These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps. A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catherine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athabaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara Sue's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series X: Card Files. Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March. Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps.
A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. Among her notable correspondents are Kaj Birket-Smith, J. Desmond Clark, Henry Collins, George Foster, Viola Garfield, Marie-Françoise Guédon, Diamond Jenness, Michael Krauss, Therkel Mathiassen, Catharine McClellan, and Wallace Olson. She also corresponded with several eminent anthropologists including Franz Boas, William Fitzhugh, J. Louis Giddings, Emil Haury, June Helm, Melville Herskovitz, Alfred Kroeber, Helge Larsen, Alan Lomax, Margaret Mead, Froelich Rainey, Leslie Spier, Ruth Underhill, James VanStone, Annette Weiner, and Leslie White.
The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catharine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athapaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series 10: Card Files.
Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March.
Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. The collection also contains copies of photographs from the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna was a pioneering archaeologist and ethnographer of northwestern North America. Known as Freddy by her friends, she was one of the last students of Franz Boas. She served as first vice-president of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) from 1949 to 1950 and as president of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) from 1966-1967. She also founded the anthropology department at Bryn Mawr College where she taught from 1938 to 1972. In 1975, she and Margaret Mead, a former classmate, were the first women to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Born on October 3, 1906 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, de Laguna was the daughter of Theodore Lopez de Leo de Laguna and Grace Mead Andrus, both philosophy professors at Bryn Mawr College. Often sick as a child, de Laguna was home-schooled by her parents until she was 9. She excelled as a student at Bryn Mawr College, graduating summa cum laude with a degree in politics and economics in 1927. She was awarded the college's prestigious European fellowship, which upon the suggestion of her parents, she deferred for a year to study anthropology at Columbia University under Boas. Her parents had recently attended a lecture given by Boas and felt that anthropology would unite her interests in the social sciences and her love for the outdoors.
After a year studying at Columbia with Boas, Gladys Reichard, and Ruth Benedict, de Laguna was still uncertain whether anthropology was the field for her. Nevertheless, she followed Boas's advice to spend her year abroad studying the connection between Eskimo and Paleolithic art, which would later became the topic of her dissertation. In the summer of 1928, she gained fieldwork experience under George Grant MacCurdy visiting prehistoric sites in England, France, and Spain. In Paris, she attended lectures on prehistoric art by Abbe Breuil and received guidance from Paul Rivet and Marcelin Boule. Engaged to an Englishman she had met at Columbia University, de Laguna decided to also enroll at the London School of Economics in case she needed to earn her degree there. She took a seminar with Bronislaw Malinowski, an experience she found unpleasant and disappointing.
It was de Laguna's visit to the National Museum in Copenhagen to examine the archaeological collections from Central Eskimo that became the turning point in her life. During her visit, she met Therkel Mathiassen who invited her to be his assistant on what would be the first scientific archaeological excavation in Greenland. She sailed off with him in June 1929, intending to return early in August. Instead, she decided to stay until October to finish the excavation with Mathiassen, now convinced that her future lay in anthropology. When she returned from Greenland she broke off her engagement with her fiancé, deciding that she would not able to both fully pursue a career in anthropology and be the sort of wife she felt he deserved. Her experiences in Greenland became the subject of her 1977 memoir, Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology.
The following year, Kaj Birket-Smith, whom de Laguna had also met in Copenhagen, agreed to let her accompany him as his research assistant on his summer expedition to Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. When Birket-Smith fell ill and was unable to go, de Laguna was determined to continue on with the trip. She convinced the University of Pennsylvania Museum to fund her trip to Alaska to survey potential excavation sites and took as her assistant her 20 year old brother, Wallace, who became a geologist. A close family, de Laguna's brother and mother would later accompany her on other research trips.
In 1931, the University of Pennsylvania Museum hired de Laguna to catalogue Eskimo collections. They again financed her work in Cook Inlet that year as well as the following year. In 1933, she earned her PhD from Columbia and led an archaeological and ethnological expedition of the Prince William Sound with Birket-Smith. They coauthored "The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, Alaska," published in 1938. In 1935, de Laguna led an archaeological and geological reconnaissance of middle and lower Yukon Valley, traveling down the Tanana River. Several decades later, the 1935 trip contributed to two of her books: Travels Among the Dena, published in 1994, and Tales From the Dena, published in 1997.
In 1935 and 1936, de Laguna worked briefly as an Associate Soil Conservationist, surveying economic and social conditions on the Pima Indian Reservation in Arizona. She later returned to Arizona during the summers to conduct research and in 1941, led a summer archaeological field school under the sponsorship of Bryn Mawr College and the Museum of Northern Arizona.
By this time, de Laguna had already published several academic articles and was also the author of three fiction books. Published in 1930, The Thousand March: Adventures of an American Boy with the Garibaldi was her historical fiction book for juveniles. She also wrote two detective novels: The Arrow Points to Murder (1937) and Fog on the Mountain (1938). The Arrow Points to Murder is set in a museum based on her experiences at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the American Museum of National History. Fog on the Mountain is set in Cook Inlet and draws upon de Laguna's experiences in Alaska. Both detective novels helped to finance her research.
De Laguna began her long career at Bryn Mawr College in 1938 when she was hired as a lecturer in the sociology department to teach the first ever anthropology course at the college. By 1950, she was chairman of the joint department of Sociology and Anthropology, and in 1967, the chairman of the newly independent Anthropology Department. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1949; 1972-1976) and at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1960; 1972-1973.)
During World War II, de Laguna took a leave of absence from Bryn Mawr College to serve in the naval reserve from 1942 to 1945. As a member of WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service), she taught naval history and codes and ciphers to women midshipmen at Smith College. She took great pride in her naval service and in her later years joined the local chapter of WAVES National, an organization for former and current members of WAVES.
In 1950, de Laguna returned to Alaska to work in the Northern Tlingit region. Her ethnological and archaeological study of the Tlingit Indians brought her back several more times throughout the 1950s and led to the publication of Under Mount Saint Elias in 1972. Her comprehensive three-volume monograph is still considered the authoritative work on the Yakutat Tlingit. In 1954, de Laguna turned her focus to the Atna Indians of Copper River, returning to the area in 1958, 1960, and 1968.
De Laguna retired from Bryn Mawr College in 1972 under the college's mandatory retirement policy. Although she suffered from many ailments in her later years including macular degeneration, she remained professionally active. Five decades after her first visit to Greenland, de Laguna returned to Upernavik in 1979 to conduct ethnographic investigations. In 1985, she finished editing George Thornton Emmons' unpublished manuscript The Tlingit Indians. A project she had begun in 1955, the book was finally published in 1991. In 1986, she served as a volunteer consultant archaeologist and ethnologist for the U. S. Forest Service in Alaska. In 1994, she took part in "More than Words . . ." Laura Bliss Spann's documentary on the last Eyak speaker, Maggie Smith Jones. By 2001, de Laguna was legally blind. Nevertheless, she continued working on several projects and established the Frederica de Laguna Northern Books Press to reprint out-of-print literature and publish new scholarly works on Arctic cultures.
Over her lifetime, de Laguna received several honors including her election into the National Academy Sciences in 1976, the Distinguished Service Award from AAA in 1986, and the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999. De Laguna's work, however, was respected by not only her colleagues but also by the people she studied. In 1996, the people of Yakutat honored de Laguna with a potlatch. Her return to Yakutat was filmed by Laura Bliss Spann in her documentary Reunion at Mt St. Elias: The Return of Frederica de Laguna to Yakutat.
At the age of 98, Frederica de Laguna passed away on October 6, 2004.
Darnell, Regna. "Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." American Anthropologist 107.3 (2005): 554-556.
de Laguna, Frederica. Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology. New York: W.W. Norton Co, 1977.
McClellan, Catharine. "Frederica de Laguna and the Pleasures of Anthropology." American Ethnologist 16.4 (1989): 766-785.
Olson, Wallace M. "Obituary: Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." Arctic 58.1 (2005): 89-90.
Although this collection contains a great deal of correspondence associated with her service as president of AAA, most of her presidential records can be found in American Anthropological Association Records 1917-1972. Also at the National Anthropological Archives are her transcripts of songs sung by Yakutat Tlingit recorded in 1952 and 1954 located in MS 7056 and her notes and drawings of Dorset culture materials in the National Museum of Canada located in MS 7265. The Human Studies Film Archive has a video oral history of de Laguna conducted by Norman Markel (SC-89.10.4).
Related collections can also be found in other repositories. The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania holds materials related to work that de Laguna carried out for the museum from the 1930s to the 1960s. Materials relating to her fieldwork in Angoon and Yakutat can be found in the Rasmuson Library of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks in the papers of Francis A. Riddell, a field assistant to de Laguna in the early 1950s. Original photographs taken in the field in Alaska were deposited in the Alaska State Library, Juneau. Both the Archive of Folk Culture at the Library of Congress and the American Philosophical Library have copies of her field recordings and notes. The American Museum of Natural History has materials related to her work editing George T. Emmons' manuscript. De Laguna's papers can also be found at the Bryn Mawr College Archives.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Frederica de Laguna.
Some of the original field notes are restricted due to Frederica de Laguna's request to protect the privacy of those accused of witchcraft. The originals are restricted until 2030. Photocopies may be made with the names of the accused redacted.
Photographs originally made or collected by Jesse Walter Fewkes, the bulk of which relate to the American Southwest, including images of Southwest Indians, archeological sites and artifacts, and landscapes. The collection also includes some images of the West Indies and Mexico, coral islands and atoll formation, and archeological sites in Egypt, China, and other "Old World" regions. There are also photographs of artifacts now in the Department of Anthropology collections, including a broken ladle (ANTHRO CAT 155,771) and cooking pot (ANTHRO CAT 315, 806) from Sityatki and a stone axe from Awatobi (ANTHRO CAT 156,062). Lantern slides, which make up the bulk of the collection, were mostly made from photographs, drawings, and maps, probably for use in Fewkes's lectures. Some photographs may have been made by Fewkes, but most appear to be by other photographers, including C. B. Waite.
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850‐1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist who served as chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1918 to his death in 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877, and was curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. He became deeply interested in the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians while on a collecting trip in the western United States. In 1891, he served as director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology. In 1895 he embarked on various archeological explorations for the Bureau of American Ethnology, during which he conducted excavations in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 1
Varying Form of Title:
E. Kenneth Stabler collection of J. W. Fewkes photographs
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Fewkes's field notes (MS 4408).
Additional Fewkes photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4321, Photo Lot 30, and Photo Lot 86 (his negatives).
Correspondence from Fewkes held in the National Anthropological Archives in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
See others in:
Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection donated by E. Kenneth Stabler n.d.
This collection consists of the papers of John Verrill and is comprised of ethnographic notes on the Jivaro (23 leaves), a report entitled "Results of Preliminary Survey of the Archeology and Ethnology of the Atrato Valley of Colombia, South America" (28 leaves), 5 maps of grave fields, 47 black-and-white photographs (apparently Cuna Indians, plus one of Verrill), 61 black-and-white postcards and a letter from Verrill to his parents.
Includes text and drawings, 2 sketch maps, 21 native drawings, 3 pages musical scores.
Contents: 1 [Introduction], page 1; and Ethnohistory and History, 22 pages. 2. Traditions and Myths..., pages 1-89. 3. Songs..., pages 52-56. 4. Games..., pages 45-51. 5. The Quileute Children's Pastime, pages -4. 6. Native coloring Material..., pages 43-44. [text and drawings] 7. ...Methods of Hunting and Trapping [text and drawings]  8. Native Medicines, 1 page. 9. ...Dances..., pages 57-65. 10. Shamanistic Performances, pages -10. 11. Shakerism, pages -18. 12. The Potlatch, pages -8. 13. Marriage Ceremonies, pages -2. 14. Birth Ceremonies, 1 page. 15. Puberty Customs, 1 page. 16. Mortuary Customs, pages -4. page. 17. Miscellaneous Notes, pages -15, . 18. The Retarding Influence of the Chinook Jargon, 1 page. The Thunder Bird. (Copied from a grave slab at Quileute) [Illustration] 1 page. 212 pages total. Quileute Indian Village and Vicinity [sketch map, 20" x 28"] 1 page. James Island or Ah-Kah-Lot. [sketch map, 20" x 28"] 1 page. [Drawings by native artists; all or part by students at the Indian School, Lapush, Washington.] 21 pages. Music to Songs used at the Quileute Shaker Meetings, pages 6, 7, 11. 238 pages total.
Includes:1) Census of Stuart Lake and other communities by family with data on traps; 2) Census by bands or reserves; 3) Notebook listing plant specimens and use (14 pages); 4) Miscellaneous notes 5) (Culture) element list, with notes; 6) Typed list of culture features apparently prepared for comparative purposes, not used; 7) List of specimens collected, July 6-12, 1940; 8) Letters received from M. W. Stirling, Diamond Jenness, Donald D. Brand, and others; 9) List, "Culture Element Distributions; the Plateau" by Verne F. Ray (not completed);
10) "Carrier Acculturation: the Direct Historical Approach;" 11) Notes on Irving Goldmanʹs "The Alkatcho Carrier of British Columbia;" 12) Genealogical charts; 13) Miscellany; 14) Maps -- a. British Columbia, Department of Lands, Pre-Emptorʹs map: Stuart Lake Sheet, 1923, ca. 40 x 25 in. b. British Columbia, Department of Lands, Pre-Emptorʹs Map: Fort George Sheet, 1923, ca. 40 x 25 in.; c. Portion of map of British Columbia (southern part only), 72 x 27 in. -- annotated with numbered locations, no key provided d. Canadian Topological Survey sheets annotated to show land holdings, ca. 45 x 40 in.; e. British Columbia
Department of Lands, Cariboo and Adjacent Districts, annotated to show land holdings, ca. 44 x 32 in.; f. Canada, Department of Mines and Resources, Map of the Dominion of Canada Excluse of Northern regions indicating Main Natural Resources, 1936, 36 x 26 in.; g. A.L. Kroeber, Cultural and Natural Areas of Native America, 1939, 28 x 22 in.; h. British Columbia, Topographical Sketch Map of Omineca and Finlay River Basins, 1917, 28 x 40 in.
Includes plan of the town of Geneva and map of Sullivan's march. Annotated and lined by James Mooney.
NAA MS 3541
Apparently not published yet the text itself keeps referring to "Conover Volume I or Volume II, pages so and so ? as if quoting therefrom. Recorded in the Handbook as a manuscript in the Bureau of American Ethnology Archives. Not recorded in Pilling's Iroquoian Bibliography.
Pictographic map of the Caribbean coastline of Panama with Kuna place-names and various drawings of persons and events. 7 drawings on 12" by 9" manila paper sewn onto map. The name "EQUAEGEPIPI" is lettered in two places on the map. The map is rolled-up and in brittle condition.
Biographical / Historical:
Chief Igwa Nigdibippi (possibly also known as Chief Golman), from Agligandi Island, visited Washington, D.C. in 1924 with members of the Marsh-Darien expedition. It is uncertain whether he painted the map during this visit.
BAE Neg 4304
OPPS Neg 44,252
NAA MS 4490
Information about the conservation treatment of the map can be found at http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/features/artwork_conservation.htm.
Other Archival Materials:
See NAA INV 04280902 for photo of Chief Igwa Nigdibippi working on map.
Due to the fragile condition of the map, access is restricted to digital images unless permission has been obtained to look at the original.
Includes original drawings for illustration in Victor Mindeleff, "A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibola," BAE-AR 8, 1891.
2621 Mindeleff. Field plans and diagrams of inhabited pueblos and pueblo ruins. Box 1: Folder 1. Prehistoric ruins, not included in BAE-AR 8. Mummy Cave, Canon del Muerto, Verde River, Chaco Canyon, etc. 2. Prehistoric ruins. All included in BAE-AR-8. All are in Tusayan and Cibola provinces. 3-6 Historic Zuni ruins: Kechipawan, Matsaki, Hawikuh, Taaiyalana (scale wrong as published). No plans present for Kiakima, Plate LII in BAE-AR 8.
Folders Modern Zuni pueblos: Nutria, Pescado, Ojo Caliente, Zuni. 7-10. Box 2: Folders Modern Hopi pueblos: Tewa, Oraibi, Moenkopi, Walpi, Sichomovi, 11-17. Mashongnavi, Shumopavi. No original plans present for Walpi, Sichomovi, Shipaulovi. Remainder of box contains architectural drawings prepared for publication in BAE-AR 8 (i.e. not originals) and photographs marked for printer. Unarranged, incomplete set.
NAA MS 2621
Manuscript 2621, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Caption, if any, or brief description: USNM Item Number 1 Route from Amakdjuak to Sessikdjuak ?; USNM Item Number 2 Hudson Strasse und Frobisher Bay von Nijuipa ?; USNM Item Number 3 Kuste der Hudson Strasse von King's Cape bis North Bluff; USNM Item Number 4 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 5 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 6 Number 6 not found; USNM Item Number 7 ... ? West Kuste der Cumberland ... Sundes ? w ? Frobisher Bay; USNM Item Number 8 Thru 31 October; USNM Item Number 9 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 10 List of place names ?, may belong with one of the maps; USNM Item Number 11 Route from Frobisher Bay to "Armakdjuang" Lake Amadjuak; USNM Item NUmber 12 Unidentified map; "Kagiluktung"?; USNM Item Number 13 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 14 Unidentified map with short Eskimo text on reverse; USNM Item 15 Unidentified map with mathematical equations on reverse; USNM Item Number 16 Unidentified map with mathematical equations on reverse; USNM Item Number 17 and 18 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 19 Unidentified map; notes not legible, but do include the word "Tinera' kdjuak" which could be Tinikdjuarbing or Cumberland Sound; USNM Item Number 20 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 21 Unidentified map;
USNM Item Number 22 Map with islands marked by numbers which appear to correspond with the numbered names in Number 26; USNM Item Number 23 Suh lu ack juv; USNM Item Number 24 Kinawah, Kingowa or Kingua ?; USNM Item Number 25 Unidentified map; USNM Item Number 26 Numbered list of Eskimo place names ?; see Number 22; USNM Item Numbers 27-32 Unidentified maps; notes not legible. List of place names ? with illegible notes on reverse. Unidentified maps (on both sides of sheet). Kuste von Hudson Bay. Printed map with illegible notes on reverse. Karte I Pokkuk ? 26th October.
NAA MS 169270
Most of the maps are not identified as to the precise area they represent except by Eskimo place names. Other notes on the maps include a short text in Eskimo and some notes in German and English; most of these notes are illegible, because Boas used a shorthand system of his own in writing many of them, and his handwriting is very difficult to read even when not abbreviated.
Sheets are numbered 0-41 (Number 27 missing). 1 page Manuscript in Charles E. McChesney's hand summarizing subjects as follows: Sheets 1-5, Soldiers approaching village; 6-10, Indian village; 11-15, Indians charging soldiers; 16-20, Custer's column fighting; 21-25, Dead cavalry horses--Custer's; 26-30, Dead Sioux killed by Custer's column; 31-35, Dead Cavalry--Custer's column; 36-41, Indians leaving the battle ground.
Biographical / Historical:
Red Horse was a chief of the Miniconjou division of the Teton.
Dr. Charles E. McChesney was an Army physician based at Fort Bennet, Dakota Territory in 1881.
54 drawings on leaves of ruled and numbered paper from a ledger book, now disbound, covers not retained. Scenes are primarily of warfare, but also include horse raids, courting, and two maps. Several pages inscribed "Washee," a name recorded among both Cheyennes and Arapahoes in the 1880s.
Biographical / Historical:
David N. McDonald graduated from the US Military Academy at West Point in 1877. He served at Fort Sill, IT in 1878 and then at Fort Reno 1878-81, subsequently being posted in New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
NAA MS 4452-a2
Candace Green identified all the drawings in this book were probably drawn by Arapaho artists. Several pages are inscribed with the word Washee. Misreading of this as Nashee led to erroneous speculation that the drawings were associated with the Apache leader Naiche.