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Philadelphia -- Bartram's Garden

Former owner:
Bartram, John  Search this
Eastwick, Andrew  Search this
Gardener:
Meehan, Thomas  Search this
Architect:
Sloan, Samuel  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet; brochures; biographical sketch of John Bartram; newspaper, journal, and magazine articles; and Bartram Broadside (Winter 1994-1995).
General:
The Bartram gardens were the first real botanic gardens developed in America. In 1728, John Bartram bought land at Gray's Ferry for a botanical garden. The borders are laid out in squares and rectangles, but not in a formal manner. Andrew M. Eastwick purchased the property in 1850 in order to protect the site from destruction from industrial sprawl. After Andrew Eastwick's death, the garden was neglected until Thomas Meehan, Eastwick's gardener, persuaded the City of Philadelphia to buy the site for a park in 1891. In 1893, John Bartram's descendants formed an Association to preserve the garden. Historic buildings on the property include a house, stable, sheds, barn, icehouse, seed house, and stone cider mill. A restoration project began in 1981. In 1982-1988, an adjacent industrial tract was reclaimed to function as a 15-acre meadow. Highlights of the garden include a vegetable garden, River's Edge Trail, Bartram oak, and flower gardens. The garden is open to the public.
Persons associated with the garden include: John Bartram (former owner, 1727); Bartram descendants (former owners, ?-1850); Andrew Eastwick (former owner, 1850-1891); Thomas Meehan (gardener, ca. 1850s); Samuel Sloan (architect of barn, which burned in 1896); John Bartram Association (administration, 1893-present); Fairmount Park Commission (administration); and City of Philadelphia (owner, 1891-present).
Related Materials:
Bartram's Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (2 glass lantern slides, 2 35 mm. slides, and 1 photoprint)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16497

Philadelphia -- Grumblethorpe

Former owner:
Wister Family  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Grumblethorpe (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet and articles.
General:
The house was built by the Wister family in 1744 and is now in the business section of Germantown. The property covered an area of 1888 feet by 450 feet, having a central walk, box border, and arbors. Charles Wister, in ca. 1819, removed overgrown boxwood edging and replaced it with trellises with climbing vines at the intersections of the main and secondary gravel walks. The overall garden remained geometric. The rear parterres were used for vegetable gardening.
Persons associated with the garden include: Wister family, John and Daniel (former owners, 1744); and Charles Wister (former owner, 1806).
Related Materials:
Grumblethorpe related holdings consist of 1 folder (2 glass lantern slides and 1 35mm. slide)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA003
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16499

[Bartram's Garden]

Slide manufacturer:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (lantern slide, hand-colored, 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Lantern slides
Place:
Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Date:
[between 1914 and 1949?]
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "55."
Historic plate caption: "On label adhered to slide exterior: John Bartram House; Philadelphia, Pa. Image caption: Residence of John Bartram; Built With His Own Hands, A. D. 1730."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Historic houses  Search this
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item PA001001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania / PA001: Philadelphia -- Bartram's Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16920

[Bartram's Garden]

Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Date:
[1930?]
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Planting plans  Search this
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item PA001003
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania / PA001: Philadelphia -- Bartram's Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16921

[Bartram's Garden]

Photographer:
Mcclean, Elizabeth  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Date:
[1930?]
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Trees  Search this
Houses  Search this
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item PA001004
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania / PA001: Philadelphia -- Bartram's Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16922

World expositions : stereographs

Topic:
John Bull (locomotive)
Collector:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Creator:
Kilburn, B. W. (stereograph publisher)  Search this
Centennial Photographic Co. (stereograph publisher)  Search this
Burr & Manley Dry Goods, Groceries and Clothing (stereograph publisher)  Search this
Names:
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Exposition universelle de 1867 (Paris, France)  Search this
Exposition universelle internationale de 1900 (Paris, France)  Search this
Krupp (gun manufacturer)  Search this
Pan-American Exposition (1901: Buffalo, N.Y.)  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
41 Items
Container:
Box 7
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographs
Stereographs
Place:
Paris (France) -- Exhibitions -- 1860-1900 -- Stereographs
Philadelphia (Pa.) -- Exhibitions -- 1870-1880 -- Stereographs
San Diego (Calif.) -- Exhibitions
Massachusetts -- Exhibitions -- 1870-1880 -- Stereographs
Buffalo (N.Y.) -- Exhibitions -- 1900-1910 -- Stereographs
Date:
ca. 1867-1915
Scope and Contents:
Includes the Centennial Exhibition (7, incl. 1 of Machinery Hall, pub. by Burr & Manley Dry Goods, Groceries and Clothing, Manchester Depot, Vermont; and 4 by Centennial Photographic Co.); Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association Thirteenth Exhibition, 1878 (1); World's Columbian Exposition, 1893 (25); Paris Exposition, 1867 (1); Exposition Universelle, 1900 (1); Pan-American Exposition (1); Panama-California Exposition, 1915 (1); A.Y.P. Exposition (2); 2 unidentified. Other photographers and publishers represented include B.W. Kilburn.
General:
Stereograph in World's Columbian Exposition group shows John Bull locomotive and train and "great Krupp Guns."
Related Materials:
Forms part of photographs division, Warshaw Collection; in stereographs sub-series, box 7.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site. Photographs must be handled with white cotton gloves, unless protected by plastic sleeves.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- Stereographs  Search this
Centennial Celebrations -- Stereographs  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Stereographs
Stereographs
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 2: Other Collection Divisions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 2: Other Collection Divisions / 2.6: Stereographs / World Expositions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s02-ref2835

Newspapers : stereographs

Collector:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Stereograph (Silver albumen on paper, mounted.)
Container:
Box 4
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Photographs
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.) -- 1870-1880
Pennsylvania
Date:
ca. 1875-1885
Scope and Contents:
One image: "Ledger Building, Chestnut Street, Phila., Pa." from the American Scenery series, showing 6-story building and street with horse-drawn vehicles. Albumen prints, hand-colored, on flat yellow mount. Images appear to be from copy negatives.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site. Photographs must be handled with white cotton gloves, unless protected by plastic sleeves.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Newspapers  Search this
Streets -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia.  Search this
Buildings -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1870-1900 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Stereographs
Photographs -- 1850-1900 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Stereographs
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 2: Other Collection Divisions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series 2: Other Collection Divisions / 2.6: Stereographs / Newspapers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s02-ref2846

Benjamin Franklin Bridge Photograph Album

Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Former owner:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Modjeski, Ralph, 1861-1940  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Place:
Benjamin Franklin Bridge (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Camden (N.J.)
Date:
1922-1926.
Summary:
Sixty-six pages from a photograph album compiled by an anonymous photographer, documenting the Philadelphia-Camden or Delaware River Bridge, now called the Benjamin Franklin Bridge.
Scope and Contents note:
Pages from a photograph album compiled by an anonymous photographer, documenting the Philadelphia-Camden or Delaware River Bridge, now called the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. The album includes images of a parade celebrating the beginning of construction of the bridge, demolition of buildings to make room for the bridge, the construction, the machinery, the caissons, and the celebration of completion. The Chief Engineer, Ralph Modjeski, is also depicted. The images contain detailed captions.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Provenance:
Collection purchased in 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Suspension bridges  Search this
Ceremonies -- United States  Search this
Bridges -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Ben Franklin Bridge Photograph Album, 1922-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1029
See more items in:
Benjamin Franklin Bridge Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1029

Melrose Diner Collection

Creator:
Kubach, Richard  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Melrose Diner, owners and employees  Search this
Names:
Jerry O'Mahony Company  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Audiotapes
Interviews
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.) -- Restaurants
New Jersey -- Restaurants
Date:
1938-1988
Summary:
Correspondence, advertisements, accounting records, and 19 audio tape interviews documenting the history and operation of Melrose Diner in Philadelphia, Pa.; interviews conducted by oral historian Scott Ellsworth, 1987; and notes written by him.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of material collected by contract researcher Scott Ellsworth during a 1987 historical study of the Melrose Diner. It includes correspondence with Kubach and D'Andrea and with lessees when D'Andrea was the owner; with former employees and patrons; and with the manufacturer of the diner, the O'Mahony company. There are also menus and flyers advertising the diner, as well as payrolls and other accounting documents relating to its operation. Nineteen audio tapes of interviews Ellsworth conducted with Kubach, D'Andrea and others are also part of the collection. In addition, there is a history of the Melrose Diner based on his recorded interviews.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into three series.

Series 1: History of Melrose Diner and Scott Ellsworth Notes

Series 2: Melrose Diner records, 1959-1983

Series 3: Audio tape interviews withowners and employees of Melrose Diner, 1987.
Biographical / Historical:
The Melrose Diner (the second structure by that name) was built by the Jerry O'Mahony Company of Bayonne, New Jersey and placed in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at 1610 W. Passyunk Street. Constructed to the plans of owner Richard Kubach, a 33 year old German immigrant, the diner opened for business March 18, 1940. Kubach had been the owner of the predecessor diner at the same address which he had bought five years earlier and had quickly developed into a successful business.

The new diner with 54 seats had more than twice the capacity of its predecessor, cost $15,000 (less a 10% discount to Kubach for his planning) and was supplemented by a kitchen, bakery and storeroom. Under Kubach's skilled and enlightened management, the new diner rapidly acquired a reputation for excellent food and good service. It became a community fixture, open 24 hours a day and attracting industrial workers and merchants from the area as well as families and young people in the evenings.

In 1956, Kubach opened a third diner a few blocks from the original site and closed the older building. It remained vacant until 1959, when Jim D'Andrea, a construction foreman, bought the structure and moved it across the Delaware River to a site in Washington Township, Mercer County in New Jersey. This location on Route 130, a main highway between Philadelphia and New York, proved to be a good one for truckers as customers for the diner. D'Andrea and his son Gene leased the diner successively to more than a dozen different individuals in less than 20 years. Under this variety of managers and different names (although long term patrons continued to call it the Melrose) the diner physically deteriorated; a fire in 1979 finally ended its serviceable life. D'Andrea boarded it up in the early 1980s.
Provenance:
The material in this collection was primarily collected or created by Scott Ellsworth under contract with the National Museum of American History in 1987, as part of a project that originally envisioned the acquisition and display of the Melrose Diner by the Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Restaurateurs  Search this
Truck drivers  Search this
Truck stops  Search this
Restaurants -- 1940-1980 -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Diners -- 1940-1979 -- Philadelphia (Pa.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Audiotapes
Interviews
Citation:
Melrose Diner Collection, 1938-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0489
See more items in:
Melrose Diner Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0489

Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was made in 1776, Philadelphia. 5518 interpositive

Topic:
PENNSYLVANIA
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Independence Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Local Numbers:
RSN 26705
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.51 [114].
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Historical sites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26705-26809
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24464

Independence Bell, which first proclaimed the birth of Freedom, as "government by the people, for the people," Philadelphia. [Active no. 5511 : interpositive.]

Topic:
PENNSYLVANIA
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Independence Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Local Numbers:
RSN 26706
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.51 [114].
Similar to RSN 20454.
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bells  Search this
Historical sites  Search this
Liberty Bell  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26705-26809
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24465

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings

Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
9 Cubic feet (4 drawers)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical drawings
Erection drawings
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Pennsylvania
Date:
1870-1890
Summary:
Collection consists of 202 assembly drawings of locomotives and tenders, prepared to check the clearances and major component parts of the locomotive and retained for engineering reference.
Scope and Contents note:
202 assembly drawings of locomotives and tenders, prepared to check the clearances and major component parts of the locomotive. When work was slow, draftsmen hand-colored the drawings. They were not used in the shop but were retained for engineering reference.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Baldwin Locomotive Works was the largest and most successful locomotive building firm in the world. It was begun as a machine shop owned and operated by Matthias W. Baldwin in 1831. Baldwin turned out its first locomotive engine from its shop in Philadelphia in 1832; within a few years the company was producing two a month and employed 240 men. By 1852, 500 engines had been produced; by 1861, 1,000; and by 1868, 2,000. At that point, the company employed between 1,600-1,700 men, and was one of the very largest machine works in the nation. In 1906 Baldwin began construction of a large auxiliary plant in Philadelphia suburb of Eddystone. In 1928 the Broad Street plant was closed and all work transferred to the Eddystone Plant.

Baldwin had been forced by hard financial times to take on a series of partners between 1839 and 1846, and the firm's name changed repeatedly as a result. It was known as Baldwin, Vail & Hufty (1839-1842); Baldwin & Whitney (1842-1845); M.W. Baldwin (1846-1853); and M.W. Baldwin & Co. (1854-1866). After Baldwin's death in 1866 the firm was known as M. Baird & Co. (1867-1873); Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1873-1890); Burnham, Williams & Co. (1891-1909); it was finally incorporated as the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1909.

The company's phenomenal growth ended with in the mid-1920s as the U.S. railroad industry began its long decline. Despite various mergers and acquisitions--and an increased attention to the development of diesel engines--a slow but sure decline set in. Baldwin declared bankruptcy in 1935. World War Two brought a temporary respite, but after the war the steam locomotive was obsolete and orders rapidly diminished. The Westinghouse Corporation bought Baldwin in 1948 but was unable to turn the company around. In 1950 the Lima-Hamilton Corporation and Baldwin merged but in 1956 the last of some 70,500 locomotives were produced and the company's long history came to an end.

Sources

History of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1831-1902

A Short History of American Locomotive Builders in the Steam Era, John H. White, (1982).
Related Archival Materials:
Archives Center #157, the Baldwin Locomotive Works Collection, consists of Engine Registers and Order Books for locomotives, 1833-1956. In addition, a six-reel microfilm edition of collection #157 is located in the NMAH Library (mfm-720).

Photographs relating to Baldwin are in the Railroad and Firefighting History Photographic Collection, Division of Work and Industry.

The DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University has a collection of 8,500 original Baldwin engineering drawings and has published three guides to their records.
Provenance:
Collection donated by H.L. Broadbelt, July 1959-November 1960.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad equipment industry  Search this
Locomotives -- Drawings  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroads -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Baldwin locomotives  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Locomotive works -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Locomotive industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical drawings
Erection drawings
Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings, 1870-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0353
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0353
Online Media:

Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data

Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Hamily, David  Search this
Names:
Erie Railroad Company  Search this
New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad.  Search this
Pennsylvania Railroad.  Search this
Philadelphia and Western Railroad.  Search this
Piedmont and Northern Railroad.  Search this
Sorocabana Railway.  Search this
Takata and Company Railroad.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Statistics
Correspondence
Blueprints
Place:
Pennsylvania
New Haven (Conn.)
New York
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Hartford (Conn.)
Date:
1912-1949
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of statistics on electric train operation, drawings, blueprints, technical papers, train classifications, research and development reports, business and financial correspondence (1933, 1939-1948, 1940-1941), installation and operation instructions, locomotive system test procedures, locomotive operations data and calculations, records of locomotive mileages and part failures, suggested locomotive improvements, locomotive specifications, plans for fire extinguishing systems, tonnage ratings and includes material from the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, Piedmont and Northern Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, Takata and Co. Railroad, Philadelphia and Western Railroad, Sorocabana Railway, and Erie Railroad Co.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 8 series.

Series 1: New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad

Series 2: Piedmont and Northern Railway Company

Series 3: Takata and Company

Series 4: Philadelphia and Western Railway Company

Series 5: Sorocabana Railway

Series 6; Pennsylvania Railroad

Series 7: Miscellaneous Westinghouse Reports

Series 8: Erie Railroad Company
Provenance:
This collection was donated by David Hamily of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1986.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Locomotives -- Design and construction  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Locomotive industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Statistics
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Citation:
Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0207
See more items in:
Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0207
Online Media:

Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records

Collector:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Co.  Search this
Names:
Atlantic City Railroad  Search this
Mine Hill & Schuylkill Haven Railroad  Search this
Reading Belt Railroad  Search this
Bines, William H.  Search this
Boggs, George B.  Search this
Buckholz, Charles W.  Search this
Byers, Charles E.  Search this
Chamberlain, E.C.  Search this
Davis, N.M.  Search this
Gowen, Franklin B.  Search this
Jamison, Robert  Search this
Keim, George DeB  Search this
Lorenz, William  Search this
Manning, Charles P.  Search this
Nichols, Henry K.  Search this
Rice, George  Search this
Richardson, F.E.  Search this
Royers, John H.  Search this
Steele, J. Dutton  Search this
Thompson, J.W.  Search this
Whitney, E.S.  Search this
Wilson, H.T.  Search this
Wootten, John E.  Search this
Yarington, T.O.  Search this
Zacharias, H.C.  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (55 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Right of way deeds
Reports
Letterpress copybooks
Mechanical drawings
Estimates
Financial statements
Circular letters
Bills
Accident reports
Correspondence
Place:
Lackawanna County (Pa.)
Luzerne County (Pa.)
Cressona (Pa.)
Harrisburg (Pa.)
Norristown (Pa.)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
New Jersey
Sumerton (Pa.)
Cheltenham (Pa.)
Sunbury (Pa.)
Reading (Pa.)
Trenton (N.J.)
Schuylkill County (Pa.)
Pennsylvania
Date:
1860-1936
Summary:
Collection of engineering reports and correspondence from the Engineering Department of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was most used for the transportation of anthracite coal within Pennsylvania from 1833 through the early 1970s.
Scope and Contents:
Primarily outgoing correspondence from the Engineering Department of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company, the remainder being engineering reports and other miscellaneous papers.

Series 1: Letterpress Copybooks consists of 219 volumes from various engineers, each with own index (1865-1892): were generated by Chief Engineer, Assistant Chief Engineer, various resident engineers, other lower-level engineers, and the Chief Road-Master. Bulk of copybooks created by William H. Bines and Henry K. Nichols during long careers with the Philadelphia & Reading. Other volumes contain letters and reports by Charles W. Buckholz, Charles E. Byers, William Lorenz, and others. Correspondence covers all aspects of the engineering operations of the railroad, much of it at highest levels, being addressed to the Presidents of the Reading. Also includes one letterbook from John E. Wooten (1865), Superintendent.

Series 2: Reports of Chief Engineer to Auditor, 1908-1910; structural design calculation notebooks, 1901-1935; right of way deeds, 1903; and tracings of assorted machine parts.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Letterpress Copybooks

Series 2: Reports and Miscellaneous papers
Biographical / Historical:
This railroad was chartered in 1833 to provide low-cost transportation from the Schuylkill and Mahanoy anthracite coal fields in eastern Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. Main line from Philadelphia to Pottsville opened 1842. Reading expanded by acquiring other railroads, and by 1869 had monopoly of coal traffic from Schuylkill anthracite region.

Expansion accelerated when Franklin B. Gowen became president (1869) and attempted to dominate entire anthracite trade. Purchased Schuylkill Canal (1870) to eliminate competition for coal trade; then organized the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in 1871 to purchase and operate coal mines; secured over 40 percent of U.S. anthracite reserves, but debt incurred led railroad to bankruptcy and receivership (1880). Gowen's reckless style drove the Reading into second receivership (1886), and he was forced to resign.

Gowen's Successor, Archibald A. McLeod, tried to increase company control over anthracite trade (1892-1893), then control of several New England railroads. The Reading went bankrupt again and McLeod was ousted. In a reorganization (1896), the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and the Coal & Iron Company became properties of the Reading Company, a holding company. Later additions to system were infrequent and largely confined to short branches and improvements inalignment. Due to anti-trust proceedings, company divested mining subsidiary (1923) and merged wholly owned railroad companies into an operating company. Acquired Lehigh & Susquehanna Railroad 1963, went bankrupt in early 1970s, and conveyed portions of its lines to Conrail (1976). The reorganized Reading Company retains real estate and other non-rail holdings.
Related Materials:
Hagley Museum & Library, Manuscripts & Archives Department, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, Delaware 19807.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Reading Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1960s.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad accidents  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroads -- New Jersey  Search this
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Coal -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroad companies -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Railroad engineers  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Railroads -- Surveying  Search this
Railroad tracks  Search this
Railroads -- Maintenance and repair  Search this
Railroads -- Signalling  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Right of way deeds
Reports
Letterpress copybooks
Mechanical drawings
Estimates
Financial statements
Circular letters
Bills
Accident reports
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0208
See more items in:
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0208

Philadelphia Typewriter Company Records

Author:
Philadelphia Typewriter Company  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Collector:
Mechanisms, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Mechanisms, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Names:
Moto-Cycle Manufacturing Company  Search this
Alder, Cyrus  Search this
Brooks, Byron A.  Search this
Edwards, John C.  Search this
Smith, Edward F.  Search this
Travis, William H.  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Correspondence
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1886-1902
Scope and Contents:
The records contain correspondence chiefly of John Elfreth Watkins, a key organizer and officer of the company. Watkins was also a curator of Transportation at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and later "accepted a salaried position…building up the technological collections pertaining to the transportation industry." The correspondence also concerns the organization and operation of the Philadelphia Typewriter Company.
Biographical / Historical:
The Philadelphia Typewriter Company was organized July 25, 1886, to manufacture typewriters designed by Byron A. Brooks. A year later, he sold his shares to the Philadelphia Typewriter Company (then under the management of John Elfreth Watkins, president, and John C. Edwards, both of Washington, D.C.; William H. Travis, secretary; and Edward F. Smith, treasurer, both of Philadelphia, Pa., and Cyrus Adler of Baltimore, Md.). They organized and operated the Philadelphia Typewriter Manufacturing Company, which was briefly called the "Moto-Cycle Manufacturing Company."

Sources

According to C.P. Keane and J. Emmerick, eds., "Marvyn Scudder Manual of Extinct or Obsolete Companies" (Vol. I, p. 968), the Philadelphia Typewriter Company went out of existence in 1900 when its stock lost its value.

Watkins was later a curator of Transportation at the Smithsonian Institution; he "accepted a salaried position...building up the technological collections pertaining to the transportation industry." (Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XIX, 1936, p. 539.)
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Typewriters -- 1880-1910  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1880-1910
Correspondence -- 1880-1910
Citation:
Philadelphia Typewriter Company Records, 1886-1902, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0123
See more items in:
Philadelphia Typewriter Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0123

[World's Fair photographs]

Collector:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Names:
Exposition universelle de 1889 (Paris, France)  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes (Approx. 150 photographs)
Container:
Box 98
Box 99
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Tour Eiffel (Paris, France)
Paris (France)
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Berlin (Germany)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
[1881-1904]
Scope and Contents:
Approx. 150 photographs of five World's Fairs: the Exposition Universelle (Paris 1889); the Berlin Exposition (1883, with an 1881 photograph); the London Crystal Palace Exposition (1882); the 1884 Philadelphia fair; the St. Louis fair, 1904; etc. Edison's inventions are numerous, but other scenes, such as the Eiffel Tower, are also included.
Local Numbers:
85-8784 (OIPP Neg.)
General:
Photographs in boxes 98-99, Series 4, Photographs.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Archives Center
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
William J. Hammer Collection / Series 4: Photographs / 4.3: Reference Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref3826

Herder Cutlery Collection

Source:
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Creator:
Herder Cutlery, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Clarenbach and Herman Herder.  Search this
Herder Cutlery, Inc.  Search this
Herder-Fine Cutlery.  Search this
L. Herder and Son.  Search this
Herder Family  Search this
Herder, Charles  Search this
Herder, Herman  Search this
Herder, Leopold  Search this
Former owner:
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1836 - 1976
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents through corporate records, correspondence, financial records, news clippings, personal papers, photographs, and sales records of several Herder family cutlery businesses in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Corporate Records

Series 2: Financial Records

Series 3: Sales Records

Series 4: Photographs

Series 5: Clippings

Series 6: Correspondence

Series 7: Herder Family
Biographical / Historical:
The Herder Family had several cutlery businesses in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Charles Clarenbach and Herman Herder, 606 Arch Street; L. Herder and Son, founded 1871 by Herman's son Leopold, the elder of two sons; Herder-Fine Cutlery, founded by younger son, Charles, 830 Arch Street; and Herder's Cutlery, Inc.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection include ice skates, steel punches, stamps, grinders, scissors, shears, store signs, a grinder's stool, claim tags, honing stones, and razor blades. See accession 1983.0406.
Provenance:
Herder's Cutlery, Incorporated, through Lynn Herder Walker, Secretary-Treasurer, 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cutlery trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 19th century
Citation:
Herder Cutlery Collection, 1847-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0050
See more items in:
Herder Cutlery Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0050
Online Media:

University of Pennsylvania Dental Collection

Topic:
The Dental Cosmos (monthly journal)
Author:
Ziesel, William, Dr.  Search this
Darby, Edwin Tyler, Dr.  Search this
Collector:
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Names:
National Dental Association  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
Adams, Henry, 1838-1918  Search this
Extent:
0.66 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Lectures
Notebooks
Correspondence
Programs
Menus
Place:
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1885-1935
Scope and Contents:
Papers of two dentists: Ziesel, who developed a technique and instruments for treating pyorrhea, and Darby, a founder of the University of Pennsylvania Dental School.

Included are articles, speeches, lectures, correspondence, unidentified photographs; an autograph book of attendees at testimonial dinner for Darby, dinner menus and programs; copies of journal entitled The Dental Cosmos, with articles by Ziesel; notebook of an unidentified dentist with names of patients, including Mr. and Mrs. Henry Adams; notebook presumably belonging to Lt. Cmdr. G. R. Bevan.The papers are largely mementoes of several occasions on which Dr. Darby was honored. They also include a record of the practice of an unnamed dentist that began in May 1885. The collection contains speeches and articles in which Ziesel describes his surgical techniques and instruments used in pyorrhea treatment. The series begins in 1919 when he asked the National Dental Association to allow him to speak at its annual convention, but his proposal was late and he was refused. It encompasses his disagreements with entrenched traditionalists, correspondence with many dentists interested in copying technique, work with patients referred for surgery, and his attempts to have this surgery made part of dental school curriculum.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series

Series 1: Dr. William Ziesel

Series 2: Dr. Edwin Tyler Darby
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. William Ziesel, who developed a surgical technique to eliminate pyorrhea, practiced dentistry in Philadelphia. This collection contains Dr. Ziesel's speeches and articles. In these he describes his surgical techniques and the instruments he used in pyorrhea treatment. The collection begins in 1919 when Dr. Ziesel asked the National Dental Association to allow him to be on the program of its annual convention although he was late in so requesting and he was refused. It encompasses his disagreements with the entrenched traditionalists, his correspondence with many dentists interested in copying his technique, his work with patients referred to him for this surgery, and his attempts to have this surgery made part of dental school curriculum.

Dr. Edwin Tyler Darby was one of the founders of the dental school at the University of Pennsylvania where he was a professor of operative dentistry from 1878 to 1926. He was Emeritus Professor for five years. An attempt was made to set up a Chair of Operative Dentistry in his name. Dr. Ziesel referred to Dr. Darby as a supporter of his methods to eliminate pyorrhea. The papers are largely mementos of several occasions on which Dr. Darby was honored. They also include a record of the practice of an unnamed dentist that began in May 1885. Scope and Content
Related Materials:
Materials in the Division of Medicine and Science

Collection contains 2871 specimens of dental instruments, furniture, equipment and other materials relating to the history of dentistry. See Accession # 218383.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Dentists  Search this
Topic:
Dentistry -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Periodontal disease  Search this
Dental schools -- 1880-1940 -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus -- 1880-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Lectures
Notebooks
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Programs
Menus
Citation:
University of Pennsylvania Dental Collection, 1885-1935, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0025
See more items in:
University of Pennsylvania Dental Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0025

Chevalier Jackson Papers

Source:
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Jackson, Chevalier, Dr,, 1865-1958 (physician)  Search this
Names:
Jefferson Medical College.  Search this
Temple University.  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pittsburgh.  Search this
University of Western Pennsylvania.  Search this
Western Medical College.  Search this
Women's College of Pennsylvania.  Search this
Foster, Gilmore  Search this
Jackson, William Stanford  Search this
Mackenzie, Morell  Search this
Morage, Katherine Ann  Search this
Former owner:
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal documents
Clippings
Biographies
Autobiographies
Books
Photographs
Correspondence
Personal papers
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1883-1955
Summary:
Collection documents Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy.
Scope and Contents:
The Jackson papers include autobiographical notes, a draft of a brief biography for the National Cyclopedia of America Biography, some business papers among which are correspondence relating to a mill and to repairs to a dam, several legal papers including those concerned with real estate mortgages, and letters to and from Mrs. Jackson and household servants.

There are mementos such as dried flowers, family snapshots, final notes from Dr. Jackson to his wife, advising her of actions to be taken upon his death, and drafts of his obituary. There are a number of photographs, and negatives, primarily of Dr. Jackson.

The articles, reports and reprints are primarily by Dr. Jackson but include a few by or with his son and a few by other physicians. The papers include proofs and color proofs of equipment and procedures relating to Jackson publications and four books, one of which is by Dr. Jackson.

The material, most of which is relatively recent, is in good condition. Some of the notes are in pencil but are legible.

In addition to the papers in the Archives Center, the Division of Medical Sciences has a large number of surgical instruments including Dr. Jackson's bronchoscopes, esophagoscopes, laryngoscopes and microscopes, awards and medals, items of furniture from Dr. Jackson's study and oil paintings by him. The list of instruments is seven single-spaced pages. There are many Chevalier Jackson papers and memorabilia in the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, the Library and Museum of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia and the Library of Temple University.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Personal Papers

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Legal Papers (including mortgages)

Series 4: Newsclippings, Articles and Book Reviews

Series 5: Photographs

Series 6: Chronological Journal

Series 7: Reports and Reprints

Series 8: Illustrations and Proofs

Series 9: Books
Biographical / Historical:
Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy, was born November 14, 1865 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and died August 16, 1958 in Philadelphia. His father, William Stanford Jackson, was a stock raiser and veterinarian. His mother was Katherine Ann Morage. Family financial reverses forced a move to Crafton, Pennsylvania, a working class community. Young Chevalier was not readily accepted by his classmates and seemed to have had a difficult time during his school years there. Money earned by decorating glass and pottery enabled Chevalier Jackson to attend the University of Western Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh) from 1878 to 1882. He then apprenticed himself to a local physician, Gilmore Foster. Continuing to paint china at night he earned enough to enroll at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1884, from which he graduated in 1886. During vacations he sold medical books and served as a cook on a fishing boat. Following his graduation from Jefferson Dr. Jackson went to England to pursue his interest in laryngology under a world-famous authority, Morell Mackenzie.

Upon his return to Pittsburgh, Dr. Jackson opened an office limited to the practice of laryngology. His patients were mostly indigent and income from the practice was limited. In 1890 he devised an instrument to remove a dental plate that a patient had swallowed. The news of this meant referral of other patients with similar problems that caused obstruction of the esophagus, including blockages in children from swallowing lye. From that time on Dr. Jackson carried on an unremitting campaign to have lye bottles labeled as poison, until in 1927 Congress passed the Federal Caustic Labeling Act.

On July 9, 1899, Chevalier Jackson and Alice Bennett White were married. They had one child, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson, who also became a surgeon. In the year of his marriage, Dr. Jackson developed a bronchoscope that could be passed through the larynx to visualize the bronchi. He became chief of laryngology at Western Medical College in 1900. In 1902 he adapted a suggestion of placing a light carrier at the far ends of the scopes used in bronchscopy and esophagoscopy, thus making those procedures relatively safe. He and a machinist friend built the instruments in the friend's shop in Pittsburgh.

Dr. Jackson developed tuberculosis in 1911. He spent the two years of convalescence writing an important text book, Peroral Endoscopy and Laryngeal Surgery, published in 1915, the year he was made head of the Department of Laryngology at Jefferson Medical College. Appointments at the Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania followed, and his 1930 appointment to the faculty at Temple meant that Chevalier Jackson held simultaneous appointments at five Philadelphia schools. He later relinquished all appointments except the chair at Temple from which he retired in 1938 to be succeeded by his son, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson. From 1935 to 1941 Chevalier Jackson was president of the Women's College of Pennsylvania. An early advocate of equal rights, he championed the role of women in medicine.

During his noted career Dr. Jackson wrote 250 papers, twelve text books, chapters in a number of other books, and an autobiography (1938). He was somewhat eccentric. He protected his hands by wearing silk gloves, even in summer, turned doorknobs by placing his hand in his coat pocket, preferred bowing to shaking hands, and developed a reputation for social aloofness.
Materials at the National Museum of American History:
The Division of Medicine and Science has surgical instruments, awards, medals, furniture, and oil paintings owned by Chevalier Jackson. See accession numbers are 300428.338 through .343.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Joan Bugbee (a granddaughter of Dr. Jackson), date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Surgeons  Search this
Topic:
Laryngoscopy  Search this
Esophagus  Search this
Esophagoscopy  Search this
Endoscopy  Search this
Bronchoscopy  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Legal documents
Clippings
Biographies
Autobiographies
Books
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Personal papers
Citation:
Chevalier Jackson Papers, 1883-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0023
See more items in:
Chevalier Jackson Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0023
Online Media:

Philadelphia Centennial Photoprints

Vendor:
Raymond, Geo. J., Variety Store  Search this
Names:
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (albumen photoprints, 5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Albumen prints
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.) -- 1870-1880
Date:
circa 1876
Scope and Contents:
Views of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, 1876. Some edge-printed "Geo. J. Raymond's Variety Store." Photographer unidentified.
Biographical / Historical:
Photographer and circumstances of images unknown; identification of scenes on backs of prints.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- Philadelphia -- 1870-1880  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1870-1880 -- Black-and-white photoprints
Albumen prints -- 1870-1880
Collection Citation:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Archives Center Photoprint Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0496-ref511

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