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MS 7563 Stabilization of Kin Klizhin, Chaco Canyon National Monument, Fiscal Year 1938

Creator:
Vivian, Gordon  Search this
Extent:
13 Pages
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Pages
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7563
Local Note:
Carbon of typescript, bound, with photographs
Topic:
Kin Klizhin -- New Mexico -- Chaco Canyon -- stabilization  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 7563, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7563
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7563

MS 2003-20 Alexander Leighton and Jane Murphy oral history

Interviewer:
Powers, Willow Roberts, 1943-  Search this
Creator:
Leighton, Alexander H. (Alexander Hamilton), 1908-2007  Search this
Murphy, Jane M.  Search this
Names:
Leighton, Alexander H. (Alexander Hamilton), 1908-2007  Search this
Murphy, Jane M.  Search this
Extent:
5 Sound cassettes (analog)
2 Folders
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Oral history
Interviews
Transcripts
Correspondence
Notes
Date:
2002
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of oral history interviews of Dr. Alexander Leighton and Dr. Jane Murphy, conducted by Dr. Willow Powers in 2002 and funded by the Wenner-Gren Foundation's Historical Archives Program. The collection includes recordings of the interviews on 5 audiocassettes, interview transcripts, permission forms, correspondence relating to the interview, and background information collected in preparation for the interview.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1948, Dr. Alexander Leighton initiated the "Stirling County Study," a post-war longitudinal study of the distribution and amount of mental illness in a general population, and one of the first to do so within the framework of epidemiology. When Dr. Leighton retired from Harvard in 1975, Dr. Jane Murphy, who had been a member of the study since 1951, assumed directorship of the study. Dr. Murphy and Dr. Leighton also conducted numerous cross-cultural studies of mental illness, keeping anthropological ideas as central ingredients in their research.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2003-20
Other Archival Materials:
See associated ethnology collection.
Topic:
Values -- Ethnographic study of  Search this
Psychiatric epidemiology  Search this
Cultural psychiatry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Interviews
Transcripts
Correspondence
Notes
Citation:
MS 2003-20, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2003-20
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2003-20

MS 7567 Miscellaneous specimen tags and newspaper clippings

Donor:
Kelly  Search this
Names:
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Extent:
12 Prints
Culture:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Some of the items concern Sitting Bull.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7567
Topic:
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 7567, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7567
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7567

Photograph of Seminole Indians in Florida

Extent:
1 Print (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Florida
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Image of Seminole women and girl with a visiting woman, probably made in or near Silver Springs, Florida.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2003-16
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2003-16, Photograph of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2003-16
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2003-16

MS 1998 Text of the missive of 1688, linguistic and historic notes

Collector:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
44 Pages
Culture:
Apalachee Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1998
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1998, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1998
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1998

MS 2206 Why there are crickets

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Informant:
Earle, Frank  Search this
Translator:
Poweshiek, Ida  Search this
Extent:
202 Pages
Culture:
Fox Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1929
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2206
Topic:
Folklore -- Fox  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Meskwaki; Sauk & Fox  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2206, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2206
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2206

MS 468 Twenty-one medicines and the Tree of Light

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Extent:
29 Pages
Culture:
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- Medicine  Search this
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- Tree of Light  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1889
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 468
Topic:
Medicine -- Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 468, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS468
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms468
Online Media:

MS 466 The Great War Medicine

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Informant:
Buck, Joshua  Search this
Extent:
36 Pages
Culture:
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- Songs  Search this
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- Great War Medicine  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1896
Scope and Contents:
Songs also translated.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 466
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 466, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS466
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms466
Online Media:

MS 1516 Peoria vocabulary

Creator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Informant:
Gorstey, Stephen  Search this
Extent:
118 Pages
Culture:
Peoria Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
ca. 1893
Scope and Contents:
With linguistic notes, arranged in catagories based on grammatical elements. Recorded in Department of Interior Blank Book; grammatical categories are entered alphabetically. Includes: "Phonology" for the Peoria language, 4 pages; brief notes headed "Ethnography," 1 page; references to certain page numbers of unstated sources throughout the notebook.
Biographical / Historical:
Date supplied from Bureau of American Ethnology-AR 15, Washington, 1893.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1516
Local Note:
Informant /?/: Stephen Gorstey, N. E. Brunswick, /Illinois ?/.
autograph document
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Miami language (Ind. and Okla.)  Search this
Illinois  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1516, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1516
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1516
Online Media:

MS 1853 Ojibwa notes collected by Truman Michelson in Odanah, Wisconsin

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
1 Notebook (98 pages)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Folklore
Narratives
Vocabulary
Field notes
Place:
Odanah (Wis.)
Date:
1925 August
Scope and Contents:
Truman Michelson traveled to Odanah, Wisconsin on August 21, 1925 to study the Ojibwa. These notes, collected by Michelson at that time, cover the physical anthropology, linguistics, and ethnology of the Ojibwa. The notes include anthropometric measurements, notes on gentes, stories, and Ojibwa terms and phrases with English glosses
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1853
Local Note:
Title changed from "Ethnology; legends; physical anthropology; linguistics August, 1925 (part)" 3/14/2014.
Topic:
Ojibwa language  Search this
Ojibwa Indians -- Kinship  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Indians of North America -- anthropometry  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Folklore
Narratives
Vocabulary
Field notes
Citation:
Manuscript 1853, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1853
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1853
Online Media:

MS 2148 Cyrus Byington Papers

Creator:
Byington, Cyrus, 1793-1868  Search this
Hudson, Peter James, 1861-1938  Search this
Names:
Iyanoki Female Seminary  Search this
Extent:
121 Pages
Culture:
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1844-1862
Scope and Contents:
Includes a daybook and diary kept by Cyrus Byington and notes on the diary by Peter J. Hudson.

MS 2148-a Daybook of purchases and copies of reports of the Iyanoki Female Seminary for 1844-48 and 1860 together with letters and other material.

MS 2148-b Diary for 1862.

MS 2148-c Typescript notes by Peter J. Hudson intended to aid in the interpretation of the diary.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2148-a-b-c
Topic:
Education -- Choctaw  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2148, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2148
See more items in:
MS 2148 Cyrus Byington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2148

Notes to the diary of the Reverend Cyrus Byington, 1862-63

Creator:
Hudson, Peter James, 1861-1938  Search this
Collection Creator:
Byington, Cyrus, 1793-1868  Search this
Hudson, Peter James, 1861-1938  Search this
Extent:
300 Leaves
Culture:
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Leaves
Diaries
Date:
1932
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2148-c
Local Note:
Typescript carbon copy
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2148, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2148 Cyrus Byington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2148-ref1

MS 1514 Names of colors in the languages of the Oglala Dakota, Crow and Snake (Shoshoni)

Creator:
Merrill, James Cushing, 1853-1902  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages
Culture:
Crow Indians  Search this
Lakota -- Teton  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Vocabulary in printed form from the Museum fur Volkerkunde zu Leipzig, June 1878. Orthography very poor. 1 page note on terms in these languages for 10 colors, with few marginal comments.
Biographical / Historical:
Merrill was U.S. Army Surgeon at Fort Custer.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1514
Local Note:
Autograph document signed
Topic:
Color and dyes -- Dakota  Search this
Color and dyes -- Crow  Search this
Color and dyes -- Shoshoni  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1514, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1514
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1514

William J. Thomson photograph collection of Easter Island Rongorongo boards

Creator:
Thomson, William J. (William Judah), 1841-1909  Search this
Names:
Mohican Expedition  Search this
Extent:
7 Drawings
15 Prints (albumen)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Easter Island
Date:
circa 1880-1890
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting Rongorongo "boards," wooden objects incised with glyphs that originated on Easter Island. The boards shown include the Oar, Keiti, Aruku Kerenga, Mamari, Echancree, Small Santiago, and Large Santiago. The material was probably collected by William J. Thomson for his report "Te Pito Te Henua, or Easter Island."
Biographical/Historical note:
William J. Thomson (1841-1909) was the United States Navy paymaster on the USS Mohican expedition to Easter Island in 1886. The expedition's purposes included archeological surveying and excavation, the creation of geographical charts, and ethnographic research. Two moai (Easter Island stone figures), Rongorongo boards, and a variety of other artifacts for the Smithsonian Institution were collected during the trip.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 75-13
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs of Easter Island by Thomson can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 97.
Easter Island specimens donated by Thomson, including original Rongorongo boards and casts of others, can be found in the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, in accessions 020078 and 023098.
Additional photographs of the USS Mohican expedition can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 76-26.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Rongorongo boards -- Easter Island  Search this
Rongorongo script  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 75-13, William J. Thomson photograph collection of Easter Island Rongorongo boards, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.75-13
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-75-13

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
African American  Search this
Santee Indians  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Dakota -- Santee  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

MS 7369 Margaret Lantis correspondence concerning "The U.S.A. as Anthropologists See It" (American Anthropologist, Vol. 57, No. 6 December 1955)

Creator:
Lantis, Margaret, 1906-2006  Search this
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Correspondent:
Vogt, Evon Z. (Evon Zartman), 1918-2004  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Harrington, J. C. (Jean Carl), 1901-1998  Search this
Schneider, David Murray, 1918-  Search this
Harding, Charles F., III  Search this
Gillin, John, 1907-1973  Search this
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Mason, Leonard, 1913-2005  Search this
Merriam, Alan P., 1923-1980  Search this
Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960  Search this
Goldschmidt, Walter, 1913-2010  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (ca. 3/4 in. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Date:
1953-1954
Scope and Contents:
Consists mainly of correspondence with Sol Tax, editor of the American Anthropologist at the time. Also includes correspondence with contributors and prospective contributors to the volume and participants in a related symposium, including Jules Henry, Evon Zartmann Vogt, Jean C. Harrington, David M. Schneider, Charles F. Harding, III, John Gillin, Margaret Mead, Melford Spiro, Leonard Mason, Alan P. Merriam, Clyde Kluckhohn, Marvin Kaufmann Opler, Walter Rochs Goldschmidt, and Ruth Landes.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7369
Topic:
American Anthropologist  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters
Citation:
Manuscript 7369, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7369
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7369

MS 7539-b Notes on the Mescalero Apaches

Creator:
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (ca in. ca 2 in.)
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Apache -- Mescalero  Search this
Apache -- Medicine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Mescalero Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1931
Scope and Contents:
Typescript of field notes that largely concerns medicine. Includes a photograph of dancers.
Biographical / Historical:
Many of the notes bear Henry's original name--Jules Blumensohn.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7593-b
Citation:
Manuscript 7593-b, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7593B
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7593b

William Edwin Safford photograph albums relating to Easter Island, Samoa, and South America

Collector:
Safford, William Edwin, 1859-1926  Search this
Names:
Mohican Expedition  Search this
Photographer:
Gonsalves, J. A.  Search this
Thomson, William J. (William Judah), 1841-1909  Search this
Valdeavellano, Alberto G., 1861-1928  Search this
Extent:
3 Albums (circa 145 prints, silver gelatin)
Culture:
Samoans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Place:
Samoa
Peru
Panama
Guatemala
Ecuador
Easter Island
Chile
Date:
circa 1886-1902
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs collected by Wiliam Edwin Safford while on US Navy expeditions to Chile, Easter Island, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, and Samoa. They depict indigenous peoples and activities, towns, scenic views, and the crew of the USS Mohican and members of the US Navy. There are also photographs of Guatemala made by Alberto. G. Valdeavellano and J. A. Gonsalves. The Easter Island photographs were possibly made by William J. Thomson, paymaster on the Mohican.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Edwin Safford (1859-1926) was a United States Naval officer from 1880-1902 who took part in Navy expeditions and collected specimens for the United States National Museum. Safford joined the crew of the USS Mohican in South America and participated in its expedition to the South Pacific (1886-1888). In 1891-1892, he commanded an ethnological expedition to Peru and Bolivia for the Chicago Columbian Expedition. He served in the Spanish American War and was vice-governor of Guam in 1899-1900. In 1902, he resigned from the Navy and took an appointment as an economic botanist with the United States Department of Agriculture.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 76-26
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of the expedition to Easter Island can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 97.
Additional photographs collected by Safford can be found in National Anthropological Archives in MS 3366.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the William Edwin Safford Papers, 1894-1925 (SIA RU007275).
Records relating to Safford's collecting expedition in South America can be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in SIA RU000189.
Safford's ethnographic data about Samoa can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 2956.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 76-26, William Edwin Safford photograph albums relating to Easter Island, Samoa, and South America, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.76-26
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-76-26

Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to American Indians

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Photographer:
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Names:
Middlebrook, J. E. (probable photographer)  Search this
Extent:
2,600 Prints (circa, silver gelatin and platinum)
Culture:
Zulu (African people) -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- depicted  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- depicted  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1870s-1930
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection consists of photographs made from glass negatives collected and produced by the Bureau of American Ethnology. These photographs include portraits and field photographs by photographers and anthropologists, most associated with the BAE, including Alexander Gardner, William Henry Jackson, John K. Hillers, DeLancey Gill, C. M. Bell, Antonio Zeno Shindler Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and others. The collection also includes photographs donated to the United States National Museum and transferred to the Department of Anthropology which depict Zulus and people from Chiapas, Mexico. Some of the prints in this collection may have been made for an Indian Photographic Exhibit lent by the BAE to the Public Library Commission of Indiana.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 85
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for the bulk of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
Original prints for photographs of Zulu and people in Chiapas are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 97 and Photo Lot 24.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 85, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.85
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-85

Microfilm of Sheldon Jackson photograph collection

Creator:
Jackson, Sheldon, 1834-1909  Search this
Extent:
1 Roll (microfilm)
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Alaskan natives  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Roll
Photographs
Place:
Alaska
Date:
circa 1877-1907
Scope and Contents note:
Circa 500 photographs documenting Sheldon Jackson's work in the Presbyterian Church and among Alaskan natives, including images of towns, buildings, scenery, and Alaskan natives. The collection includes commercial prints and photographs probably made by Jackson.
Biographical/Historical note:
Sheldon Jackson (1834-1909) was a Presbyterian minister and missionary and a United States government official. He graduated from Union College in New York (1855) and completed a program in theological studies at Princeton (1858). After graduation, he worked at a school for Choctaw boys in what is now Spencer, Oklahoma. He then moved to Minnesota to work as a pastor (1859-1869), stopping briefly to serve as a chaplain in the Civil War. In 1869, he became superintendent for the Board of Home Missions for Iowa, Nebraska, the Dakotas, Wyoming, Montana, and Utah. In 1870 his superintendency included almost all of the American West.

Jackson first visited Alaska in 1877, and in 1884 the federal government appointed him the territory's first superintendent of public instruction. In 1885 he joined the Bureau of Education as a general agent for education in Alaska. In this position, he worked to increase access to education and establish schools. He also introduced domesticated reindeer to Alaska in 1892 in order to alleviate undernourishment in the Alaska native population. In 1897, Jackson was elected moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, the highest honor of that denomination.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R81-13
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Presbyterian Historical Society holds the Sheldon Jackson papers.
Photographs relating to Jackson's project to import reindeer for Alaskans held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 130.
The Department of Anthropology collections holds artifacts collected by Sheldon Jackson in Alaska and elsewhere.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
The microfilm was obtained for reference purposes only. Copies of the images should be obtained from the Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia.
Topic:
Presbyterian Church  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R81-13, Microfilm of Sheldon Jackson photograph collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R81-13
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r81-13

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