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Archives Center Scrapbook Collection

Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Harvard University  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (48 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Trade cards
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Advertising cards
Postcards
Place:
New Jersey
Tennessee
South Carolina
New England
New Hampshire
Mexico
Virginia
Vermont
Washington (D.C.)
Michigan
Middle East
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Indiana
Illinois
Ausable Chasm (N.Y.)
New York
Rhode Island
Asia
California
Colorado
Canada
Coney Island (New York, N.Y.)
Connecticut
Europe
Hawaii
North Carolina
Ohio
Panama
Pennsylvania
Plymouth (England)
Rochester (N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1880-circa 1960
Scope and Contents note:
Miscellaneous late nineteenth/early twentieth century scrapbooks containing postcards, trade cards, greeting cards, decals, and other ephemera. Included are: (1) trade cards for thread, tobacco, barbers, sewing machines, toiletries and shaving products, tobacco, undertakers and patent medicine; (2) images of women, children, pets, and flowers; (3) greeting cards celebrating Christmas, birthdays, Halloween, and St. Patrick's Day; and (4) postcards from the United States and around the world. Some of the items in the scrapbooks are comical or picturesque. Most of the scrapbooks were created by women. Also included are several twentieth century diaries, including two travel diaries written by women.
Arrangement:
1 series. Unarranged.
Provenance:
Transfer.,1997/09/19.,1997.3004.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Shaving  Search this
Travel  Search this
Women -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women -- History -- 19th century  Search this
Wit and humor  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Lighthouses  Search this
Barbering  Search this
Greeting cards -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Trade cards
Diaries -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Advertising cards
Postcards
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Citation:
Archives Center Scrapbook Collection, ca. 1880- ca. 1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0468
See more items in:
Archives Center Scrapbook Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0468
Online Media:

William Currie Photograph Album

Creator:
Currie, William  Search this
Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.66 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Kentucky
Panama
Louisville (Ky.)
Date:
1904-1912
Summary:
William Currie was a civil engineer and photographer who worked during the early twentieth century. The photograph album documents irrigation systems in the western United States, sewage systems in Louisville, Kentucky, and work on the Panama Canal.
Scope and Contents:
The album consists of photographs created and collected by civil engineer William Currie. The photographs document three projects from the first decade of twentieth century. The first project is the construction of irrigation systems in the Far West dating approximately from 1904-1907. There are also photographs from a project documenting a sewage system for Louisville, Kentucky in 1909-1910. Lastly, there are photographs of the Panama Canal dating from 1911-1912.

Box one contains forty eight loose photographs from the album and album pages documenting work on irrigation systems in the western United States. Box two includes additional irrigation project photographs and album pages from work on a sewage system in Louisville, Kentucky and work on the Panama Canal. The order created by the donor has been maintained.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The albums were created by William Currie, a civil engineer, but no other information is known about Currie or the acquisition of the collection.
Related Materials:
W. P. Stine Panama Canal Papers, A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Albums, Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook.
Provenance:
The collection was purchased by the National Museum of American History's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, now known as the Museum's Division of Work and Industry in 1980.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ranches  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Irrigation  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Citation:
William Currie Photograph Album, 1904-1912, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1043
See more items in:
William Currie Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1043

W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers

Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Stine, W.P.  Search this
LaBrose, Susan Stine  Search this
Former owner:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letterpress copybooks
Place:
Panama
Panama Canal (Panama)
Date:
1904-1911.
Summary:
W. P. Stine was an engineer involved in the building of the Panama Canal. He also worked on road building projects in Panama. The collection consists of blueprints, letters, and a letterpress book pertaining to the Panama Canal.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of bound letters and documents dated 1905-1909, a blueprint plan of Santiago dated June 10, 1911, a postcard, and several miscellaneous letters and documents pertaining to Walter Stine's involvement in the completion of the Panama Canal. It also includes a copy of the Commission's standard contract. The loose papers were found stashed in the front of the letterpress book. The letterpress book and several documents are written in Spanish; the ink is fading and bleeding, which has caused some of the fragile pages to disintegrate.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Panama Canal Papers, 1904-1911
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in Grand Haven, Michigan on April 2, 1883, Walter Pearce Stine graduated from the University of Michigan in 1904 as an engineer. Upon graduation, he and several classmates traveled south to Panama to help the Canal Commission construct the Panama Canal. He directed the building of a network of roads along Panama's Pacific coast and later became Panama's Director of Public Works. Upon his return to the United States, Stine joined Gulf Oil Corporation and retired to Beaumont, Texas. He was prominent in professional engineering societies, including the Texas Society of Professional Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers. He passed away on January 23, 1957 after a brief illness.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.0708)

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album (NMAH.AC.1040)

A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.1015)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Susan Stine LaBrose in 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Materials in poor condition. Consult staff prior to handling.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Roads -- Panama  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Blueprints -- 1900-1950
Letterpress copybooks -- 20th century
Citation:
W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers, 1904-1911, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1039
See more items in:
W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1039

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Kingsford, Katherine  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Panama
Date:
circa 1904-1914
Summary:
An album of photographs of Panama and the Panama Canal, circa 1904-1914.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of a disbound album of photographs relating to the Panama Canal, including a few construction scenes, vessels traveling through the Canal, urban and rural street scenes, housing, hospital scenes, historic buildings, and people. The three inch by three inch photographic prints are mounted on black album paper and most are badly faded and unidentified. Most of the photographs are informal and have the feel of snapshots taken by an amateur photographer. There are a few larger format photographs. Also included is the Official Handbook of the Panama Council, 1913.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photograph Album, circa 1904-1914
Biographical / Historical:
On November 18, 1903, the United States and Panama negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the United States. permission to construct a canal that would join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Construction for the Panama Canal began on May 4, 1904. The large workforce -- at its highest population in 1913 it numbered 44,733 men, not including those sick, on leave, or otherwise absent -- had a great impact on Panama. As there were not enough amenities to accommodate them when they arrived, the workers built entire communities, paved streets, improved communication systems, and installed water and sewage systems. Likewise, the railroad was improved for more efficient transportation of supplies, labor, food, and equipment. Much to the credit of Chief Sanitary Officer Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, yellow fever was completely eradicated on the isthmus and malaria cases greatly reduced. Native villages and towns along the planned construction route were required to relocate.

The first self-propelled, ocean-bound vessel traveled on the canal on January 7, 1914, and the canal was formally opened in August of that year. The Panama Canal construction project was the most expensive construction project in United States history to that date, costing $375,000,000.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William Currie Photograph Album (AC1043)

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook (AC0708)

Roland A. McCrady Photograph Collection (AC0710)

Robert Dearborn Panama Canal Photonegatives (AC1111)

W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album (AC1021)

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection (AC0143)

W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (AC1039)
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now Division of Work and Industry) by Katherine Kingsford in1982. It was transferred to the Archives Center in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1040
See more items in:
Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1040

Charles Edwards Wood Panama Canal Photograph Album

Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Photographer:
Wood, Charles Edwards, 1876-1954  Search this
Donor:
Wood, Charles E., Jr.  Search this
Wood, Charles E., Jr.  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Place:
Colon (Panama)
Canal Zone
Gatun Dam (Panama)
Gatun Locks, Canal Zone, Panama
Panama
Panama Canal (Panama)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
An album of photographs taken during the construction of the Panama Canal. Subjects of the photographs include the earliest digging, tree removal, mosquito control, locks, equipment, Wood's family, a fire in Colon that occurred during the building of the Canal, and the first boats to use the Canal. Photographs include images of the Gatun Dam and locks, and the Atlantic side of the Isthmus.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Wood was an electrical engineer who learned his trade entirely on the job. He had worked on railway electrification prior to his work on the Panama Canal.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum's Division of Engineering and Industry (now called the Division of Work and Industry) in 1987 by Wood's son Charles E. Wood Jr.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Canal construction workers  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Dams -- Panama  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Charles Edwards Wood Panama Canal Photograph Album, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1114
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1114
Online Media:

Gilberto Ocana Oral History Interview, 1989

Interviewee:
Ocana, Gilberto 1931-2004  Search this
Subject:
Ocana, Gilberto 1931-2004  Search this
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute  Search this
Universidad de Panamá  Search this
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Barro Colorado Island  Search this
Ecole nationale d'agriculture d'Alger  Search this
Servicio Interamericano de Cooperación Agrícola en Panamá  Search this
Interviewer:
Henson, Pamela M  Search this
Physical description:
2 audiotapes (Reference copies)
Type:
Audiotapes
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Place:
Barro Colorado Island (Panama)
Barro Colorado Nature Monument (Panama)
Panama
Date:
1989
Topic:
Conservation of natural resources  Search this
Tropical biology  Search this
Agronomy  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Sustainable agriculture  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU009576
Restrictions & Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_217744

Oscar Dean Kidd Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Kidd, Oscar Dean, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
3 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Panama
Jamaica
Date:
1987, 1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Kidd was interviewed for the Smithsonian Institution Archives Oral History Collection because of his long tenure of service at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama.
Descriptive Entry:
This collection consists of a 1990 interview of Kidd by Pamela M. Henson of Smithsonian Institution Archives, and Patricia Escobar Paramo and Elizabeth Stockwell of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, that covers his youth, work as a chauffeur and motorboat operator, and reminiscences of Barro Colorado Island and the scientists working there. A second interview of Kidd by Mitchell Aide and Carolien Haverkate of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 1987 was also donated to the collection. The collection consists of 2.5 hours of audiotape recordings and 27 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
Oscar Dean Kidd (1907- ) was born in Jamaica and migrated to Panama in 1909. He grew up in the Panama Canal Zone, eventually settling down in Frijoles, the train station used by scientists visiting Barro Colorado Island (BCI). The BCI Research Station was created in 1923 as a preserve for the study of tropical biology. In 1946, this Canal Zone Biological Area (CZBA) was transferred to the Smithsonian and in 1966 was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI). As a motorboat operator, Kidd became acquainted with scientists visiting BCI, especially CZBA Director James Zetek.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission.
Topic:
Tropical biology  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Motorboats  Search this
Scientists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9574, Oscar Dean Kidd Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9574
See more items in:
Oscar Dean Kidd Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9574

Hale G. Smith photographs of archeological excavations

Creator:
Smith, Hale G.  Search this
Extent:
103 Prints (silver gelatin)
128 Negatives (acetate)
133 Negatives (acetate, 35 mm)
34 Copy negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Negatives
Copy negatives
Place:
Illinois -- Antiquities
Michigan -- Antiquities
Indiana -- Antiquities
Panama -- Antiquities
Haiti -- Antiquities
Cuba -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1937-1953
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Hale G. Smith documenting archeological excavations in the United States, Cuba, Haiti, the Canal Zone, and Panama. Included are images of archeological excavations, filming equipment, Smith's friends and fellow archeologists, maps, skeletal remains and burials, carved pictoglyphs, pottery, projectile points, tools, shells, field camps, aerial views of Haiti, basket making in Panama, and copies of photographs published in "The First Floridians," sent to Smith by Robert Brown.
Biographical/Historical note:
Hale G. Smith founded the Department of Anthropology at Florida State University and was one of the first Spanish colonial historical archaeologists in the Southeast.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 87-30
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Burial  Search this
Archaeologists  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 87-30, Hale G. Smith photographs of archeological excavations, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.87-30
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-87-30

Marshall Saville photograph collection

Creator:
Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Saville, Foster H. (Foster Harmon), 1874-1942  Search this
Extent:
526 Negatives (photographic) (526 glass plate negatives, black and white)
51 Photographic prints (black and white)
2 Lantern slides (black and white, color)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Place:
Honduras -- Archeology
Sigsig (Ecuador : Canton)
Jamaica -- Archeology
Costa Rica -- Archeology
East Hampton (N.Y.)
Cuba -- archeology
Belize
Mexico -- Archeology
Guatemala
Colombia
Panama -- archeology
Date:
1901-1922
bulk 1907-1918
Summary:
Photographs and glass plate negatives documenting the various archaeological expeditions of all three Savilles. The bulk of the images concern the activities headed by Marshall Saville (and assisted by Foster and Randolph) in both South and Central America. Included to a lesser degree are the explorations of Foster in North America and Randolph in the Caribbean, South and Central America. Images document archaeological digs, their settings, the peoples encountered, as well as the objects found. The dates of the images found in this collection and taken by the various Savilles during their numerous expeditions are as follows (the photographer(s) attributed to photographs taken during a specific expedition is/are listed in parentheses following the country of the specific expedition) : 1891: Honduras (Marshall), 1900-1902: Mexico (Marshall), 1907: Cuba (Marshall), 1907: Ecuador (Marshall, Foster, Randolph), 1915: Honduras (Marshall), 1915: Cuba, Jamaica, Belize, Honduras, Guatemala (Randolph), 1914-1916: Ecuador, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Jamaica (Marshall, Foster, Randolph), 1918: Pantigo site, Easthampton, Long Island, New York (Foster), 1922: Photographic portrait of Marshall
Arrangement note:
negatives: organized in boxes; arranged numerically by image number

prints: organized in folders; arranged numerically by image number
Biographical/Historical note:
American archaeologist Marshall H. Saville (1867-1935), after having studied anthropology at Harvard, began his work in Mesoamerica and Central America under the auspice of the Peabody and its director and his mentor, Frederic W. Putnam, who acted concurrently as the director of the American Museum of Natural History. He became the first curator of the Mexican and Central American Archaeology at the American Museum of Natural History. He started conducting archaeological excavations and fieldwork in Mitla, Xoxocotlán, Monte Albán (Oaxaca); Xochicalco, (Morelos) in Mexico from 1897 to 1904, excavating at sites such as Xoxocotlán in the Mexican state of Oaxaca and at the San Lorenzo Olmec site. He made substantive contributions to the knowledge regarding Aztec, Maya and Olmec cultures. In 1903, Saville joined the faculty at Columbia University for which he worked until his retirement in 1932. With the patronage and participation of George G. Heye, he headed various digs in Ecuador starting in 1907, focusing particularly on cultures in the Manabi and Sigsig provinces. Among those accompanying him in this investigation in Ecuador were George G. Pepper of the Museum of the American Indian in New York, his brother Foster H. Saville (1874-1942), whose personal work concentrated on the North American Woodlands cultures of Long Island (Pantigo) and the Northeast Coast (Connecticut and Rhode Island). His son Randolph M.(H.?) Saville also accompanied them. From 1915-1918, Marshall (and Randolph) explored and excavated in Central America (Panama, Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala), Cuba and in South America (Ecuador, Colombia). Both Marshall (1918-1932) and Foster Saville were eventually employed as MAI staff.
Restrictions:
Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection
Topic:
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Woodland Indians  Search this
Manta Indians  Search this
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.037
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-037

W. A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album

Creator:
Hunt, Mary Alice Minear  Search this
Hunt, George Laird  Search this
Fishbaugh, William Arthur  Search this
Minear, A. Bruce  Search this
Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Panama -- 1900-1910
Date:
1905-1908.
Summary:
Photograph album of commercially-produced photographs of Panama Canal construction.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of a photograph album of one hyndred commercially produced views of Panama Canal construction. Also included are some views of life in the Canal Zone, including hospitals, villages, street scenes, jungles, cemeteries, animal life, and bullfights. The album was assembled by A. Bruce Minear, who was sent to Panama by President Theodore Roosevelt to develop the YMCA for the men working on the canal. Most photographs are captioned.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photograph Album, 1905-1907
Historical:
On November 18, 1903, the United States and Panama negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the United States permission to construct a canal that would join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Construction for the Panama Canal began on May 4, 1904. The large workforce (at its highest population in 1913 it numbered 44,733 men, not including those sick, on leave, or otherwise absent) had a great impact on Panama. As there were not enough amenities to accommodate them when they arrived, they built entire communities, paved streets, improved communication systems, and installed water and sewage systems. Likewise, the railroad was improved for more efficient transportation of supplies, labor, food, and equipment. Much to the credit of Chief Sanitary Officer Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, yellow fever was completely eradicated on the Isthmus and malaria cases greatly reduced. Native villages and towns along the planned construction route were required to relocate.

The first self-propelled, ocean-bound vessel traveled on the canal on January 7, 1914, and the canal was formally opened in August of that year. The Panama Canal construction project was the most expensive construction project in United States history to that date, costing $375,000,000.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

W. P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (NMAH.AC.1039)

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.0708)

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album (NMAH.AC.1040)

A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.1015)
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of the History of Science and Technology, Engineering and Industry Collections by Mary Alice Minear Hunt and George Laird Hunt, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Villages -- Panama  Search this
Streets -- Panama  Search this
Hospitals -- Panama  Search this
Jungles -- Panama  Search this
Animals -- Panama  Search this
Bullfights  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Cemeteries -- Panama  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album, 1905-1908, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1021
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1021
Online Media:

Robert K. Enders Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Enders, Robert K. (Robert Kendall), 1899-1988, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
2 audiotapes (Reference tapes).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Panama
Date:
1976
Introduction:
The Oral History Project is part of the Smithsonian Institution Archives. The purpose of the project is to conduct and collect interviews with current and retired members of the Smithsonian staff who have made significant contributions, administrative and scholarly, to the Institution. The project's goal is to supplement the published record and manuscript collections in the Archives, focusing on the history of the Institution and contributions to the increase and diffusion of knowledge made by its scholars.

The Robert Kendall Enders interviews were recorded and donated to Smithsonian Institution Archives because of his experiences in Panama during the early development of the research station. Additional information about the Canal Zone Biological Area can be found in the Records Relating to the Canal Zone Biological Area, Office of the Secretary, 1912-1965, and the Canal Zone Biological Area Records, 1918-1964, also housed in the Smithsonian Archives. The Oral History Collection also contains several other sets of interviews on the history of the research station.
Descriptive Entry:
The Robert Kendall Enders Interview was conducted by Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute research biologist, Neal Griffith Smith, on April 13, 1976. He discusses his introduction to Barro Colorado Island; his subsequent research trips there; recollections of fellow scientists and staff on the island; comparisons between the island then and now; and suggestions on how to improve the island for research purposes. The interviews consist of 2.0 hours of audiotape cassettes and 56 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
Robert Kendall Enders (1899-1988) was born on September 22, 1899, in Essex, Iowa. After receiving his A.B. and Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Michigan in 1925 and 1927 respectively, he became an Assistant Professor of Biology at Union College. In 1928, he became an Assistant Professor at Missouri Valley College, and in 1932 was promoted to full Professor. In 1966, he also became Emeritus Professor of Zoology at Swarthmore College. He retired from Missouri Valley College in 1970.

Enders was encouraged by Harvard biologist Thomas Barbour to visit Barro Colorado Island (BCI). He applied for a National Research Council Fellowship for funding and in 1930 arrived on the island. In 1935 and 1937, he returned, and in 1941, he visited BCI again as a Research Fellow of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. While conducting his research in mammalogy on BCI, he observed the development of the research station. As a Professor, he continued his visits to Panama, bringing students to the Canal Zone Biological Area on working field trips.

The Canal Zone Biological Area (CZBA) was established in 1923 on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal as a reserve for scientific study of the Tropics. Originally designed as a consortium of universities and government agencies by Thomas Barbour, William Morton Wheeler, James Zetek, and others, CZBA was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1946 and in 1966 was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI).
Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission.
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Tropical biology  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9562, Robert K. Enders Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9562
See more items in:
Robert K. Enders Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9562

George C. Wheeler Oral History Interviews

Topic:
The Ants of North Dakota (Monograph : 1963)
The Ants of Deep Canyopn (Monograph : 1973)
The Ants of Nevada (Monograph : 1986)
Creator::
Wheeler, George C. (George Carlos), 1897-1991, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
1 audiotape (Reference copies). 2 digital .mp3 files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Panama
Date:
1989
Introduction:
The Oral History Project is part of the Smithsonian Institution Archives. The purpose of the project is to conduct interviews with current and retired members of the Smithsonian staff who have made significant contributions, administrative and scholarly, to the Institution. The project's goal is to supplement the published record and manuscript collections in the Archives, focusing on the history of the Institution and contributions to the increase and diffusion of knowledge made by its scholars.

Wheeler was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his early visit to Barro Colorado Island shortly after creation of the research station and his friendship with many of the scientists who worked there. Additional information about the Canal Zone Biological Area can be found in the Records Relating to the Canal Zone Biological Area, Office of the Secretary, 1912-1965, and the Canal Zone Biological Area, Records, 1918-1964, also housed in Smithsonian Archives. The Oral History Project also has other audio and videotaped interviews on the history of the research station.
Descriptive Entry:
The George Carlos Wheeler Interview was conducted for Smithsonian Archives on June 7, 1989 by Joel B. Hagen, a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow, as part of his research on the history of the Canal Zone Biological Area. The interview discusses Wheeler's education at the Rice Institute and Bussey Institution of Harvard University and his career as a professor of biology at the University of North Dakota, but focuses on his visit to the CZBA in 1924, shortly after it was founded. Wheeler reminisces about Barro Colorado Island and its denizens, including Nathan Banks, Graham Bell Fairchild, William Morton Wheeler, and James Zetek, and reads from his journal of his visit to the island. The interview consists of 1.0 hour of tape and 17 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
George Carlos Wheeler (1897-1991) was an entomologist specializing in the morphology and taxonomy of ants, especially ant larvae. He received the A.B. from the William M. Rice Institute in Texas in 1918, working under Julian Sorell Huxley and Hermann J. Muller. He continued his education at the Bussey Institution of Harvard University, studying entomology under William Morton Wheeler and Charles Thomas Brues. He received the M.S. in 1920 and the Ph.D. in 1921. From 1921 to 1926 he was an instructor and Assistant Professor of zoology at Syracuse University. In 1926, he joined the faculty of the University of North Dakota and remained there for the rest of his career, as Professor of biology from 1926 to 1965, Head of the Department of Biology from 1926 to 1963, and University Professor from 1965 to 1967. After his retirement in 1967, he was appointed University Emeritus Professor of Biology of the University of North Dakota, as well as a Research Associate of the Desert Research Institute of the University of Nevada.

Wheeler was encouraged to visit the Tropics by his advisor, William Morton Wheeler. Thus he spent the summer of 1924 studying ants at the Barro Colorado Island research station in the Panama Canal. During his long career, Wheeler concentrated his research on the morphology and taxonomy of ant larvae and on the ants of North Dakota and the desert. With his wife, Jeanette Norris Wheeler, he published numerous descriptions and monographs, including The Ants of North Dakota in 1963, The Ants of Deep Canyon in 1973, and The Ants of Nevada in 1986.

The Canal Zone Biological Area (CZBA) was established in 1923 on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal as a reserve for scientific study of the tropics. Originally designed as a consortium of universities and government agencies by Thomas Barbour, William Morton Wheeler, James Zetek, and others, CZBA was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1946 and in 1966 was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
Topic:
Entomologists  Search this
Ants  Search this
Entomology  Search this
Tropical biology  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9560, George C. Wheeler Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9560
See more items in:
George C. Wheeler Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9560

G. B. Fairchild Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Fairchild, G. B. (Graham Bell), interviewee  Search this
Extent:
2 audiotapes (Reference copies). 3 digital .mp3 files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Barro Colorado Island (Panama)
Panama
Brazil
Date:
1989
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Graham Bell Fairchild was interviewed for the Oral History Collection by Hagen because of his involvement with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in its early years.
Descriptive Entry:
The Graham Bell Fairchild Interview was conducted for the Smithsonian Archives on June 7, 1989 by Joel B. Hagen, a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow, as part of his research on the history of the Canal Zone Biological Area. This interview discusses Fairchild's reminiscences of CZBA and the scientists involved in its development, notably James Zetek, William Morton Wheeler, and Thomas Barbour; his father's interests in the tropics; the development of STRI under Smithsonian administration; the biology faculty at Harvard and the MCZ; and his career in medical entomology.
Historical Note:
Graham Bell Fairchild (1906-1994), was born in Washington, D.C. In his youth, Fairchild was introduced to tropical biology while visiting Barro Colorado Island (BCI) research station of the Canal Zone Biological Area (CZBA) with his father, David Grandison Fairchild. He received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in entomology from Harvard University where he studied under William Morton Wheeler, Joseph Charles Bequaert, and Thomas Barbour. Before and during his years at Harvard he also worked at the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) studying the collections.

Fairchild began his career as an entomologist stationed in Brazil with the Yellow Fever Commission of the Rockefeller Foundation, from 1935 to 1937. From 1938 to 1971, he worked as an Entomologist at Gorgas Memorial Laboratory in Panama City, Panama, and from 1958 to 1971 he served as Assistant Director. At Gorgas his research focused on the taxonomy of medically important insects, especially Tabanidae and Psychodidae. During his years in Panama, he observed the development of the BCI research station from a small university consortium to Smithsonian aegis as the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI).

The Canal Zone Biological Area was established in 1923 on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal as a reserve for scientific study of the tropics. Originally designed as a consortium of universities and government agencies by Thomas Barbour, William Morton Wheeler, James Zetek, and others, CZBA was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1946 and in 1966 was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Entomology  Search this
Tropical biology  Search this
Insects as carriers of disease  Search this
Psychodidae  Search this
Horseflies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9559, G. B. Fairchild Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9559
See more items in:
G. B. Fairchild Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9559

Fausto Bocanegra Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Bocanegra, Fausto, 1926- , interviewee  Search this
Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Panama
Buenavista (Boyacá, Colombia)
Date:
1988
Introduction:
The Oral History Project is part of the Smithsonian Institution Archives. The purpose of the project is to conduct and collect interviews with current and retired members of the Smithsonian staff who have made significant contributions, administrative and scholarly, to the Institution. The project's goal is to supplement the published record and manuscript collections in the Archives, focusing on the history of the Institution and contributions to the increase and diffusion of knowledge made by its scholars.

The Bocanegra interviews were added to the Oral History Collection because of their rich documentation of Barro Colorado Island and the people who lived and worked there. Additional information about the Canal Zone Biological Area can be found in the Records relating to the Canal Zone Biological Area, Office of the Secretary, 1912-1965, and the Canal Zone Biological Area, Records, 1918-1964, which are also housed in Smithsonian Archives. The Oral History Collection also contains several other sets of interviews on the history of the research station.
Descriptive Entry:
The Fausto Bocanegra Interviews were conducted in August of 1988 by Giselle Mora. The original transcript is in Spanish. An English translation was also prepared by Maureen Fern with comments by George Angehr, Jorge Ventocilla, and Georgina De Alba. The interviews discuss Bocanegra's youth, over thirty years work on BCI, and reminiscences of fellow workers and scientists such as Martin Humphrey Moynihan, Oscar Dean Kidd, Carl B. Koford, James Zetek, Adela Gomez, and Francisco Vitola, c. 1952-1988. There are 75 pages of Spanish transcript and 89 pages of English translation.

The interviewer, Giselle Mora provided the following introduction to the interviews: History is made by men and historical events have diverse protagonists. Historic events and circumstances are lived out in different ways by the different groups mentioned, and it's common that the history that is printed and recorded represents only one part of the historical process under consideration. It is also common that the voices of the most humble and their vision of history are those that are ignored or actively silenced. This manuscript attempts to contribute in part to the recognition of the role the workers of "el monte" or "the bush"--to use the words of Bocanegra--have had in the establishment, growth and consolidation of the biological station on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which today is one of the most important centers of investigation in natural sciences in the tropics.

These transcripts record the words of Fausto Bocanegra one week before his retirement and present, in general, his version of life on the island and changes that occurred on it between 1952 and 1988. All of the interviews were carried out on the balcony of a bedroom at the station, where Bocanegra and I shared many cups of coffee. Fausto Bocanegra--"Boca" like we all call him--dedicated thirty-eight years of work to Barro Colorado Island and carried out every task imaginable: game-keeper, guide, research assistant, electrician, sailor, carpenter, and retired as a trash collector. For those of us who lived on the island, Boca was an institution unto himself. But Boca was, first and foremost, a trustworthy man, a diligent worker, and a generous friend.

The final manuscript is the result of six hours of taped interviews and the reader should always take into account that what he is reading is a transcription of the spoken word. I decided to leave intact colloquial language, incorporating sounds and casual expressions; nevertheless, the text has been edited to eliminate contractions and phonetic errors that make reading difficult. The interviews were very slightly structured, and I am conscious of the fact that they do not clearly record the richness of Boca's knowledge; nevertheless, the reader will find in these pages accounts of island life at the end of the fifties, information about life in the Canal Zone during that era, and perhaps most importantly will be able to know a little about Bocanegra and how he evaluated his thirty-eight years of service on Barro Colorado Island.

The realization of these interviews has been a privilege and a pleasure for me. I want to thank Mr. Fausto Bocanegra for having shared with me these and many other pleasant conversations. My thanks also to Dr. Joseph Wright who has supported and been a driving force behind this project since its beginning. Giselle Mora, Barro Colorado Island, October 24, 1988.
Historical Note:
Fausto Bocanegra (1926- ), mechanical assistant, carpenter, guide, patrol, general laborer, and animal caretaker, worked on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) from the early 1950s to 1988. Born on November 6, 1926 in Buenaventura, Colombia, Bocanegra arrived on BCI on October 7, 1952 at the age of twenty-six. He first came to the island as a temporary construction worker, building the new laboratory building. Due to his excellent work he was requested back by the foreman, Francisco "Chi Chi" Vitola.

Over the years, Bocanegra's versatility served him well. He became the principal caretaker for director Martin Humphrey Moynihan's large collection of monkeys and other animals. He also served as a very knowledgeable guide to the island, not only for visitors but for scientists who wished to study the flora and fauna of the area. As a member of an unarmed anti-poacher patrol, Bocanegra captured poachers in a number of instances. In addition, he operated the launches carrying messages and transporting materials and visitors between Frijoles Station and the Island, cleared trails for general use, and attended to general maintenance of the Island. Bocanegra retired in 1988 after thirty-seven years on Barro Colorado Island.

The Canal Zone Biological Area (CZBA) was established in 1923 on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal as a reserve for scientific study of the tropics. Originally designed as a consortium of universities and government agencies by Thomas Barbour, William Morton Wheeler, James Zetek, and others, CZBA was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1946 and in 1966 was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI).
Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission.
Topic:
Tropical biology  Search this
Zoology  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Hispanic Americans -- History  Search this
Monkeys  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9561, Fausto Bocanegra Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9561
See more items in:
Fausto Bocanegra Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9561

Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection

Extent:
13 videotapes (Reference copies). 39 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Barro Colorado Island (Panama)
Panama
Date:
1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Pamela M. Henson, Historian for the Smithsonian Institution Archives, conducted videotaped interviews with scientists and researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama and the National Zoological Park (NZP) at its Washington, D.C. park, and Conservation and Research Center (CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia, to document two of the Institution's endangered species programs.

This collection consists of thirteen interview sessions, separated into two collection divisions, totaling approximately 13:10 hours of recordings and 225 pages of transcript. There is also a supplementary set of interview sessions, comprised of 4:00 hours of recordings. There is no transcription for these supplemental sessions.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Participants from STRI included researchers who employed a variety of approaches to the study and preservation of tropical biosystems. John H. Christy received his B.S. in biology from Lewis and Clark College in 1970, and his Ph.D. in population ecology and animal behavior from Cornell University in 1980. From 1978 to 1983 he served both as a research assistant and assistant professor at the University of South Carolina. He came to STRI in 1983 as a visiting research scholar and remained as a researcher until 1987, when he assumed the position of biologist. In 1988, he was appointed assistant director for marine research. At STRI, he focused his research on the reproductive behavior of crabs.

After receiving his B.S. in biochemistry and zoology in 1972 from the James Cook University of North Queensland (JCUNQ), Australia, Norman C. Duke worked as a technical officer for the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Branch. From 1974 to 1989 he worked with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, first as a technical officer and later as an experimental scientist, overseeing the design and implementation of studies about mangrove plants. During this time he completed his M.S. and Ph.D. in botany at JCUNQ, in 1984 and 1988 respectively. In 1989, he accepted the position of mangrove ecologist for STRI's Oil Spill Project to study the effects of recent oil spills on Panamanian mangrove forests.

Robin Foster became a biologist with STRI in 1978, and also held concurrent positions as senior ecologist at Conservation International and research associate in the Department of Botany at the Field Museum of Natural History. He was awarded his B.A. in biology from Dartmouth College in 1966, and his Ph.D. in botany from Duke University in 1974. From 1972-1980 he served as an Assistant Professor of biology at University of Chicago. In 1980, with Stephen Hubbell, Foster embarked on a long term study of forest dynamics on a fifty-hectare plot on BCI.

After receiving a B.S. in biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1970 and a Ph.D. in ecology from The Johns Hopkins University in 1976, Brian D. Keller served as a Research Oceanographer for the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from 1976 to 1979. From 1980 to 1984 he was a Postdoctoral Associate in the Department of Biology at Yale University. In 1984 he accepted the position of acting head of the Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, and served as Assistant Head from 1985 to 1986. In 1987, Keller joined STRI as project manager for the Oil Spill Project.

Gilberto Ocana joined STRI in 1980 as Superintendent of the Barro Colorado Nature Monument. He was awarded his B.S. from the Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture in Alger, Algeria, in 1955, and a Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of California, Riverside, in 1967. Prior to his STRI appointment, he was a Professor of plant pathology in the Department of Agronomy at the University of Panama. At STRI, he began an experimental farm to develop alternatives to cattle ranching and slash and burn agriculture.

A. Stanley Rand received his B.A. from De Pauw University in 1955 and his Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University in 1961. He served as Assistant Herpetologist at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard from 1961 to 1962, and as zoologist for the Secretary of Agriculture, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1962 to 1964. Rand came to STRI in 1964 as a herpetologist. From 1974 to 1979 he served as STRI assistant director, and was appointed senior biologist in 1979. His interest in the behavior and ecology of reptiles and amphibians led to pioneering studies of frog communications.

After receiving a B.S. from Queens College in 1959, and a M.A. and Ph.D. in biology from Harvard in 1961 and 1963, respectively, in 1965 Ira Rubinoff served as Assistant to the Curator of ichthyology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Rubinoff arrived at STRI in 1965 to assume the positions of Biologist and Assistant Director for marine biology. He was appointed Director of STRI in 1973. His research interests include sea snakes, the biological implications of interoceanic canal construction, zoogeography of the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and preservation of tropical forests.

Alan P. Smith was awarded his B.A. from Earlham College in 1967, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Duke University in 1970 and 1974, respectively. He joined STRI in 1974 as a staff scientist. Concurrently, from 1974 to 1981, he served as an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1981 to 1988 he served in the same position at the University of Miami. In 1988, while continuing to serve as an adjunct professor of biology at the University of Miami, he assumed the position of Assistant Director for terrestrial research at STRI. Interested in the dynamics of tropical forests, Smith introduced the use of crane towers to study the forest canopy.

Nicholas D. Smythe joined STRI in 1970 as a biologist to study tropical mammals. He received his B.A. from University of British Columbia in 1963 and his Ph.D. from University of Maryland in 1970. His research at STRI focused on the paca and peccary, animals that are widely distributed in Latin America. In 1983, with a grant from the W. Alton Jones Foundation, Smythe began investigating the behavior and physiology of pacas in captivity with a view toward domesticating them to provide an alternative to cattle grazing.

In 1975, after receiving his Ph.D. in neurobiology and animal behavior from Cornell University in 1972, Donald M. Windsor joined STRI as a computer programmer and data analyst for the Environmental Monitoring Program. In 1990, he was appointed research biologist and coordinator of the Environmental Sciences Program. He has conducted extensive research on the ecological and genetic factors influencing the reproductive success of the wasp.

Rolando Perez, Dilia Santamaria, and Eduardo Sierra, students from the University of Panama, Hamilton W. Beltran Santiago and Ernesto Yallico, students from Peru, Zenith O. Batista, coordinator of the Tropical Forest Dynamics Project, Kaoru Kitajima Okada, STRI predoctoral fellow, Kevin P. Hogan, STRI visiting scientist, and Mirna Samaniego, a graduate in forestry from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, demonstrated scientific techniques used to study tropical plants. Todd Underwood, a student, demonstrated procedures for crab behavioral studies. Elias Gonzales, a Panamanian farmer participating in the experimental farm program, Arturo Cerezo, a faculty member from the School of Agriculture at the University of Panama, and Juvencio Trujillo, an agricultural assistant, showed how the Las Pavas experimental program actually operated.

National Zoological Park and Conservation and Research Center

Interviews conducted at both the NZP and CRC included staff members who participated in various programs to ensure species survival. Larry R. Collins received his B.A. in biology from Columbia Union College in 1965 and his M.S. in zoology from University of Maryland in 1973. He began his tenure with the NZP in 1967 as an animal keeper in the Scientific Research Division, and was appointed Supervisory Zoologist in that division in 1969. In 1972 he became Assistant Curator of the Department of Living Vertebrates at NZP, and from 1973 to 1975 he served as the Associate Curator for the Office of Animal Management. In 1975, Collins was appointed Mammal Curator at CRC.

Scott R. Derrickson completed his B.A. in biology in 1970 from Gettysburg College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in ecology and behavioral biology from University of Minnesota in 1975 and 1977, respectively. In 1977, he began work as a Research Behaviorist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and continued there until he was appointed Assistant Curator of ornithology at CRC in 1984. Later that same year, he was appointed Curator of ornithology. Since 1987, he has held that position concurrently with the position of Deputy Associate Director for Conservation and Captive Breeding.

Theodore H. Reed received his doctorate in veterinary medicine from Kansas State College in 1945. He taught veterinary pathology there before working as Assistant State Veterinarian for Oregon from 1946 to 1948. Between 1948 and 1955 Reed maintained a private veterinary practice in Idaho and Oregon. While practicing with the Rose City Veterinary Hospital in Portland, Reed was called upon to work with the Portland Zoo's animal collection which led to his career in exotic animal studies and zoo administration. Reed was appointed as a veterinarian for NZP in 1955. He became acting director of the NZP in 1956 and director in 1958. Reed retired from the directorship position in 1983.

Linwood R. Williamson received his B.S. in wildlife management from Virginia Polytechnic and State University in 1972. He came to CRC in 1978 and began working with birds, small mammals and hoofstock, as the Biotechnician in charge of the Ungulate Research Facilities.

For additional information on Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, National Zoological Park and Conservation Research Center, see the records of each bureau and oral history interviews of STRI researchers, administrators, game wardens, and neighbors, and of NZP administrators, located at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Historical Note:
Scientific efforts to preserve endangered species have focused on either maintenance of a controlled population that ensures genetic diversity or protection of habitat that ensures viability of a population in the wild. The Smithsonian Institution has sponsored programs using both methods in the study and exhibition of the plant and animal kingdoms.

In 1923, the Institute for Research in Tropical America established a research laboratory on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal Zone to investigate the flora and fauna of tropical America. In 1946, the laboratory was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution and was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 1966. Under Smithsonian aegis, STRI developed an extensive program of terrestrial and marine research on the tropical environment and special projects to find alternatives to tropical rainforest destruction and to study the effects of oil spills on the environment. In 1979, STRI assumed responsibility for the Barro Colorado Nature Monument, an extensive nature preserve which includes BCI and several surrounding peninsulas. STRI also built research facilities in Panama City and on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

The National Zoological Park was founded in 1889 in Washington, D.C., "for the advancement of science and the instruction and recreation of the people." Under the administration of Director Theodore H. Reed, a major renovation of the park was begun in 1963. Also during the 1960s, in response to rising concerns over endangered species, the NZP established a research department to study exotic animal physiology and behavior. In 1975, a separate facility for research, and animal breeding and rearing was established at Front Royal, Virginia, allowing the NZP to become an important part of the international Species Survival Program.
Topic:
Tropical biology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Ecology  Search this
Zoos  Search this
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Invertebrate zoology  Search this
Herpetology  Search this
Conservation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9553, Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9553
See more items in:
Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9553

Ernest Roblin photograph of execution of Pedro Prestán

Creator:
Roblin, Ernest  Search this
Names:
Photographie Parisienne, photography studio  Search this
Prestán, Pedro, 1852-1885  Search this
Collector:
Appleton, Nathan, 1843-1906  Search this
Extent:
1 Mounted print (albumen)
Culture:
Panamanians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Photographs
Place:
Panama
Colon (Panama)
Date:
1885
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph depicting Pedro Prestán hanging from gallows on railway tracks, with an open coffin and five men standing nearby and others in the background. Prestán was hung in Apsinwall, now called Colon, Panama, on August 18, 1885.
Biographical/Historical note:
Ernest Roblin joined the Societe Francaise de Photographie in 1880. Around 1885 he left Paris and opened a studio in Granville, which he called Photographie Parisienne. He changed the name in 1890 to the Photographie Maritime Castel-Photo.

Pedro Prestán was a rebel against the Colombian government. In 1885, he seized Aspinwall, Panama, including the American ship Colon and other American property. Threatened by government troops following United States intervention, the insurgents burned the city and abandoned it. Later the same year, the insurgents were captured and hanged.

Nathan Appleton was an American agent for Compagnie universelle du canal interocéanique de Panama, a French company attempting to build a canal across Panama, from 1881 through 1888. He probably obtained the photograph during this time.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81-54, USNM ACC 24212
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Library of Congress holds the Nathan Appleton papers, 1850-1904.
Appleton donated five other photographs to the Department of Anthropology in accession 24212.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Hanging  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 81-54, Ernest Roblin photograph of execution of Pedro Prestán, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81-54
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81-54

William Edwin Safford photograph albums relating to Easter Island, Samoa, and South America

Collector:
Safford, William Edwin, 1859-1926  Search this
Names:
Mohican Expedition  Search this
Photographer:
Gonsalves, J. A.  Search this
Thomson, William J. (William Judah), 1841-1909  Search this
Valdeavellano, Alberto G., 1861-1928  Search this
Extent:
3 Albums (circa 145 prints, silver gelatin)
Culture:
Samoans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Place:
Samoa
Peru
Panama
Guatemala
Ecuador
Easter Island
Chile
Date:
circa 1886-1902
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs collected by Wiliam Edwin Safford while on US Navy expeditions to Chile, Easter Island, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, and Samoa. They depict Indigenous peoples and activities, towns, scenic views, and the crew of the USS Mohican and members of the US Navy. There are also photographs of Guatemala made by Alberto. G. Valdeavellano and J. A. Gonsalves. The Easter Island photographs were possibly made by William J. Thomson, paymaster on the Mohican.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Edwin Safford (1859-1926) was a United States Naval officer from 1880-1902 who took part in Navy expeditions and collected specimens for the United States National Museum. Safford joined the crew of the USS Mohican in South America and participated in its expedition to the South Pacific (1886-1888). In 1891-1892, he commanded an ethnological expedition to Peru and Bolivia for the Chicago Columbian Expedition. He served in the Spanish American War and was vice-governor of Guam in 1899-1900. In 1902, he resigned from the Navy and took an appointment as an economic botanist with the United States Department of Agriculture.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 76-26
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of the expedition to Easter Island can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 97.
Additional photographs collected by Safford can be found in National Anthropological Archives in MS 3366.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the William Edwin Safford Papers, 1894-1925 (SIA RU007275).
Records relating to Safford's collecting expedition in South America can be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in SIA RU000189.
Safford's ethnographic data about Samoa can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 2956.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 76-26, William Edwin Safford photograph albums relating to Easter Island, Samoa, and South America, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.76-26
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-76-26

Harris M. McLaughlin photographs of the Americas and Asia

Creator:
McLaughlin, Harris M.  Search this
Photographer:
Frashers Inc.  Search this
Names:
Chapman, H  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Extent:
12 Mounted prints (albumen)
370 Prints (circa, silver gelatin (including photographic postcards))
1 Print (collotype)
5 Negative rolls (nitrate, 35 mm)
2 Positive rolls (nitrate, 35 mm)
8 Prints (photogravure)
12 Postcards (color halftone, halftone, and color collotype)
2 Color prints
1 Panoramic print (color halftone)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Cubans  Search this
Mexica (Aztec) (archaeological culture)  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Apache  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Prints
Negative rolls
Positive rolls
Postcards
Color prints
Panoramic print
Photographs
Place:
Guatemala
Cuba
Japan
Puerto Rico
Havana (Cuba)
Texas
Mexico
Honduras
San Antonio (Tex.)
China
Panama
Dominican Republic
Mérida (Mexico)
Chichén Itzá Site (Mexico)
Date:
circa 1898-1941
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made and collected by Harris M. McLaughlin during his travels in the American southwest and other parts of North and South America, as well as Asia and Europe. Photographs made in Texas include images of the 1928 American Legion National Convention, the dirigible "Los Angeles" floating over San Antonio, the first train in Rio Grande City, cowboys and ranchers, missions, and city and scenic views. McLaughlin also took photographs at the Grand Canyon, Canyon del Muerto, Bryce Canyon, and Zion National Park, and collected Frashers Foto postcards with photographs of Apache and Navajo people, a Papago dwelling, a Pueblo potterymaker, and a Hopi Snake Dance. Photographs from Guatemala include images of villages and cities (including Antigua and Zacapa), as well as a harvest ceremony in Chichicastenango. McLaughlin also took photographs during a trip to Monterey, Mexico, which include images of towns and scenic views. Additional photographs depict flood damage in Aurora, Indiana; city views and scenery of Merida, Mexico; Chichen Itza; a banana plantation in Honduras; and wartime China and Europe.

Photographs of Cuba in 1898, probably not made by McLaughlin, include images of the USS Maine wreck, and funeral services for the sailors of the ship and residents of Havana. The collection also contains photographs of trees and a dwelling in Honduras made by H. E. Chapman in 1933, photographs of people and scenery in Sumatra made by J. H. Zimmermann, and commercial photographs of archeological collections at the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Historia y Etnografia in Mexico. There are also images of scenery and architecture in Japan, Panama and the Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Belgium, England, and other places in Europe. Depicted individuals include Charles A. Lindbergh, as well as McLaughlin and his family.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2000-04
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Frashers photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 59.
Restrictions:
Nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2000-04, Harris M. McLaughlin photographs of the Americas and Asia, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2000-04
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2000-04

Chris Gjording papers

Creator:
Gjording, Chris N., 1943-1993  Search this
Names:
Jesuits  Search this
Extent:
6.34 Linear feet (15 document boxes, 1 cassette tape, and 37 computer disks)
Culture:
Ngäbe (Guaymi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Panama
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua.
Peru
Venezuela
Date:
1966-1991
bulk 1977-1991
Summary:
The papers of Chris Gjording primarily document his research and activities in Central America, particularly his research on the Guaymíes and the Cerro Colorado copper mining project in Chiriquí, Panama. Materials pertaining to Panama include Gjording's field notes (portions of which are missing due to severe insect infestation); photographs; reference materials he collected; and his writings, which include his articles, dissertation, and drafts of his dissertation revised for publication. In addition to his work in Panama are his field notes and photographs from his research on campesino communities in Guatemala and El Salvador. Gjording also kept subject files on Latin American countries, focusing on the poor and oppressed and the social and political climate. His writings on those subjects are present in the collection and include a draft of his unpublished paper on peasant uprising in El Salvador and issues of Informacciónes, the Spanish-language newsletter that Gjording published and wrote articles for in Honduras. The collection also contains correspondence and notes relating to his visits to the Guatemalan Indian refugee camps in Los Lirios and Maya Balam in Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, the collection contains some of his correspondence with his mentor Ricardo Falla, a Guatemalan Jesuit priest and anthropologist, whom he refers to as "RF" in his notes. The collection also contains computer disks with chapters in Spanish from Falla's book on Ixcán, possibly Masacres de la selva: Ixcán, Guatemala, 1975-1982 (1992).
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Chris Gjording primarily document his research and activities in Central America, particularly his research on the Guaymíes and the Cerro Colorado copper mining project in Chiriquí, Panama. Materials pertaining to Panama include Gjording's field notes (portions of which are missing due to severe insect infestation); photographs; reference materials he collected; and his writings, which include his articles, dissertation, and drafts of his dissertation revised for publication. In addition to his work in Panama are his field notes and photographs from his research on campesino communities in Guatemala and El Salvador. Gjording also kept subject files on Latin American countries, focusing on the poor and oppressed and the social and political climate. His writings on those subjects are present in the collection and include a draft of his unpublished paper on peasant uprising in El Salvador and issues of Informacciónes, the Spanish-language newsletter that Gjording published and wrote articles for in Honduras. The collection also contains correspondence and notes relating to his visits to the Guatemalan Indian refugee camps in Los Lirios and Maya Balam in Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, the collection contains some of his correspondence with his mentor Ricardo Falla, a Guatemalan Jesuit priest and anthropologist, whom he refers to as "RF" in his notes. The collection also contains computer disks with chapters in Spanish from Falla's book on Ixcán, possibly Masacres de la selva: Ixcán, Guatemala, 1975-1982 (1992).

Additional materials in the collection are copies of Gjording's curriculum vitae; his student papers; and his college and graduate school diplomas. In addition, the collection contains a letter approving Gjording's advancement to the diaconate and priesthood and his decree of dismissal from the Society of Jesus in 1991.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 7 series: (1) Correspondence, 1985-91; (2) Panama, 1977-91; (3) Latin America, 1977-90; (4) Journals, 1977-1982, 1988-1989; (5) Personal Files, 1966-1991; (6) Photographs, 1976-89; (7) Computer Disks
Biographical Note:
Chris Gjording was an anthropologist and Jesuit priest, best known for his research on the Guaymí people of Panama and how they were affected by a transnational copper mining project on their land.

Gjording was born on January 12, 1943 in Los Angeles, California. In 1960 he entered a Jesuit seminary in Sheridan, Oregon and obtained his A.B. in philosophy from Spring Hill College in 1966. After earning his M.A. in philosophy from Tulane University (1967) and his M.Div. in theology from the Toronto School of Theology (1973), he was ordained as a Jesuit priest in Spokane, Washington. He taught philosophy and liberation theology at Gonzaga University (1973-75) before continuing his education at the New School for Social Research, where he received his M.A. (1978) and Ph.D. (1985) in social and cultural anthropology.

As both a priest and anthropologist, he felt that "field research essentially involves interpersonal relationships; and [he had] no category for engaging in such relationships with nothing in view as a potential benefit for the other." (Gjording's journal, January 11, 1978) Influenced by liberation theology, Gjording consequently focused his research on the rural poor of Central America during a period of social and political turmoil.

As a graduate student in 1977, Gjording spent the summer conducting ethnographic fieldwork among campesino communities in Chinacá, Guatemala and in Chirilagua, San Miguel, El Salvador. He returned to Central America the following year to work in Chiriquí, Panama with Centro de Estudios y Acción Social (CEASPA), a Jesuit-sponsored organization, as the anthropologist on an interdisciplinary team studying the Cerro Colorado copper mining project and its impact on Panama. Gjording's research focused on the Guaymí people, who lived on the land where the mining project was to occur. His research became the subject of his dissertation, "The Cerro Colorado Copper Project: Panama, Multinational Corporations and the Guaymi Indians." A revised version of the dissertation was published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 1991 as Conditions Not of Their Choosing: The Guaymí Indians and Mining Multinationals in Panama.

Gjording left Panama in 1982 but returned to Central America after completing his dissertation in 1985 to serve as codirector of Equipo de Reflexión, Investigación y Comunicación (E.R.I.C.), a Jesuit organization in El Progreso, Yoro, Honduras. As part of his responsibilities, he published and wrote many of the articles for Informaciones, a bimonthly newsletter in Spanish on the social, political, and economic situation in Honduras. In addition, he wrote articles for the Panamanian magazine Diálogo Social; due to the political climate in Panama, he wrote some of the articles under the pseudonym "Enrique Lobo," a name he chose in honor of the anthropologist Eric Wolf. From 1987 to 1989, he made several trips to the Guatemalan refugee camps in Quintana Roo, Mexico. He conducted informal research on the background and situation of the refugees and taught workshops that provided them guidance on whether to return to Guatemala or stay in Mexico.

Gjording returned to the United States in 1989 on a sabbatical from Central America. He left the priesthood in 1991 and obtained a position teaching anthropology and peace studies at Guilford College in Greensboro, North Carolina.

Gjording died of lung cancer on July 5, 1993 at the age of 50.

Sources Consulted

Gjording, Chris. 1978. [Daily Journal]. Chris Gjording Papers. National Anthropological Archives.

Roseberry, William. 1993. Chris N. Gjording. Anthropology Newsletter. 34(7): 44.

Chronology

1943 -- Born January 12 in Los Angeles, California

1966 -- Earns A.B. from Spring Hill College in Philosophy

1967 -- Earns M.A. from Tulane University in Philosophy

1973 -- Earns M.Div. from Toronto School of Theology Becomes an ordained Jesuit priest

1977 -- Spends summer in Central America conducting fieldwork in campesino communities in Guatemala and El Salvador

1978 -- Earns M.A. from the New School for Social Research in Anthropology

1978-1980 -- Conducts fieldwork in Chiriquí, Panama on the Guaymíes and the Cerro Colorado copper mining project

1985 -- Earns Ph.D. from the New School for Social Research in Anthropology

1985-1988 -- Codirector of E.R.I.C. (Equipo de Reflexión, Investigación y Comunicación), El Progreso, Yoro, Honduras

1989 -- Returns to United States

1991 -- Leaves priesthood Teaches Anthropology and Peace Studies at Guilford College in Greensboro, North Carolina

1993 -- Dies on July 5 at the age of 50

Selected Bibliography

1979 -- Gjording, Chris N. "Nicaragua's Unfinished Revolution," America 141 (October 6, 1979): 166-171.

1980 -- Lobo, Enrique. "La Nueva Política Indigenista (o bien: Acabemos con el Indio)," Diálogo Social 123 (May 1980): 15- 18. Lobo, Enrique. "El Pueblo Guaymí y el Gobierno Panameño (o bien: Acabemos con el Guaymí)," Diálogo Social 125 (July 1980): 22-25.

1981 -- Gjording, Chris N. The Cerro Colorado Copper Project and the Guaymí Indians of Panama. Occasional Paper No. 3. Cambridge: Cultural Survival, 1981.

1983 -- Gjording, Chris N. "The Guaymí People and Cerro Colorado." In Panama in Transition: Local Reactions to Development Policies. Monographs in Anthropology 6, edited by John Bort and Mary Helms, 19-52. Columbia: Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri, 1983.

1987 -- Gjording, Chris N. "25 Años de Reforma Agraria . . . ¿Y Que?." Informaciones 8 (May-July 1987): 9-21.

1991 -- Gjording, Chris N. Conditions Not of Their Choosing: The Guaymí Indians and Mining Multinationals in Panama. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Karin Gjording.
Restrictions:
Computer disks in the collection are restricted due to preservation concerns.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Copper mining  Search this
Refugees -- Guatemala -- Ixcán  Search this
Mining -- Peru  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Anthropologists  Search this
Citation:
Chris Gjording papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2008-19
See more items in:
Chris Gjording papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2008-19

Robert Thomas Hill photograph collection relating to the Indigenous peoples of Central America

Collector:
Hill, Robert Thomas, 1858-1941  Search this
Extent:
1 Letter
29 Mounted prints (albumen)
Culture:
Indians of Central America  Search this
Talamanca  Search this
Guatuso  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Mounted prints
Photographs
Correspondence
Place:
Colombia
Costa Rica
Guatemala
Panama
Date:
circa 1895
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection consists of photographs documenting Indigenous peoples of Central America, including Cheripo, Guatuso, Talamanca, and Guatemala people. Additional photographs document stone artifacts found at grave sites, Panamanian women, people in Bogata, and a museum in San Jose, Costa Rica. The photographs may have been collected by Robert Thomas Hill from H. N. Rudd, a postcard publisher in Costa Rica. A letter from Rudd to Hill is also in the collection.
Biographical/Historical note:
Robert Thomas Hill (1858-1941) was a geologist best known for his work in Texas for the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Hill was orphaned during the Civil War and raised by his grandmother. While employed at his brother's newspaper in Comanche, Texas, he developed an interest in collecting rocks and fossils. In 1887, he earned a BS in geology from Cornell University. Hill worked for the USGS from 1885 to 1903 and is credited with discovering the Comanche Series of the Lower Cretaceous strata. Additionally, he conducted some preliminary studies in Central America and the West Indies between 1894 and 1902, collecting for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States National Museum. Hill resigned from the USGS in 1903 to pursue personal interests in geology and Texas history.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 170
Location of Other Archival Materials:
This collection has been relocated from Photo Lot 123.
Correspondence from Hill is held in the National Anthropological Archives in records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Artifacts collected by Hill are held in the Department of Anthropology collections in accessions 035646, 053949, 028088, and 034831.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds a field notebook from Hill (1895, 1924) in SIA ACC. 12-126. Southern Methodist University, DeGolyer Library, and Autry Center's Braun Research Library, hold collections of Hill's papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Photo Lot 170, Robert Thomas Hill photograph collection relating to the Indigenous peoples of Central America, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.170
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-170

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