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Lorenzo Dow Turner papers

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Names:
Fisk University  Search this
Howard University  Search this
Roosevelt University  Search this
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
23.97 Linear feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiovisual materials
Field recordings
Photographs
Photographic prints
Maps
Correspondence
Date:
1895 - 1972
Summary:
The collection, which dates from 1895 to 1972 and measures 23.97 linear feet, documents the career and travels of Professor Lorenzo Dow Turner. The collection is comprised of correspondence, academic papers, research materials, books, newspaper and journal articles, sound recordings, and photographs.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged by series: (1) Biographical, (2) Academic Career, (3) Writings, (4) Research, (5) Photographs, (6) Sound Recordings, and (7) Printed Materials.
Biographical/Historical note:
Lorenzo Dow Turner was born in Elizabeth City, N.C. in 1895. He earned his B.A. in 1914 from Howard University; in 1917, he received an M.A. in English from Harvard University. He received his doctorate in English from the University of Chicago in 1926 while simultaneously serving as chairman and professor of the Department of English at Howard from 1917 to 1928. He held the same positions at Fisk University in Nashville from 1929 to 1946. In 1946 he accepted a professorship in the English department at Roosevelt University in Chicago, where he remained as professor of English and lecturer in African Cultures until his retirement in 1970. Turner was professor emeritus at Roosevelt until his death at age 77 in 1972. Turner's professional and academic interests encompassed both English and linguistics. A noted scholar of African languages and linguistics, he learned numerous West African languages, mastering five of them. He was a noted authority on Gullah, a Creole language spoken in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia.
Related Archival Materials note:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers at Northwestern University Library
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Sea Islands Creole dialect  Search this
African languages -- Study and teaching -- United States  Search this
Linguistics -- Research -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiovisual materials
Field recordings
Photographs
Photographic prints
Maps
Correspondence
Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers, 1895--972, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-017
Online Media:

Lee Ya-Ching Papers

Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scripts (documents)
Photographs
Maps
Scrapbooks
Date:
1938-1970
Summary:
This collection consists of 11.9 cubic feet of material chronicling Lee Ya-Ching's role as a pilot trying to raise funds for China during World War II. The collection contains the following types of material: correspondence, both official and personal; maps; publications; newspapers; invitation; programs from events; lecture notes; scripts from radio shows; photographs, both official and snapshots; trip schedules and agendas; address books; scrapbooks; and official paperwork and licenses.
Scope and Content note:
This collection consists of 11.9 cubic feet of material chronicling Lee Ya-Ching's role as a pilot trying to raise funds for China during World War II. The collection contains the following types of material: correspondence, both official and personal; maps; publications; newspapers; invitations; programs from events; lecture notes; scripts from radio shows; photographs, both official and snapshots; trip schedules and agendas; address books; scrapbooks; and official paperwork and licenses.
Arrangement:
This collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into two series, Ms Lee's personal papers and her professional papers. Within each series, items are arranged by material type then chronologically. No attempt was made to translate foreign language material in the collection.
Biographical/Historical note:
Lee Ya-Ching was born in Canton, China in 1912. As an only child who lost her mother at a young age, Ya-Ching was raised by her father and grandmother. Under her father's guidance she learned many skills, including martial arts, some previously restricted to male children. Ya-Ching attended English schools in Hong Kong and Shanghai and at the age of 16 was sent to London to attend finishing school.

In 1929 at the age of 17, Ya-Ching went to Geneva, Switzerland. It is there that she took her first ride in an airplane and vowed to learn how to fly. She enrolled in Ecole Aero Club de Suisse and, in 1934, became the first woman to receive a pilot's license from the school. Determined to continue her education, Ya-Ching went to the United States and attended the Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, California in 1935. In November of that year she became the first woman licensed through the Boeing School. Upon completion of her training at the Boeing school Ya-Ching returned to China and began campaigning for a Chinese pilot's license, eventually obtaining the license in 1936. Seeing a need to train new pilots, Ya-Ching and some fellow pilots opened a civilian flying school in Shanghai in 1936.

When Japan invaded China in 1937, Ya-Ching volunteered to fly for her country, but was refused. Undeterred, she served her country by establishing hospitals. Leaving Shanghai for Hong Kong just before the city fell, she was finally given the opportunity to fly for China by piloting Red Cross planes ferrying supplies from Hong Kong to Canton. Realizing that China needed aid and supplies, Ya-Ching embarked on a Goodwill Tour of the United States and Canada in 1938. When the war prevented her return to China, Ya-Ching continued the tour expanding her appearances into South America.

Not much is known of Ya-Ching's life after the war. She returned to Hong Kong for a number of years. In the 1960's she returned to California, where she died in 1998 at the age of 86.

Time Line of Lee Ya-Ching

xxxx -- The following timeline covers key events in Ya-Ching's life, as well world events. Events involving Ya-Ching are shown in normal type world events are shown in italics.

1909 -- M. Vallon flies first plane in China

1911 -- China ousts the 2000 year old Imperial System for a Republic

April 16, 1912 -- Lee Ya-Ching is born in Canton, China

1916 -- Ya-Ching's mother dies of tuberculosis

1917 -- China enters World War 1 on the side of the Allies

1926 -- Begins career as a movie actress

1928 -- Leaves the film industry and goes to school in England

1929 -- The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) is ousted from China Goes to Switzerland

September 1931 -- Japan seizes control of Manchuria

November 1931 -- CCP resurfaces in China and forms the Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi Province

May 1932 -- Amelia Earhart becomes first woman to solo across the Atlantic

1933 -- Begins flying lessons at Geneva's Cointrin-Ecole d'Aviation

1934 -- Receives her pilot's license from Ecole Aéro Club de Suisse

1935 -- Attends and receives license from the Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, California

1935 -- Falls out of an aerobatic plane, earning her membership in the Caterpillar Club

1936 -- Receives her pilot's license from the Chinese Government First domestic airline established in China Opens a civilian flying school in Shanghai

1937 -- Flies for the Red Cross ferrying supplies from Hong Kong to Canton Japan invades China Earns Hong Kong commercial pilot's license Helps establish hospitals in Shanghai

1938 -- Begins goodwill tour of United States and Canada

1939 -- Appears in US film Disputed Passage with Dorothy Lamour

1940 -- Flies "Estrella China" to Caribbean, Central and South America Aids Ruth Nichols in raising money for Relief Wings

1941 -- Begins working for United China Relief

December 7, 1941 -- Bombing of Pearl Harbor forces American entry into World War II

1944 -- Begins Goodwill and Fund Raising tour of South America and Caribbean

August 1945 -- Atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, followed by Japanese surrender and end of World War II

1946 -- Returns to China and retires

1946 -- Fighting between CCP and KMT (Nationalist party) resumes

October 1949 -- KMT retreats to Taiwan Mao Zedong establishes the People's Republic of China

1950 -- Receives Hong Kong private pilot's license

1963 -- Receives Hong Kong Special Purpose Pilot's license

1971 -- Permanently moves to the United States

1997 -- British rule ends in Hong Kong

January 28, 1998 -- Dies at the age of 86
Provenance:
Pax Cheng and Mary Wolfson, Gift, 2007, NASM.2008.0009.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Civilian relief  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- China  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scripts (documents)
Photographs
Maps
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0009
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0009
Online Media:

Leuman Maurice Waugh collection

Creator:
Waugh, Donald.  Search this
Waugh, Leuman Maurice, 1877-1972.  Search this
Names:
American Association of Dental Schools  Search this
American Board of Orthodontics  Search this
Columbia University  Search this
Nanuk Mi-kin-inni (Yacht)  Search this
New York Athletic Club  Search this
Northland (Coast Guard cutter: WPG-49)  Search this
United States. Public Health Service  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet ((5 boxes; 1 map case drawer))
1,749 Photographic prints
1,035 lantern slides
1579 negatives (photographic)
80 Film reels (16mm)
Culture:
Inuit  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Film reels
Writings
Dental records
Printed ephemera
Maps
Correspondence
Clippings
Realia
Place:
Labrador (N.L.)
Alaska
Date:
1909-1963
Summary:
The Leuman Maurice Waugh collection contains papers, photographs, and film holdings that were created by Waugh during his dental research expeditions to indigenous communities in Newfoundland and Labrador in eastern Canada and in Arctic Alaska.
Scope and Contents:
The Leuman Maurice Waugh collection contains materials created and compiled by Dr. Leuman Waugh during his research expeditions to Arctic Alaska and the Newfoundland and Labrador regions of Eastern, Canada circa 1909-1963. During these trips, Waugh studied the dental health of Indigenous communities in the region and treated patients.

The collection contains materials that were created and collected by Waugh during his research trips and include raw dental data and community census information; professional and personal correspondence; clippings, articles, and essays; reports and lectures; logistics and trip planning documents; postcards; journals; and sketches and drawings, among other materials.

The collection also contains over 4,000 photographs and 80 16mm film reels that were shot by Waugh during his research trips and document his work with Indigenous communities in Alaska and eastern Canada.
Arrangement note:
Waugh's original order was disturbed over the years after his death and during transfer from the Waugh family to the Rankin Museum. NMAI archivists elected to arrange the collection chronologically.

The records are organized in the following series: I. Dental study data and logistics, II. Correspondence, III. Writings, IV. Realia and ephemera, V. Press clippings and public relations materials, VI. Maps and other oversized materials.Chronological arrangement.
Biographical/Historical note:
Born on March 6, 1877 in New Dundee, Ontario, Canada, Leuman Maurice Waugh, moved to Rochester, New York, with his family at the age of nine. He acquired his love for photography in Rochester, which always attributed as the "Kodak city." Following in his father's dentistry footsteps, Waugh attended the University of Buffalo, from which he received his D.D.S. in 1900. He took post-graduate studies in Histology, Bacteriology, and Pathology at Buffalo's School of Medicine, and within two years was appointed Professor of Histology and Embryology at his alma mater. In 1912, Waugh pioneered the design of a unit-type x-ray machine for use at the dental chair, which was later studied and adopted by large dental apparatus manufacturers. By the time he left Buffalo in 1914 to specialize in the infant field of orthodontics in New York City, he had served as Professor of Special Pathology and Officer of the Governing Faculty at the university.

In 1915, Waugh served on the Organization Committee of the Columbia Dental School and shortly thereafter became its Secretary of the Dental Faculty, and sequentially Secretary of the Administrative Board and Professor of Histology and Embryology. In 1921 he was appointed Professor and Director of the Orthodontic Division of the school, and later served as Associate Director, Acting Director and Associate Dean. Waugh's affiliation with Columbia lasted through 1945. He served as Director of the American Board of Orthodontics from 1949 to 1953, and was asked to serve as Secretary-Chairman of the Orthodontia section of the American Association of Dental Schools in 1930, and as President in 1935. Waugh married Helen "Esty" Marshall, and had a son, Donald (also a dentist), and a daughter, Dorothy.

An active member of the Explorer's Club and Commodore of the Yachting Department of the New York Athletic Club, Waugh volunteered to undertake Alaskan studies on caries research among the Inuit for the U.S. Public Health Service. In 1929, the Health Service appointed Waugh Dental Director (Reserve) at the rank of Colonel. Waugh was apparently inspired by a lecture he heard as a student in 1908 from Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Smithsonian Curator of Physical Anthropology at the Institute of Dental Pedagogics, on the dental conditions of human populations. Waugh privately carried out a Labrador study between 1921 and d1927 over the course of five summers. Under the sometimes-partial aegis of the U.S. Public Heath Service, Waugh also studied twelve Alaskan Inuit communities between 1929 and 1938. He was the first dental officer in the U.S. Public Service ever assigned to the Coast Guard Cutter Northland's cruise area of the Bering Sea and Alaska Arctic regions. During his trips, Waugh compiled data on the teeth, mouth, and diet of indigenous communities. In addition, he took many photographs and films of both dental subjects and indigenous communities.

Waugh's son, Donald, accompanied him on his 1935 expedition up the Kuskokwim River (Alaska) in their custom designed and built 29 foot yacht Nanuk Mi-kin-inni (Polar Bear Cub). In 1936, Waugh was appointed to a position with the Alaska Health Service by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior via the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This position allowed him to further his studies of tooth decay throughout Alaska and the Bering Sea region. Waugh's 1937 expedition included three dentists (one a biochemist), a physician and a nurse, and involved extensive air travel in small planes. A popular lecturer and prolific writer, Waugh continued to advocate for the health of the northern indigenous communities he visited long after his trips ended. He spent the remainder of his professional career at Columbia University, where he rose from Professor of Orthodontia (1923-19435) to (concurrently) Chief of Orthodontia and Director of the Department of Orthodontics. Waugh continued to be active in professional organizations well after his retirement, until a few years before his death at his home in Betterton, Maryland, on May 6, 1972.
Related Archival Materials note:
The National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution hold twenty Waugh photographs which located in the Division of Physical Anthropology Photograph Collection #NAA2223a. NAA also has Waugh material in the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. Papers, #NAA3131. The Archives and Special Collections at the Augustus C. Long Health Sciences Library, Columbia University holds the School of Dental and Oral Surgery Records, 1892, 1915-1976 as well as the School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Historical Collection, 1892-1989.
Provenance:
The National Museum of the American Indian purchased the Waugh collection in 2001 from the Rankin Museum of American and Natural History in Ellerbee, N.C.
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the NMAI Archivist for an appointment to access the collection.

Access restricted. Some dental records may be restricted from access, reproduction, or publication under personal health information privacy provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. Researchers should contact the NMAI Archies Center 301-238-1400 or nmaiarchives@si.edu for an appointment to access the collection.
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Occupation:
Dentists  Search this
Topic:
Dentists  Search this
Missions, Medical -- Kuskokwim River (Alaska)  Search this
Nutrition and dental health -- Alaska  Search this
Missions, Medical -- Labrador (N.L.)  Search this
Anthropology -- Alaska  Search this
Dentistry -- Alaska  Search this
Dentistry -- Labrador (N.L.)  Search this
Orthodontists  Search this
Inuit -- Names, Personal  Search this
Anthropology -- Labrador (N.L.)  Search this
Missions, Medical -- Alaska  Search this
Inuit -- Census -- Alaska  Search this
Teeth -- Radiography  Search this
Inuit -- Dental care -- Alaska  Search this
Nutrition and dental health -- Labrador (N.L.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Writings
dental records
Printed ephemera
Maps
Correspondence
Clippings
Realia
Citation:
Leuman Maurice Waugh collection, 1909-1963. National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.003
See more items in:
Leuman Maurice Waugh collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-003

John Wallis Bishop Collection

Creator:
Bishop, John Wallis (Jack)  Search this
Names:
Great Britain. Royal Flying Corps. 66th Squadron  Search this
Roosevelt Field (N.Y.)  Search this
Bishop, John Wallis (Jack)  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 slim legal document case)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Date:
1918-1936
Summary:
John (Jack) Wallis Bishop was born June 8, 1892, in Berlin, Maryland. He was trained as a pilot at the US Army School of Military Aeronautics at Cornell University in 1917 and subsequently enlisted in Canada and was assigned to the 66th Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) at the front for 14 months in northern Italy. He shot down two enemy aircraft and participated in 22 low altitude bombing raids. In the 1930s, he became a flying instructor and pilot at Roosevelt Field. Bishop was killed in a flying accident at Roosevelt Field on August 30, 1936. This collection contains materials from Bishop's career as a pilot, including a diary, logbooks, newsletters, permits, photographs, and articles.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials from John Wallis Bishop's career as a pilot. World War I era materials include photographs, a diary of his overseas service, a logbook, newsletters and programs from the 66th Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, a booklet of aircraft silhouettes, an aerial map of the northern Italian front, and his permission to depart from the United Kingdom and return to the United States. Materials from his later career include logbooks, a pilot permit and physical examination certificate, and a book of tickets for excursion flights with Bishop. Other materials include an article from the November/December 1931 edition of The Military Engineer entitled "Two-Fifths of an Ace," describing Bishop's exploits with the 66th Squadron, an in memoriam article, an article about Annette Gipson, and a genealogy of Samuel and John Bishop.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in chronological order.
Biographical / Historical:
John (Jack) Wallis Bishop was born June 8, 1892, in Berlin, Maryland. A United States citizen living in Yonkers, New York, he initially enlisted in the United States military on September 14, 1917, at Mineola, New York. He was trained at the US Army School of Military Aeronautics at Cornell University until his honorable discharge ("cause not shown") on October 30, 1917. Subsequently, he enlisted in Canada and was assigned to the 66th Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) at the front for 14 months in northern Italy. He shot down two enemy aircraft and participated in 22 low altitude bombing raids. He returned to the US in June 1919, became a member of the "Ancient and Secret Order of Quiet Birdmen." After the war, he sold real estate, but soon began flying again, participating in barnstorming tours. In the 1930s, he became a flying instructor and pilot at Roosevelt Field, Long Island, New York, and a lieutenant in the Nassau County (NY) police department. He was a friend and flying associate of the air racer Annette Gipson. Bishop was killed in a flying accident near Roosevelt Field on August 30, 1936.
Provenance:
E. Thompson Magoffin, gift, 1988, NASM.1988.0086.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Citation:
John Wallis Bishop Collection, Acc. NASM.1988.0086, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1988.0086
See more items in:
John Wallis Bishop Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1988-0086
Online Media:

[Map of Northern Italian Front, World War I]

Collection Creator:
Bishop, John Wallis (Jack)  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1917 or 1918
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
John Wallis Bishop Collection, Acc. NASM.1988.0086, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John Wallis Bishop Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1988-0086-ref510

Photographs of Army Air Corps in the Philippines and China

Photographer:
Glenn L. Martin Company  Search this
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
Names:
Salsman, John G. (author and possible collector)  Search this
Extent:
1 copy print of map
200 Prints (circa 200 silver gelatin and contact prints (includes enlargements))
Culture:
Mangyan (Philippine people)  Search this
Bagobo (Philippine people)  Search this
Moro  Search this
Bontoks (Philippine people)  Search this
Ilokanos (Philippine people)  Search this
Ifugao (Philippine people)  Search this
Philippine Negritos  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy print of map
Prints
Place:
China
Manila (Philippines)
Philippines
Date:
circa 1928-1939
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting Igorot and other Philippine peoples at Camp Nichols (1929), relating to Manila's 1929 carnival, aerial views of the Philippines, and images of Mangyan, Moro, Bagobo, Bontoc, Ilocano, Ifugao, and Negritos. The collection also consists of images of Mindanao, Luzon, and parts of China, including Nanjing, and a carbon copy of a press release by John G. Salsman about the Philippine tribal groups visiting Camp Nichols. The photographs may have been collected or made by John G. Salsman.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2011-26
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs collected by John G. Salsman can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 75-73
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Festivals  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 2011-26, Photographs of Army Air Corps in the Philippines and China, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2011-26
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2011-26

George Henry Mills Collection

Creator:
Mills, George H., 1895-1975  Search this
Names:
United States. Navy. Naval Airship Program  Search this
Mills, George H., 1895-1975  Search this
Extent:
13.39 Cubic feet (24 legal document boxes; 7 flatboxes)
14.95 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Maps
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1920s-1950s
bulk 1930-1949
Summary:
The George Henry Mills Collection was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in 1994 by Mills' daughter, Mrs. Georgia Mills Head.
Scope and Contents:
The George Henry Mills Collection consists of 14.59 cubic feet (14.47 linear feet) of material collected from his naval career, 1918-1948. A large part of the collection is made up of records of Mills' service during World War II as the commander of the Atlantic Fleet's airship formations. The collection also includes records of his service as an official Navy observer aboard the German rigid airships Graf Zeppelin and Hindenburg. Of particular interest are records of the period before and immediately after the entry of the United States into World War II: the pre-war build-up of the Navy's LTA program, the "Neutrality Patrols" as the Navy fought an undeclared war against Germany, and of the harrowing early days of the Battle of the North Atlantic as German U-boats roamed the eastern coast of the United States. Mills maintained an extensive correspondence with many of the leading figures of LTA: Charles E. Rosendahl, Garland Fulton, and Scott E. Peck --their letters provide a unique picture of the Navy LTA program during its most active and successful period.

The collection also includes numerous technical reports on aspects of LTA flight, training material, photographs, clippings and articles on LTA.
Arrangement note:
The George H. Mills Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series I: Naval career of George H. Mills

Series II: Correspondence

Series III: General LTA Papers

Series IV: General Naval Papers

Series V: Publications, Articles, Clippings

Series VI: Lectures, Speeches, Papers

Series VII: Miscellaneous Papers

Series VIII: Photographs

Series IX: Scrapbooks; Oversized Material
Biographical/Historical note:
George Henry Mills (1895-1975), Naval officer and airship aviator, was a member of the U.S. Navy's inner circle of advocates of lighter than air (LTA) flight. Mills was born on August 5, 1895 in Rutherfordton, North Carolina, the son of John Craton Mills and Nora Poole Mills. He attended Bingham Military School in Asheville, North Carolina, and entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1914. Mills graduated from the Academy in June, 1918 and served in various fleet and shore assignments (a chronology of Mills' naval service will be found in the notes to Series I on page 2). He married Leonore Wickersham of Corning, NY in 1923; their daughter, Georgia Lee Mills, was born in 1928.

Mills was assigned to LTA training at Naval Air Station Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1931. He completed his training in 1932 and served in the Navy's LTA fleet through the 1930's. Mills flew as an observer on board the Graf Zeppelin in 1934 and on the Hindenburg in 1936. In 1935, Mills survived the crash of the USS Macon off the California coast. Mills returned to Lakehurst, serving there in various assignments; he was made commanding officer of NAS Lakehurst in January, 1940.

At Lakehurst, Mills organized blimp patrols as part of the Navy's Neutrality Patrol and helped coordinate the Navy's rapid buildup of the LTA program. When Airship Patrol Group One was formed in January 1942, Mills was named commanding officer; in December 1942 he commanded Airship Wing Thirty. In July 1943, Mills was assigned as the commander of Fleet Airships, Atlantic - the chief of the Navy's LTA forces in the Atlantic Theater. George Mills was promoted to the rank of Commodore in November 1943.

In 1945, Mills returned to sea as the captain of the troopship USS Hermitage. Before retirement from the Navy in 1949, Mills served as the chief of the Naval Airship Training and Experimentation Command (CNATE) at NAS Lakehurst.

After leaving the Navy, Mills settled in North Carolina and worked for the Equitable Life Insurance Company, and later for the National Securities and Research Corporation. Mills served one term in the North Carolina State Legislature from 1950 to 1952. George H. Mills died on October 24, 1975, the same day as his longtime LTA colleague and friend, Garland Fulton, whose papers are also part of the collections of the National Air and Space Archives. They were buried on the same day in Arlington National Cemetery.
Chronology:
Chronology of George H. Mills' Naval Service

1914 -- June 14 - Entered U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland

1918 -- June 6 - Graduated from the Academy, Class of 1919; commissioned Ensign, USN September 21 - Service aboard USS New Mexico. Promoted to Lieutenant (JG)(Temporary)

1920 -- June 1 - Promotion to Lieutenant (JG)

1922 -- First LTA flight as gunnery spotter on captive balloon on USS New Mexico June 3 - Promotion to Lieutenant

1923 -- September 25 - Assigned as personal aide to RADM George W. Williams, Commandant, Sixth Naval District, Charleston, SC June 20 - Assigned as divisions communication officer on staff of VADM Henry A. Wiley, Battleship Division, Battle Fleet

1929 -- June 5 -Assistant gunnery officer and senior watch officer, USS Pensacola

1924 -- August 5 - Served as aide and flag secretary to RADM Williams as Commander Destroyer Squadrons, Scouting Fleet. Served on USS Concord, USS Dobbin, USS Whitney

1925 -- September - Continued as aide when RADM Williams was relieved by RADM Noble E. Irwin

1931 -- June 1 - Ordered to NAS Lakehurst for LTA instruction. Training flights on free and captive balloons and on airships Los Angeles (ZR-3), Akron (ZRS-4), J-3, J-4, K-1 and ZMC-2

1932 -- June 16 - Finished LTA training; designated naval aviator, lighter-than-air, # 3925

1927 -- June 30 - Officer-in-charge, naval recruiting for North and South Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina

1933 -- September 1 - Promotion to Lieutenant Commander

1934 -- May 14 - Ordered on temporary duty as naval observer on the Graf Zeppelin. Made three round trips aboard the Graf Zeppelin between Friedrichshafen and cities in South America August 9 - Ordered to NAS Lakehurst as Operations Officer October 14 - Ordered to NAS Sunnyvale (later NAS Moffett Field) as tactical officer, pilot and navigational watch on USS Macon (ZRS-4)

1935 -- February 12 - USS Macon crashes off Point Sur, California. Mills is rescued after three hours in the water April 15 - Ordered to NAS Lakehurst as operations and mooring officer

1936 -- November 4 - Ordered to Newport News for fitting out USS Yorktown August - Naval observer aboard Hindenburg on round trip flights between Lakehurst and Frankfort, Germany

1937 -- September 30 – Assigned as gunnery officer, USS Yorktown September 12 – October 2 - Training in chemical warfare at Gas Warfare School, Edgewood Arsenal, MD

1939 -- July 1 - Promotion to Commander June – Assigned as executive officer, NAS Lakehurst

1940 -- January 15 - Appointed commanding officer, NAS Lakehurst

1941 -- July - Temporary duty, Airship Board, Washington

1942 -- December 1 - Appointed Commander, Fleet Airship Wing Thirty June 17 - Promotion to Captain January 2 - Appointed Commander, Airship Patrol Group One

1943 -- November 5 - Promotion to Commodore July 1 - Appointed Commander, Fleet Airships, Atlantic

1945 -- July 23 - Awarded Legion of Merit July 10 - Appointed captain, USS Hermitage (AP-54). Reverts to rank of captain

1946 -- August 5 - Appointed commander, NAS Moffett Field

1947 -- September 26 - Appointed chief, Naval Airship Training and Experimentation Command (CNATE)

1949 -- June 30 - Retirement from U.S. Navy

Abbreviations

ADM -- Admiral

ASW -- Anti-submarine warfare

ATC -- Air Transport Command

BuAer -- Bureau of Aeronautics (US Navy)

CDR -- Commander

CNATE -- Naval Airship Training and Experimentation Command

Cong -- Congress

GHM -- George Henry Mills

LTA -- Lighter than air flight

MAD -- Magnetic anomaly detector (often found as magnetic airborne detector)

NACA -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

NAS -- Naval Air Station

NATS -- Naval Air Transport Service

ND -- No date

RADM -- Rear admiral

RN -- Royal Navy

Sess -- Session

VADM -- Vice Admiral

WPA -- Works Project Authority

ZNP -- Patrol airship

ZP -- Airship squadron
Provenance:
Georgia M. Head, Gift, 1994, 1994-0022, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Airships  Search this
Antisubmarine aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Maps
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
George Henry Mills Collection, Acc. 1994-0022, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1994.0022
See more items in:
George Henry Mills Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1994-0022
Online Media:

Bowman Family Papers

Creator:
Bowman, Les (Leslie)  Search this
Bowman, Martie (Marguerite)  Search this
Bowman, Larnie  Search this
Names:
Kinner Airplane and Motor Co  Search this
National Air Race Association  Search this
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
Bowman, Larnie  Search this
Bowman, Les (Leslie)  Search this
Bowman, Martie (Marguerite)  Search this
Extent:
1.28 Cubic feet (1 records center box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Scrapbooks
Date:
1923-1987
bulk 1923-1950
Summary:
The Bowman Family Papers contain 1.28 cubic feet of material related to the aviation careers of Leslie (Les), Marguerite (Martie), and Larnie Bowman.
Scope and Contents:
The Bowman Family Papers contain: log books, licenses, and membership cards for Marguerite, Larnie, and Leslie Bowman; loose materials including maps, newspaper clippings from the 1930s, 1972 and 1985; and miscellaneous photographs, including two of Charles Lindbergh. Three scrapbooks at the end of the collection (1923-1931, 1932-1935, 1936-1987) include photographs (some autographed), personal and business correspondence, and newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
The Bowman Family Papers are arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Leslie (Les) and Marguerite (Martie) Bowman were married in October 1919 and had both learned to fly by 1925. Les, a mechanic, worked as an engineer and salesman for the Kinner Engine and Aircraft Company and was involved in both the production and testing of airplanes. Martie was a charter member of both the Ninety-Nines, a women pilots' association, and the National Air Race Association. She set women's speed records and swept three women's racing events on one day in 1938. Les and Martie both tried wing walking, as did their daughter, Larnie, at the age of eight. Larnie learned to fly by the time she was twelve. During World War II, the Bowmans ran one of five civilian schools for the training of Navy fighter pilots. Les and Martie retired from aviation after the conclusion of the war.
Provenance:
Mrs. M. Lorraine Allen, gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0042
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Flight training  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Bowman Family Papers, Acc. NASM.1991.0042, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0042
See more items in:
Bowman Family Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0042
Online Media:

USN BuAer three dimensional weather maps

Collection Creator:
Mills, George H., 1895-1975  Search this
Container:
Box 31, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
General:
Folder contents were not copied.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions
Collection Citation:
George Henry Mills Collection, Acc. 1994-0022, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
George Henry Mills Collection
George Henry Mills Collection / Series 9: Scrapbooks, Oversized Material
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1994-0022-ref626

Aeronautical Chart -- Albany (Upper K-18)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1939-03
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref262

Aeronautical Chart -- Albuquerque (Upper I-14)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1937-02
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref263

Aeronautical Chart -- Austin (Upper H-14)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1938-08
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref264

Aeronautical Chart -- Bellingham (Lower M-10)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1938-10
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref265

Aeronautical Chart -- Boise (Upper K-11)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1939-01
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref266

Aeronautical Chart -- Boston (West K-19)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1938-05
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref267

Aeronautical Chart -- Charlotte (Upper I-17)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1939-01
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref268

Aeronautical Chart -- Cheyenne (Lower K-13)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1939-03
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref269

Aeronautical Chart -- Cincinnati (Upper J-16)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1939-05
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref270

Aeronautical Chart -- Cleveland (Lower K-17)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1935-02
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref271

Aeronautical Chart -- Cleveland (Lower K-17)

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Drawer 220, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1938-12
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 3: Oversized Materials / 3.1: Aeronautical Charts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref272

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