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Aerial Navigation Company Stock Certificate [Rufus Porter]

Creator:
Porter, Rufus, 1792-1884  Search this
Names:
Aerial Navigation Co.  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stock certificates
Date:
bulk 1852
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of one 7.75 x 5 inch {dollar}5 stock certificate in Aerial Navigation Company, No. 779, dated 19 June 1852, to N. C. Brazeal. The certificate has been mounted.
Biographical / Historical:
Rufus Porter (1792-1884) was an artist, musician, teacher, inventor, and the founder of Scientific American magazine. In 1852 he tried to sell {dollar}5 shares of stock in Aerial Navigation Company to fund an "aeroport" or dirigible to carry passengers between New York and California. However, a tornado, vandalism by "rowdy visitors" at the unveiling, and the disintegration of the canvas caused by the varnish eroded his funds for that venture.
Provenance:
Julia Hobson Mills, Gift, 1939
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Transcontinental flights -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stock certificates
Citation:
Aerial Navigation Company Stock Certificate [Rufus Porter], Accession XXXX-1028, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1028
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1028

Early Ballooning Prints

Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Names:
Post, Augustus  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 slim legal box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1769-1918
bulk 1869-1875
Summary:
The Early Ballooning Prints collection contains .25 cubic feet of material related to early ballooning history.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of prints, newspapers, articles, and a letter related to early ballooning history.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized according to format.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection documents 18th, 19th, and 20th century ballooning feats. One print, while not of the period, depicts the oldest known representation of a parachute (1617).
Provenance:
Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, XXXX.0137
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Balloons -- pre-1900  Search this
Balloons -- History  Search this
Citation:
Early Ballooning Prints, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0137, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0137
See more items in:
Early Ballooning Prints
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0137
Online Media:

Articles

Collection Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1769-1870
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Early Ballooning Prints, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0137, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0137, Series 2
See more items in:
Early Ballooning Prints
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0137-ref7

Georges Naudet Collection

Creator:
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983.  Search this
Names:
Blanchard, Jean-Pierre, 1753-1809  Search this
Blériot, Louis, 1872-1936  Search this
Godard, Eugène, 1864-  Search this
Godard, Louis  Search this
Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel, 1740-1810.  Search this
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983.  Search this
Vedrines, Jules  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box) (1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Clippings
Postcards
Date:
[ca 1600s-1930s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes early ballooning material as well as photographs of early 20th century French pilots. The ballooning material includes material from Jean-Pierre Blanchard, Joseph Montgolfier and Eugene and Louis Godard. The early photographs include the following aviators: Louis Blériot, and Jules Védrines. The following types of material are included: photographs, newspaper clippings, postcards, and books.
Biographical / Historical:
Georges Naudet (June 9, 1900 - May 22, 1983) was a French businessman who was passionately interested in the early history of ballooning and aviation. An amateur in the field of aviation history, he became an avid collector and author.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
George Naudet Estate, purchase, 1984, XXXX-0479, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- France  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Balloons -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Clippings
Postcards
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0479
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0479
Online Media:

Paul E. Garber Collection

Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Tusch, Mary E. "Mother"  Search this
Extent:
241.95 Cubic feet (488 boxes plus flat files)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1824-1992
Summary:
The Paul E. Garber Collection documents Paul Edward Garber's life, both personal and professional, prior to and during his 72-year tenure at the National Air and Space Museum.
Scope and Contents:
The Paul E. Garber Collection includes material from both the personal and professional realms of Garber's life. It is centered on the following three areas: Garber's personal life; his aeronautics interests; and his association with the Smithsonian Institution—the National Air Museum, and later the National Air and Space Museum. The collection is a particularly rich source of material relating to Garber's development of the military target kite, his involvement in a multitude of aviation-related clubs and organizations, and as a record of his daily work duties and influence upon the National Air and Space Museum. The following types of materials, dating from 1824 to 1992, are included: correspondence; diaries; notes and writings by Garber regarding a variety of aeronautical and museum topics; lectures and interviews; scrapbooks; newspaper clippings; magazine articles; photo albums; photographs, slides, negatives, and lantern slides; pamphlets and brochures; drawings; newsletters; and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
Little emphasis has been placed on dividing this collection between Garber's personal and professional lives, as the two capacities intersected in almost every way. Whenever possible, Garber's original folder titles and order have been preserved. All titles that appear in [brackets] are the archivist's.

The collection is organized into the following 15 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1901-circa 1992 and undated

Series 2: Invitations and Programs, 1910-1988 and undated

Series 3: National Air and Space Museum (NASM), 1916-1992 and undated

Series 4: World War II Target Kites and Naval Reserve, 1919-1986 and undated

Series 5: Manuscripts and Speeches, 1925-1989 and undated

Series 6: Personal Materials, 1824-1992 and undated

Series 7: Personal Interest, circa 1908-circa 1992 and undated

Series 8: Organizations, 1908-1992 and undated

Series 9: Newsletters, 1938-1992 and undated

Series 10: Biographical Files, circa 1910-circa 1992 and undated

Series 11: Subject Files, 1909- circa 1990 and undated

Series 12: Photographs, circa 1880-1992 and undated

Series 13: Negatives, Transparencies, Film, and Slides, circa 1940s-circa 1970s and undated

Series 14: Oversize Materials, 1842-1990 and undated

Series 15: Audio Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
Paul Edward Garber (1899-1992) was instrumental in obtaining a substantial portion of the National Air and Space Museum's aircraft collection. His 72-year tenure with the Smithsonian Institution and his dedication to the belief that aeronautics artifacts were worthy of preservation for the sake of National memory effectively make him the progenitor of the National Air and Space Museum we know today.

Garber was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on 31 August 1899, a few years prior to the development of powered flight. Growing up during this exciting time, young Garber was exposed to a number of experiences that ignited his interest in aeronautics. Garber recalled that, while visiting Washington, D.C., in 1909, he took a streetcar across the Potomac River to watch Orville Wright fly the world's first military airplane at Fort Myer, Virginia.

The Garber family eventually left Atlantic City and permanently settled in Washington, D.C. In 1913 Garber and his schoolmates formed the Capital Model Aeroplane Club, organizing competitions for the making and flying of model aircraft and kites. In 1915, after visiting the Smithsonian Institution, Garber made a copy of Octave Chanute's biplane glider. After testing a smaller model, which he flew as a kite, Garber constructed a 20-foot wingspan version, using barrel staves sawed into thirds as ribs and covering them in red chintz fabric. Over several weekends, Garber made numerous towed take-offs and glides. These flights would eventually qualify him for membership into the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Between 1917 and 1918 Garber studied at the McKinley Technical School in Washington, D.C., and the University of Maryland, College Park. He also studied Aeronautical Engineering at the Research University, Washington, 1920-1921. He never received a degree from any institution he attended. Garber finished his teen years by joining the Army in 1918 and was about to begin flight training at College Park when World War I ended. Afterwards, he took a job as a ground crewman and messenger with the United States Post Office Department's Air Mail Service.

In 1920 Garber began his career with the Smithsonian Institution, starting as a "Preparator," dealing with the maintenance of exhibits. Advancing through the ranks, he was at various times an Aide, Assistant Curator, and Associate Curator. During World War II, Garber's talents in modeling and kite making allowed him to accept a commission in the U.S. Navy at the rank of Lt. Commander. His military target kites became an important part of gunnery training, serving as both targets and examples for identifying enemy aircraft. Following the ending of the war, Garber resigned at the rank of Commander and returned to the Smithsonian where, in 1952, he became the first Curator of the National Air Museum, which was created by act of Congress in 1946.

On 10 May 1952 Garber married Irene Tusch, daughter of the aeronautical enthusiast Mary E. "Mother" Tusch. Throughout the next decade plus, Garber received promotions to Head Curator and Senior Historian, serving in this last position until 1965. From 1965 to 1969, Garber was the Assistant Director of Aeronautics. Forced to retire by Federal law upon reaching the age of 70, Garber received the honorary lifetime titles of Historian Emeritus and Ramsey Fellow.

Garber wrote several books on aeronautics and flight: Building and Flying Model Aircraft. A Guide for Youthful Beginners in Aeronautics, 1920; We: The Story of Achievement in Aviation, 1929; Kites and Kite Flying, 1931; Flying in Safety, 1939; and Navy Target Kites, 1944. He wrote multiple editions on the National Aircraft/Aeronautical Collections (1941, 1949, 1956, and 1965), as well as numerous pamphlets, handbooks, encyclopedia entries, and articles on aviation-related subjects.

In addition to his writing and lecturing, he was the recipient of many awards and trophies, including: the Washington Air Derby Association Trophy, 1954; the Air Line Traffic Association Citation, 1955; the Frank G. Brewer Trophy for Youth Education, 1959; the Elder Statesman of Aviation Award, 1964; the Trasvolata Atlantica Medal from Italy, 1964; the Santos-Dumont Medal of Merit from Brazil, 1966; the Paul Tissandier Diplome from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (F.A.I.), 1968; the Smithsonian Institution's Gold Medal, 1969; the Order Rio Branco, 1969; the Mérito Aeronáutico Medal from Brazil, 1974; named an honorary pilot in the Brazilian Air Force, 1982; recipient of the Medalha Mérito Tamandaré of Brazil, 1983; named to the OX-5 Club's Aviation Hall of Fame, 1974; and received the Laskowitz Gold Medal from the New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. Garber was also made Honorary Naval Aviator #17 during the mid-1980's. He was a member of the National Aeronautics Association, the Air Mail Pioneers, the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. (Secretary, 1956-1960; President 1968, 1976-77), the Connecticut Aeronautical Historical Society, the National Aviation Club, and the National Space Club.

Paul Garber died in his sleep at Arlington Hospital on 23 September 1992. His acquisition efforts and advocacy on behalf of the National Air and Space Museum continue to live on in the form of its rich aircraft collections. The National Air and Space Museum's Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility, formerly known as "Silver Hill," is named in his honor.
Provenance:
Paul Garber, Gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0063
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Kites  Search this
Models and modelmaking  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0063
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0063
Online Media:

Krainik Ballooning Collection

Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Names:
Brady, Mathew B., 1823 (ca.)-1896  Search this
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C.  Search this
Myers, Carl, 1842-1925  Search this
Myers, Mary, "Carlotta Queen of the Air"  Search this
Stevens, Albert Leo, 1873-1944  Search this
Extent:
3.19 Cubic feet (2 shoeboxes; 3 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereoscopic photographs
Postcards
Photographs
Woodcuts
Date:
1859-1934
Summary:
This 19th and 20th century ballooning memorabilia collection contains the following items, which have been meticulously inventoried: 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items.
Scope and Contents:
The Krainik Ballooning Collection contains 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items all pertaining to 19th and 20th century ballooning. Highlights of the stereoscopic photographs include: views of T.S.C. Lowe's balloons during the Civil War; views of the Nadar and Godard balloons; balloons during the Boer War, Russo-Japanese War, and WWI; and views of the airships Ganymede, Great Western, Phantom Balloons, Buffalo, Madame Carlotta, and The Aerial. The photographic portion of the collection features Matthew Brady's views of Lowe's balloons during the Civil War; views of the balloon Madam Carlotta before and during flights; smoke and gas balloon inflation and flights; and portraits of T.S.C. Lowe and other pioneers of ballooning.

The collection also contains lithographic cards printed in Germany, whimsical advertising trade cards incorporating popular ballooning motifs and events, and 19th century woodcut illustrations from various periodicals concerning all aspects of ballooning. Other items include a small broadside for the Grand Balloon Ascension of CARLOTTA and a contract for smoke balloon ascensions. A few non-archival items, such as medals for Lowe's balloon, City of New York, and Giffard's giant captive balloon, 1878, were accessioned with this collection and subsequently transferred to curatorial collections.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement note:
This collection has been arranged, first, in chronological order based on the Krainik inventory number that was assigned by the donor (K#), and then by size.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krainik Ballooning Collection was amassed by Clifford and Michele Krainik, experts in 19th and early 20th century historical photographs, negatives, and ephemera. This collection of 19th and 20th century ballooning memorabilia contains 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items.
Provenance:
Clifford Krainik, Purchase, 1989, 1990-0009, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Great Western (Airship)  Search this
Phantom Balloons (Airships)  Search this
Airships  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Madame Carlotta (Airship)  Search this
The Aerial (Airship)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905  Search this
South African War, 1899-1902  Search this
Buffalo (Airship)  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Ganymede (Airship)  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Communications  Search this
Balloons -- History  Search this
Balloons -- pre-1900  Search this
Spanish-American War, 1898  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereoscopic photographs
Postcards
Photographs
Woodcuts
Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0009
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0009
Online Media:

"Juvenile Fete and Balloon Race at Cremorne Gardens." Short text

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 8.5 x 10.75 inches.)
Container:
Box 3, Folder 3, Item K# 319; 7A47470
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
September 17, 1859
Scope and Contents note:
Published in The Illustrated London News.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1826

"Siege of Yorktown." View of Union artillery station with T.S.C. Lowe's observation balloon in tethered flight. U.S. Civil War

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Steel engraving, 5.25 x 8.5 inches.)
Container:
Box 3, Folder 4, Item K# 321; 7A47421
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
circa 1862
Scope and Contents note:
Engraved by Samuel Sartain. See also Krainik numbers 4-7, 30, 31, 113-115, 320, 326, and 403.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1828

"Ascent of Mr. Hampton's ERIN-GO-BRAGH Balloon, at Batty's Roya Hippodrome, Kensington." With article

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 8 x 10 inches.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 1, Item K# 317; 7A47481
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
June 2, 1851
Scope and Contents note:
Published in The Illustrated London News.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1861

"About Flying-Machines." Two page balloon article with numerous illustrations

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 15.5 x 11.25 inches.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 1, Item K# 318; 7A47459
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
July 25, 1857
Scope and Contents note:
Published in Harper's Weekly.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1863

"The New Air-Ship City of New York"

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 15.75 x 11 inches.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 1, Item K# 320; 7A47486
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
September 24, 1859
Scope and Contents note:
Published in Harper's Weekly. See also Krainik numbers 4-7, 30, 31, 113-115, 321, 326, and 403.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1865

"Professor C. Lowe" and "Interior of the balloon basket." Portrait of Lowe and trasatlantic balloon basket

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving (Woodcut illustration, 15.75 x 11 inches.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3, Item K# 352; 7A47487
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Engravings
Date:
September 24, 1859
Scope and Contents note:
Published in Harper's Weekly. Portrait based on photograph by Mathew Brady.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1911

"221 Prof. Wise inflating his baloon [sic], Ganymede, at St. Johnsbury, Vt." A large crowd gathers to witness a balloon ascension by John Wise, noted 19th century aeronaut

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Stereograph (Wet plate albumen stereoview. Flat card, cream mount, 3.25 x 6.75 inches.)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1, Item K# 1; 7A47009
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Date:
1859
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph by F.B. Gage; published by Edward Anthony, New York, 1859. See also Krainik numbers 2, 3, and 204.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1275

"222. Prof. Wise inflating his baloon [sic], Ganymede, at St. Johnsburry, Vt." A large crowd gathers to witness an balloon ascension by John Wise, noted 19th century balloonist

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Stereograph (Wet plate albumen stereoview. Flat card, cream mount, 3.25 x 6.75 inches.)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2, Item K# 2; 7A47011
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Date:
1859
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph by F.B. Gage; published by Edward Anthony, New York, 1859. See also Krainik numbers 1, 3, and 204.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1277

Untitled. City view with fence displaying a poster for Nadar's balloon ascension in Paris

Collection Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Extent:
1 Stereograph (Wet plate albumen stereoview. Flat card, yellow mount, 3.375 x 6.75 inches.)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 10, Item K# 10; 7A47027
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Date:
circa 1863
Scope and Contents note:
See also Krainik numbers 8, 9, 11 (?), 323, 324, and 409.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Krainik Ballooning Collection / Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1990-0009-ref1293

Evelyn Way Kendall Early Aviation and Balloon Collection

Creator:
Kendall, Evelyn Way  Search this
Extent:
4.41 Cubic feet (8 boxes; 1 map folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1783-1969
Summary:
The Evelyn Way Kendall Early Aviation and Balloon Collection documents early aeronautical history from the 18th century to the 1960s in art, prints, photographs, posters, manuscripts, and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of eight boxes of material, comprising approximately 4.41 cubic feet of material, consisting of works on paper – photographs, sheet music, broadsides and handbills, postcards, trade cards, newspapers and magazines. Fine art – paintings, prints and engravings, and objects – were retained in the National Air and Space Museum's Art Collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged by size of the collection material, from small to large.
Biographical / Historical:
The Evelyn Way Kendall Early Aviation and Balloon Collection documents early aeronautical history from the 18th century to the 1960s. From the early 1920s to the 1960s, Evelyn Way Kendall amassed over 1,000 works of art, prints, photographs, posters, objects, manuscripts, books, and ephemera documenting the history of flight. The artworks and archival material in her collection convey a sense of the wonder and excitement experienced by those who witnessed the birth of flight during the ballooning era, and at the dawn of powered flight in the 20th century. 
Provenance:
Archives of the Norfolk Charitable Trust, Gift, 2015, 2015.0053
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics in art  Search this
Aeronautics -- History  Search this
Ballooning  Search this
Balloons -- History  Search this
Citation:
Evelyn Way Kendall Early Aviation and Balloon Collection, Acc. 2015.0053, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2015.0053
See more items in:
Evelyn Way Kendall Early Aviation and Balloon Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2015-0053
Online Media:

Rocket, Space, and Early Artillery History

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Extent:
15.26 Cubic feet ((14 records center boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Charts
Photographs
Reports
Manuscripts
Publications
Correspondence
Date:
[ca. 1000-1960]
bulk [ca. 1940-1960]
Scope and Contents:
This collection is a compilation of various reports, journals, letters, and books on three main subjects: early artillery, rockets, and space technology. The early artillery history is covered by manuscripts and reports from the Middle Ages to the mid-19th century. The collection then covers rocket development in Russia, Germany, England, the United States, and Austria from the mid-19th century to the 1960s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Space History, NASM, transfer, 1986, XXXX-0007, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Artillery -- History  Search this
Artillery  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rocketry  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics) -- History  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Astronautics -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Charts
Photographs
Reports
Manuscripts
Publications
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0007
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0007

John Steiner Balloon Ascension Ambrotype

Names:
Steiner, John H,  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 quarter-plate ambrotype)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1857
Summary:
This quarter-plate ambrotype made by an unknown photographer shows the balloon ascension by John Steiner at Erie, Pennsylvania, on June 18, 1857.
Scope and Contents:
This quarter-plate ambrotype made by an unknown photographer, shows the balloon ascension by John Steiner at Erie, Pennsylvania, on June 18, 1857. The scene pictured is the first attempt to fly to Canada across Lake Erie. This ambrotype, which shows men ringing the balloon as it is inflated outdoors, is thought to be the earliest dated photographic image of a balloon ascension in the United States.
Arrangement:
Single item.
Biographical / Historical:
Professor John H. Steiner emigrated from Germany in 1853 and quickly established himself as a daring aeronaut. Steiner's flight in 1857, the first attempt to fly to Canada across Lake Erie, made him famous. Due to adverse weather conditions, Steiner eventually was forced to jump into the lake and was rescued by the crew of the steamer Mary Stewart. His balloon was later found, in tatters, having successfully made it to Canada without its pilot. During the Civil War, Steiner served as a balloonist for the Union forces with Thaddeus S.C. Lowe's Balloon Corps. As a civilian in 1863, Steiner gave a tethered balloon ride to German officer, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, who was on leave as a military observer with Union army. Years later, after Count Zeppelin's rigid airships had flown over the cities of Europe, Zeppelin recalled his flight with Steiner as his inspiration.
Provenance:
Robert L. Drapkin, Gift, 1985, NASM.XXXX.0617.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Balloons -- pre-1900  Search this
Balloon ascensions  Search this
Citation:
John Steiner Balloon Ascension Ambrotype, Acc. XXXX.0617, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0617
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0617
Online Media:

Willy Ley Papers

Creator:
Ley, Willy, 1906-1969  Search this
Names:
American Interplanetary Society  Search this
American Rocket Society  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Ley, Willy, 1906-1969  Search this
Extent:
48.29 Cubic feet (107 Boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Photographs
Manuscripts
Publications
Financial records
Date:
1859-1969
bulk 1930-1969
Summary:
This collection consists of Willey Ley's personal files, including his business correspondence, book contracts, and galley proofs, as well as publicity concerning Dr. Ley and his activities, and inquiries and comments from Ley's readership during his tenure as columnist for Galaxy Magazine (1952-1969). The material also includes articles gathered by Ley on topics ranging from astronomy and space travel to biology and natural parks to mythology, psychic phenomena, and UFOs.
Scope and Contents note:
The Willy Ley Collection reflects Ley's broad, restless curiosity about the world around him. However, the main thrust of this material emphasizes his intense interest in the aerospace field. Ley's significant contributions as a great proponent, theorist and historian of rocketry and space travel are quite evident in this collection.

For the most part, the collection encompasses the years Ley spent in the U.S., roughly, from the mid 1930s to his death in 1969. Accordingly, very little pertaining to Ley's time in the VfR is found here. This wide array of materials was sold to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum (NASM) by Ley's widow, Olga, in 1970.(1) Later that year, NASM personnel traveled to Ley's home in New York to transfer this collection to the museum. They were careful to maintain the overall order of the collection which reflects its original organizational structure, as well as the research techniques and thinking processes of Ley himself.

The collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into four series. The first series is composed of personal materials that include correspondence, book and article contract materials, galley proofs, manuscript and article drafts, notes, articles, lecture invitations and brochures, photographs, drawings, travel and war-time memorabilia, newspaper and press clippings, book reviews, personal bills and receipts, business cards, children's' report cards and Christmas cards. The materials of this series range in date from the early 1930s to 1969. Except for moving this series to the beginning of the collection, original order was maintained. Additionally, original folder titles were retained (as they were for the rest of the collection). Correspondence, book/article contracts materials, research notes, articles, newspaper and press clippings and miscellaneous personal materials are arranged chronologically while the manuscript drafts, galley proofs and book reviews are organized alphabetically by title.

The second series comprises the bulk --about two-thirds, of the Willy Ley Collection. This series, the aerospace subject files, ranges in date from the late 1800s to 1969, and covers the following topics: biography (Ley and others), aviation, inventions, astronomy, space travel, rockets, artificial satellites, manned space flight, ground support and rocket test centers. The folders include correspondence, photographs, notes, reports, brochures, pamphlets, magazines, articles and newspaper clippings. Original order was maintained for this series. The materials are organized by subject.

The third series consists of printed materials. This series ranges in date from the early 1950s to 1970 and includes various publications (newsletters, pamphlets, journals, reports, directories, magazines and books). Also included are article and newspaper clippings. Ley organized the newsletters by title and then chronologically.

The fourth and final series of this collection contains non-aerospace subject files. Ley's certificates, citations and a scrapbook are found in this series. The certificates and citations are for Ley's civic and professional achievements. The scrapbook contains miscellaneous newspaper clippings regarding rocketry and space travel (in English and German) from the 1930s and 1940s. However, this series, ranging in date from the early 1900s to 1969, mainly encompasses materials not directly related to aviation, rocketry or space travel. Original order was maintained for this series. The materials are organized by subject.

The researcher should note that all the folders (except for those of Series 4) are numbered. This numbering system reflects an effort by NASM's Department of Space History in 1970 to create a rough catalog of the Willy Ley Collection as it was being moved to the museum. Though now obsolete as an index, these penciled numbers were retained and are written in the upper right corner of the folders.

Endnotes: 1. That same year, Mrs. Ley also sold her husband's collection of books and journals to the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Currently, it is known as the Willy Ley Memorial Collection and resides at the University's library. Wernher von Braun and NASA Saturn launch vehicle program manager Arthur Rudolph participated in the dedication ceremony in 1971.
Arrangement note:
Series 1: Personal Materials

Series 2: Aerospace Subject Files

Series 3: Printed Materials

Series 4: Non-Aerospace Subject Files
Biographical/Historical note:
Willy Ley was a world-renown expert in and proponent of rocketry and space travel. Born in Berlin, Germany on October 2, 1906, Ley attended the Universities of Berlin and Konigsberg and studied astronomy, paleontology, zoology and physics. Beyond these studies however, he developed a passionate interest in rocketry and its potential applications for space travel. Accordingly, he wrote and published his first book, Die Fahrt in den Weltraum (Travel in Outer Space) in 1926 and helped found Germany's early rocketry and spaceflight club, Verein fur Raumschiffahrt or VfR (Society for Space Travel) the following year. In 1929, Ley, along with well-known rocketry theorist Hermann Oberth, acted as a technical consultant on Fritz Lang's film, Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon). Throughout the late 1920s and early 1930s, he continued to write books, as well as numerous articles in German and foreign publications, on the subject of rockets and spaceflight. Once Adolf Hitler took power in 1933, the Nazis pressured Ley to cease publishing his articles in foreign journals and magazines due to rocketry's potential as a weapon in Germany's arsenal. Also, the VfR disbanded during the Nazis' first year in power amid concerns among the membership regarding the interest the German military was taking in their activities. These factors compelled Ley to leave Germany for Britain briefly and then to the U.S. in 1935. He became an American citizen in 1944.

Until World War II, Ley focused his writing career on topics unrelated to rocketry and space travel. He discovered little interest in these fields among the U.S. public. He was successful though, with a number of non-space publications such as Salamanders and Other Wonders and The Lungfish, the Dodo and the Unicorn. From 1940-44, Ley was science editor of the New York newspaper, PM and later lectured as a professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University in New Jersey. He was also a regular contributor to a myriad of magazines, encyclopedias and digests such as Popular Mechanics, Cowles Encyclopedia and Galaxy. However, once World War II began and especially after Germany launched V-2 missile attacks on Britain in 1944, Ley found himself in great demand as an expert in rocketry. Following the end of the war, his writings, lectures and newspaper, radio and television interviews helped to spur even greater public interest in rockets and their potential for space flight. Additionally, his books on this subject were widely read in the U.S. and around the world. First published in 1944, Ley's Rockets, Missiles, & Space Travel enjoyed a great deal of popularity and justified numerous printings of revised editions. Other highly successful titles that Ley produced during the 1950s and 1960s included The Conquest of Space, The Conquest of the Moon (written with Wernher von Braun and astronomer Fred Whipple) and Beyond the Solar System. Ley, along with von Braun, artist Chesley Bonestell and others, collaborated on a series of space-themed issues of Collier's (1952-54) that helped to foster popular support for future U.S. missions to earth orbit, the moon and the planets.

Aside from his busy career as a prolific author and populizer of rockets and space travel, Ley was also a husband and father of two children. His wife, Olga, was an accomplished ballet dancer, model and author in her own right. The couple had to two daughters, Sandra and Xenia. Ley had hoped to attend the Apollo 11 launch at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida but died of a heart attack at his home in Jackson Heights, New York, on June 24, 1969. His death came only four weeks before the launch of mankind's first landing on the moon's surface.

1906 October 2 -- Ley born in Berlin, Germany

1920 January 11 -- Smithsonian Institution publishes A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, a pamphlet written by U.S. rocket scientist Dr. Robert H. Goddard

1923 -- Romanian rocket scientist Hermann Oberth publishes short book, Die Rakate zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary Space)

1926 -- Ley writes and publishes first book, Die Fahrt in den Weltraum(Travel in Outer Space)

1926 March 16 -- Goddard successfully launches first liquid-fueled rocket in Auburn, Massachusetts

1927 July 5 -- Ley helps found Germany's early rocketry and space travel club, Verein fur Raumschiffahrt or VfR (Society for Space Travel)

1929 -- Ley (along with Oberth) acts as a technical consultant for Fritz Lang film, Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon)

1933 January 30 -- Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany

1935 -- Russian rocket scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky dies

1935 -- Ley leaves Germany for Britain and then to the U.S.

1939 September 1 -- Germany invades Poland – World War II begins

1940 -- Ley begins stint as science editor of New York newspaper, PM

1942 October 3 -- First successful launch of Nazi V-2 (A-4) rocket, Peenemunde, Germany

1944 -- Ley becomes a U.S. citizen

1944 -- Ley publishes first edition of book, Rockets (book would eventually see many revised editions and renamed Rockets, Missiles, & Space Travel)

1944 September 7-8 -- First V-2 rocket attacks on London and Paris

1945 May 8 -- Germany surrenders to Allies

1945 August 10 -- Goddard dies

1945 September 2 -- Japan surrenders to Allies

1945 September 29 -- Wernher von Braun and other captured German rocket scientists are taken to the U.S.

1945 October -- Arthur C. Clarke first proposes concept of communication satellites in Wireless World magazine

1946 April 16 -- First successful launch by the U.S. of a captured V-2

1950 -- Ley publishes book, The Conquest of Space

1952 -- Ley collaborates with von Braun, artist Chesley Bonestell and others on a series of space-themed issues of Collier's

1953 -- Ley collaborates with von Braun and Fred Whipple and publishes book, The Conquest of the Moon

1957 October 4 -- Russia's successful launch of first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1

1958 January 31 -- Successful launch of first U.S. artificial satellite, Explorer 1

1961 April 12 -- Russia's successful launch of first human into space, Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1

1961 May 5 -- Successful launch of first U.S. astronaut into space, Alan Shepard aboard Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)

1964 -- Ley collaborates with Bonestell and publishes book, Beyond the Solar System

1969 June 24 -- Ley dies at his home in Jackson Heights, New York

1969 July 16-24 -- Flight of Apollo 11 succeeds in landing U.S. astronauts on the moon
List of Acronyms:
AFB -- Air Force Base

ARCAS -- All-Purpose Rocket for the Collection of Atmospheric Soundings

AS -- Apollo-Saturn [spacecraft-launch vehicle stack]

ELDO -- European Launcher Development Organization

GALCIT -- Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology

GAPA -- Ground-to-Air Pilotless Aircraft

GT -- Gemini-Titan [spacecraft-launch vehicle stack]

HASP -- High Altitude Sounding Projectile

IMP -- Interplanetary Monitoring Platform [satellite]

JPL -- Jet Propulsion Laboratory [Pasadena, California]

MA -- Mercury-Atlas [spacecraft-launch vehicle stack]

MOL -- Manned Orbiting Laboratory

NACA -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

NACA RM -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Research Memorandum

NACA TM -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Memorandum

NARTS -- Naval Air Rocket Test Station

NACA TN -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note

NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

OGO -- Orbiting Geophysical Observatory

OSO -- Orbiting Solar Observatory

PET -- Propulsion, Experimental

RAT -- Rocket-Assisted Torpedo

UFO -- Unidentified Flying Object

USSR -- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

VfR -- Verein fur Raumschiffahrt [Society for Space Travel]
General note:
Other material: Skin sample from Echo-series satellites.
Provenance:
Willy Ley Estate, Purchase, unknown, XXXX-0098, not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rocketry  Search this
Space flight  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Manuscripts
Publications
Financial records
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0098
See more items in:
Willy Ley Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0098
Online Media:

Personal Materials

Collection Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Extent:
27 Boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1824-1992 and undated
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0063, Series 6
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0063-ref1726

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