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Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862) Collection

Creator:
Powers, William C.  Search this
Names:
Powers, William C.  Search this
Extent:
0.11 Cubic feet (2 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Photographs
Date:
1862-1863
Summary:
This collection contains photographs and blueprints of the Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 7 black and white photographs of Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862) model and blueprints, as well as the original blueprints.
Arrangement:
No arrangement.
Biographical/Historical note:
William C. Powers was an architectural engineer-mechanic in Mobile, AL during the Civil War. Between 1862 and 1863 he designed and built experimental plans and a model of a helicopter intended to provide the Confederate defenders of Mobile with a means for aerial bombing of the Federal blockading fleet. A family dispute apparently arose over the fear that the North would capture the ship and use it to destroy the South, and the plans were set aside until 1940.
Provenance:
Clara McDermott and William V. McDermott, Gift, 1940, XXXX-0562
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military -- pre-1903  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Photographs
Citation:
PowPowers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862) Collection, NASM.XXXX.0562, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0562
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0562
Online Media:

Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records

Creator:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Names:
Curtiss-Wright Airports Corporation  Search this
Keystone Aircraft Corp  Search this
Extent:
146 Cubic feet (228 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Reports
Drawings
Financial records
Date:
1868-1972
bulk 1925-1949
Summary:
This collection consists of the corporate records of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Included in the collection are technical and engineering reports of Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division's operations in St. Louis (Robertson), MO (1935-1945) and Buffalo, NY, (1932-1945), as well as AAS Material Division and AAF Air Technical Services Command memorandum reports collected by Curtiss-Wright's St. Louis and Buffalo technical reference libraries. The collection also contains the files of Curtiss-Wright's Patent Department, which hold records of patents filed by Curtiss-Wright and patent-infringement cases involving Curtiss-Wright. Also included in the collection are specifications issued by and photos commissioned by the Keystone Aircraft Corporation (Huff-Daland Airplanes, Inc. until March 1927), which had been acquired by Wright in 1928 along with Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp., and formed the Keystone Division of Curtiss-Wright until 1932 when Keystone's Bristol, PA factory closed its doors. The collection also contains financial records of the Curtiss-Wright Airports Corporation, which was liquidated in 1936, as well as an extensive negative collection featuring Curtiss-Wright aircraft from the 1930s and 1940s, concentrated especially on the war years.
Scope and Contents:
The Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records collection contains approximately 146 cubic feet of material. The collection contains the following material:

Army Air Service Material Division & Army Air Force Technical Services Command Memo

Reports & Technical Reports which include testing of various Curtiss-Wright models of aircraft and/or various parts of aircraft

Technical & Engineering Reports from the St. Louis, MO plant [Robertson] & Buffalo, NY plant

Patents, Patent Dockets, Patent Serial numbers, Suits, License Agreements, Patents filed by Curtiss-Wright & Patent Infringement Cases [1800s to 1940s]

Miscellaneous Research Files

Corporate & Financial Records [1923 to 1972]

Correspondence

Blueprint Drawings

Advertisements from Newspapers & Magazines in Scrapbooks

Engine Decals

Photographs

Negatives & Glass Plates
Arrangement:
This collection was arranged into Series and Subseries:

Series I: Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records

Subseries I: Corporation Reports\Records Subseries II: Patents Subseries III: Patent Serial Numbers Subseries IV: Patent Application/Dockets Subseries V: Patent Litigation Subseries VI: Aircraft & Engine Designations arranged by Designation Subseries VII: Photographs Subseries VIII: Keystone Aircraft Corporation Subseries IX: Oversize Scrapbooks of Advertising Material, Newspaper Clippings

Series II: Technical Reports

Subseries I: Air Corps Materiel Division, Reports [ACMR] Subseries II: Buffalo Reports Subseries III: St. Louis

Series III: Glass Plates [this part of the collection has not been processed]

Series IV: 1969 Accretion - Listing of Archival Material

Series V: Master Print Books [this part of the collection has not been processed]
Historical note:
An historic event in aviation occurred on June 26, 1929 when two major aircraft companies: the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company merged with the Wright Aeronautical Corporation to form the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. After this merger, the former Wright organization took over all of the engine and propeller manufacture while Curtiss concentrated on airplanes. This merger was completed by organizing two major divisions under their original names, but under the direction of a corporate headquarters located in New York City. However, there was a recognized separation of spirit as well as specialized facilities that was never completely resolved in succeeding years. The election of former Wright personnel to key corporate positions soon led to Wright becoming the dominant division. At the height of the Lindbergh Boom during the 1920s and 1930s, the Curtiss-Wright Corporation was made up of the following identified organizations: The Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Company; The Curtiss-Caproni Corporation; The Curtiss-Robertson Airplane Manufacturing Company; The Keystone Aircraft Corporation; The Moth Aircraft Corporation; The Travel Air Manufacturing Company; The Wright Aeronautical Corporation; Curtiss-Wright Flying Service; The Curtiss-Wright Sales Corporation; The Curtiss-Wright Export Corporation. Curtiss-Wright was quickly becoming the 'General Motors of the Air' until the great depression in October 1929. Sales dropped and Curtiss-Wright was forced to close certain satellite plants and transfer some of their product lines to the St. Louis facility. It looked like even the Buffalo plants would also have to close when Curtiss-Wright received an order from Colombia, South America for Hawks and Falcons. This was the largest military order to Curtiss since the war. The Colombia sale saved the Curtiss-Wright organization at this low point in its history. This order kept the production lines going until new military and civil markets began to open up as the depression waned and the build-up for World War II began. During the U.S. military build-up prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, all existing Curtiss-Wright plants were expanded and new aircraft factories were built at Columbus, Ohio and Louisville, Kentucky. The dropping of the two atomic bombs on Japan resulted in an unexpected early end to World War II. All of the major U.S. airplane builders including Curtiss-Wright were hit by massive contract cancellations because of the Japanese surrender. In 1946 Curtiss-Wright had only two experimental military models at hand for postwar delivery and no assurance of production orders. Curtiss-Wright was forced to shut down all airplane plants and transfer all units of the Aeroplane Division to their Columbus Plant. The eventual sale of the Airplane Division to North American included design rights to the former Curtiss-Wright airplanes. The Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division, which manufactured airframes, finally closed down in 1951.
Provenance:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, gift, XXXX, 1969
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Curtiss, General, Aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Curtiss-Wright aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Reports
Drawings
Financial records
Citation:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records, Acc. XXXX-0067, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0067
See more items in:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0067
Online Media:

Early Ballooning Prints

Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Names:
Post, Augustus  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 slim legal box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1769-1918
bulk 1869-1875
Summary:
The Early Ballooning Prints collection contains .25 cubic feet of material related to early ballooning history.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of prints, newspapers, articles, and a letter related to early ballooning history.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized according to format.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection documents 18th, 19th, and 20th century ballooning feats. One print, while not of the period, depicts the oldest known representation of a parachute (1617).
Provenance:
Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, XXXX.0137
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Balloons -- pre-1900  Search this
Balloons -- History  Search this
Citation:
Early Ballooning Prints, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0137, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0137
See more items in:
Early Ballooning Prints
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0137
Online Media:

Harper's New Monthly Magazine

Collection Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Container:
Folder 2, Item 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
July 1869
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Early Ballooning Prints, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0137, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Early Ballooning Prints
Early Ballooning Prints / Series 2: Articles
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0137-ref10

Articles

Collection Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1769-1870
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Early Ballooning Prints, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0137, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0137, Series 2
See more items in:
Early Ballooning Prints
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0137-ref7

Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection

Creator:
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Names:
Japan. Navy  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Tanaka, Kiyoshi  Search this
Extent:
1.51 Cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Clippings
Date:
1860-1988
bulk 1945-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection was gathered by National Air and Space Museum curator Robert C. Mikesh for his publication on this subject, "Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America." The collection consists of the following: magazine and newspaper articles on the Japanese balloons; manuscripts and independent articles; 83 photos Mr. Mikesh used in his book and 68 miscellaneous photos collected for research purposes; also photocopies of Japanese balloon illustrations and Japanese balloon propaganda reports. The collection also includes the working files of Kiyoshi Tanaka, the Supervisor Technical Lieutenant Commander for the Japanese Navy balloon project, and multiple copies of Mr. Mikesh's publication.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as originally numbered and titled by Robert C. Mikesh. Additional folder title information has been added by the processing archivist in brackets.
Biographical / Historical:
During World War II the Japanese constructed nearly 10,000 lighter-than-air balloons for the purpose of carrying destructive pay loads to the U.S. Between November 1944 and April 1945 these balloons made use of the prevailing west-to-east jet stream over the North Pacific Ocean. Nearly 285 sightings and fragment findings have been recorded in North America, and 5 deaths resulted. This was the first and only attack upon the American continent directly from an enemy homeland.
Provenance:
NASM Generated, Transfer, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0558.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Air defenses -- United States  Search this
Air defenses  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Clippings
Citation:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection, Acc. XXXX.0558, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0558
See more items in:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0558
Online Media:

Georges Naudet Collection

Creator:
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983.  Search this
Names:
Blanchard, Jean-Pierre, 1753-1809  Search this
Blériot, Louis, 1872-1936  Search this
Godard, Eugène, 1864-  Search this
Godard, Louis  Search this
Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel, 1740-1810.  Search this
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983.  Search this
Vedrines, Jules  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box) (1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Clippings
Postcards
Date:
[ca 1600s-1930s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes early ballooning material as well as photographs of early 20th century French pilots. The ballooning material includes material from Jean-Pierre Blanchard, Joseph Montgolfier and Eugene and Louis Godard. The early photographs include the following aviators: Louis Blériot, and Jules Védrines. The following types of material are included: photographs, newspaper clippings, postcards, and books.
Biographical / Historical:
Georges Naudet (June 9, 1900 - May 22, 1983) was a French businessman who was passionately interested in the early history of ballooning and aviation. An amateur in the field of aviation history, he became an avid collector and author.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
George Naudet Estate, purchase, 1984, XXXX-0479, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- France  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Balloons -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Clippings
Postcards
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0479
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0479
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1860 - 1962
Scope and Contents:
Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley. Most of the correspondence deals with the aeronautical projects, though some non-aeronautical letters, like Langley's notes on making coffee, were included in the files. Langley's official correspondence as Secretary of the Smithsonian is part of the Smithsonian Institution Archives' Official Records of the Smithsonian Institution (Record Unit 34); his personal correspondence is included in the Smithsonian Institution Archives' Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906 (Record Unit 7003). Additional correspondence can be found in Series 11.
Arrangement:
The material is arranged alphabetically by the name of the correspondent.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494, Series 4
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494-ref228

U.S. Navy Department

Collection Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Container:
Box 38, Folder 48
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1866-1869
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Samuel P. Langley Collection / Series 4: Correspondence / 4.1: S. P. Langley Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494-ref277

Thaddeus. S. C. Lowe - Joseph Henry correspondence

Collection Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Container:
Box 40, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1860-1861
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Samuel P. Langley Collection / Series 4: Correspondence / 4.3: Miscellaneous Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494-ref400

[Old Family Photos]

Collection Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 299, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1880-1930s
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Paul E. Garber Collection / Series 12: Photographs / 12.1: Personal and Family Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0063-ref3592

[Tintypes]

Collection Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Extent:
2 Tintypes
Container:
Box 433, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Tintypes
Date:
circa 1860s
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Paul E. Garber Collection / Series 14: Oversize Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0063-ref4493

Paul E. Garber Collection

Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Tusch, Mary E. "Mother"  Search this
Extent:
241.95 Cubic feet (488 boxes plus flat files)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1824-1992
Summary:
The Paul E. Garber Collection documents Paul Edward Garber's life, both personal and professional, prior to and during his 72-year tenure at the National Air and Space Museum.
Scope and Contents:
The Paul E. Garber Collection includes material from both the personal and professional realms of Garber's life. It is centered on the following three areas: Garber's personal life; his aeronautics interests; and his association with the Smithsonian Institution—the National Air Museum, and later the National Air and Space Museum. The collection is a particularly rich source of material relating to Garber's development of the military target kite, his involvement in a multitude of aviation-related clubs and organizations, and as a record of his daily work duties and influence upon the National Air and Space Museum. The following types of materials, dating from 1824 to 1992, are included: correspondence; diaries; notes and writings by Garber regarding a variety of aeronautical and museum topics; lectures and interviews; scrapbooks; newspaper clippings; magazine articles; photo albums; photographs, slides, negatives, and lantern slides; pamphlets and brochures; drawings; newsletters; and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
Little emphasis has been placed on dividing this collection between Garber's personal and professional lives, as the two capacities intersected in almost every way. Whenever possible, Garber's original folder titles and order have been preserved. All titles that appear in [brackets] are the archivist's.

The collection is organized into the following 15 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1901-circa 1992 and undated

Series 2: Invitations and Programs, 1910-1988 and undated

Series 3: National Air and Space Museum (NASM), 1916-1992 and undated

Series 4: World War II Target Kites and Naval Reserve, 1919-1986 and undated

Series 5: Manuscripts and Speeches, 1925-1989 and undated

Series 6: Personal Materials, 1824-1992 and undated

Series 7: Personal Interest, circa 1908-circa 1992 and undated

Series 8: Organizations, 1908-1992 and undated

Series 9: Newsletters, 1938-1992 and undated

Series 10: Biographical Files, circa 1910-circa 1992 and undated

Series 11: Subject Files, 1909- circa 1990 and undated

Series 12: Photographs, circa 1880-1992 and undated

Series 13: Negatives, Transparencies, Film, and Slides, circa 1940s-circa 1970s and undated

Series 14: Oversize Materials, 1842-1990 and undated

Series 15: Audio Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
Paul Edward Garber (1899-1992) was instrumental in obtaining a substantial portion of the National Air and Space Museum's aircraft collection. His 72-year tenure with the Smithsonian Institution and his dedication to the belief that aeronautics artifacts were worthy of preservation for the sake of National memory effectively make him the progenitor of the National Air and Space Museum we know today.

Garber was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on 31 August 1899, a few years prior to the development of powered flight. Growing up during this exciting time, young Garber was exposed to a number of experiences that ignited his interest in aeronautics. Garber recalled that, while visiting Washington, D.C., in 1909, he took a streetcar across the Potomac River to watch Orville Wright fly the world's first military airplane at Fort Myer, Virginia.

The Garber family eventually left Atlantic City and permanently settled in Washington, D.C. In 1913 Garber and his schoolmates formed the Capital Model Aeroplane Club, organizing competitions for the making and flying of model aircraft and kites. In 1915, after visiting the Smithsonian Institution, Garber made a copy of Octave Chanute's biplane glider. After testing a smaller model, which he flew as a kite, Garber constructed a 20-foot wingspan version, using barrel staves sawed into thirds as ribs and covering them in red chintz fabric. Over several weekends, Garber made numerous towed take-offs and glides. These flights would eventually qualify him for membership into the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Between 1917 and 1918 Garber studied at the McKinley Technical School in Washington, D.C., and the University of Maryland, College Park. He also studied Aeronautical Engineering at the Research University, Washington, 1920-1921. He never received a degree from any institution he attended. Garber finished his teen years by joining the Army in 1918 and was about to begin flight training at College Park when World War I ended. Afterwards, he took a job as a ground crewman and messenger with the United States Post Office Department's Air Mail Service.

In 1920 Garber began his career with the Smithsonian Institution, starting as a "Preparator," dealing with the maintenance of exhibits. Advancing through the ranks, he was at various times an Aide, Assistant Curator, and Associate Curator. During World War II, Garber's talents in modeling and kite making allowed him to accept a commission in the U.S. Navy at the rank of Lt. Commander. His military target kites became an important part of gunnery training, serving as both targets and examples for identifying enemy aircraft. Following the ending of the war, Garber resigned at the rank of Commander and returned to the Smithsonian where, in 1952, he became the first Curator of the National Air Museum, which was created by act of Congress in 1946.

On 10 May 1952 Garber married Irene Tusch, daughter of the aeronautical enthusiast Mary E. "Mother" Tusch. Throughout the next decade plus, Garber received promotions to Head Curator and Senior Historian, serving in this last position until 1965. From 1965 to 1969, Garber was the Assistant Director of Aeronautics. Forced to retire by Federal law upon reaching the age of 70, Garber received the honorary lifetime titles of Historian Emeritus and Ramsey Fellow.

Garber wrote several books on aeronautics and flight: Building and Flying Model Aircraft. A Guide for Youthful Beginners in Aeronautics, 1920; We: The Story of Achievement in Aviation, 1929; Kites and Kite Flying, 1931; Flying in Safety, 1939; and Navy Target Kites, 1944. He wrote multiple editions on the National Aircraft/Aeronautical Collections (1941, 1949, 1956, and 1965), as well as numerous pamphlets, handbooks, encyclopedia entries, and articles on aviation-related subjects.

In addition to his writing and lecturing, he was the recipient of many awards and trophies, including: the Washington Air Derby Association Trophy, 1954; the Air Line Traffic Association Citation, 1955; the Frank G. Brewer Trophy for Youth Education, 1959; the Elder Statesman of Aviation Award, 1964; the Trasvolata Atlantica Medal from Italy, 1964; the Santos-Dumont Medal of Merit from Brazil, 1966; the Paul Tissandier Diplome from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (F.A.I.), 1968; the Smithsonian Institution's Gold Medal, 1969; the Order Rio Branco, 1969; the Mérito Aeronáutico Medal from Brazil, 1974; named an honorary pilot in the Brazilian Air Force, 1982; recipient of the Medalha Mérito Tamandaré of Brazil, 1983; named to the OX-5 Club's Aviation Hall of Fame, 1974; and received the Laskowitz Gold Medal from the New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. Garber was also made Honorary Naval Aviator #17 during the mid-1980's. He was a member of the National Aeronautics Association, the Air Mail Pioneers, the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. (Secretary, 1956-1960; President 1968, 1976-77), the Connecticut Aeronautical Historical Society, the National Aviation Club, and the National Space Club.

Paul Garber died in his sleep at Arlington Hospital on 23 September 1992. His acquisition efforts and advocacy on behalf of the National Air and Space Museum continue to live on in the form of its rich aircraft collections. The National Air and Space Museum's Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility, formerly known as "Silver Hill," is named in his honor.
Provenance:
Paul Garber, Gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0063
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Kites  Search this
Models and modelmaking  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0063
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0063
Online Media:

Krainik Ballooning Collection

Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Names:
Brady, Mathew B., 1823 (ca.)-1896  Search this
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C.  Search this
Myers, Carl, 1842-1925  Search this
Myers, Mary, "Carlotta Queen of the Air"  Search this
Stevens, Albert Leo, 1873-1944  Search this
Extent:
3.19 Cubic feet (2 shoeboxes; 3 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereoscopic photographs
Postcards
Photographs
Woodcuts
Date:
1859-1934
Summary:
This 19th and 20th century ballooning memorabilia collection contains the following items, which have been meticulously inventoried: 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items.
Scope and Contents:
The Krainik Ballooning Collection contains 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items all pertaining to 19th and 20th century ballooning. Highlights of the stereoscopic photographs include: views of T.S.C. Lowe's balloons during the Civil War; views of the Nadar and Godard balloons; balloons during the Boer War, Russo-Japanese War, and WWI; and views of the airships Ganymede, Great Western, Phantom Balloons, Buffalo, Madame Carlotta, and The Aerial. The photographic portion of the collection features Matthew Brady's views of Lowe's balloons during the Civil War; views of the balloon Madam Carlotta before and during flights; smoke and gas balloon inflation and flights; and portraits of T.S.C. Lowe and other pioneers of ballooning.

The collection also contains lithographic cards printed in Germany, whimsical advertising trade cards incorporating popular ballooning motifs and events, and 19th century woodcut illustrations from various periodicals concerning all aspects of ballooning. Other items include a small broadside for the Grand Balloon Ascension of CARLOTTA and a contract for smoke balloon ascensions. A few non-archival items, such as medals for Lowe's balloon, City of New York, and Giffard's giant captive balloon, 1878, were accessioned with this collection and subsequently transferred to curatorial collections.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement note:
This collection has been arranged, first, in chronological order based on the Krainik inventory number that was assigned by the donor (K#), and then by size.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krainik Ballooning Collection was amassed by Clifford and Michele Krainik, experts in 19th and early 20th century historical photographs, negatives, and ephemera. This collection of 19th and 20th century ballooning memorabilia contains 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items.
Provenance:
Clifford Krainik, Purchase, 1989, 1990-0009, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Great Western (Airship)  Search this
Phantom Balloons (Airships)  Search this
Airships  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Madame Carlotta (Airship)  Search this
The Aerial (Airship)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905  Search this
South African War, 1899-1902  Search this
Buffalo (Airship)  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Ganymede (Airship)  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Communications  Search this
Balloons -- History  Search this
Balloons -- pre-1900  Search this
Spanish-American War, 1898  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereoscopic photographs
Postcards
Photographs
Woodcuts
Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0009
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0009
Online Media:

Untitled. Boy up in a gas balloon with garland

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Chromolithograph (4.25 x 3 inches.)
Container:
Box 2, Folder 126, Item K# 304; 7A47351
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Chromolithographs
Date:
1860s/1870s
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1772

"James Allen, Aeronaut. Balloon Ascensions...Instructions given in the art." Business card with balloon vignette

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Item ((Business card))
Container:
Box 2, Folder 133, Item K# 394; 7A47330
Type:
Archival materials
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1860s
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1780

"Siege of Yorktown." View of Union artillery station with T.S.C. Lowe's observation balloon in tethered flight. U.S. Civil War

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Steel engraving, 5.25 x 8.5 inches.)
Container:
Box 3, Folder 4, Item K# 321; 7A47421
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
circa 1862
Scope and Contents note:
Engraved by Samuel Sartain. See also Krainik numbers 4-7, 30, 31, 113-115, 320, 326, and 403.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1828

"The Car of Nadar's Balloon at the Crystal Palace." With separate page of text

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 8.187 x 10.75 inches.)
Container:
Box 3, Folder 4, Item K# 324; 7A47490
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
December 12, 1863
Scope and Contents note:
Published in The Illustrated London News. See also Krainik numbers 8-11, 323, and 409.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1830

"Our Balloon Post." Aeronaut dropping the latest Parisian dresses and fasion plated to Louis Godey. The balloons "escaped" from besieged Paris

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 9 x 5.75 inches.)
Container:
Box 3, Folder 4, Item K# 327; 7A47450
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
circa 1870
Scope and Contents note:
Published by Louis Godey.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1832

"French War Balloon." Tethered military balloon with motorized winch

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 9 x 6 inches.)
Container:
Box 3, Folder 4, Item K# 334; 7A47432
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
circa 1870
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1836

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