -- United States  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Promotional literature
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Citation:
Jogbra, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1315
See more items in:
Jogbra, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1315
Online Media:

Athletic Brassiere (US Patent 4,174,717)

Collection Creator:
Jogbra, Inc.  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1979
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Jogbra, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Jogbra, Inc. Records
Jogbra, Inc. Records / Series 4: Patent Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1315-ref243

Athletic Shirt (D260,445)

Collection Creator:
Jogbra, Inc.  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1981
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Jogbra, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Jogbra, Inc. Records
Jogbra, Inc. Records / Series 4: Patent Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1315-ref245

Athletic Brassiere (US Patent 4,311,150)

Collection Creator:
Jogbra, Inc.  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1982
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Jogbra, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Jogbra, Inc. Records
Jogbra, Inc. Records / Series 4: Patent Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1315-ref246

Patent Records

Collection Creator:
Jogbra, Inc.  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1979-2000
Scope and Contents:
The patent records consist of patents, correspondence, agreements, notes, and articles about Miller's involvement with the "hard cup project" from 1987 to 2000. Miller holds six United States Patents: Athletic brassiere (US 4,174,717); Brassiere, (US D259370); Athletic shirt (US D260,445); Athletic brassiere, US (4,311,150); Brassiere (US D301,518); and Protective brassiere with local energy absorption (US 6,083,080).

Miller and LaJean Lawson, a Portland businesswoman and Oregon State University adjunct professor in exercise science, created a hard cup brassierre designed to reduce the risk of injury to the breasts (US 6,083,080). Lawson also holds a patent for a hard cup brassiere (US 5,022,887) which she assigned to JBI, Inc. in 1990 and later Playtex Apparel, Inc., in 1991. Lawson conducted sports bra research at Oregon State University's biomechanics lab and worked with Champion Jogbra to test and improve sports bra designs.

Some of the correspondence relates to the licensing and manufacturing of hard cup brassieres (US 4,607,640) belonging to LeRoy McCusker and Marc S. Weinberg (US 4,566,458). Miller and Lawson did not license McCusker or Weinberg's patents and ultimately pursued their own work and patent. The correspondence includes letters and memoranda exchanged with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the law firm of Browdy and Neimark, and with physicians who were asked to test products. Additional documents include agreements regarding ownership of inventions invoices for legal services, projected budgets, a marketing plan, testing notes by Lawson, and formation of the JBI Health Advisory Board comprised of sports medicine and health experts.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Jogbra, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1315, Series 4
See more items in:
Jogbra, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1315-ref25

Marilyn E. Jackler Memorial Collection of Tobacco Advertisements

Collector:
Jackler, Robert K.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (40 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1898-2017
undated
Summary:
The collection documents the history of tobacco advertising in America through print advertisements (magazine and newspaper), emphasizing the deceptive advertising practices employed by the tobacco industry to lure and keep smokers. Many of the advertisements contain images of celebrities, athletes, and other notable persons who endorsed tobacco products as well as ethinic imagery.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of advertisements collected by Dr. Robert Jackler for his "Not a Cough in a Carload: Images from the Tobacco Industry Campaign to Hide the Hazards of Smoking" exhibition. The heart of the collection consists of paper advertisements from national magazines and newspapers dating from 1898-2017. The bulk of these materials are for cigarettes but also include cigars and tobacco. A smaller amount of material are advertisements for holders, lighters and matches, pipes, smokers' drops, and toothpaste. Included among these materials are also some point of purchase displays and ephemera from major tobacco companies.

The material emphasizes the deceptive advertising practices intended to convince people that tobacco use was safe, and the use of doctors, dentists, athletes, opera singers, actors, and others to endorse them. Actresses and actors that appeard in some of these advertisements included Lucille Ball, Madge Bellamy, Constance Bennett, Sam Bernard, Billie Burke, Eddie Cantor, Richard Carle, Sue Carol, Madeleine Carroll, Boake Carter, Charlie Chan, Charlie Chaplin, Ina Claire, George M. Cohan, Claudette Colbert, June Collyer, Betty Compson, Gary Cooper, Clifton Crawford, Myrna J. Darby, Marlene Dietrich, Dolores Del Rio, Sally Eilers, Clifton Fadiman, Douglas Fairbanks, William Faversham, W.C. Fields, Muriel Finley, Sidney Fox, Kay Francis, Janet Gaynor, Bill Haines, Jean Harlow, Miriam Hopkins, Jack Holt, Leslie Howard, Edmund Lowe, Al Jolson, Harry Lauder, Carole Lombard, Myrna Loy, Dorothy Mackaill, Herbert Marshall, Groucho Marx, Norina Matchabella, Philip Merivale, Robert Montgomery, Catherine Moylan, Ramon Novarro, Maureen O'Sullivan, Barbara Stanwyck, Margaret Sullavan, Norma Talmadge, Lawrence Tibbett, William T. Tilden, Spencer Tracy, Helen Twelvetrees, Lenore Ulric, Lupe Velez and David Warfield. Some of the athletes that endorsed tobacco products included Ty Cobb, James J. Corbett, Johnny Farrell, Lou Gehrig, Walter Hagen, Willie Hoppe, Matt McGrath, Vincent Richards, Damon Runyon, Babe Ruth, Earl Sande, Martin Sheridan, Fred Spencer, Jr., Gaston Strobino and Ted Williams. Musicians that appeared in some of the advertisements included Frances Alda, Carl Gantvoort, George Gershwin, Dinh Gilly, Nanette Guilford, Jack Henderson, Helen Jepson, Karl Jörn, Lauritz Melchior, Dick Powell, John Philip Sousa, and Leo Slezak. Other note worthy celebrities included Robert Lee, Amelia Earhart, Georges Fontana, Rube Goldberg, Martin Johnson, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, Marjorie Moss, Robert Taylor, Rudy Vallée, Amy Vanderbilt, King Vidor, George White, Florenz Ziegfeld, and Elsie de Wolfe.

To appeal to even wider audiences, advertisements incorporated iconic images such as Mount Rushmore, the American flag, the Statue of Liberty, and Santa Claus. Other advertisements used images of happy times and personal milestones, such as weddings, graduation day, Father's Day, etc., which smokers were told were incomplete without the aid of a cigarette.

Dr. Jackler later donated additional material which includes updated advertisements on modern themes, such as the economy (advertising touting bargain prices); technological changes (hard pack, improved filter, "light" cigarettes); and include more images of minorities. The initial donation had a series of advertisements with images of African Americans, but these additional ads allow researchers access to an even larger and more diverse set of examples of how tobacco was marketed to minorities. Dr. Jackler also expanded his research into much older magazines and newspapers. The addendum features advertisements from defunct, obscure, and short lived brands, in addition to the most popular and familiar ones. This enables researchers to study such themes as why the more successful companies' advertisements succeeded. These materials were integrated with the rest of the collection.

The collection is arranged into twelve series. Series one is cigarette advertisements dating from 1903-2017 and is divided by the media where it appeared in. Series two, contains advertisements for cigars dating from 1901-2017 and is also divided by media. Series three is chewing tobacco advertisements dating from 1898-2010 and is arranged into two subseries magazines and newspapers. Series four through series nine are advertisements marketing non-tobacco products and accessories for smokers. In addition, series ten contains point of purchase displays. Series eleven is born digital content. And finally, series twelve contains other forms of advertising and ephemera created by tobacco companies to assist in the sale of their products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twelve series.

Series 1, Cigarette Advertisements, 1903-2017, undated

Subseries 1.1, Magazine Advertisements, 1910-2017, undated

Subseries 1.2, Newspaper Advertisements, 1903-2004, undated

Series 2, Cigar Advertisements, 1901-2017, undated

Subseries 2.1, Magazine Advertisements, 1910-2017, undated

Subseries 2.2, Newspaper Advertisements, 1901-1958, undated

Series 3, Chewing Tobacco Advertisements, 1898-2010, undated

Subseries 3.1, Magazine Advertisements, 1898-2010, undated

Subseries 3.2, Newspaper Advertisements, 1907-1981, undated

Series 4, Holder Advertisements, 1923-1957, undated

Series 5, Lighters and Accessories Advertisements, 1934-1977, undated

Series 6, Matches Advertisements, 1949, undated

Series 7, Pipes Advertisements, 1920-1971, undated

Series 8, Smokers' Drops Advertisements, 1958

Series 9, Toothpaste Advertisements, 1920, undated

Series 10, Point of Purchase Displays, undated

Series 11, Born Digital Content, undated

Series 12, Ephemera, 1960-2013, undated

Series 13: 2017 Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Robert K. Jackler was born on January 29, 1954 to Dr. Jacob Marlowe Jackler and Marilyn Epstein. He was raised in Waterville, Maine, and attended college and medical school in Boston, Massachusetts. He moved to California for a residency in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. In 1985, Dr. Jackler accepted a Neuroethology fellowship at the House Ear Clinic and joined the faculty at the University of California, San Francisco where he remained until 2003. Later that year he became the Sewall Professor and Chair of the Department at OHNS and professor in the Ddepartments of Neurosurgery and Surgery at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Dr. Jackler's medical work exposed him to numerous patients suffering from tobacco-related health problems. In addition, his mother, Marilyn Jackler, died of cancer in 2007. That year he and his wife Laurie founded the research group SRITA (Stanford Research into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising). The purpose of SRITA was to use an interdisciplinary approach to examine the ways in which the tobacco industry targeted minority groups. SRITA also wanted to examine how the industry marketed new products. During this time Dr. Jackler and his wife also began to amass a collection of advertisements and artifacts relating to tobacco products. These effors cumulated in an exhibition of advertising imagery tracing how tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products. "Not a Cough in a Carload: Images from the Tobacco Industry Campaign to Hide the Hazards of Smoking" was dedicated to his mother, Marilyn Jackler, who started smoking as a young woman because "it was the sophisticated thing to do" and later was unable to quit. Dr. Jackler received support from Stanford's Lane Medical Library, where the exhibit opened with an accompanying website (http://lane.stanford.edu/tobacco/index.html). Dr. Jackler has authored numerous papers, textbook chapters, editorials, and books in addition to his teaching, medical practice, and collecting.
Related Materials:
There are several collections relating to the advertising and marketing of tobacco in the Archives Center. The Warshaw collection's series on "Tobacco Trade" consists of nine cubic feet of business ephemera, circa 1850-1950. The N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records contain complete advertising campaigns for over 130 tobacco brands, 1899-1951, for companies such as Fatima, Murad, Pall Mall, Philip Morris, and R.J. Reynolds. The Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Collection documents the development of the Marlboro Man advertising campaign, 1940-1986. The Virgil Johnson Collection of Cigarette Packages, circa 1890-1997, contains over six thousand packages arranged into albums. The Cornelius and Horne Collection of Cigarette Packages consists of seventy three labels collected by a United States Navy captain in the Pacific theatre in 1945.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Robert K. Jackler in 2011.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Marilyn E. Jackler Memorial Collection of Tobacco Advertisements circa 1890-2013, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1224
See more items in:
Marilyn E. Jackler Memorial Collection of Tobacco Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1224
Online Media:

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