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Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka

Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Extent:
95.02 Cubic feet (188 legal size boxes; 5 15 x 12 x 3 flat boxes; 1 16 x 20 x 3 flat box; 4 12 x 8 x 5 shoeboxes)
88.55 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1932-2012
bulk 1950-2008
Summary:
Sir Arthur C. Clarke is one of the preeminent science-fiction writers of the 20th century.
Scope and Contents:
Contains personal and business correspondence, manuscripts of most of Clarke's fiction works in various draft states, short stories, articles, addresses, speeches, movie outlines, Apollo 11 broadcast material, datebooks & notebooks, reference materials, business cards of visitors & contacts, photos & slides. There is some material by people other than the creator such as manuscripts and film/TV scripts.

This collection also includes audio-visual material. Please contact the Media Archivist for access.
Arrangement:
Series were based on the creator's original arrangement of material.

Arranged into 7 Series:

Series 1: Correspondence

Series 2: Original Writing

2.1: "Clarkives"

2.2: Non-"Clarkives"

2.3: Articles, Short Stories

2.4: Lectures, Speeches

Series 3: Media & Publicity

Series 4: Awards & Tributes

Series 5: Manuscripts written by others relating to Clarke's Literary Works

Series 6: Miscellaneous

Series 7: Images

7.1: Photos

7.2: Slide Albums
Biographical / Historical:
Born on December 16, 1917, in Minehead, England, Arthur Charles Clarke became obsessed with science fiction and astronomy at a young age. He was the eldest of four children born into a farming family, however he would become, with his brother Fred Clarke acting as a business associate, one of the leading names in science fiction.

During World War II Clarke served as a radar instructor and in his free time became one of the early members of the British Interplanetary Society. In 1945, Clarke made one of his earliest predictions (he called them "extrapolations") when he came up with the idea of communication satellites. He became known for this uncanny prescience which is seen in so much of his work.

In 1948 Clarke graduated from King's College, London with honors in math and physics. By 1951, Clarke had gained respect as both a fiction and non-fiction writer with Interplanatary Flight and Prelude to Space, respectively.

In 1956, Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, where he could indulge a new obsession - skin diving. He remained in Sri Lanka for the rest of his life, creating a diving company and funding many science education programs in the country.

Perhaps Clarke's most recognizable feat came when he was able to work with Stanly Kubrick over a course of 4 years in order to create the book and film 2001: A Space Odyssey which was loosely based on the earlier Clarke story "The Sentinel."

Clarke accomplished an amazing amount of writing, speaking tours, TV appearances and humantarian work despite suffering from post-polio syndrome for decades. He won numerous awards, mostly for his science fiction but also for popularizing science. He was knighted in 1998. He died, age 90, March 19, 2008.
Provenance:
Arthur C. Clarke Trust, gift, 2014
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Underwater archaeology -- 1960's  Search this
nonfiction novels  Search this
Interplanetary voyages  Search this
Artificial satellites  Search this
Manned space flight  Search this
Apollo 11 Flight  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Science fiction  Search this
Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2015.0010
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2015-0010
Online Media:

Basil Lee Rowe Collection

Creator:
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Names:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
West Indian Aerial Express  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Extent:
5.35 Cubic feet (5 document boxes, 4 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Date:
1917-1973
bulk 1930-1968
Summary:
Basil Lee Rowe (1896-1973) enjoyed a long and successful career in aviation, initially as a military exhibition pilot, barnstormer, air racer, charter operator, flight instructor, aircraft salesman, and rumrunner, before moving to the West Indies to start an airline, the short-lived West Indian Aerial Express, bought out by Pan American Airways in 1928. Rowe became a pioneering senior pilot for Pan Am, flying with them for 28 years before his retirement in 1956. This collection includes scrapbooks, photo albums, memorabilia, and first day covers, in addition to the draft manuscript for Rowe's 1956 autobiography, Under My Wings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of Rowe's pilot's log books covering his career from 1927 to 1956, assorted periodicals, cartoons featuring Rowe, scrapbooks and photo albums assembled by Rowe (featuring newspaper clippings, photographs, and ephemera), several draft manuscripts of Rowe's 1956 autobiography Under My Wings, and first day air mail postal covers collected by Rowe.
Arrangement:
Materials in this collection are grouped into series by format. See individual series Scope and Content notes for details on arrangement within that series. Note that with the exception of the chronologically arranged flight log books, Rowe did not appear to organize his materials in any particular order.
Biographical / Historical:
Basil Lee Rowe, born February 10, 1896, grew up in the small town of Shandaken, New York, in the Catskill Mountains. He began his flying career in 1914 as an apprentice to aviator Turk Adams after seeing Adams fly at a local county fair. Impatient to become a military pilot, Rowe arranged to join the Royal Canadian Air Force, but was sidelined by a ruptured appendix before he could get to Canada. By the time Rowe had recovered, the United States had entered World War I and Rowe was able to join the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps; he was sent to Texas. During the Third Liberty Loan drive, Rowe was assigned to a group of fliers who were to give exhibition flights; after his discharge, he used his savings to buy a used Avro biplane and barnstormed around the East Central United States, using Hadley Field (New Brunswick, New Jersey) as his home field. Rowe soon bought a second aircraft, hired pilot William S. "Bill" Wade, and moved his base of operations to the Aeromarine Base at Keyport, near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Rowe prospered through the early 1920s, and his troupe the "Rowe Fliers" (including at various times wingwalkers Bill Stacy and Marguerite L. "Peggy" Roome) toured the eastern US giving exhibition flights and passenger rides. In the winter, Rowe moved his operation to Florida, and, with a rebuilt Curtiss Seagull, ferried passengers eager to escape Prohibition from Miami to Nassau, Bahamas--with a bit of rumrunning on the side. Back in New Jersey, Rowe formed the Chamberlin-Rowe Aircraft Corporation with fellow aviator Clarence Chamberlin to buy and resell Army surplus aircraft; the short-lived business went bust in 1924 when the government finished selling off its aircraft. Rowe, a talented racing pilot, kept busy from 1924 through 1926 on the racing circuit, winning numerous prizes.

By the end of 1926, at the age of thirty, Rowe felt that he had reached a turning point in his life. Dismayed by the increase in US government regulation of aviation, Rowe moved his operations to the West Indies, settling in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. With Bill Wade, Rowe rapidly established a business flying charters around the country, with flights to neighboring Haiti and Puerto Rico. In June 1927, with financial backing provided by sugar industry businessmen and the government of the Dominican Republic, Rowe founded West Indian Aerial Express (abbreviated variously as WIAE or WIAX) to provide airline service between Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, hoping to be well positioned to bid on future US foreign air mail routes. With this in mind, Rowe returned to the Unites States and purchased a Fairchild FC-2W floatplane (christened "La Niña") and a larger Keystone K-47 Pathfinder trimotor (the former "American Legion," r/n NX179, rebuilt by the Keystone factory following a crash in April 1927 and rechristened as "Santa Maria"). To his dismay, Rowe was forced to acquired a US transport pilot license in order to be allowed to fly the "Santa Maria" back to Santo Domingo; he hired Canadian pilot Cy Caldwell to ferry "La Niña." On the way south in mid October 1927, Rowe found himself and his two aircraft in Florida just as Pan American Airways (PAA), which had been successful in obtaining a temporary contract to deliver mail from the US to Cuba, found itself without any aircraft able to fly out of their Key West, Florida, field to fulfill the contract before it expired. PAA struck a deal with Rowe to lease "La Niña" (piloted by Caldwell) to fly the first Pan American Airways flight on October 19, 1927.

With its two new aircraft, West Indian Aerial Express started regularly scheduled twice-weekly flights on December 1, 1927, between Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico, later extending the routes to St. Thomas and St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands. On June 30, 1928, WIAX filed a bid with the US government for air mail service on the route from Key West to Puerto Rico, but was outmanuevered by the more politically-savvy Pan American Airways which won the contract. A final crippling blow was dealt to WIAX in September 1928 when a severe hurricane hit their base in San Juan, Puerto Rico, destroying "La Niña" and two older Waco biplanes. Rowe made his last flight in the "Santa Maria" on September 20, 1928, before turning the aircraft over to Pan American. On October 16, 1928, PAA purchased WIAX, with Rowe becoming PAA's senior pilot.

During his first ten years with Pan Am, Rowe flew a record number of hours and surveyed most of the new air routes through the Caribbean to Central and South America, several times flying with Charles Lindbergh. When the US entered World War II, Rowe was assigned to Pan Am's Africa and Orient Division to serve with the US Army Air Forces Air Transport Command on their supply route across the South Atlantic and Africa to India and China (the "Cannonball Run"). His wife, Florence May Sharp, whom Rowe had married in 1930, served as an aircraft spotter during the war. During the Korean Conflict, Rowe was once again pressed into service, and was transferred to Pan Am's Pacific Division to fly transpacific supply routes and medical evacuation flights. May's early death in 1943 left Rowe a widower at his retirement from Pan Am in 1956. At their Coral Gables, Florida, home he wrote his autobiography, Under My Wings (The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., New York, 1956) and remained active as a tennis instructor until his death on October 28, 1973.
Related Materials:
See related collection Basil Lee Rowe First Day Air Mail Covers, NASM.XXXX.0487.

Basil Lee Rowe air racing medals in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection:

Medal, 1926 National Air Races [Winner, Relay Race], A19690242000. Medal, 1926 National Air Races [Winner, Relay Race], A19690243000. Medal, Aviation [Dayton Air Race], A19690244000. Medal, Third Annual Dayton Air Race Winner, A19690245000. Medal, 1926 National Air Races [2nd Place, Free-For-All Race, 510 cu. in. Class], A19690246000. Medal, 1926 National Air Races [Winner, First Elimination, 500 cu. in. Class], A19690247000.

Basil Lee Rowe air racing trophies in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection:

Trophy, Allen W. Hinkle, Basil L. Rowe, A19690238000 [Allen W. Hinkle Trophy for Two, Three, and Four Place Airplanes, 1924] Trophy, Glenn H. Curtiss, Basil L. Rowe, A19690239000 [The Glenn H. Curtiss Trophy for Two Seater Low Horsepower Airplane, National Air Races, Mitchel Field L. I., 1925] Plaque, B.B.T. Corporation, National Air Races 1926, A19690240000 [B.B.T. Corporation of America Relay Race for Commercial Planes won by Basil L. Rowe, Charles S. Jones, A. H. Kreider] Plaque, 1926 National Air Races, Benjamin Franklin Trophy, A19690241000 [Benjamin Franklin Trophy donated by Joseph A. Steinmetz, Relay Race for Commercial Planes won by Basil L. Rowe, Charles S. Jones, A. H. Kreider]
Provenance:
Basil Lee Rowe, gift, 1969; United States Air Force Museum, transfer, 1973; NASM.XXXX.0019
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Citation:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0019, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0019
See more items in:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0019
Online Media:

Basil Lee Rowe First Day Covers

Creator:
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Names:
Pan American Airways Corporation  Search this
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
West Indian Aerial Express  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1927-1957
bulk 1928-1931
Summary:
This collection consists of first day air mail covers collected by pilot and philatelic enthusiast Basil Lee Rowe, predominantly during his career as an airline pilot for Pan American Airways (PAA) in the Caribbean area in the period 1927-1931. Collection includes covers carried by Charles A. Lindbergh in his Ryan NYP "Spirit of St. Louis" during his tour of the Caribbean in February 1928, and covers autographed by many of the early airline pilots who carried them, including Cy Caldwell, Edwin Musik, Caspar D. Swinson, Charles R. Parmelee, and Rowe himself.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of first day air mail covers collected by Basil Rowe, predominantly during his career as a pilot in the Caribbean area. Most of the air mail was carried by West Indian Aerial Express (WIAE) or Pan American Airways (PAA) between Florida and islands in the Caribbean or Caribbean ports in Central and South America. Some of the first day covers are autographed by the pilots of the flights (including Cy Caldwell, Edwin Musik, Caspar D. Swinson, Charles R. Parmelee, and Rowe himself) or other noted aviators such as Dean C. Smith, or public officials such as Theodore Roosevelt III, then Governor of Puerto Rico. One group of covers were carried by Charles A. Lindbergh in the Ryan NYP "Spirit of St. Louis" during his tour of the Caribbean in February 1928. Following the covers is an annotated price list; note that not all items listed are part of this collection. Also included at the end of the collection are PAA forms used by two non-PAA pilots for flights inbound to Miami, Florida, from Havana, Cuba, in July 1931: James Goodwin Hall in his Lockheed Altair "The Crusader" (r/n NR-15W), and Frank M. Hawks in his Travel Air Mystery Ship "Texaco 13" (r/n NR-1313).
Arrangement:
Air mail covers are arranged in chronological order; documents appear following the covers at the end of the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Basil Lee Rowe (1896-1973) enjoyed a long and successful career in aviation, initially as a military exhibition pilot, barnstormer, air racer, charter operator, flight instructor, aircraft salesman, and rumrunner, before moving to the West Indies to start an airline, the short-lived West Indian Aerial Express, bought out by Pan American Airways in 1928. Rowe became a pioneering senior pilot for Pan Am, flying with them for 28 years before his retirement in 1956.
Related Materials:
See related collection Basil Lee Rowe Collection, NASM.XXXX.0019.
Provenance:
Basil Lee Rowe via Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, Gift, 1965, NASM.XXXX.0487
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Air mail stamps -- United States  Search this
Citation:
Basil Lee Rowe First Day Air Mail Covers, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0487, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0487
See more items in:
Basil Lee Rowe First Day Covers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0487
Online Media:

Apollo Stowage Lists

Creator:
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Extent:
0.39 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Date:
bulk 1969-1972
2019
Summary:
This collection consists of a complete set of printed stowage lists, including revisions lists, from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions. The collection also includes fully searchable pdf files of the lists created in 2019 by a special project initiated by the National Air and Space Museum's Department of Space History and executed by the Smithsonian's Transcription Center.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a complete set of printed stowage lists, including revisions lists, from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions. The collection also includes fully searchable pdf files of the lists created in 2019 by a special project initiated by the National Air and Space Museum's Department of Space History and executed by the Smithsonian's Transcription Center.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by mission.
Biographical / Historical:
At the time of each Apollo mission launch, NASA prepared a set of printed "as flown" stowage lists to document what items were stored on the spacecraft (both the Command Module and Lunar Module), as well as which items were to be transferred from one spacecraft to another.
Provenance:
NASM's Space History Department, Transfer, 2015, NASM.2015.0018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Manned space flight  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Apollo 17 Flight  Search this
Apollo 16 Flight  Search this
Apollo 15 Flight  Search this
Apollo 12 Flight  Search this
Apollo 11 Flight  Search this
Apollo 14 Flight  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Citation:
Apollo Stowage Lists, NASM.2015.0018, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2015.0018
See more items in:
Apollo Stowage Lists
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2015-0018
Online Media:

Salomon A. Andree 1896 Polar Expedition Collection

Creator:
Andrée, Salomon August, 1854-1897  Search this
Names:
Andrée, Salomon August, 1854-1897  Search this
Extent:
0.51 Cubic feet ((2 flatboxes) (1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Scrapbooks
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1896
Summary:
This collection consists of material relating to Salomon Andrée's unsuccessful 1896 expedition, including: two oversized prints; a photograph album labeled "Spitsbergen, 1896" which includes images of life on board the ship Virgo and the Örnen balloon; and a scrapbook containing mostly Swedish newspaper article accounts of the journey.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material relating to Salomon Andrée's unsuccessful 1896 expedition, including: two oversized prints; a photograph album labeled "Spitsbergen, 1896" which includes images of life on board the ship Virgo and the Örnen balloon; and a scrapbook containing mostly Swedish newspaper article accounts of the journey.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Salomon A. Andrée 1896 Polar Expedition Collection-- is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Salomon August Andrée (1854-1897) was a pupil at the Technical Institute in Stockholm. During the 1870s and 1880s, Andrée became interested in both ballooning and meteorological and physical research in polar regions. In 1893, Andrée bought his first balloon and undertook various ascents, and by 1895 had put forth his plans for a balloon flight over the North Pole. The expedition was planned for the summer of 1896, but after reaching Spitsbergen, unfavorable weather conditions caused the flight to be canceled. Thus, the expedition commenced the following summer. Three days after takeoff, the balloon was forced to land, and the men - Andréee, Nils Strindberg, and Knut Fraenkel - spent six weeks trying to return to Spitsbergen before perishing. The remains of their last camp were not found until 1930.
Provenance:
Peter Gustafson, gift, 1993, 1994-0007, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Salomon A. Andrée 1896 Polar Expedition Collection, Acc. NASM.1994.0007####, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1994.0007
See more items in:
Salomon A. Andree 1896 Polar Expedition Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1994-0007
Online Media:

United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials

Topic:
United States Women in Aviation, 1940-1985
Creator:
Douglas, Deborah G.  Search this
Names:
Carl, Ann  Search this
Felker, Toby  Search this
Fitzroy, Nancy  Search this
Hoffman, Margaret  Search this
Howard, Jean Ross  Search this
Hubert, Beth  Search this
Pateman, Yvonne C.  Search this
Rassmussen, Janet  Search this
Rippelmeyer, Lynn  Search this
Silitch, Mary F.  Search this
Extent:
2.57 Cubic feet (2 record center boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Transcripts
Reports
Notes
Articles
Newspapers
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1944-1994
bulk [ca. 1940s, 1980s]
Summary:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985, by Deborah G. Douglas, was published in 1991 as part of the Smithsonian Institution Press series on women in the aviation industry. This collection consists of a variety of different types of material compiled during the author's research for the book.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a variety of different types of material compiled during the author's research for the book. Included are: various types of correspondence; photographs; newspapers and other publications; photocopies of book chapters and magazine and newspaper articles; working notes belonging to the author; reports (official and personal); interview transcripts; and approximately 600 bibliographic note cards. Also included are 10 cassettes containing interviews with the following aviators: Ann Carl, Toby Felker, Nancy Fitzroy, Margaret Hoffman, Jean Ross Howard, Lt. Beth Hubert, Lt. Col. Yvonne C. Pateman, Janet Rassmussen, Lynn Rippelmeyer, and Mary F. Silitch.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects. In addition, images of some material in the collection have been excluded from online display due to possible copyright restrictions.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged by topic/subject.
Biographical / Historical:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985, by Deborah G. Douglas, was published in 1991 as part of the Smithsonian Institution Press series on women in the aviation industry. The publication documents the stories of women involved in all aspects of aviation during this time period, from pilots and engineers, to aircraft industry personnel and flight attendants.
Provenance:
Deborah G. Douglas, Gift, 1995, NASM.1995.0062
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Flight attendants  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Transcripts
Reports
Notes
Articles
Newspapers
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials, NASM.1995.0062, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1995.0062
See more items in:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1995-0062
Online Media:

Leslie A. A. Benson Collection

Creator:
Benson, Leslie A. A.  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces  Search this
Benson, Leslie A. A.  Search this
Law, Ruth  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1917-1919
Summary:
This collection consists mostly of photographs of AEF aircraft and crews on the field, with photos both loose and in a scrapbook. Documents and unit patches are also to be found in these materials. Folder 1: Includes Benson's AEF identity card, a clipping and photo of Benson, seemingly taken from a scrapbook, and various photographs of World War I aircraft such as the DH-4 and Salmson 2, along with crews. Each image in this folder is accompanied by a 4x5" negative. Folder 2: Approximately 50 loose photographs of various sizes of World War I units and their air crews on the field. Folder 3: Documentary materials (approximately 40 pages) including letters of recommendation, an officer's record book, sugar permit, and discharge certificate. Folder 4: Photo album commemorating AEF members (approximately 50 photos). Endpapers have various uniform insignia affixed, both that of the Allied forces and of the Central Powers. Note: Folder 4 includes small 1 3/4x2 3/4" photo of Ruth Law beside wing strut, in uniform.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists mostly of photographs of AEF aircraft and crews on the field, with photos both loose and in a scrapbook. Documents and unit patches are also to be found in these materials. Folder 1: Includes Benson's AEF identity card, a clipping and photo of Benson, seemingly taken from a scrapbook, and various photographs of World War I aircraft such as the DH-4 and Salmson 2, along with crews. Each image in this folder is accompanied by a 4x5" negative. Folder 2: Approximately 50 loose photographs of various sizes of World War I units and their air crews on the field. Folder 3: Documentary materials (approximately 40 pages) including letters of recommendation, an officer's record book, sugar permit, and discharge certificate. Folder 4: Photo album commemorating AEF members (approximately 50 photos). Endpapers have various uniform insignia affixed, both that of the Allied forces and of the Central Powers. Note: Folder 4 includes small 1 3/4x2 3/4" photo of Ruth Law beside wing strut, in uniform.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Leslie A. A. Benson Collection-- is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Lieutenant Leslie A. Benson was a member of the American Expeditionary Forces and was stationed in England and France during 1917-1919.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Michael Benson, gift, 1997, 1997-0047, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Leslie A. A. Benson Collection, Acc. NASM.1997.0047, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1997.0047
See more items in:
Leslie A. A. Benson Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1997-0047
Online Media:

WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots

Creator:
Haydu, Bernice Falk  Search this
Names:
Avenger Field -- Sweetwater, TX  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces  Search this
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
Women Airforce Service Pilots (U.S.)  Search this
Cochran, Jacqueline  Search this
Haydu, Bernice Falk  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox) (1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Songbooks
Photographs
Date:
1942-1944
Summary:
This collection, compiled by Bernice Falk Haydu, a former WASP 44-7, contains original photographs, photocopies of photographs, class rosters, graduation data, copies of certification, a WASP songbook, an original Miss Fifinella color sketch by Walt Disney, and other related material. The photographs are all captioned with information from Mrs. Cliff Deaton, Chief Staff Executive Officer of the WASPs at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. The material has been grouped in a binder under the following subheadings: Avenger Field; Life on Base; Wishing Well: Flight Training School; Physical Education and Marching; Graduations; VIPs; and a Miscellaneous file.
Scope and Contents:
This collection compiled by Bernice Falk Haydu, a former WASP 44-7, contains original photographs, photocopies of photographs, class rosters, graduation data, copies of certification, a WASP songbook, an original Miss Fifinella color sketch by Walt Disney, and other related material. The photographs are all captioned with information from Mrs. Cliff Deaton, Chief Staff Executive Officer of the WASPs at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, TX. The material has been grouped in a binder under the following subheadings: Avenger Field; Life on Base; Wishing Well: Flight Training School; Physical Education and Marching; Graduations; VIPs; and a Miscellaneous file.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots Collection is arranged in its original order.
Biographical / Historical:
The WASPs (Women's Airforce Service Pilots) learned to fly US Army Air Corps aircraft during WWII. Jacqueline Cochran was director of the 1074 women who earned wings and flew 60 million miles for the US Army Air Corps between November 17, 1942 and December 7, 1944. From light aircraft, the WASPs advanced quickly to fly every air corps aircraft in use at the time. With the exception of aerial gunnery and formation flying, these women received the same training as the male pilots. WASPs ferried planes, towed targets, flew tracking, simulated bombing missions, performed radio control, flight tested aircraft, gave instrument instruction and performed many other duties. Their work allowed more men to participate in aviation combat roles.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Bernice Falk Haydu, Gift, 1989, 1989-0123, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Women and the military  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Miss Fifinella (Fictitious character)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Songbooks
Photographs
Citation:
WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots, Acc. NASM.1989.0123####, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0123
See more items in:
WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0123
Online Media:

Elbert W. Proctor Collection

Creator:
Proctor, Elbert W.  Search this
Names:
National Air Transport  Search this
Transcontinental Air Transport  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Articles
Newsletters
Date:
1920-1963
bulk [ca.1920s]
Summary:
This collection contains documentation on TAT (Transcontinental Air Transport) and NAT (National Air Transport) as well as radio communication and general aviation themes. The following types of material are included: house newspapers/newsletters for both airlines; newspaper and magazine articles relating to Proctor, the airlines or aviation; photographs of both NAT and TAT, specifically dealing with radio; correspondence; and memorabilia relating to TAT and NAT.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains documentation on TAT (Transcontinental Air Transport) and NAT (National Air Transport) as well as radio communication and general aviation themes. The following types of material are included: house newspapers/newsletters for both airlines; newspaper and magazine articles relating to Proctor, the airlines or aviation; photographs of both NAT and TAT, specifically dealing with radio; correspondence; and memorabilia relating to TAT and NAT.
Arrangement:
The Elbert W. Proctor Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Elbert W. Proctor worked for both National Air Transport (NAT) and Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT) Airlines during the 1920s and early 1930s as a radio engineer. Proctor was in charge of communication for TAT.
General:
Additional Materials: Artifacts that accompanied this collection have been transferred to the National Air and Space Museum Aeronautics Division.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Elbert W. Proctor, gift, 1993, 1993-0038, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautical instruments  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Radio in aeronautics  Search this
Radio  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Articles
Newsletters
Citation:
Elbert W. Proctor Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0038YEAR.####, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0038
See more items in:
Elbert W. Proctor Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0038
Online Media:

Les Appareils SPAD Construits par Blériot Aéronautique Sales Brochure

Creator:
Bleriot  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Brochures
Date:
1919
Summary:
This collection consists of a sales brochure that features information on Blériot Aéronautique and SPAD aircraft and includes four multi color lithograph illustrations.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of an eight page sales brochure, 11.5 x 9 inch, bound with white cord at center fold and printed on light beige heavy weight paper. The brochure features information, in French, on Blériot Aéronautique and SPAD aircraft in general and on the following specific models: SPAD S.30; SPAD XV (S.15); SPAD S.29; and SPAD S.27. The brochure also features a multi color lithograph illustration, 7 x 5.6 inches, for each model listed above.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
The original SPAD aircraft manufacturing company was formed by Armand Deperdussin in 1910. The acronym SPAD was derived from the company's formal name, Société pour les Appareils Deperdussin. SPAD was taken over in 1914 by the famous aviation pioneer, Louis Blériot, when the firm was experiencing serious financial difficulties. Blériot renamed the company Société pour l'Aviation et ses Dérives, thus retaining the same acronym.
Provenance:
Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, NASM.XXXX.0891
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
SPAD Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures
Citation:
Les Appareils SPAD Construits par Blériot Aéronautique Sales Brochure, NASM.XXXX.0891, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0891
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0891
Online Media:

Exhibition Flight Collection

Topic:
Exhibition Flight. 1973
Creator:
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
1.04 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1911-1973
bulk 1911-1940
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the research material used by curators Robert Mikesh and Claudia Oakes to prepare Exhibition Flight (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1973), a companion volume to the Exhibition Flight exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Claudia M. Oakes, Transfer from National Air and Space Museum Aeronautics Department, XXXX-0423
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Stunt flying  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0423
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0423

United States Navy World War II Aircraft Recognition Model Plans

Creator:
United States. Navy  Search this
Names:
United States. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare  Search this
United States. Navy  Search this
United States. Navy. Bureau of Aeronautics [BuAer]  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pamphlets
Drawings
Date:
1942
Scope and Contents:
This collection consisits of the complete set of the Navy WWII model drawings and a booklet explaining the project.
Biographical / Historical:
Accurate scale model aircraft have often been helpful in training recognition of aircraft, range estimation and determination of cones of fire. In December 1941, the Secretary of the Navy asked the US Commissioner of Education for the schools to make 500,000 scale model airplanes. This alliance resulted in a joint project between the US Navy, Bureau of Aeronautics, who supplied the authoritative drawings and plans, and the US Office of Education, who perepared educational and informational material.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Paul E. Garber, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0438, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes -- Recognition  Search this
Airplanes -- Models  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics and state -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics -- History  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pamphlets
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0438
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0438

Cunningham-Hall Collection

Creator:
Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp  Search this
Names:
Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp  Search this
Cunningham, Francis E.  Search this
Hall, Randolph Fordham, 1896-  Search this
Extent:
2.9 Cubic feet ((2 legal document boxes) (1 drawer))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1917-1940
bulk 1928-1930
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains drawings and preliminary analysis studies of the PT-6, PT-4, GA-21, PT-6F, GA-60, GA-36, GA-50, and an Experimental Observation and Training Airplane.
Biographical / Historical:
The Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corporation was created in 1928, with Francis E. Cunningham as President and Randolph F. Hall as 2nd Vice President and Chief Engineer. The company did not produce any aircraft from 1931-1934, and 1940-1945. The PT-6, a six-place all-metal cabin biplane, was built from 1928-1930. A four-seat version of the PT-6, the PT-4 was never constructed. During 1935, Cunningham-Hall reemerged to produce the GA-21M, a two-seat monoplane. The GA-21M was based on a high-lift wing design the company had entered in the 1929 Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition. A similar version, the GA-36, was introduced in 1936. The next Cunningham-Hall model was the PT-6F, the cargo version of the earlier PT-6. This cargo plane was built only in 1939; by 1940, Cunningham-Hall was involved in defense contract research rather than aircraft production.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Theodore A. Hall, gift, unknown, XXXX-0447, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Cunningham-Hall GA-21M  Search this
Cunningham-Hall GA-36  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Cunningham-Hall PT-6 (CHPT-6)  Search this
Cunningham-Hall PT-6F (CHPT-6F)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0447
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0447

Wright Model B Modified Flyer

Creator:
Fairmont East High School, Kettering, Ohio  Search this
Fairmont West High School, Kettering, Ohio  Search this
Names:
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.22 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1976
Scope and Contents:
There are 73 drawings including a 3 view assembly, front view, side view, top view and tail section as well as 22 drawings of wing details (including engine mounts, seats, etc.); 6 drawings of tail details; 7 drawings of horizontal stabilizer and bellcrank details; 5 drawings of rudder details; 8 drawings of landing gear, 2 drawings of front skid assembly; 13 drawings of control assembly; 4 drawings of radiator details and one drawing of the fuel tank.
Biographical / Historical:
The Wright Model B was a one-man machine built by Wilbur and Orville Wright to be used for exhibition work. With a maximum length of 31 feet, maximum breadth of 39 feet and supporting surface of 500 square feet, its total weight was 1250 lbs. including aviator and passenger. The Model B's motor was a 30-35 h.p. 4 cylinder one. This set of drawings was a bicentennial project done in 1976 by members of the drafting departments of Fairmont East and Fairmont West High Schools in Kettering, Ohio.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0460, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Wright (Co) Model B  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0460
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0460

William Carl Diehl Collection

Creator:
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Names:
Army Air Corps  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Pathe News  Search this
United Eastern Airplane Company  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Extent:
2.7 Cubic feet ((6 legal document boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox))
2.52 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1912-1972
bulk 1945-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of biographical information, business records, information on the aviation organizations with which Diehl was involved, aviation material collected by Diehl, and information on flight, events, and aviation accidents.
Biographical / Historical:
William Carl Diehl (1891-1974) was an aviation pioneer and a member of the Early Birds organization. In 1914 he built and flew a monoplane and in 1915 he helped establish two flying schools, an unsuccessful school in Chicago and a school on Long Island. During the time he was working at Long Island, he helped to organize the United Eastern Airplane Company which manufactured airplanes. During World War I, Diehl was a civilian instructor for the Army Air Corps. In the late 1910s and early 1920s, Diehl established a commercial flying taxi service, performed stunts for movie production and for Pathe News, and barnstormed around the nation. He began work in 1926 on patents for aircraft mufflers and values. Diehl worked during 1927-1930 at the Wright Aeronautical Corporation at Paterson, New Jersey as an engine flight test pilot. Diehl returned to his original occupation of plumbing but continued flying until 1945, and continued his patent work until the early 1970s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, XXXX-0469, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0469
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0469

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Names:
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Extent:
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1891-1914
bulk 1891-1900
Summary:
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Provenance:
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494
Online Media:

Atlas Missile Project Site Construction Photographs

Names:
Dyess Air Force Base  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1960-1961
Summary:
The Atlas was the first intercontinental-range ballistic missile (ICBM) in the US nuclear arsenal. This collection consists of 120 black and white photographs showing various aspects of the construction of the Atlas missile installation at Dyess Air Force Base in Abilene, Texas. In addition, the collection contains three pages of drawings showing typical equipment for launcher platforms and missile silos.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 120 black and white photographs, ranging in size from 3.5 x 5 inches to 8 x 10 inches, showing various aspects of the construction of the Atlas missile installation at Dyess Air Force Base in Abilene, Texas. All the photographs are marked with the date and some caption information. In addition, the collection contains three pages of drawings showing typical equipment for launcher platforms and missile silos.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
The Atlas was the first intercontinental-range ballistic missile (ICBM) in the US nuclear arsenal. Deployed beginning in August 1959, the Atlas was designed to carry a 1-megaton thermonuclear warhead to targets up to 5,500 miles (8,850 kilometers) away, using either radio-inertial or all-inertial guidance. The Atlas was also used as a booster to launch US manned Mercury capsules into orbit in the 1960s. In the early 1960s, an installation was built at Dyess Air Force Base in Abilene, Texas as part of the Atlas Missile Project.

Major Charles William Moore, USAF, was the project manager for the Site Activation Task Force and his unit received an award for completing the construction on time and under budget.
Provenance:
Jennifer Leigh, Gift, 2009, NASM.2010.0003
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Ballistic missiles  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Atlas ICBM  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Atlas Missile Project Site Construction Photographs, NASM.2010.0003, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2010.0003
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2010-0003

Carl Pascaloff (Lunar Rover Vehicle) Papers

Creator:
Pascaloff, Carl.  Search this
Extent:
0.72 Cubic feet ((2 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Correspondence
Calculations
Photographic prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: Carl Pascaloff's notes and calculations; various reports, incuding the Lunar Rover Vehicle; Stress Analysis Report - Master Sheets for the Lunar Rover Vehicle; photographs and related press release information on Apollo 15 though Apollo 17, especially the Lunar Rover Vehicle; and drawings.
Biographical / Historical:
After graduating from University of California, Berkeley with a degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1940, Carl Pascaloff entered the Navy. Following World War II, Pascaloff accepted a position with North American Aviation as an Aircraft Structural Analyst. In 1951, he became Contract Structures Engineer for Beech Aircraft. Two years later he became Structures Engineer for Northrop Aircraft. While working for Northrop, Pascaloff received his Masters Degree (also in Mechanical Engineering) in 1960. Soon after, he accepted a position with Delco Electronics; the company he would stay with until his retirement 29 years later. He was one of the main design engineers with the Lunar Rover Vehicle program, as his work focused primarily on the design of the wheels of the Lunar Rover vehicle. In addition, Pascaloff designed the pressure hull for GM's deep-diving research submarine, which was used by the Navy for research studies. Following the premature death of his wife in 1965, Pascaloff became a single parent of four while still continuing to contribute greatly with his designs of various vehicles.
Provenance:
Joanne Deltener, Gift, 2006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Manned space flight  Search this
Apollo Lunar Module  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Lunar excursion module  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Correspondence
Calculations
Photographic prints
Citation:
Carl Pascaloff (Lunar Rover Vehicle) Papers, 2006-0040, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0040
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0040

Richard E. Schreder Papers and Drawings

Creator:
Schreder, Richard E. "Dick"  Search this
Extent:
11.67 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Logs (records)
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
bulk 1930-2000
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of eleven cubic feet of archival material chronicling the aviation career of Richard E. Schreder. Included are the following types of material: 95 drawings of Schreder's kit designs; logbooks; correspondence; photographs; awards; military paperwork; and Schreder interview tapes with CD copies.;
Biographical / Historical:
Richard E. Schreder (1915-2002) was a naval aviator and American sailplane enthusiast who designed and developed kit sailplanes. Schreder built his first powered aircraft, a single seat aircraft with a Henderson motorcycle engine, at age 19. He received a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering form the University of Toledo in 1938 and he then joined the US Navy as a Naval Aviation Cadet. Schreder served in the Navy until 1952, rising to the rank of Commander. He won the Distinguished Flying Cross for the sinking of a German U-boat during World War II. After leaving the Navy, Schreder founded a successful drafting supplies business in Toledo Ohio, and continued experimenting with small aircraft. He designed an all-metal low-wing single-seater called the Airmate 5, which won the Experimental Aircraft Association's (EAA) best workmanship award in 1954. Soon after however, Schreder became fascinated with soaring. He bought a Bowlus Baby Albatross and a Schweizer 1-23D before building his own sailplane designs. In 1956 Schreder built the HP-7 which he flew to a four-place finish in that year's US National Championship contest. Schreder's next design, the HP-8 won the 1958 US Nationals and established speed records in the 100, 200, and 300 km courses. Schreder's first attempt at developing a glider specifically for kit manufacture was the HP-10. That design was followed by the HP-11, HP-14, HP-15, HP-16, RS-15, HP-17, HP-18, HP-19, HP-20, HP-21 and HP-22. The aircraft were so successful the Schreder set up a company, Bryan Aircraft Inc., in 1966 to market the plans and kits, eventually selling more than 470 kits. Schreder won three US national sailplane contests (1958, 1960,1966) in sailplanes he designed and represented the United States at four international sailing contests. Due to Schreder's contribution to soaring, both in design and piloting skill, he was elected to the Soaring Society of American Hall of Fame in 1962.
Provenance:
Carol Schreder and Karen Schreder Barbera, Gift, 2008
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautical sports  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Schreder HP-7 Sailplane  Search this
Schreder HP-10 Sailplane  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Logs (records)
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Richard E. Schreder Papers and Drawings, 2008-0038, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0038
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0038

Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) Documentation

Creator:
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet ((5 letter boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Reports
Drawings
Manuscripts
Date:
bulk 1978-1986
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two cubic feet of documentation (from 1978-1986) on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP), including the following: Goodyear Aerospace Corporation reports, internal memorandums, project notes, correspondence, diagrams, a handwritten manuscript of a MPP manual, and progress reports.
Biographical / Historical:
The Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) is the 16,384-processor computer developed by Goodyear Aerospace for 1983 installation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth and Space Data Computing Division (ESDCD) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The MPP pioneered the linking together of a collection of computers to accomplish large tasks quickly via network. The MPP was retired from service with GSFC in 1991 and was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in 1995.
Provenance:
Carl Mickelson, Gift, Year received
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aerospace engineering  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Computer networks  Search this
Computers  Search this
Massively Parallel Processor (MPP)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Reports
Drawings
Manuscripts
Citation:
Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) Documentation, Accession number 2006-0017, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0017
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0017

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