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Sarah Bekker Papers

Creator:
Bekker, Sarah  Search this
Extent:
44 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Burma
Thailand
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Dr. Sarah Bekker was a noted scholar, author, and lecturer on Asian art, with special interests in Thai art and the peoples and art of Burma. The Collection is in two parts: the papers of Dr. Bekker and other scholars, and the slides taken by her and used for her lectures. The majority of slides relates to her study of Thai art, with many photos taken during her residence in Bangkok when her husband, Dr. Konrad Bekker, was stationed there in the late 1960s with the U.S. State Dept. She traveled and photographed widely throughout Asia during that time and until her death in 2013.
Arrangement:
Several boxes of papers
Several boxes of slides
Biographical / Historical:
Sarah McInteer Bekker was born April 28, 1923, in Meade County, KY. In 1944 she received a B.A. from the University of Kentucky, and in 1946 an M.A. from the University of Minnesota. Her doctoral thesis, "The Burmese Concept of Anade: Its Function and Meaning in Interpersonal Relations" was submitted to George Washington University in 1963. Her professional work included scholarly articles, book reviews, and slide lectures and presentations at Asian art focused organizations throughout the US and abroad. Dr. Bekker conducted study tours for the Smithsonian Institution and other organizations. She died in Washington DC on April 1, 2013.
Local Numbers:
FSA A2013.04
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Identifier:
FSA.A2013.04
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2013-04

Miriam McNair Scott Papers

Creator:
Miriam McNair Scott  Search this
Extent:
3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Thailand
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This Collection contains photographs, research notes, lectues, and journal articles.
Arrangement:
The papers are organized in several boxes.
Biographical / Historical:
Miriam McNair Scott researched Thailand. She co author The Art of Sukhothai: Thailand's Golden Age.
Local Numbers:
FSA A2001.09
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
Citation:
Miriam McNair Scott Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A2001.09
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2001-09

Helena M. Weiss Papers

Creator::
Weiss, Helena M., 1909-2004  Search this
Extent:
1.5 cu. ft. (1 record storage box) (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Clippings
Brochures
Picture postcards
Scrapbooks
Books
Color transparencies
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Color negatives
Color photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Social life and customs
Thailand
Nepal
India
Date:
1908-1993
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the personal papers of Helena M. Weiss and documents her life in Washington, DC, her family, and her work and colleagues at the Smithsonian Institution, such as Ray S. Bassler and E. O. Ulrich. Also documented are Weiss' trips to Thailand, Nepal, and India. Of particular note is a scrapbook containing images of Weiss' family, friends, colleagues, and travel. Materials include correspondence, clippings, awards, brochures, publications, picture postcards, a scrapbook, and images.
Topic:
Travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Clippings
Brochures
Picture postcards
Scrapbooks
Books
Color transparencies
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Color negatives
Color photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 12-184, Helena M. Weiss Papers
Identifier:
Accession 12-184
See more items in:
Helena M. Weiss Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa12-184

Fred S. Rosenau Papers

Source:
Armed Forces History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Creator:
Rosenau, Fred Simon  Search this
Former owner:
Armed Forces History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Names:
United States. Office of War Information  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Leaflets
Correspondence
Newspapers
Booklets
Maps
Matchcovers
Newsletters
Clippings
Menus
Place:
Calcutta (India) -- 1940-1950
India -- 1940-1950
Thailand -- 1940-1950
Burma -- 1940-1950
China -- 1940-1950
India -- Description and Travel -- 1901-1946
Date:
1944-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains both the personal papers of Fred Rosenau and examples of air-dropped psychological warfare literature created by the O.W.I. Amongst his personal papers, which constitute the first series, there are information guidebooks and language aids for India and Burma, a large number of Indian newspaper articles, and photographs taken by Rosenau in Calcutta. However, letters to his family in New York City compose the bulk of the personal series. Along with detailing the experience of a young American living in India and his reactions to a distinctly different culture, the letters document the organization of his O.W.I. office and the duties of its workers. In one particular letter, dated January 7, 1945, (which was hand-delivered to his family and thus avoided censorship) Rosenau was able to write freely about his work, colleagues, and responsibilities in Calcutta. In addition, there are letters from the O.W.I. headquarters in New Delhi to Rosenau, including one in which the proposed post-war job was offered.

The second series contains general information about the O.W.I. and its aims. It mainly consists of documents and photographs relating to Rosenau's office. The series includes many examples of propaganda leaflets directed towards the Burmese and Thai peoples (with attached translations) which were produced by the Calcutta team. The representative works include news bulletins on the war's progress, warnings about future Allied bombings, and a variety of anti-Japanese and morale-boosting literature. It also includes examples of leaflets dropped over Japan, which were directed at soldiers rather than civilians in an attempt to undermine their faith in the military leaders.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Personal Experience of Fred S. Rosenau

Series 2: Psychological Warfare
Biographical / Historical:
Fred Simon Rosenau was a student at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, when he joined the Overseas Branch of the Office of War Information (O.W.I.) in May 1944. After completing training at an unidentified military base camp, Rosenau traveled to Calcutta, India, where he served as Assistant Representative under the directorship of Mr. Teg Grondahl. The Calcutta office was part of the China-Burma-India (CBI) theater and as such its psychological warfare activities were directed towards Burma and Thailand. Initially Rosenau was responsible for leaflet production, including supervising their printing and delivery to air crews, as well as serving as an assistant to Grondahl. By the spring of 1945, however, Rosenau's role had been expanded and he was given new charges in the intelligence field, becoming more directly involved in the development and editing of "strategic" literature.

While in Calcutta, Rosenau lived in a series of different boarding houses. When he was not working (by the summer of 1945, his work load had been substantially reduced), he devoted his spare time to writing letters home, sightseeing around the city and neighboring areas of Bengal, and attending local cultural events. However, the heat and lack of proper sanitary conditions continued to frustrate Rosenau as he attempted to adjust to an Asian lifestyle.

Once the Japanese had surrendered in September 1945 and World War II had officially ended, Rosenau was offered a position by the Director of Psychological Warfare in India--William Carter--to join a new O.W.I news operation in Bangkok, Thailand. Its intent, as explained to Rosenau, was to fulfill the "need for American news" in Asia. Rosenau declined the offer since he was dissatisfied with the proposed salary and wanted to complete his college education. He left for the United States on the S.S. Muir in late September. Later, he attended the University of Chicago and received his bachelor of arts degree in 1947. His subsequent career is unknown. Rosenau died in 1985.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC060) contains some three hundred posters from World War I and II.

Princeton University Poster Collection (AC0433) has over 10,600 World War I and II posters.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Armed Forces History Division of the NMAH in January 1986, by Lucy W. Rosenau, daughter of Fred Rosenau. It was transferred to the Archives Center in January 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
"Yank"  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Propaganda  Search this
Chinese language -- 1940-1950  Search this
Japanese language -- 1940-1950  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives  Search this
Burmese language -- 1940-1950  Search this
Propaganda, Anti-Japanese -- 1940-1950  Search this
Psychological warfare -- 1940-1950  Search this
Leaflets dropped from aircraft -- 1940-1950  Search this
Propaganda, American -- 1940-1950  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Burma  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- China  Search this
Thai language -- 1940-1950  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Pamphlets  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- India  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Leaflets -- 1940-1950
Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Newspapers -- 1940-1950
Booklets -- 1940-1950
Maps -- 1940-1950
Matchcovers -- 1940-1950
Newsletters -- 1940-1950
Clippings -- 1940-1950
Menus -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Fred S. Rosenau Papers, 1944-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0478
See more items in:
Fred S. Rosenau Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0478

State Railway of Thailand photographs of Miao people

Photographer:
Kānrotfai hǣng Prathēt Thai  Search this
Extent:
8 Prints (silver gelatin)
1 Copy negative
Culture:
Hmong (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Copy negatives
Photographs
Place:
Thailand
Date:
1967
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by a staff photographer for the State Railway of Thailand near the king's mountain palace at Chiang Mai in Northern Thailand, March 30 - early April 1967. Photos document Miao people in their villages, including a man playing a kaeng (a bamboo wind instrument used to communicate with spirits). Additionally, there is one image of Yukta Na Thalang (Director of the State Railroads of Thailand) and Sir Jordon MacKay (Director of a division of the World Bank) with donor Martha Lubekke and her husband Gunther Lubbeke.
Biographical/Historical note:
The official State Railway of Thailand began as the Royal State Railways of Siam, established under the Ministry of Public Works in 1890. The department controlled all state and private railways in the country. In 1951, the State Railway of Thailand Act B.E. 2494 renamed the organization and established it as a state enterprise. Gunther Lubbeke was an employee of the World Bank, for which he may have appraised Thailand's railway systems.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4960
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Three photographs donated as part of MS 4960 were previously filed with Photo Lot 97. These have been relocated and merged back into MS 4960.
The National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 97 may contain more State Railway of Thailand photographs.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection may be restricted by copyright. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4960, State Railway of Thailand photographs of Miao people, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4960
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4960

Marshall Hall Pacific Travel Footage ca. 1925

Creator:
Hall, Marshall  Search this
Physical description:
archival original 1,600 feet silent b&w 16mm
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Collection descriptions
Place:
Asia
Hong Kong
Shanghai (China)
Singapore
Indonesia
Thailand
Oceania
Malaysia
Samoa
Fiji
Hawaii
Australia
Date:
ca 1925
Topic:
Ships  Search this
Language and culture  Search this
Boats  Search this
Dance  Search this
Architecture--Religious  Search this
Palaces  Search this
Zoos  Search this
Children--games  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Amateur films  Search this
Mountains  Search this
Volcanoes  Search this
Jungles  Search this
Rice paddies  Search this
Rubber--industry--plantation  Search this
Harbors  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 1985.9.1
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_218227

MS 7353 Audio recording of opening of National Museum of Natural History exhibit "Royal gifts from the Kingdom of Thailand"

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Audio Visual Support Section  Search this
Speaker:
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon), 1913-2001  Search this
Fiske, Richard  Search this
Taylor, Paul Michael, 1953-  Search this
Wāt, Supreme Patriarch, 1897-1988  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (casette )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
Thailand
Date:
October 22, 1982
Scope and Contents:
Includes speeches by S. Dillon Ripley, Richard Fiske, Paul Taylor and a blessing by the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7353
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Citation:
Manuscript 7353, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7353
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7353

Surapong Bunnag photographs of hill tribes in Thailand

Creator:
Bunnag, Surapong  Search this
Extent:
800 Negatives (circa, 35 mm)
800 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
Culture:
Lahu (Asian people)  Search this
Taungthu (Southeast Asian people)  Search this
Yao (Southeast Asian people)  Search this
Hmong (Asian people)  Search this
Lisu (Southeast Asian people)  Search this
Lawa (Thai people)  Search this
Tai Lue  Search this
Akha (Southeast Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Thailand
Date:
1959-1965
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs documenting villages, people, ceremonies, and activities of Thai hill tribes, including the Akha, Karen, Lahu, Lawa, Lisu, Meo, Tai Luc, and Yao. Some photographs are duplicated in an album with captions by Bunnag.
Biographical/Historical note:
Surapong Bunnag was a Thai employee of the Voice of America, stationed in Bangkok.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-35
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Villages  Search this
Livestock  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Laundry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 74-35, Surapong Bunnag photographs of hill tribes in Thailand, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.74-35
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-74-35

Janet Longcope photographs of world travels

Creator:
Longcope, Janet, ca. 1886-1974  Search this
Extent:
600 Mounted prints (circa 600 mounted prints, silver gelatin)
4,000 Color slides (circa)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Color slides
Photographs
Place:
Pakistan -- Description and Travel
Fiji -- Description and Travel
Ethiopia -- Description and Travel
Easter Island -- Description and Travel
Yemen -- Description and Travel
Honduras -- Description and Travel
Peru -- Description and Travel
Guatemala -- Description and Travel
Israel -- Description and Travel
Vietnam -- Description and Travel
Solomon Islands -- Description and Travel
Colombia -- Description and Travel
Thailand -- description and travel
Taiwan -- description and travel
Jordan -- Description and Travel
Uzbekistan -- Description and Travel
Singapore -- Description and Travel
Bhutan -- Description and Travel
Afghanistan -- Description and Travel
Burma -- Description and Travel
Brazil -- Description and Travel
Australia -- Description and Travel
Lebanon -- Description and Travel
Iraq -- Description and Travel
Iran -- Description and Travel
India -- description and travel
New Guinea -- Description and Travel
Syria -- Description and Travel
Nepal -- Description and Travel
Hong Kong -- Description and Travel
Cambodia -- Description and Travel
Sri Lanka -- Description and Travel
Chile -- description and travel
Mexico -- description and travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Italy -- description and travel
Morocco -- description and travel
Spain -- description and travel
Mongolia -- Description and Travel
New Zealand -- Description and Travel
Russia -- Description and Travel
Kenya -- Description and Travel
Macau (China) -- Description and Travel
Malaysia -- Description and Travel
Yucatan -- Description and Travel
Indonesia -- Description and Travel
Date:
1954-1971
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Janet Longcope during trips to countries around the world. They depict landscapes, buildings, markets, dances, agriculture, arts and crafts, ceremonies, children, cooking, musicians, and transportation. Locations depicted include Afghanistan, Australia, Bhutan, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Easter Island, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Greece, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, New Guinea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Peru, Russia, Siberia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, and Yucatan. Longcope used many of these photographs in lectures.
Biographical/Historical note:
Janet Longcope (1886-1974) was a bookbinder and world traveler who gave informal lectures about her travels. Ater the death of her husband Dr. Warfield T. Longcope in 1953, she visited countries all over the world, returning to some, such as India, as many as nine times.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 75-26
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Markets  Search this
Dance  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Cooking  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 75-26, Janet Longcope photographs of world travels, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.75-26
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-75-26

Robert E. Kuntz photographs of Asia, Africa, Oceania, and the Middle East

Creator:
Kuntz, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
2,168 Negatives (circa, acetate)
548 Modern prints (circa)
78 Color slides
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Modern prints
Color slides
Photographs
Place:
Taiwan
Egypt
Turkey
Hong Kong (China)
Borneo
Nigeria
Kenya
Libya
Pakistan
Sudan
Baʻlabakk (Lebanon)
India
Thailand
Philippines
Yemen
Vietnam
Korea
Damascus (Syria)
Japan
Date:
circa 1949-1966
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Robert E. Kuntz documenting people and the natural and built environments that he encountered during his world travels. Locations depicted include Asia (Taiwan, India, Korea, Thailand, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Japan), the Middle East (Pakistan, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, and Yemen), Africa (Sudan, Libya, Kenya, and Nigeria), and Oceania (Borneo and the Philippines). Images of Taiwan include street scenes of Taipei, festivals and ceremonies (including celebrations of 10-10 Day, Buddha's birthday, and Lantern Festival), temples, villages and agriculture, boats and harbors, artwork and shrines, carving, construction, markets, bridges, and a cemetery. The collection also includes images of the Acropolis of Athens, the Taj Mahal and other structures in India, historical structures and the harbor in Istanbul, markets and vendors in west Pakistan, and Wat Benchamabophit and Wat Arun in Thailand, ancient structures in Baʻlabakk (Lebanon), St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai) and a parade and ceremonies in Egypt.
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. Robert E. Kuntz (1916-2003) was a parasitologist for the U.S. Navy and the Southwest Research Foundation. After earning his MS in zoology from Oklahoma University and Ph.D. in parasitology from the University of Michigan, he joined the United States Navy in 1943. He was a parasitologist and medical entomologist with the Naval Medical Research Institute and then Chairman of the department of parasitology at the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, a position that brought him into contact with groups in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. In 1964, Kuntz retired from the Navy as a captain. He wrote hundreds of publications and his photographs have been reproduced in textbooks, National Geographic Magazine, and other publications.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2003-25
Reproduction Note:
Modern prints made from original negatives by Smithsonian Institution, 1987.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Kuntz's field notes are held in the Smithsonian Institutuion Archives in the Field Book Project, SIA Acc. 12-254.
Taiwanese fish skins collected by Kuntz held in the anthropology collections of the NAtional Museum of Natural History, accession 231999.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Festivals  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Markets  Search this
Art  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2003-25, Robert E. Kuntz photographs of Asia, Africa, Oceania, and the Middle East, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2003-25
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2003-25

William A. Smalley papers

Creator:
Smalley, William Allen  Search this
Extent:
18.11 Linear feet (19 boxes, 2 map folders, 40 sound recordings, and 3 computer disks)
Culture:
Hmong (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Thailand -- Languages
Laos
Thailand
Vietnam
Date:
1943-1998
Summary:
William A. Smalley (1923-1997) was a missionary and anthropological linguist. This collection mainly concerns his work with Hmong scripts and the Khmu' language and contains correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William A. Smalley's work and research as an anthropological linguist and missionary, two roles that were often intertwined, through his correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings. Smalley's research on Hmong scripts, particularly Pahawh, and the Hmong people make up a significant portion of the collection. Noteworthy are a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh script and primers and writing samples of other Hmong scripts. Aside from some letters and 1953 conference reports by Smalley and G. Linwood Barney, there is little material from his work in developing Hmong RPA. Other materials relating to RPA include a Hmong-English dictionary by Ernest E. Heimbach and a Hmong-French dictionary by Father Yves Bertrais. Also in the collection are Smalley's research on Khmu' and Thai languages and dialects and several Khmu' primers. As a missionary linguist, Smalley created guides for missionaries learning Khmu' and Vietnamese, as well as a guide to pronouncing Egyptian Arabic, all of which are in the collection. Reprints for a large portion of his articles can also be found in the collection, reflecting his interests in linguistics, anthropology, missionary work, and Southeast Asia. In addition, the collection contains drafts of his unfinished book, Liberation of an Evangelical and his work editing The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective by Jack Loewen. Photographs in the collection are composed mostly of 35mm slides and some prints and negatives. Most of the images are of Southeast Asia along with some photos of Africa, Haiti, New Guinea, and Hong Kong. There are also photos of Hmongs in the United States and photos for his book, Mother of Writing: the Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script. The sound recordings are composed mostly of interviews he conducted for his research on Thailand, Hmongs in the United States, and the Pahawh Hmong script. Additional materials in the collection are his writings as a college student published in the Houghton Star, the school newspaper for which he also served as chief editor.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 11 series: (1) Correspondence, 1973-1999; (1) Hmong, 1952-1997; (3) Khmu', 1952-1997; (4) Thailand, 1960-1987; (5) Writings, 1949-1997; (6) Talks, 1974-1997; (7) Writings by Others, 1977, 1994-1998; (8) Houghton College, 1943-1945, 1982; (9) Photographs, 1950-1990; (10) Sound Recordings, 1976-1994; (11) Maps, 1977-1978
Biographical Note:
William A. Smalley was born April 4, 1923, in Jerusalem, Palestine. His parents were American missionaries for the Christian and Missionary Alliance, working among Arabs in Jerusalem and Transjordan. In 1934, Smalley and his family moved back to the United States. In reflecting upon his upbringing, Smalley writes, "My parents were thoroughly, deeply devoted both to Christ and to the Alliance, but they drew their boundaries more widely than many." According to Smalley, "My home was intellectually more open than some Alliance homes; my upbringing was somewhat less doctrinaire." (Smalley 1991)

Smalley attended Houghton College, where he developed an interest in anthropology, which he saw as relevant to missionary work. After graduating from Houghton in 1945 with a degree in English literature, he attended the Missionary Training Institute (1945-1946) and received linguistic training in Bible translation at the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) at the University of Oklahoma (1946-1947). In 1946 he also enrolled in Columbia University's graduate program in anthropology with a concentration in linguistics. According to Smalley, he discovered his "intellectual niche" studying at SIL, while "the anthropological training at Columbia gave linguistics a broader cultural context." "I became absorbed in the challenge to understand my faith in Christ in light of all I was learning about human culture." (Smalley 1991)

In 1950, Smalley was sent to Vietnam by the Christian and Missionary Alliance. There, Smalley worked on language analysis problems in the southern region of the country. The following year, he was sent to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language. While in Laos, Smalley also worked with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing a writing system for the Hmong people. Together, they developed the Hmong Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA), which is the most widely used Hmong writing system today.

With the outbreak of civil war in Laos, Smalley and his wife were forced to return to the United States in 1954. He completed his dissertation on the Khmu' language and was awarded his doctorate in 1956. An abbreviated version of his dissertation was later published in 1961 as Outline of Khmu' Structure.

Over the next several years, Smalley worked primarily in Southeast Asia as a translation consultant for the American Bible Society (1954-1969) and as a regional translations coordinator (1969-1972) and translation consultant (1972-1977) with the United Bible Societies. Due to his work, he resided in Thailand from 1962 to 1967 and from 1969 to 1972. (He also lived in Thailand as a Fulbright research fellow in 1985 and 1986.) In 1977, he decided to leave the United Bible Societies after 23 years. Unable to find employment, he worked briefly at a discount toy store.

In 1978, Smalley relocated to St. Paul, Minnesota, to accept a position as professor of linguistics at Bethel University (1978-1987). In Minnesota, he unexpectedly found that thousands of Hmong refugees were also settling in the Twin Cities, which guided his research over the next decade. As an Honorary Fellow (1982-1984) with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program, he took part in a project studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States, publishing "Adaptive Language Strategies of the Hmong: From Asian Mountains to American Ghettos" (1985) and "Stages of Hmong Cultural Adaptation" (1986). He also studied the different Hmong scripts that had developed since RPA, in particular Pahawh Hmong script, which was created in 1959 in Laos by Shong Lue Yang. Smalley published two books on the script and its creator— Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script (1990) and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing" (1990), both of which he co-authored with Chia Koua Vang and Gnia Yee Yang.

In addition to his work on the Hmong, Smalley researched the different languages and dialects of Thailand, publishing Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand (1994); "Thailand's Hierarchy of Multilingualism" (1988); and "Language and Power: Evolution of Thailand's Multilingualism" (1996). As a student at Columbia University, he had also studied Comanche phonology and morphology, coauthoring with Henry Osborn "Formulae for Comanche Stem and Word Formation" (1949).

In 1955, Smalley took over editorship of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology), which he edited from 1955 to1968. He also served as associate editor for Bible Translator (1957-59) and Language Sciences (1983-92).

When he retired from Bethel College in 1987, he was awarded the college's first annual Distinguished Teaching Award. In his retirement, he continued to write extensively and also edited Jacob A. Loewen's book, The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective, for which he wrote an introduction.

In 1997, Smalley died of a heart attack at the age of 74.

Sources Consulted

Smalley, William. "My Pilgrimage in Mission." International Bulletin of Missionary Research 15, no. 2 (1991): 70-73.

Beckstrom, Maja. "Scholar of Hmong language praised for 'invaluable' work." St. Paul Pioneer Press, December 21, 1997: 1B, 6B.

Chronology

1923 -- Born April 4 in Jerusalem, Palestine

1945 -- Earns B.A. from Houghton College in English Literature

1945-1946 -- Studies at Missionary Training Institute

1946-1947 -- Studies at Summer Institute of Linguistics at University of Oklahoma

1950 -- Serves as missionary linguist in Vietnam

1951 -- Assigned to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language

1951-1953 -- Works with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing Hmong RPA

1954-1969 -- Translation consultant for American Bible Society

1955-1968 -- Editor of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology)

1956 -- Receives doctorate in linguistic anthropology at Columbia University

1961 -- Publishes Outline of Khmu' Structure

1969-1972 -- Regional translations coordinator with the United Bible Societies

1972-1977 -- Translation consultant with the United Bible Societies

1978-1987 -- Professor of linguistics at Bethel College

1982-1984 -- Honorary fellow with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States

1985-1986 -- Fulbright Fellow studying linguistic diversity and national unity in Thailand

1990 -- Publishes Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing"

1994 -- Publishes Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand

1997 -- Dies of a heart attack at the age of 74 on December 16
Related Materials:
Smalley's Pahawh Hmong project was funded by the Indochina Studies Center, Social Science Research Council. Upon the completion of the project, the Indochina Studies Center arranged for some of his Pahawh Hmong research materials to be deposited at the Library of Congress as part of the archives of programs that the center has funded. The materials deposited at the Library of Congress include photographs, sound recordings, and a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh and Sayaboury script. Indices and descriptions of the materials deposited can be found in Series 2: Hmong, Sub-series 2.2 Pahawh, "[Pahawh Hmong Project]." Not all of the materials that were sent to the Library of Congress are present in this collection and vice versa. Among the materials absent from this collection are some of the photographs, four sound recordings, and most of the Sayaboury manuscripts.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jane Smalley.
Restrictions:
Three tape recordings and the associated transcripts of the interviews that Smalley conducted for his research on the Pahawh Hmong script are restricted until 2040.

Access to the William A. Smalley papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Vietnamese language  Search this
Missionaries  Search this
Anthropological linguistics  Search this
Hmong language -- writing  Search this
Khmu' language  Search this
Citation:
William A. Smalley papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2006-06
See more items in:
William A. Smalley papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2006-06

Robert and Elizabeth Webb photographs of world travels

Creator:
Webb, Robert Watkins, 1906-1998  Search this
Names:
Webb, Elizabeth N. (possible photographer)  Search this
Extent:
53 Slides (53 black and white copy slides)
20 color slides (circa)
1,500 Prints (circa, silver gelatin (some in photo albums))
1,000 Items (circa 1000 copy color prints (made from slides))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Prints
Photographs
Place:
India -- description and travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Singapore -- Description and Travel
Serbia -- description and travel
Scotland -- description and travel
Russia -- Description and Travel
Sri Lanka -- Description and Travel
Spain -- description and travel
South Africa -- Description and Travel
Chile -- description and travel
Somalia -- description and travel
Palestine -- description and travel
Peru -- Description and Travel
Nepal -- Description and Travel
Norway -- description and travel
Egypt -- description and travel
Portugal -- description and travel
Romania -- description and travel
Philippines -- Description and Travel
Poland -- description and travel
Kenya -- Description and Travel
Israel -- Description and Travel
China -- Description and Travel
Morocco -- description and travel
Mozambique -- description and travel
Mexico -- description and travel
Montenegro -- description and travel
Croatia -- description and travel
Denmark -- description and travel
Czech Republic -- Description and Travel
Burma -- Description and Travel
Bulgaria -- description and travel
Canada -- Description and Travel
Austria -- description and travel
Brazil -- Description and Travel
Borneo -- description and travel
England -- description and travel
France -- description and travel
Ecuador -- Description and Travel
Holland -- Description and Travel
Guatemala -- Description and Travel
Greece -- description and travel
Germany -- description and travel
Ireland -- description and travel
Iran -- Description and Travel
Italy -- description and travel
Hungary -- description and travel
United States -- description and travel
Thailand -- description and travel
Taiwan -- description and travel
Switzerland -- description and travel
Yugoslavia -- description and travel
Yucatan -- Description and Travel
Date:
1938-1996
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Robert and Elizabeth Webb in numerous locations across the world, including Asia (China, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, and Russia); the Balkans (Czech Republic, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Poland); Europe (Spain, England, France, Italy, Greece, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Holland, Norway, Germany, Ireland, Scotland, and Portugal); the Middle East (Egypt, Iran, Israel, and Palestine); Africa (Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, Mozambique, and South Africa); South America (Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Brazil, Yucatan, and Guatemala); and North America (Canada, Florida, Washington state, Alaska, Hawaii, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah). The photographs largely document architecture and art, including historical sites, though there are additional images of parades, transportation, cities, villages, markets, waterways, and people.

Commercial slides in the collection are by Swiss-Foto, E. Djupdraet, Herz-Color-Dias, Hong Kong Color Slide Service, SK Slide Co., Lehnert & Landrock, Douglas Whiteside, Vacation Films, Arctic Circle Enterprise, HI-FI Color Slides, Pana-Vue Slides, CP Inc., Jordan's Colour Lab, Hawaii Chrome, Syon House, John Decopoulos, La Goelette, and Zerkowitz. Notes by Robert Webb and original photograph albums are also available with the collection.
Biographical/Historical note:
Robert Watkins Webb (1906-1998) graduated from Southern Methodist University and received his medical degree from Tulane University in 1933. Before starting his psychiatry practice in Dallas, Webb traveled around the world, returning on the SS Normandie to New York (1938). An amateur photographer, Webb documented this and subsequent foreign trips, later submitting some of his photographs to the Dallas Museum of Art. He served four years in the Army during World War II,stationed primarily in Port Moresby, New Guinea. He later became chief psychiatrist of the Veterans Administration clinic in Washington, DC, from 1946-1950. In 1952, he married Elizabeth Nutting, a psychiatric social worker, while cruising the Mediterranean.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 98-9
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University holds Robert W. Webb photographs.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 98-9, Robert and Elizabeth Webb photographs of world travels, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.98-9
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-98-9

Expedition History, 1937

Creator:
National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Expedition to Collect Living Wild Animals and Birds (1937)  Search this
Subject:
Sang, Layang Gaddi  Search this
Jennier, Roy  Search this
Williams, Maynard Owen 1888-1963  Search this
Mann, William M. 1886-1960  Search this
Mann, Lucile Quarry 1897-1986  Search this
Davis, Malcolm  Search this
National Zoological Park (U.S.)  Search this
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Place:
Asia, Southeastern
Sumatra (Indonesia)
China
Japan
Indonesia
Dutch East Indies
India
Malaysia
Thailand
Siam
Asia
Date:
1937
1937-1937
Topic:
Zoology  Search this
Local number:
SIA AH00427
See more items in:
Expedition History 1937 [National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Expedition to Collect Living Wild Animals and Birds (1937)]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_292885

John W.S. and Arthur D. Foster's World Travel Films ca. 1927

Creator:
Foster, John W.S  Search this
Foster, Arthur D  Search this
Physical description:
reference 3 video cassettes (63 minutes) silent b&w
master 3 video cassettes (63 minutes) silent b&w BetacamSP
3 videoreel (62 minutes) silent b&w one inch master
preservation one film reel (900 feet) silent b&w 35mm
preservation two film reels (1,225 feet) silent b&w 35mm
preservation one film reel (260 feet) silent b&w 16mm
archival original two film reels (1,225 feet) silent b&w 35mm
archival original four film reels (1,161 feet) silent b&w 16mm
Culture:
Pygmies  Search this
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Collection descriptions
Place:
Africa
Thailand
Belgian Congo
International
Asia
Middle East
Siam
Iraq
India
Calcutta (India)
Cambodia
Sudan
Ituri Rainforest, Belgian Congo (Zaire)
Baghdad (Iraq)
Date:
1927
ca 1927
Topic:
Aerial photography  Search this
Kites  Search this
Royal houses  Search this
Ruins  Search this
Boats  Search this
Crocodiles  Search this
Aerial views  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Palace  Search this
Hunting  Search this
Travel  Search this
Language and culture  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 1996.8.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives OK:0
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_219465
Online Media:

Thailand: Mystic Spires and Golden Beauties 042 1978

Creator:
Linker, Hal 1916  Search this
Physical description:
archival original 1 video reel (23 minutes) sound color 2 inch
Type:
Television programs
Travelogs
Place:
Asia
Thailand
Date:
1978
Topic:
Cities and towns  Search this
Villages  Search this
Mountains  Search this
Elephants--domestication  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 2002.16.124
Restrictions & Rights:
OK:0 Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives
See more items in:
Hal Linker Film and Video Collection, ca. 1955-1985
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_305599

I am a Monk 1976

Physical description:
reference 1 film reel (1080 feet) sound color 16mm
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Place:
Asia
Thailand
North America
United States
Date:
1976
Topic:
Language and culture  Search this
Buddhism  Search this
Buddhist monasteries  Search this
Buddhist monks  Search this
Religious--beliefs  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 2005.10.65
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives L:0
See more items in:
Carleton College Collection
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_305867

P.D. Klusmeier Travel Footage: Vietnam, Thailand, Hong Kong, Hawaii ca. 1956-57

Physical description:
archival original 3 reels of film (2,070 feet) silent b&w 16mm
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Asia
Vietnam
Thailand
Hong Kong
Hawaii
Date:
ca 1956-57
Topic:
Amateur films  Search this
Military  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Villages  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Recreation  Search this
Dance  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 2012.4.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_306098

Ruth Davis Travel Film: Oceania, Asia and Africa ca. 1960s

Physical description:
archival original 22 film reels (1,100 feet) silent color 8mm
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Place:
Oceania
Australia
New Guinea
Samoa
Fiji
Asia
Japan
Thailand
Africa
Egypt
Europe
Switzerland
Date:
ca 1960s
Topic:
Language and culture  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Travel  Search this
Landscapes  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 2013.2.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives OK:0
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_363381

Roy Galloway Travel Films and Home Movies ca. 1947-1968

Physical description:
partial reference 1 DVD (10 minutes) silent color DVD
archival original 51 film reels (14,000 feet) silent color b&w 16mm
archival original 2 film reels (100 feet) silent color S8mm
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Collection descriptions
Home movies
Place:
International
India
United States
Maryland
Vermont
Nepal
Turkey
Switzerland
France
Holland
Italy
Russia
Belgium
Greece
Austria
Germany
Spain
Denmark
Sweden
England
New York (N.Y.)
Mexico
Canada
Thailand
Burma
Hawaii
Egypt
Japan
Lebanon
Suez Canal (Egypt)
Date:
ca 1947-1968
Topic:
Domestic and family life  Search this
Domestic relations  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Resorts  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 2011.16.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives OK:0
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_366415

Rice Farmers in Thailand 1969

Physical description:
1 film reel (684 feet) sound color 16mm reference
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Place:
Thailand
Asia
Date:
1976
1969
Topic:
Agriculture  Search this
Rice farmers  Search this
Technological innovations  Search this
Agricultural practices--rice  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 1994.21.162
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_386610

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