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Oral history interview with Harry Dobson Miller Grier, 1970 Apr. 21-June 11

Interviewee:
Grier, Harry D. M., 1914-1972  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-  Search this
Subject:
Frick Collection  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12921
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212699
AAA_collcode_grier70
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212699

Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers, 1907-1983

Creator:
Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff, 1907-1978  Search this
Subject:
Roszak, Theodore  Search this
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Ritchie, Jane  Search this
Afro  Search this
Chatzes, Demetres  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Paolozzi, Eduardo  Search this
Lynes, Russell  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
College Art Association of America  Search this
Yale University.Art Gallery  Search this
Allied Forces.Supreme Headquarters.Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Topic:
Art thefts  Search this
Cultural property  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Authors  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8152
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210323
AAA_collcode_ritcandr2
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210323
Online Media:

James J. Rorimer papers, 1921-1982, bulk 1943-1950

Creator:
Rorimer, James J. (James Joseph), 1905-1966  Search this
Subject:
Rorimer, Katherine S.  Search this
Valland, Rose  Search this
Allied Forces.Supreme Headquarters.Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.).Board of Trustees  Search this
Cloisters (Museum)  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Curators  Search this
Cultural property  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art thefts  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8384
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210558
AAA_collcode_rorijame
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210558
Online Media:

Salt Mines and Castles : lecture, by Lamont Moore, 1983 October 11/

Creator:
Moore, Lamont, 1909-1988  Search this
Subject:
American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas  Search this
Belmont Historical Society  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art thefts  Search this
Art and war  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10354
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213606
AAA_collcode_moorlamo
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213606

Denys Peter Myers papers, 1945-1951

Creator:
Myers, Denys Peter, 1916-2003  Search this
Subject:
Allied Forces.Supreme Headquarters.Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Residenz zu Würzburg  Search this
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art historians  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17476
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)388351
AAA_collcode_myerdeny
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_388351

Thomas Carr Howe papers, 1932-1984

Creator:
Howe, Thomas Carr, 1904-1994  Search this
Subject:
Standen, Edith Appleton  Search this
Mallory, Margaret  Search this
Mills, Paul Chadbourne  Search this
Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff  Search this
Valland, Rose  Search this
Moore, Lamont  Search this
Wittmann, Otto  Search this
Rorimer, James J. (James Joseph)  Search this
Stout, George L. (George Leslie)  Search this
GÞoring, Hermann  Search this
Kelleher, Patrick J. (Patrick Joseph),  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland  Search this
Faison, S. Lane (Samson Lane)  Search this
Cronyn, Hume  Search this
Berenson, Bernard  Search this
M.H. De Young Memorial Museum  Search this
California Palace of the Legion of Honor  Search this
Bohemian Club (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Allied Forces.Supreme Headquarters.Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art thefts  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Cultural property  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7812
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209978
AAA_collcode_howethom
Theme:
The Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209978
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Names:
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange), d. 1965  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold, 1870-1932  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques, 1858-1923  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Extent:
203.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
Date:
1904-1978
bulk 1913-1974
Summary:
The records of Jacques Seligmann & Co. measure approximately 203.1 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1978, with bulk dates from 1913 to 1974. The collection includes extensive correspondence files, reference material on American and European collectors and their collections, inventory and stock records, financial records, exhibition files, auction files, and the records of subsidiary companies. The collection is an invaluable resource in tracing the provenance of particular works of art and provides a comprehensive view of the activities of collectors and art dealers in the years leading up to and following World War II.
Scope and Contents note:
The Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., records measure approximately 203.1 linear feet and date from between 1904 and 1978, with bulk dates of 1913-1974. The records include extensive correspondence files, reference material on American and European collectors and their collections, inventory and stock records, financial records, exhibition files, auction files, and the records of subsidiary companies, including de Hauke & Co., Inc., and Modern Paintings, Inc.

Historians and researchers will find the collection an invaluable resource in tracing the provenance of particular works of art. Although in the early 1940s many records in the Paris office were destroyed by Seligmann staff to keep them from falling into the hands of the occupying German military forces, many records survive, as much of the firm's business had previously come to center in the New York office. In all, the remaining records provide a comprehensive view of the activities and transactions of collectors and art dealers in the years leading up to and following World War II.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series of the collection (80 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence files, primarily between Germain Seligman and his New York office staff with domestic and foreign private clients, collectors, dealers, individuals representing public museums and collections, and international scholars. The New York Office Correspondence (Series 1.1) concerns a wide variety of topics, including routine business matters, but focuses primarily on potential and realized sales and purchases and provenance documentation. Also found is detailed information on financial transactions, commissions, stock inventory, and the travel of Germain Seligman and other staff. Paris Office Correspondence (Series 1.2) is separated into a small subseries and contains correspondence written primarily by Jacques Seligmann from Paris. The subseries General Correspondence (Series 1.3) is the largest subsection of the Correspondence series and contains letters written to and received from clients and other business associates concerning business transactions and inquiries. The subseries Museum Correspondence (Series 1.4) contains letters between the firm and art institutions and museums. The subseries Germain Seligman's Correspondence (Series 1.5), contains not only personal letters but a wealth of information concerning the affairs of the firm. Much personal correspondence was marked "private."

Also of note in the Correspondence series are the Legal Correspondence Files (Series 1.6) and the Inter-Office Correspondence (Series 1.9) and Inter-Office Memoranda (Series 1.13). The Legal Correspondence Files subseries houses correspondence with both U.S. and Paris attorneys and concerns legal affairs and specific lawsuits. Of particular interest are Germain Seligman's attempts to recover Seligmann family and Paris gallery artwork and other assets stolen or confiscated by the Germans in World War II. This small subseries also contains limited information on the stock and inventory holdings of several of the firm's and Germain Seligman's subsidiary corporations, family legal affairs and lawsuits, and other related legal matters. The subseries Inter-Office Correspondence and Inter-Office Memoranda (called fiches by Seligmann staff) include memos between Germain Seligman and his staff about clients, collectors, sales, acquisitions, and other matters. These offer interesting commentary clearly intended to be read by staff only.

Also prominent is Collectors Files (Series 2), which contains numerous reference files documenting the collections of existing and potential clients with whom Seligmann & Co. maintained contacts. The files are arranged by either individual name or institution and reflect the wide scope of collector references maintained by the firm throughout its operating years. The files contain a variety of reference materials, such as photographs, provenance notes, and sales, purchase, and inventory information in cases where the collector purchased from the firm or the firm purchased from the collector. Researchers will find that many of the private and public names that appear in General Correspondence (Series 1.3) appear in the Collectors Files as well. Also found in this series are specific files relating to the Duc d'Arenberg Collection, the Clarence H. Mackay Collection, the Mortimer L. Schiff Collection, and the Prince of Liechtenstein Collection. The firm either handled substantial estate sales for these collections or purchased and sold important pieces from these collections.

Auction Files (Series 3) and Exhibition files (Series 4) trace the sales and exhibition activities undertaken by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. In the Auction files, researchers will find documentation of auctions of individual works of art owned by the firm and handled by Christie's, Parke-Bernet, and other auction houses. Of particular interest is the 1948-1949 Parke-Bernet auction of the C. S. Wadsworth Trust, a "dummy" trust set up by the firm to dispose of a portion of its unsold inventory. The Exhibition Files house a variety of documentation, such as catalogs and correspondence, concerning the firm's active exhibition history. Many of the exhibitions featured works of art recently acquired by the firm, such as the 1937 exhibition, Twenty Years in the Evolution of Picasso, which included a number of Picassos the firm acquired from Madame Jacques Doucet that year.

Reference Files (Series 5) includes a card catalog to books and catalogs in the library maintained by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and a photograph reference index of works of art. Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) tracks the firm's inventory through a series of stock books and supporting documentation that include sales and provenance information.

Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7) consists primarily of records of the New York office, but some Paris office documents can be found scattered throughout. Found in this series is a wide variety of financial records including purchase receipt files, credit notes, invoices, consignment invoices and books, invoices, consular invoices, sales and purchase account books, ledgers, and tax records. The records appear to be quite complete and date from 1910 to 1977. Of particular interest are the purchase receipts and credit notes and memoranda that contain detailed documentation on acquisitions and sales. The consignment invoices provide information about works of art sold on behalf of other galleries and dealers, as well as which galleries and dealers were handling works of art for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Although quite large and complex, the financial records offer a comprehensive overview of the firm's business and financial transactions.

The records of subsidiary companies that were part of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., such as Contemporary American Department, de Hauke & Co., Inc., Modern Paintings, Inc., and Gersel Corp. are arranged in their own series. In 1935, the firm established the Contemporary American Department to represent young American artists. Under the direction of Theresa D. Parker, a longtime gallery employee, the department initiated an exhibition and loan program. Contemporary American Department (Series 8) includes mostly correspondence files and exhibition files.

The largest subsidiary company to operate under Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., was de Hauke & Co., Inc. De Hauke & Co., Inc., Records (Series 9) dates from 1925 through 1949 and contains domestic and foreign correspondence with clients, collectors, and dealers; inter-office correspondence and memoranda with Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc.; administrative and legal files; and financial records. Modern Paintings, Inc., records (Series 10) contains the legal and financial files of this subsidiary company, which was established in 1930 to incorporate most of the stock of the liquidated de Hauke & Co., Inc. Gersel Corp. Records (Series 11) contains a small amount of material from this company.

Researchers should note that a scattering of records from most of the subsidiary companies may also be found throughout additional series, particularly Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) and Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7). Records for the firms Tessa Corp. and Georges Haardt & Co., which were also owned by Germain Seligman, are not part of the Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., Records, although scattered references to these two firms may be encountered throughout the collection.

German Seligman's Personal papers (Series 12) includes scattered family and biographical materials, his research and writings files, and documentation of his personal art collection. Found in Family and Biographical Material (Series 12.1) are photographs of family members, including Jacques Seligmann, and of the Paris gallery. Also found is a limited amount of correspondence concerning Germain Seligman's residency status and his desire to obtain an army commission during World War II. Germain Seligman's research and writing files are found in this series and include material for his books: Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1969); Merchants of Art, 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting (1961); The Drawings of Georges Seurat (1947); and Oh! Fickle Taste; or, Objectivity in Art (1952). Documentation of Germain Seligman's private art collection is arranged in this series and includes provenance and research files and correspondence concerning his art collection.

Overall, the historical records of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., offer researchers a comprehensive and detailed resource for studying one of the most active dealers in decorative arts, Renaissance, and European contemporary art. The records clearly document the firm's numerous acquisitions and sales of important works of art to well-known European and American collectors and museums as well as Germain Seligman's extensive client contacts and references. The collection offers an insightful, intriguing, and often fascinating view into the complex field of art sales, trading, and acquisition during the first half of the twentieth century, when many major collections in the United States were formed.

Researchers interested in tracing the provenance of individual works of art should carefully check each series of the collection for information to obtain a complete history for any work. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., staff set up many different files to cross-reference works of art from various angles, such as artist or creator; collector or collection; most recent owner or repository location; stock inventory number, if owned by Seligmann & Co.; and photographic reference files. The task is made somewhat more difficult by the number of commission sales and joint ownership of works of art, often documented solely in the Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) or the Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7). Only by tracing a name or date through the various series can one find all of the information relating to a particular work of art and its provenance.
Arrangement note:
Following is an outline of the arrangement of the collection by series and corresponding box numbers and extent. More detailed information for each series and subseries, along with a box and folder inventory, is found in the Series Descriptions/Container Listings, which can be found by following the series links below. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1913-1978 (1-174, 80 linear feet)

Series 2: Collectors Files, 1875, 1892-1977, undated (Boxes 175-252, 35 linear feet)

Series 3: Auction Files, 1948-1975, undated (Boxes 253-259, 2.75 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1925-1977, undated (Boxes 260-272, 5.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Reference Files, 1877-1977, undated (Boxes 273-278, 2.25 linear feet)

Series 6: Inventory and Stock Files, 1923-1971, undated (Boxes 279-289, 4.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Financial Files and Shipping Records, 1910-1977 (Boxes 290-357, 30.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Contemporary American Department, 1932-1978 (Boxes 358-381, 10 linear feet)

Series 9: De Hauke & Co., Inc., Records, 1925-1949, undated (Boxes 382-416; 16 linear feet)

Series 10: Modern Paintings, Inc., Records, 1927-1950 (Boxes 417-420, 1.25 linear feet)

Series 11: Gersel Corp. Records, 1946-1969 (Box 421, 0.25 linear feet)

Series 12: Germain Seligman's Personal Papers, 1882, circa 1905-1984, undated (Boxes 422-459, OV 460, 17 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., was counted among the foremost French and American art dealers in antiquities and decorative arts and was among the first to foster and support the growth and appreciation for collecting in the field of contemporary European art. The company's clients included most of the major American and European art collectors of the era, and the art that passed through its galleries often ended up in the collections of prominent American and European museums through the donations of the wealthy benefactors who purchased them from the company. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., took an active part in promoting such donations as well as providing its own donations and selling paintings, sculpture, and decorative arts directly to many museums.

The company was first established as Jacques Seligmann & Cie. in 1880 on the Rue des Mathurins in Paris by Jacques Seligmann (1858-1923), a German émigré who came to France in 1874 and soon thereafter became a French citizen. The company experienced so much success that in 1900 a new, larger Galerie Seligmann was opened on the Place Vendôme, and Jacques's two brothers, Simon and Arnold, joined the business as partners. Simon served as the company's accountant, and Arnold was in charge of correspondence with the firm's many clients. Jacques remained as the manager and was in charge of all purchases for the firm.

Prominent clients of the company included Baron Edmond de Rothschild of France, the Stroganoff family of Russia, Sir Philip Sassoon of England, and American collectors Benjamin Altman, William Randolph Hearst, J. P. Morgan, Henry Walters, and Joseph Widener. As American clients increasingly came to dominate the company's sales activities, a New York office at 7 West Thirty-sixth Street was opened in 1904. Five years later, Jacques purchased the Hôtel de Sagan (also called the Palais de Sagan by the Seligmann family) in Paris as a location where Jacques Seligmann & Cie. could stage larger exhibitions and receive its most distinguished clients.

In 1912 a family quarrel resulted in a lawsuit that split the company. Arnold remained at the Place Vendôme location, reorganized under the name Arnold Seligmann & Cie., while Jacques consolidated his operations and moved the headquarters for Jacques Seligmann & Cie. to the Hôtel de Sagan. Jacques also opened an additional gallery at 17 Place Vendôme to retain a presence near the company's original location, but this branch soon relocated to 9 Rue de la Paix. The New York office, which formerly had operated out of a single room, was upgraded to larger office space and a gallery at 705 Fifth Avenue.

Jacques's son, Germain Seligman (1893-1978), showed an interest in art connoisseurship from his early years and often accompanied his father to work in the galleries. (In 1943, when Germain Seligman became an American citizen, he dropped the second "n" from his surname, and for clarity his name appears with this spelling throughout this finding aid.) His father taught him how to deal with clients and often assigned him tasks to help in the completion of sales. Germain accompanied Jacques on many business trips and in 1910 was sent to St. Peterburg, Russia, to secure information about the selling price of the Swenigorodskoi enamels owned by the Russian collector M. P. Botkine.

Germain continued to work informally in the firm's galleries until the outbreak of World War I. Within hours of the mobilization order in 1914, Germain joined the French army as a second lieutenant in the 132nd Infantry Regiment of Rheims. By 1916 he was promoted to first lieutenant in the Twenty-fourth Infantry Brigade and in the following year achieved the rank of captain in the Fifty-sixth Infantry Division. Also in the same year, he was assigned as the first French liaison officer to the First Division of the American Expeditionary Force in France, serving as translator for Major George C. Marshall. Seligman was discharged from the French army in 1919 and was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with six citations. (In 1938 Seligman also was awarded the Office of the Legion of Honor from France, and in 1939 he was decorated by General John Joseph Pershing with the Distinguished Service Medal of the United States, in recognition for his service during World War I.)

After his discharge from military service, Germain Seligman actively joined his father's company as a partner in 1920. Jacques Seligmann & Cie. was changed to Jacques Seligmann et Fils, and Germain was placed in charge as the president of the New York office. The strong American art market necessitated Germain's making numerous cross-Atlantic trips each year. Upon the death of his father in 1923, Germain took over as president of both the Paris and New York offices, and the company was once again renamed Jacques Seligmann & Cie.

In the early years of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., the firm carried few paintings, as collectors focused their interest mostly on small objects, enamels, ivories, and other decorative pieces from the Byzantine to the Renaissance eras. Stone and bronze sculptures, medieval and Renaissance tapestries, and eighteenth-century French furniture were the most avidly collected pieces of the era. The galleries of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., reflected its clients' tastes, but soon after the turn of the century art trends began to change.

The 1913 Armory Show introduced many Americans to contemporary European art, and collectors in the United States began to show marked interest in it. The advent of World War I brought much of the art market to a standstill in Europe, but interest in the Impressionists continued in the United States, and it quickly resumed in Europe, as well, after the war. Both collectors and dealers began buying modern art, led by such progressive American collectors as Walter Arensberg, Albert C. Barnes, A. E. Gallatin, Mrs. Horace O. Havemeyer, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Duncan Phillips, and John Quinn, among others.

Under Germain's leadership, Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., began acquiring works by Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, Pablo Picasso, Henri Rousseau, and Vincent van Gogh. While Germain promoted this trend for modern art in the New York gallery, other family partners did not approve as this was a new direction for the firm. For this reason Germain Seligman looked to establish a new, independent business venture in the evolving field of modern art. He selected as his partner César Mange de Hauke.

César Mange de Hauke was born on March 8, 1900, the son of a French engineer and a Polish mother. After completing academic and art studies in England and France in the years following World War I, de Hauke arrived in the United States in 1926. While in New York City, he was introduced to Germain Seligman by Germain's cousin, René Seligmann, and by 1927 de Hauke had joined Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., as a sales representative.

With their shared interest in modern French painting, Seligman and de Hauke decided to explore the feasibility of sales in this area by forming a subsidiary to Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., that would specialize in contemporary European artists. In 1926 Seligman personally financed the fledgling company, first called International Contemporary Art Company, Inc., and he appointed de Hauke its director, but even before the legal documents setting up the company were completed the name was changed to de Hauke & Co., Inc. Although the bulk of the new company's art purchases took place in Paris and London, the majority of its sales occurred in the United States.

Seligman and de Hauke worked out an agreement allowing de Hauke to purchase works of art that could then be sold as stock inventory of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., or privately under de Hauke's own name. Ownership of paintings was often shared among various art dealers, involving complicated commission transactions upon completion of sale. Seligman provided display space for de Hauke & Co., Inc., at the new, larger gallery of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., now located at 3 East Fifty-first Street. The two businesses were deeply intertwined, as evidenced by the facts that Seligman's financial records include a great deal of de Hauke material and many of de Hauke's records are written on the stationery of Jacques Seligmann Co., Inc.

During the second half of the 1920s, de Hauke showed the work of modern French School artists in New York City. He exhibited works by Pierre Bonnard, Amedeo Modigliani, Odilon Redon, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Edouard Vuillard, and many others. De Hauke was equally interested in French School drawings and watercolors, and the scope of his exhibitions also included works by nineteenth-century masters such as Paul Cézanne, Jacques-Louis David, Eugè00E8;ne Delacroix, Jean Ingres, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Georges Seurat.

Among the exhibitions held at the New York gallery were two highly successful shows featuring the works of Pablo Picasso. The first one, held in 1936, displayed paintings from the Blue and Rose Periods and was soon followed by the 1937 exhibition, Twenty Years in the Evolution of Picasso. The star of this exhibition was Les Demoiselles d'Avignon which Germain had recently acquired from the Jacques Doucet Estate sale.

Despite the bleak economic conditions of the 1930s, the new business venture proved so successful that the other family members of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., withdrew their opposition to expanding into the field of modern art, and de Hauke & Co., Inc., was dissolved and re-formed under the new name, Modern Paintings, Inc. César M. de Hauke was appointed its director, but tensions had crept into the relationship between the former partners, and by 1931, de Hauke had resigned and returned to Paris.

The mid-1930s appear to have been a period of reorganization for the company. By 1934 Modern Paintings, Inc., was also dissolved, and it assets were assumed by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and by Tessa Corp., another subsidiary of the firm. In 1935, however, the firm established a new subsidiary, the Contemporary American Department, to represent young American artists. Theresa D. Parker, a longtime gallery employee, was selected to head the department, and she initiated an exhibition and loan program. Soon thereafter, the City of Paris offered to buy the company's building at the Hôtel de Sagan as part of a complicated negotiation for a site for the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la vie Modern 1937. The Paris office of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., reestablished itself at 9 Rue de la Paix, but Germain selected the New York office as the headquarters for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Subsequently he filed his legal residence as New York City. Germain's half-brother, François-Gerard, was left in charge of the Paris office operations, although Germain continued to commute between the two offices until the summer of 1939.

During the New York World's Fair of 1939, Germain served as a member of the Exhibition Committee, which coordinated the art section. When the fair was extended for an additional year, Seligman was asked to take responsibility for planning the French art section. World political events intruded, however, and rumors of impending war affected both the European and American economies as well as the international art world. Speculative sales, particularly in Europe, made for a chaotic and unpredictable market. In June 1940 German forces invaded France and occupied Paris. Business for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., took a dramatic downturn. In the summer of 1940 the Seligmann galleries and family holdings were seized by the Vichy government, along with Germain's private art collection. The family house and its contents, along with almost the entire stock of the Paris firm, was sold at public auction. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., staff burned the Paris office archives in an effort to keep the records relating to works of art from falling into the hands of the Nazi occupiers, who were looting and shipping art to Germany.

Family members also experienced the pains and changes brought on by the war. Jean Seligmann, a cousin of Germain and the head of Arnold Seligmann & Cie., was captured and shot in Vincennes, France. François-Gerard, a half-brother, was drafted into the army and subsequently joined the French Resistance. Another brother, André, fled France in September 1940 and arrived in New York City, where he opened his own gallery. (He would later return to Paris after the war, but died shortly thereafter from a heart attack.)

Germain applied for a commission in the United States Army in 1942, but his application was initially turned down due to his noncitizen status. Soon thereafter, however, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the second War Power Act, which stipulated that naturalization could be expedited if the individual served in the military during the war. This act prompted Germain to further press his application for a post overseas, citing his citizenship status as fairly inconsequential or at least no longer a grave hindrance. Despite numerous letters exchanged with the War Department, however, his application was eventually rejected due to changes in military personnel policy.

During the war years, the Seligmann company in New York moved from its 3 East Fifty-first Street location to smaller quarters at 5 East Fifty-seventh Street. The first exhibition in this space was held in the spring of 1944. By 1945 the Contemporary American Department was reactivated, with Theresa D. Parker as its head.

In the years following the war, a rapprochement occurred among the family members who had been split since the family quarrel between Jacques and Arnold Seligmann. With the death of Jean Seligmann during the war, Arnold Seligmann & Co. had been left without a director. Germain consolidated the two family businesses, but made separate financial and administrative entities of the Paris and New York offices. Henceforth they were affiliated "only by ties of affection."

During the early to mid-1950s, many of the activities involving Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., centered upon the recovery of looted artwork and property as well as resolving outstanding issues from the consolidation of the various family businesses. The firm was also involved in the sale of several significant collections.

In 1951 Germain was commissioned by the family of the Duc d'Arenberg to sell the family's collection of important illuminated manuscripts, engravings, and select paintings. Jan Vermeer's Portrait of a Young Girl was purchased for over a quarter million dollars.

Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., also handled the 1953 sale of works from the Prince of Liechtenstein's collection and negotiated the purchase of seven Italian marble sculptures that were eventually sold to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation in 1954. From the late 1950s up until the closing of the company in 1977-1978, the exhibitions mounted by the firm seem to indicate a gradual focus back toward drawings and more traditional art. Contemporary American artists continued to be shown as well, but the firm no longer maintained its leading edge in the art market.

Germain, who during the 1940s had written several works, among them a monograph on Roger de La Fresnaye in 1945 and The Drawings of Georges Seurat in 1947, devoted himself more and more to writing. In Oh! Fickle Taste; or, Objectivity in Art, published in 1952, Seligman addressed the importance of political and social climates in understanding the evolution of art collecting in the United States. He followed this book with the 1961 publication of Merchants of Art, 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting which memorialized his father and traced the history of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Germain's most significant work, Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1969), was lauded by art critics and listed among the 1969 "Best Ten Books of the Year" by the New York Times.

With the death of Germain Seligman in 1978, the firm doors closed, leaving behind a legacy of collecting that helped to establish American collectors and museums in the forefront of the international art world. A survey of the major art museums and collections in the United States reveals the significant number of works that were acquired either by sales or through donation from Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. The influence the company wielded is also demonstrated through the network of relationships it built with collectors, art museums and institutions, and other dealers, such as Dr. Albert C. Barnes, Bernheim-Jeune, George Blumenthal, Sen. William A. Clark, the Detroit Institute of Arts, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art, Marjorie Merriweather Post, Henry Walters, and Wildenstein & Co., among others.

1858, September 18 -- Jacques Seligmann born in Frankfurt, Germany.

1874 -- Jacques Seligmann leaves Germany to work in Paris, France, as an assistant at Maître Paul Chevallier, a leading Paris auctioneer. Soon after he leaves to work for Charles Mannheim, an expert in medieval art.

1880 -- Jacques Seligmann opens his own shop at the Rue des Mathurins. An early client is Baron Edmond de Rothschild.

1893, February 25 -- Germain Seligman is born in Paris, France. His mother's maiden name is Blanche Falkenberg (d. 1902).

1900 -- Jacques Seligmann & Cie. is formed when Jacques's brothers, Arnold and Simon, join him as partners and the business moves to the Place Vendôme.

1904 -- The New York City office of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is established, with Eugene Glaenzer as the manager. Beginning in 1905, Seligmann begins yearly visits to the New York office.

1907 -- Jacques Seligmann is elected a Fellow for Life of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

1909 -- Jacques Seligmann & Cie. acquires the Hôtel de Sagan on the Rue Saint Dominique. Jacques moves the headquarters for the company to this location and reserves its use for the most exclusive and important clients, but his brother Arnold continues to oversee the general operations of the company at the Place Vendôme.

1912 -- A lawsuit between Jacques Seligmann and his brother, Arnold, results in a split in the family company. Arnold remains at Place Vendôme under the name Arnold Seligmann & Cie. Jacques consolidates his activities at the Hôtel de Sagan. He also opens another gallery at 17 Place Vendôme, but this is soon moved to 9 Rue de la Paix.

1914 -- As a result of the split in the family business, a new office and gallery are opened at 705 Fifth Avenue, and Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is incorporated within the State of New York.

1914-1919 -- Germain Seligmann serves in the French army as a second lieutenant in the 132nd Infantry Regiment of Rheims. Later he is assigned as the first French liaison officer to the First Division of the American Expeditionary Force in France. He is discharged from active service in 1919.

1920 -- Germain Seligman becomes a partner with his father and formally joins Jacques Seligmann & Fils as the president of the New York office.

1923, October -- Jacques Seligman dies.

1924 -- Germain Seligman becomes the president of both the Paris and New York offices. Several of his brothers and sisters become partners in the firm. Theresa D. Parker joins the New York office.

1926 -- The New York office moves to 3 East Fifty-first Street. Germain Seligman, with César Mange de Hauke, sets up de Hauke & Co., Inc., to sell modern European paintings to American clients.

1930 -- De Hauke & Co., Inc., becomes Modern Paintings, Inc.

1931 -- De Hauke resigns as head of Modern Paintings, Inc., and returns to Paris.

1934 -- Modern Paintings, Inc., is dissolved, and its assets are assumed by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and by Tessa Corp., another subsidiary of the parent company.

1935 -- The Contemporary American Department is created as a part of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and Theresa D. Parker directs its operations.

1936-1937 -- Jacques Seligmann et Fils moves out of its gallery space at the Hôtel de Sagan and briefly reestablishes its headquarters at 9 Rue de la Paix. By 1937, however, the company headquarters moves to New York City. Germain Seligman establishes his legal residence there.

1939 -- World War II begins.

1940 -- During the summer, the Seligmann family house and its contents (at Rue de Constantine) are seized and sold by order of the Vichy government, along with Germain's private art collection and the gallery's stock. The Paris archives of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is destroyed by the Seligmann staff in order to keep the records from falling into the hands of the Nazis. René Seligmann dies in a New York hospital in June; François-Gerard, Germain's half-brother, is called up to serve in the army and joins the French Resistance. Another brother, André, escapes to the United States and opens a gallery in New York. Jean Seligmann, a cousin of Germain and the head of Arnold Seligmann & Cie., is captured and shot at Vincennes, France.

1943 -- Germain Seligman becomes an American citizen (and drops the second "n" from his original surname).

1944, Spring -- The New York gallery holds its first exhibition in the new 5 East Fifty-seventh Street location in New York City. During the war years, the firm had moved from its Fifty-first Street location to smaller quarters.

1945 -- The Contemporary American Department is reactivated.

1946 -- After the war, Arnold Seligmann & Cie. is left without a director, although it remains at the Rue de la Paix location. Germain consolidates the two firms but organizes the Paris and New York offices as separate financial and administrative entities.

1969 -- Germain Seligman publishes Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné. The book receives acclaim and is listed on the 1969 New York Times "Ten Best Books of the Year."

1978, March 27 -- Germain Seligman dies.
Provenance:
The records of the Paris and New York art dealer Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1978 by Mrs. Ethlyne Seligman, widow of Germain Seligman. A small addition of 19 linear feet was donated in 1994.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The records of Jacques Seligmann & Co. are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Genre/Form:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jacqself
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jacqself
Online Media:

James J. Rorimer papers

Creator:
Rorimer, James J. (James Joseph), 1905-1966  Search this
Names:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Cloisters (Museum)  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.). Board of Trustees  Search this
Rorimer, Katherine S.  Search this
Valland, Rose  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1921-1982
bulk 1943-1950
Summary:
The papers of curator and museum director James J. Rorimer measure 2.3 linear feet and date from 1921 to 1982, with the bulk from 1943-1950. The papers include documentation of James J. Rorimer's World War II service in the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives Section of the U.S. Army and his activities protecting historic and cultural sites from bombing, and locating and recovering art work and cultural icons stolen by the Nazis. Found within the papers are scattered biographical materials and correspondence, writings include draft versions of Rorimer's book Safe-Keeping or Survival: The Salvage and Protection of Art in War, financial records, photographic materials including a photo album containing photographs of European art work and cultural sites where Rorimer worked, newsclippings and additional printed materials, and one scrapbook of clippings dating from World War II.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of curator and museum director James J. Rorimer measure 2.3 linear feet and date from 1921 to 1982, with the bulk from 1943-1950. The papers include documentation of James J. Rorimer's World War II service in the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives Section of the U.S. Army and his activities protecting historic and cultural sites from bombing, and locating and recovering art work and cultural icons stolen by the Nazis. Found within the papers are scattered biographical materials and correspondence, writings include draft versions of Rorimer's book Safe-Keeping or Survival: The Salvage and Protection of Art in War, financial records, photographic materials including a photo album containing photographs of European art work and cultural sites where Rorimer worked, newsclippings and additional printed materials, and one scrapbook of clippings dating from World War II.

Scattered biographical materials include a college transcript and various certificates. Much of the correspondence is comprised of army directives but also includes some personal letters from Rorimer's wife Katherine.

Writings by Rorimer include several handwritten manuscripts and drafts of his book Survival: The Salvage and Protection of Art in War, which was originally titled Safe-Keeping. There is one folder of miscellaneous financial records, mostly dating from Rorimer's time in the army. There is also one folder of minutes of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Board of Trustees meetings.

Photographic materials include black and white photographs, negatives, contact prints, postcards, and one photo album. The photograph album was given to Rorimer from the headquarters of the Office of Military Government in Baden-Wurttemberg and is titled War Damage in Wurtemmberg: A Selection of Photographs. Many of the photographs document bomb damage to European cultural monuments and historic sites. There are photographs of Nazi stolen art repositories discovered by Rorimer and fellow Monuments Men at Buxheim monastery and Neuschwanstein castle, art recovery and transportation, and restitution work at Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point. Photographs of people, such as Edith Standen, Rose Valland, and Rorimer, are scattered throughout the series.

Printed materials include newspaper and magazine clippings, mostly related to The Cloisters or the activities and achievements of the Monuments Men. Printed materials also includes bulletins, brochures, and press releases. There is also a war-time scrapbook and two handbooks of maps showing historic monuments and sites in France and Germany.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1942-1946 (Box 1, 4; 8 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1927-1982 (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1946-1950 (Box 1; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 4: Financial Records, 1943-1946 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 5: Administrative Files, 1940 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 6: Photographic Materials, 1921-1966 (Box 1-2, 4; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1923-1966 (Box 3-4, OV 5-6; 0.7 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
James J. Rorimer (1905-1966) was a museum director and curator of medieval art working in New York City. Rorimer was the primary force and first director of The Cloisters at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. During World War II, Rorimer served in the U.S. Army Monuments, Fine Art and Archives Section protecting cultural sites and recovering stolen art work.

James J. Rorimer was born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1905 and attended the University School there until he left in 1921 in order to study abroad in Europe. He studied at the Ecole Gory in Paris for two years, then returned to the United States to finish his studies at the University School in Cleveland. In 1927, Rorimer graduated from Harvard University with a B.A. Soon after, he began working at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City where he worked his way up from a position as an assistant to Head Curator of Medieval Art, a position he filled from 1934 to 1955, director of The Cloisters, and eventually director and trustee of the museum.

Rorimer was heavily involved with the planning and development of The Cloisters, working closely with the architect Charles Collens. When The Cloisters opened in 1938, Rorimer worked there as a curator and later became the first director in 1949. During this time, Rorimer developed a professional relationship with John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who donated to New York City a large tract of land, a portion of which was given to the Metropolitan Museum as a location to build The Cloisters. The Cloisters' collections evolved into a world renown collection of medieval art under Rorimer's curatorship and directorship.

As the director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art from 1955-1966, Rorimer nearly doubled membership and attendance, raised a substantial amount of endowment funding, renovated almost half of the galleries, and increased the exhibition space.

Rorimer married Katherine Newton in 1942. They had two children, Anne and Louis.

During World War II, from 1943 to 1946, Rorimer served in the U.S. Army's Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section. The "Monuments Men" of the U.S. Army were charged with locating and protecting historical sites, monuments, artwork, and buildings from Allied bombing. Towards the end of the war, the section led recovery efforts to locate and retrieve Nazi stolen art works and other cultural heritage items. Rorimer served as a MFAA officer in Normandy and Paris, and, while in Germany, was promoted to chief of the MFAA Section of the 7th Army Western Military District.

While in Paris, Rorimer worked closely with Rose Valland, an employee of the Jeu de Paume Museum in Paris who spied on the Nazis and recorded in detail the movements of artwork stolen by members of the Nazi party, including Hermann Wilhelm Goering and Joseph Goebbels. With Valland's assistance, Rorimer discovered a large cache of stolen and confiscated artwork at the Neuschwanstein Castle in the Bavarian Alps. He and his team also recovered other artwork, European antiquities, and cultural icons that were stored in nearby salt mines. Rorimer and the other Monuments Men arranged the recovery and removal of the cache of stolen goods.

Rorimer received numerous awards for his work during World War II including, the French Cross of War in 1945, Chevalier in 1947, and officer of the French Legion of Honor in 1957. Rorimer wrote about his work as a Monuments Man in his book Survival: The Salvage and Protection of Art in War, published by Abelard Press in 1950. James J. Rorimer died in 1966.
Related Archival Materials note:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American is an oral history interview with Anne Rorimer, James' daughter, conducted in 2010 by the Archives of American Art. The Archives also holds the papers of several members of the World War II Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army, including S. Lane Faison, Walker Hancock, Walter Horn, Thomas Carr Howe, George Stout, and Otto Wittman. as well as oral history interviews with some of them.

The official government records for James Rorimer's service during World War II in the MFAA Section of the U.S. Army are maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration.
Provenance:
The James J. Rorimer papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by his wife, Katherine Serrell Rorimer, in 2 installments in 1983.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The James J. Rorimer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art treasures in war -- France  Search this
Art treasures in war -- Germany  Search this
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Confiscations and contributions -- Germany  Search this
Art thefts -- Germany -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Cultural property -- Protection -- Europe -- History -- 20th century  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
James J. Rorimer papers, 1923-1982, bulk 1943-1950. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.rorijame
See more items in:
James J. Rorimer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rorijame
Online Media:

Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers

Creator:
Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff  Search this
Names:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
College Art Association of America  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Yale University. Art Gallery  Search this
Afro, 1912-1976  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Hadzi, Dimitri, 1921-2006  Search this
Lynes, Russell, 1910-1991  Search this
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Paolozzi, Eduardo, 1924-2005  Search this
Ritchie, Jane  Search this
Roszak, Theodore, 1907-1981  Search this
Extent:
10.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1907-1983
Summary:
The papers of museum director, professor, writer, and post-World War II Monuments Men Andrew Carnduff Ritchie measure 10.3 linear feet and date from 1907 to 1983. Found within the papers are biographical material, including materials and photographs concerning his military service in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Section of the U.S. Army; correspondence, including letters from numerous artists; writings; committee and organization files; exhibition and project files, teaching files; printed material; and photographs, including portrait images of Ritchie taken by Hans Namuth.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of museum director, professor, writer, and post-World War II Monuments Men Andrew Carnduff Ritchie measure 10.3 linear feet and date from 1907 to 1983. Found within the papers are biographical material, including materials and photographs concerning his military service in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Section of the U.S. Army; correspondence, including letters from numerous artists; writings; committee and organization files; exhibition and project files, teaching files; printed material; and photographs, including portrait images of Ritchie taken by Hans Namuth.

Biographical materials include birth certificates, passports, academic records, biographical profiles, and awards. There are files documenting Andrew Carnduff Ritchie's post-World War II military service in 1945-1946 as a "Monuments Men" in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) section of the U.S. Army, including correspondence, forms, reports, photographs (including 7 of paintings looted from Holland), and awards. There is also a file on the Fogg conference on the emergency protection of artwork dated 1939-1942 and one file regarding the Frick Collection's orders for protecting art. There is also a folder of material on his wife Jane Ritchie.

Alphabetical and chronological correspondence is with artists, museums, galleries, universities, and colleagues. The bulk of the alphabetical correspondence consists of letters from artists such as Afro, Alexander Calder, Dimitri Hadzi, Russell Lynes, Eduardo Paolozzi, Theodore Roszak, and others. There are also condolence letters addressed to Jane Ritchie. Chronological correspondence includes Ritchie's correspondence on the subject of travels, lectures, projects, and exhibitions.

Writings include one disbound notebook, papers from college and graduate studies, lecture drafts, outlines, and notes. There are a few writings by others.

Committee and organization files document Ritchie's work on advisory panels, trustee boards, councils, board of directors, and committees. There are meeting minutes, bulletins, reports, studies, and correspondence. Some of the more voluminous files include the College Art Association's study on "The Visual Arts in Higher Education" as well as the Museum of Modern Art's committee on museum collections.

Exhibition and project files include correspondence, printed material, photographs, catalogs, and assorted documents. Among the projects and exhibitions in this series are Ritchie's work on the Alfred E. Burr Memorial in Connecticut and the Middelheim Sculpture exhibition.

Teaching files contain correspondence, program outlines, course materials, recommendations, and a few student papers from universities and programs where Ritchie taught, including Yale University Art Gallery.

Printed material consists of news clippings, some of which are arranged by subject, along with articles by Andrew Ritchie, press releases, magazines, bulletins, and a few exhibition catalogs.

Photographs are of Andrew Ritchie, and of friends and artists at various art openings and events. There is one small album of photographs of a birthday party for Jane Ritchie. Also included are photographs of artwork.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1907-1978 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1, OV 11)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1928-1983 (2.2 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 3: Writings, 1927-1978 (2.9 linear feet; Boxes 3-6, OV 11)

Series 4: Committee and Organization Files, 1948-1971 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 6-7)

Series 5: Exhibition and Project Files, 1949-1978 (1.6 linear feet; Boxes 7-9, OV 12)

Series 6: Teaching Files, 1957-1974 (0.5 linear feet; Box 9)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1928-1978 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 9-10)

Series 8: Photographs, 1935-1982 (O.9 linear feet; Box 10, OV 13)
Biographical / Historical:
Andrew Carnduff Ritchie (1907-1978) was a museum director, professor, and art historian based in New York and Connecticut. He served as director of the Albright Knox Gallery in Buffalo, N.Y., director of Painting and Sculpture at the Museum of Modern Art, and director of the Yale University Art Gallery.

Andrew Carnduff Ritchie was born in Bellshill, Scotland, in 1907 to Andrew and Jeanie Gilchrist Ritchie. The family immigrated to the United States when he was 15 and settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He attended the University of Pittsburgh and received a bachelor's and master of arts degrees in medieval art, and his doctoral degree from the University of London in 1935. That same year, he married Jane Thompson.

From 1935 to 1942, Ritchie was a researcher and lecturer at the Frick Collection in New York City and faculty member at New York University, as well as a visiting lecturer at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

In 1942, Ritchie was appointed director of the Albright Knox Gallery in Buffalo, New York where he stayed until 1949 when he became the director of Painting and Sculpture at the Museum of Modern Art.

In 1945-1946, directly following World War II, Ritchie served with the U.S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section in Austria and helped with the restitution of art looted by the Nazis, returning paintings and cultural artifacts back to their country of origin. He was later honored by France and the Netherlands for this work.

In 1957, Ritchie accepted the postion of director of the Yale University Art Gallery where he stayed until 1971. While there, he acquired notable works of art for the Gallery's collections by David Smith, Noguchi, and Maillol. Thanks to Ritchie's efforts and guidance, art collector and patron Paul Mellon donated his collection of British art and established the Yale Center for British Studies. In 1971, Ritchie also became the Clark Professor at Williams College, Massachusetts, and, in 1972, he was a visiting professor at the University of Sydney, Australia. Ritchie retired from Yale in 1973.

Ritchie was also awarded honorary doctorates from the University of Pittsburgh and the Royal College of Art in London. He wrote several books over the course of his career and passed away in Canaan, Connecticut, in 1978.
Related Materials:
Among the holding at the Archives of American Art is an interview of Andrew Carnduff Ritchie conducted in 1977 June 16-17 by Paul Cummings.

The Albright-Knox Gallery Archives in Buffalo, New York has a collection of Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers, which include administrative records and correspondence.
Provenance:
This collection was donated in multiple installments in 1979 and 1981 by Andrew Ritchie's widow, Jane T. Ritchie, and by her estate in 1986. Five letters from Alfred Hamilton Barr to Andrew and Jane Ritchie were donated in 1974 by Andrew Ritchie through Russell Lynes.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Arts administrators -- Connecticut -- Canaan  Search this
Educators -- Connecticut -- Canaan  Search this
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Confiscations and contributions -- Germany  Search this
Art treasures in war -- Netherlands -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Art thefts -- Germany -- History -- 20th century  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Cultural property -- Protection -- Europe -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers, 1907-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ritcandr2
See more items in:
Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ritcandr2

Thomas Carr Howe papers

Creator:
Howe, Thomas Carr, 1904-1994  Search this
Names:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Bohemian Club (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
California Palace of the Legion of Honor  Search this
M.H. De Young Memorial Museum  Search this
United States. Army. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Berenson, Bernard, 1865-1959  Search this
Cronyn, Hume  Search this
Faison, S. Lane (Samson Lane), 1907-2006  Search this
Göring, Hermann, 1893-1946  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland, 1901-1998  Search this
Kelleher, Patrick J. (Patrick Joseph), 1917-  Search this
Mallory, Margaret, 1911-1998  Search this
Mills, Paul Chadbourne, 1924-  Search this
Moore, Lamont  Search this
Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff  Search this
Rorimer, James J. (James Joseph), 1905-1966  Search this
Standen, Edith Appleton  Search this
Stout, George L. (George Leslie)  Search this
Valland, Rose  Search this
Wittmann, Otto, 1911-2001  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Photographs
Date:
1932-1984
Summary:
The Thomas Carr Howe papers measure 4.4 linear feet and date from 1932 to 1984. Howe was director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco for nearly 40 years, and he served as one of the Monuments Men in the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army during World War II. The collection documents Howe's MFAA work in Germany and Austria locating and recovering cultural artifacts and artwork stolen by the Nazis. There is significant correspondence with friends and colleagues, as well as fellow Monuments Men such as Samson Lane Faison, Edith Standen, and George Stout. The papers also includes reports, inventories of stolen artwork, maps, annotated photographs, a scrapbook, and photographs. The papers also document Howe's later work at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor.
Scope and Content Note:
The Thomas Carr Howe papers measure 4.4 linear feet and date from 1932 to 1984. Howe was director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco for nearly 40 years, and he served as one of the Monuments Men in the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army during World War II. The collection documents Howe's MFAA work in Germany and Austria locating and recovering cultural artifacts and artwork stolen by the Nazis. There is significant correspondence with friends and colleagues, as well as fellow Monuments Men such as Samson Lane Faison, Edith Standen, and George Stout. The papers also includes reports, inventories of stolen artwork, maps, annotated photographs, a scrapbook, and photographs. The papers also document Howe's later work at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor.

Biographical materials include articles and memorial tributes for Howe's father and grandfather, a short autobiography and resume, and the certificate for the copyright to his book.

The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence, the most voluminous of which are letters from Monuments Men S. Lane Faison, Patrick J. Kelleher, Andrew C. Ritchie, Edith Standen, George Stout, Marcelle Minet, Rose Valland, James Rorimer, and others. Additional correspondents include friends and colleagues such as Bernard Berenson, Hume Cronyn, Paul Mills, Christopher Forbes, Margaret Mallory, William A. McGonagle, and Otto Wittman, among many others

Writings include a brief summary of Howe's book Salt Mines and Castles and a sound cassette of his lecture about the book. Project, membership and travel files are primarily associated with his professional work at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor and include documentation of member art trips, a feasibility study for merging the California Palace of the Legion of Honor with the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, and a membership list of the Bohemian Club.

The Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFAA) Records and Looted Inventories series contain many records relating to Howe's military service as a Monuments Man. There are several inventory records which contain lists of the contents of Hermann Göring's collection of looted artwork, artwork destroyed in the Flak towers fire in Berlin, and artwork held at several of the central collecting points, though mostly at Weisbaden. There is also a small fold out map of the Altausse salt mines; a U.S. government issued manual of maps marking important cultural monuments and artwork in Germany; a book of U.S. government regulations pertaining to the MFAA section; a government information bulletin; and several official status reports and published U.S. government reports about art looting investigations and safeguarding cultural property.

Professional files consist of papers relating to Howe's job as the director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor and art trips he organized. Documents include a survey of Los Angeles museum curator salaries, a questionnaire about Howe's work as a museum director, and a membership list of Bohemian Club artists. The bulk of the travel papers are itineraries.

The photographs are divided into two subseries: MFAA Section images and personal photographs. The Monuments Men subseries includes photographs documenting bomb damage to cultural monuments in various countries, though mainly Germany; U.S. soldiers transporting recovered artwork such as Michelangelo's Madonna and Child from the Altaussee salt mines in Austria, and other looted art repositories such as Neuschwanstein Castle and Berchtesgaden in Germany; Weisbaden and Munich collecting points; and art recovery of The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. There are many photographs of the Monuments Men including Thomas Carr Howe, George Stout, Stephen Kovalyak, Lamont Moore, Patrick J. Kelleher, Edith Standen, and Rose Valland. Personal photographs consists of portraits of Howe and photographs of events, mostly formal dinners and parties.

Printed materials are clippings, postcards, fundraising pamphlets, essays, and memorial tributes for colleagues.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1934-1955, 1974 (Box 1; 6 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1932-1984 (Box 1-3; 2.1 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1946 (Box 3; 2 folders)

Series 4: Professional Files, circa 1945-1975 (Box 3, 5; 0.3 linear feet folders)

Series 5: Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Records and Looted Inventories, circa 1942-1950 (Box 3, 5, OV 6; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1938-1970 (Box 3-5; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbook, 1936-1948 (Box 4; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Printed Materials, 1934-1980 (Box 4; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Thomas Carr Howe, Jr. (1904-1994) served as the director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco for nearly four decades and, during World War II, as an officer in the U.S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives unit assisting with locating, recovering, and restituting cultural objects and artwork stolen by the Nazis.

Howe was born in Kokomo, Indiana in 1904. He studied at Harvard University where he received his bachelor's and master's degrees. Howe was the assistant director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco from 1931-1939 and director from 1939-1968. Howe was also the art commissioner for the San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition (1939-1940) for which he organized an exhibition showcasing Mexican muralists.

During World War II, Howe joined the U.S. army and served from 1945 to 1946 in Germany and Austria. He began as a naval lieutenant but was soon assigned to serve in the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFAA) section. Howe reported to Lieutenant Commander George Stout at Wiesbaden, and was later promoted to Lieutenant Commander and Deputy Chief of the MFAA at Frankfurt. During his service as one of the "Monuments Men" Howe located hidden and recovered large repositories of cultural objects and works of art stolen by the Nazis. He also helped with the restitution effort. At the Altaussee salt mines in Austria, Howe helped salvage a large cache of stolen artwork that included Michelangelo's Madonna and Child and the Ghent Altarpiece or The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb by Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Vermeer's The Artists Studio, and the Rothschild family jewels. Howe later described his wartime work in his book Salt Mines and Castles: The Discovery and Restitution of Looted European Art (1946).

Howe resumed his position as the director of the California Palace of the Legion on Honor after the war, a position he held until his retirement in 1968. Through his career as a prominent art director, Howe was close with many American and international museum professionals, collectors and socialites. Friends and colleagues include Agnes Mongan and Paul Sachs (both former directors of Harvard's Fogg Museum), Whitney Warren, and Gerda and Hans-Erich Von Schmidt auf Altenstadt.

For his wartime service as a Monuments Men, Howe was honored with the Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor and the Officier of the Dutch Order of Orange-Nassau in 1946. At the request of the federal government, Howe also later served as the Cultural Affairs Advisor to the High Commissioner of Germany from 1950-1951, during which time he returned to Germany with S. Lane Faison, another MFAA official, to assist with closing the central collecting points where the recovered artworks has been held for restitution. From 1960-1968, Howe was a member of the Fine Arts Committee for The White House and he continued to serve on numerous panels and commissions as an art advisor.

Howe married Francesca Deering. Together they had one daughter Francesca.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American are the papers of several additional members of the U. S. Army MFAA section. There is an oral history interview with Thomas Carr Howe and Robert Neuhaus conducted by Paul Karlstrom and Peter Fairbanks on September 26, 1987 and another with Howe conducted by Paul Karlstrom on June 2-3, 1976.
Provenance:
Thomas Carr Howe donated his papers to the Archives of American Art in multiple installments from 1979 to 1982.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Thomas Carr Howe papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Confiscations and contributions -- Germany  Search this
Cultural property -- Protection -- Europe -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Art thefts -- Germany -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Museum directors -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art treasures in war -- Germany  Search this
Arts administrators -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art treasures in war -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Thomas Carr Howe papers, 1932-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.howethom
See more items in:
Thomas Carr Howe papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-howethom
Online Media:

Lamont Moore lecture, "Salt mines and castles"

Creator:
Moore, Lamont, 1909-1988  Search this
Subject:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1983 October 14
Topic:
Art treasures in war  Search this
Historic preservation  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)11695
See more items in:
Salt Mines and Castles : lecture, by Lamont Moore, 1983 October 11/
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_11695

The museum of lost art / Noah Charney

Author:
Charney, Noah  Search this
Physical description:
295 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
History
Date:
2018
Topic:
Lost works of art  Search this
Art thefts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art--Mutilation, defacement, etc  Search this
Art--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1095427

La protection scientifique des œuvres d'art en temps de guerre; l'expérience européenne pendant les années 1939 à 1945

Author:
Coremans, Paul B  Search this
Physical description:
30 p. illus. 24 cm
Type:
Art and the war
Date:
1946
Topic:
Art treasures in war  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Call number:
N9160 .C79
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_143374

Rescuing da Vinci : Hitler and the Nazis stole Europe's great art : America and her allies recovered it / Robert M. Edsel ; forewords by Lynn H. Nicholas and Edmund P. Pillsbury

Author:
Edsel, Robert M  Search this
Subject:
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei  Search this
Physical description:
xvi, 302 p. : chiefly ill. (some col.), maps ; 28 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Art and the war
Place:
Europe
Date:
2006
C2006
20th century
Topic:
Art thefts--History  Search this
Art treasures in war--History  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Call number:
N8795.3.E85 E37 2006
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_814510

Emergency protection of works of art

Author:
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Physical description:
14 p. 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1942
1942?]
Topic:
Art objects--Conservation and restoration  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Call number:
069.47 .E53
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_878403

Lost heritage : antiquities stolen from Iraq's regional museums

Author:
Gibson, McGuire  Search this
McMahon, Augusta  Search this
Baker, H. D  Search this
Matthews, R.J  Search this
Postgate, J. N  Search this
Fujii, Kazumi  Search this
Oguchi, Kazumi  Search this
American Association for Research in Baghdad  Search this
Physical description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Catalogs
Place:
Iraq
Date:
1992
1992-
Topic:
Art thefts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Persian Gulf War, 1991--Confiscations and contributions  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
N8795.3.I82 L68
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_884017

Kaboul, le passé confisqué : Le musée de Kaboul, 1931-1965 / textes Francine Tissot ; photographies Dominique Darbois

Author:
Tissot, Francine  Search this
Darbois, Dominique  Search this
Subject:
Mūzah-ʼi Kābul  Search this
Physical description:
140 p. : ill. (some col.), map ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Afghanistan
Date:
2002
Topic:
Art treasures in war  Search this
Pillage  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Sculpture--Asia, Central--Afghanistan--Vanished Museum collection  Search this
Call number:
N7292 .T57 2002
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_894359

The forger's spell : a true story of Vermeer, Nazis, and the greatest art hoax of the twentieth century / Edward Dolnick

Author:
Dolnick, Edward 1952-  Search this
Subject:
Meegeren, Han van 1889-1947  Search this
Vermeer, Johannes 1632-1675 Forgeries  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 349 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm
Type:
Art and the war
Place:
Netherlands
Date:
2008
C2008
20th century
Topic:
Art treasures in war--History  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_899658

Vitalizing memory : international perspectives on provenance research

Author:
American Association of Museums  Search this
International Provenance Research Colloquium (2004 : American Association of Museums)  Search this
Physical description:
188 p. : ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Congresses
Art and the war
Place:
Europe
Date:
2005
20th century
Topic:
Art--Provenance  Search this
Art treasures in war--History  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_773679

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