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Anthony Moreno Papers

Creator:
Moreno, Anthony M.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Culture:
Latinos -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Annual reports
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1946-1975, undated
Summary:
Collection primarily documents the career of Latino graphic artist and designer Anthony Moreno.
Scope and Contents:
Collection primarily documents commercial artwork created by Latino graphic artist and designer Anthony Moreno for United States companies. It consists of client files including original artwork, purchase orders, annual reports, product packaging, magazines, and some promotional materials. In addition, a United States Marine Corps discharge certificate, unemployment documents, a resume, photographs, business cards, and a customized desk notepad are also found among the materials. Information relating to Moreno's personal life is not included in the collection. Most of the materials are undated and are arranged in alphabetical order either by the name of a company or type of materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Anthony M. Moreno was born to [Pasquel] Moreno and Maria [Cleotilde] Garcia on January 30, 1923 in Los Angeles County, California. He attended the Theodore Roosevelt High School where he graduated in 1941. Moreno served in the United States Marines from 1943-1946. He married Margaret Carrera on October 22, 1949. Before becoming an art director, Moreno attended the Art Center School and graduated in 1953. As an art director, he worked for numerous United States companies including Global Marketing, Incorporated; Dozier Eastman Company; Weider Health and Fitness, Incorporated; and Ralph M. Parsons. Moreno died on February 8, 1982 at the age of fifty-nine in Montebello, Los Angeles County, California.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Margaret Moreno to the Archives Center in 2019.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising art -- 20th century  Search this
Graphic artists  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Anthony Moreno Papers, 1946-1975, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1478
See more items in:
Anthony Moreno Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1478

Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection

Creator:
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Names:
Japan. Navy  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Tanaka, Kiyoshi  Search this
Extent:
1.51 Cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Clippings
Date:
1860-1988
bulk 1945-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection was gathered by National Air and Space Museum curator Robert C. Mikesh for his publication on this subject, "Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America." The collection consists of the following: magazine and newspaper articles on the Japanese balloons; manuscripts and independent articles; 83 photos Mr. Mikesh used in his book and 68 miscellaneous photos collected for research purposes; also photocopies of Japanese balloon illustrations and Japanese balloon propaganda reports. The collection also includes the working files of Kiyoshi Tanaka, the Supervisor Technical Lieutenant Commander for the Japanese Navy balloon project, and multiple copies of Mr. Mikesh's publication.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as originally numbered and titled by Robert C. Mikesh. Additional folder title information has been added by the processing archivist in brackets.
Biographical / Historical:
During World War II the Japanese constructed nearly 10,000 lighter-than-air balloons for the purpose of carrying destructive pay loads to the U.S. Between November 1944 and April 1945 these balloons made use of the prevailing west-to-east jet stream over the North Pacific Ocean. Nearly 285 sightings and fragment findings have been recorded in North America, and 5 deaths resulted. This was the first and only attack upon the American continent directly from an enemy homeland.
Provenance:
NASM Generated, Transfer, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0558.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Air defenses -- United States  Search this
Air defenses  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Clippings
Citation:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection, Acc. XXXX.0558, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0558
See more items in:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0558
Online Media:

5. Japanese Language Accounts

Collection Creator:
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946-1985
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection, Acc. XXXX.0558, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0558-ref509

6. Exhibit of Balloon Bomb Device [National Air and Space Museum's Balloon Bomb Control Device Exhibit in Japan]

Collection Creator:
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1974-1975
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection, Acc. XXXX.0558, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0558-ref510

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 2 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2020

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 3 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2021

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 4 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2022

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 5 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2023

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 6 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2024

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 7 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2025

1962 2nd World Aerobatic Championship. Budapest, Hungary. July 17-29; 1 of 7

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 101, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref755

United States Marine Corps, discharge certificate

Collection Creator:
Moreno, Anthony M.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Anthony Moreno Papers, 1946-1975, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Anthony Moreno Papers
Anthony Moreno Papers / Series 1: Professional Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1478-ref22

Ralph M. Parsons Company, News and Views, magazines

Collection Creator:
Moreno, Anthony M.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 26
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Anthony Moreno Papers, 1946-1975, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Anthony Moreno Papers
Anthony Moreno Papers / Series 1: Professional Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1478-ref28

Acee Blue Eagle papers

Creator:
Blue Eagle, Acee, 1907-1959  Search this
Names:
Abbott, Mae  Search this
Beaver, Fred  Search this
Bosin, Blackbear, 1921-1980  Search this
Campbell, Walter S.  Search this
Dale, Edward E.  Search this
Debo, Angie, 1890-1988  Search this
Dja, Devi  Search this
Echohawk, Brummett T., 1922-2006  Search this
Fairbanks, Charles H. (Charles Herron), 1913-1985  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Field, Dorothy  Search this
Gilcrease, Thomas, 1890-1962  Search this
Houser, Allan, 1914-1994  Search this
Howe, Oscar, 1915-1983  Search this
Jackson, Oscar B.  Search this
Lemos, Pedro de  Search this
Marriott, Alice  Search this
Martinez, Julian, -1943  Search this
Martínez, María Montoya  Search this
McCombs, Solomon, 1913-1980 (Creek)  Search this
Medicine Crow, Joseph, 1913-2016  Search this
Mirabel, Eva  Search this
Momaday, Al  Search this
Pond, Charles E.  Search this
Rowan, Edward B.  Search this
Shears, Glen E.  Search this
Sheets, Nan  Search this
Steinke, Bettina, 1913-1999  Search this
Sunrise, Riley  Search this
Te Ata  Search this
Whitehorse, Roland Noah, 1920-1998  Search this
Extent:
673 Paintings (visual works) (approximate)
30 Linear feet (55 document boxes and 8 oversize boxes)
Culture:
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Paintings (visual works)
Date:
1907 - 1975
Summary:
Acee Blue Eagle was a Pawnee-Creek artist, poet, dancer, teacher, and celebrity. The papers relate to both Blue Eagle's personal and professional life. Also included are some materials of Blue Eagle's friend Mae Abbott and a collection of art by other Indians.
Scope and Contents:
This collection reflects the life and work of Acee Blue Eagle, internationally famed Indian artist of Oklahoma. Identified for his brilliant paintings of tribal ceremonies, legend and dance, Blue Eagle's work is represented in numerous private collections and museums both in this country and abroad.

A portion of the papers contains correspondence. Fan mail written by school children to Chief Blue Eagle of the Chief Blue Eagle television program is included. Letters regarding Blue Eagle's participation in Indian festivals and events, art shows and exhibitions, speaking engagements on Indian life and culture are found in the collection. Personal correspondence is included; most frequent correspondents are Devi Dja, Mae Abbott, and Charles E. Pond. There are approximately 100 letters from Devi Dja, approximately 90 to or from Mae Abbott, and approximately 36 from Charles E. Pond. Some letters addressed to these individuals from other friends and acquaintances are also within this collection.

Photographs comprise a large portion of the Blue Eagle collection. Included are not only portraits of the artist himself and photographs of his art work, but a large number of prints of Blue Eagle in full costume and other Indians engaged in tribal ceremonies, identified by tribe, whenever possible. Photographs of Mae Abbott, Devi Dja and the latter's Balinese dance troupe are identified. A file of negatives is arranged in the same subject order as the prints. Newspaper and magazine clippings regarding Blue Eagle's work and activities are also included in the collection. These clippings have not been arranged. In addition, Mae Abbott's recipes and notes for her cookbook, wood blocks, greeting cards and other miscellaneous publications can be found in the collection. These items have been sorted but not arranged.

Within the collection are also over 600 pieces of artwork. A good number are by Blue Eagle while most are by other Native artists. Artists whose are work are represented in the collection include Fred Beaver, Harrison Begay, Archie Blackowl, Woodrow Crumbo, Allan Houser, Ruthe Blalock Jones, Quicy Tahoma, Pablita Verde, and members of the Kiowa Five (Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke).
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged into six series: 1) Personal; 2) Collections; 3) Artwork; 4) Television; 5) Correspondence; 6) Photographs.
Biographical / Historical:
Acee Blue Eagle was an artist, poet, dancer, teacher, and celebrity. Born Alex C. McIntosh in 1907, Blue Eagle attended Indian schools in Anadarko, Nuyaka, and Euchee, Oklahoma, and the Haskell and Chilocco Indian schools. Advanced study came at Bacone Indian College and the University of Oklahoma. At the latter, he studied with Oscar B. Jacobson. Privately he studied with Winold Reiss. Discrepancies exist in the records regarding his early life: born in either Anadarko or Hitchita, Oklahoma; he's cited as both Pawnee-Creek and 5/8 Creek without any Pawnee blood; his mother is either Mattie Odom, the first wife of Solomon McIntosh or Ella Starr, McIntosh's second wife.

A prolific painter who, for the sake of authenticity, carried out research in libraries and museums, Blue Eagle was an outstanding American Indian artist of the 1930s-1950s. His paintings hung in many exhibits, including the Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts, 1932-1933; International Art Exhibition of Sport Subjects at Los Angeles, 1932; Chicago Century of Progress Exposition, 1934; a one-man show at the Young Galleries in Chicago; National Exhibition of Art at the Rockefeller Center in New York, 1936; a one-man show at the Washington, D.C., Arts Club, 1936; Museum of Modern Art, 1941; Northwest Art Exhibition at Spokane, Washington, 1944; a one-man show at the Gilcrease Institute in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1953; An Exposition of American Indian Painters in New York, 1955; and a one-man show at the Philbrook Art Center in Tulsa, 1957. Between 1946 and 1965, over fifty galleries hung his paintings. Some pieces are among the permanent holdings of many institutions.

In 1934, Blue Eagle joined the Work Projects Administration (WPA) Public Works of Art Project, painting murals in public buildings. In 1935 at Oxford University, he participated in a program of the International Federation of Education and lectured on Indian art. A tour of Europe followed. He taught at Bacone Indian College from 1935-1938 where he founded the art program and became Director of Art. He also taught at the University of Kansas extension division in 1949 and Oklahoma State Technical College beginning in 1956. During World War II, he served in the United States Army Air Force; and, following the war, he spent a few years attempting to get into the movies. During 1946-1952, he was married to his second wife, a famous Balinese dancer, Devi Dja, and became involved in her career, an involvement that was briefly reflected in his art. However, Dja and Blue Eagle divorced and Blue Eagle lived with Mae Wadley Abbott for the last years of his life. During the 1950s, he had a television show for children on a Tulsa-Muskogee station. Acee Blue Eagle died on June 18, 1959 of a liver infection.

Sources Consulted

Martindale, Rob. Muskogee Paying Tribute to Blue Eagle. Biographical/Genealogical data, Box 1, Acee Blue Eagle Collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

West, Juanita W. 1967. Acee Blue Eagle: A.C. McIntosh. Biographical/Genealogical data, Box 1, Acee Blue Eagle Collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

1907 -- Born August 17, 1907 on the Wichita Reservation, north of Anadarko, Oklahoma

1928 -- Graduated Chilocco High School

1929-1934 -- Attended Bacone College, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State Tech

1935 -- Toured United States and Europe giving lecture-exhibition program, "Life and Character of the American Indian"

1935-1938 -- Established and headed art department at Bacone College at Muskogee

1936 -- Exhibited at the National Exhibition of Art, Rockefeller Center, New York

1942-1945 -- World War II, U.S. Air Force (Army)

1947-49 -- Free-lance work in New York and Chicago

1951-52 -- Artist-in-residence at Oklahoma Tech

1950-54 -- Conducted TV program, Muskogee, OklahomaToured U.S. West Coast exhibiting and lecturing about ways to improve TV programs for children

1958 -- Named Indian-of-the-Year by the American Indian Expostion at Anadarko, Oklahoma

1959 -- Died June 18, 1959
Related Materials:
Other materials relating to Acee Blue Eagle at the National Anthropological Archives include correspondence in the Solomon McCombs papers, 1914-1972, and correspondence with Betty Meilink under Manuscript 2011-20.
Provenance:
Acee Blue Eagle's private papers and collection of paintings were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Mrs. Mae Abbott of Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Restrictions:
There are no restrictions on access.
Rights:
Literary property rights to unpublished material in the collection in the National Anthropological Archives has been given to the public.
Topic:
Indian art -- North America  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Citation:
Acee Blue Eagle Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1973-51
See more items in:
Acee Blue Eagle papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1973-51
Online Media:

Francis Gary Powers Collection

Creator:
Powers, Francis Gary, 1929-1977  Search this
Names:
Lockheed Aircraft Corp  Search this
Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich, 1894-1971  Search this
Powers, Francis Gary, 1929-1977  Search this
Extent:
1.53 Cubic feet (2 legal document boxes, 1 flat box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Diaries
Correspondence
Telegrams
Photographs
Logs (records)
Date:
1929-1986
bulk 1952-1977
Summary:
This collection consists of material relating to Francis Gary Powers's flying career in the Air Force, Central Intelligence Agency, and later pursuits. The majority of the documents deal with the May 1960 U-2 incident, in which Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union during a reconnaisance mission and imprisoned. Materials include: logbooks; flight records from his military and civilian careers; a pocket diary and journal he kept during his Soviet imprisonment; letters to his parents; materials collected by his parents as his father attempted to visit him including a telegram from Nikita Khrushchev and a New Testament given to Powers by his mother during his Soviet trial; Congressional hearing material; newspaper articles; Life magazine; and several photographs of Powers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of documents relating to Francis Gary Powers and his aviation career, particularly the 1960 U-2 incident with the Soviet Union. Materials include: logbooks; flight records from his military and civilian careers; a pocket diary and journal he kept during his Soviet imprisonment; letters to his parents; materials collected by his parents as his father attempted to visit him including a telegram from Nikita Khrushchev and a New Testament given to Powers by his mother during his Soviet trial; Congressional hearing material; newspaper articles; Life magazine; and several photographs of Powers.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series: Early Career, the U-2 Incident, and Post U-2 Incident Life and Career.

Series 1 contains materials relating to Francis Gary Power's early career with the United States Air Force before resigning to join the CIA, including his birth certificate, military orders and forms, and his individual flight records.

Series 2 contains materials relating to the U-2 incident, in which Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union and imprisoned. The first set of materials relates to Powers' imprisonment, including his prison journal, pocket diary, New Testament, correspondence, and the subsequent congressional hearing. The second set of materials relates to the Powers family during the incident, including correspondence and telegrams with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and the United States government and Oliver Powers' passport. The third set of materials relates to the media reactions to the incident, including complete newspapers, article clippings, a television script, and artwork.

The Soviet Prison Journal and Soviet Prison Pocket Diary were on display in the Looking at Earth Gallery when the collection was digitized. The photocopies were scanned for digital access.

Series 3 contains materials from Powers' life and career after his return to the United States, including logbooks, public relations documents, flight training and insurance records, an employment application, and memorial items.

Documents with personally identifiable information (PII) have been redacted or not digitized.
Biographical/Historical note:
Francis Gary Powers (1929 -1977) learned to fly during high school. He enlisted in the United States Air Force after graduating from Milligan College in 1950. In 1956, he resigned from the Air Force to become a "civilian employee" of Lockheed on loan to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, authorized to fly Air Force aircraft. In reality, he was a covert employee of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), training for Operation Overflight—U-2 reconnaissance missions.

Powers was captured and imprisoned after his U-2 was shot down over the Soviet Union during an aerial reconnaissance mission on May 1, 1960. Powers was placed on trial and exchanged nearly two years later for Rudolf Abel, a Soviet agent. After his return to the United States, Powers continued to work for the CIA, but then left to work at Lockheed. Powers was working for NBC's Los Angeles affiliate KGIL in 1977, when his helicopter ran out of fuel and crashed, causing his death.
Provenance:
Claudia Sue Powers, Gift, 1994, NASM.1994.0010.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
United States -- Foreign relations -- Soviet Union  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Lockheed U-2 Family  Search this
Cold War  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aerial reconnaissance  Search this
Photographic reconnaissance systems  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Diaries
Correspondence
Telegrams
Photographs
Logs (records)
Citation:
Francis Gary Powers Collection, Acc. 1994.0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1994.0010
See more items in:
Francis Gary Powers Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1994-0010
Online Media:

Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection

Creator:
Pierce, Harold Fisher, 1889-1963  Search this
Names:
Henderson, Yandell, 1873-1944  Search this
Extent:
3.27 Cubic feet (4 legal document boxes; 1 legal half-size document box; 3 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1909-1985
Summary:
The Harold F. Pierce collection consists of documents relating to Pierce's career in aviation medicine, particularly his service as a flight surgeon in World War I and World War II and his work on the Henderson Pierce rebreathing apparatus. Materials include correspondence, photographs, military records, certificates, technical drawings, and news clippings.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately three cubic feet of material relating to Harold F. Pierce's career in aviation medicine including correspondence; photographs; military records; certificates; technical drawings; and news clippings. The collection also contains a scrapbook which covers Pierce's service in World War I, his experiments at Oxford University and Columbia University, the Wilmer Institute, and World War II. Notable figures found in the collection include John Paul Stapp; David Goodman Simons; James A. Healy; Albert William Stevens; Sir William Osler; Merritte Weber Ireland; William H. Wilmer and others. The collection also contains personal letters from Pierce to his family written during his time in service during both World Wars. Large format drawings include maps of the Second and Third Aviation Instruction Centers, France, during World War I, and technical drawings for his rebreathing apparatus.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series: Professional Materials and Personal Materials.

Series 1 contains documents related to Harold F. Pierce's career in aviation medicine, particularly his service as a flight surgeon during World War I and World War I.

Series 2 contains Harold F. Pierce's personal documents, including letters of appointment, resumes, news clippings (both biographical and on subjects of interest), photos and portraits, and family materials.

Some of the materials were organized by L. Pierce (the donor, Pierce's daughter) into categories, particularly those related to aviation, the Henderson-Pierce rebreathing apparatus, and inventions. Select paragraphs of correspondence were clipped from the original document and placed under these categories. These materials frequently were kept in the category in which they were found. Numerous notes (underlining, checkmarks, dates, etc.) made by L. Pierce can be found on documents throughout the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Harold F. Pierce (1889-1963) received his degree from Clark University in 1912, having previously served in the Navy. He then worked in the electrical engineering and testing laboratory of the General Electric Company. After entering academia, he was an instructor of chemistry at Dartmouth College and transferred to Harvard Medical School.

When the United States entered World War I, Pierce was working on gas mask technology for the Bureau of Mines. In 1917, he joined the American Expeditionary Forces, U.S. Army Air Service, Sanitary Corps in World War I as a flight surgeon. During his time in service, Pierce helped to develop the Henderson-Pierce rebreathing apparatus, based on his prewar work with Yale University's Professor Yandell Henderson. He was instrumental in establishing medical research laboratories, first at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island, and then in France at the 2nd Aviation Instruction Center, Tours, and the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun.

After leaving the military in 1919, Pierce continued his studies and work with rebreathing equipment at Oxford University as a tutor and demonstrator of physiology, including involvement with British Mount Everest reconnaissance expeditions. In 1922, he earned a BSc (OXON) Degree in pathology.

He returned to the United States to serve as Associate Physiologist at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University, earning his Ph.D. in colloidal chemistry in 1927. From 1927 to 1935, he served as Associate Professor of research ophthalmology at Wilmer Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. (He had served with founder William H. Wilmer in WWI.) In 1935, he received his M.D. and served as Assistant Resident in medicine at Bellevue Hospital, New York City. He also assisted in the design of the capsule for the Explorer II manned high-altitude balloon launch.

Pierce rejoined the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1942 serving as a flight surgeon and altitude physiologist at the School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. In 1945, he was transferred to the Avon Old Farms Convalescent Hospital in his home state of Connecticut.

After World War II, Pierce served as medical director of the Connecticut State Welfare Department and as a consultant in aero-physiology at Hartford Hospital until retiring in 1960. He is recognized as a pioneer in the field of aviation medicine.
Provenance:
Ms. L. Pierce, Gift, 2014.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aviation medicine  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aviation Instruction Center, 3rd (France)  Search this
Explorer II (Balloon)  Search this
Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y. Medical Research Laboratory  Search this
Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute  Search this
Citation:
Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection, Acc. 2014.0044, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2014.0044
See more items in:
Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2014-0044
Online Media:

Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album

Creator:
Stupe, Albert  Search this
Stupe, Willy  Search this
Names:
Boelcke, Oswald, 1891-1916  Search this
Brandenburg, Ernst, 1883-1952  Search this
Hindenburg, Paul von, 1847-1934  Search this
Kaiser Wilhelm II  Search this
Richthofen, Manfred, Freiherr von, 1892-1918  Search this
Stupe, Albert  Search this
Stupe, Willy  Search this
Extent:
0.51 Cubic feet (1 flat box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Date:
1895-1919
Summary:
The Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album (acc. 1991.0037) shows German soldiers in both formal and informal settings; living quarters and airfields; airplanes and the bombs they dropped; and the towns in which the military installments were situated. A variety of aircraft and high profile personalities also appear in this album.
Scope and Contents:
The Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album contains photographs of soldiers of the 95th and 135th Infantry Regiments. The photographs record soldier life in both formal and informal settings, showing their living quarters and airfields; the airplanes they flew and the bombs they dropped; as well as the towns in which the airfields were situated. Several pages are dedicated to Kampfgeschwader 3, the England-Geschwader. It was this bomber squadron, under the command of Captain Ernst Brandenburg, that was responsible for the bombing of London by airplanes, an achievement which earned both Captain Brandenburg and his successor, Captain Rudolf Kleine, the Pour le Mérite.

A variety of aircraft also appear in this album, including: Gotha G.IV, Fokker E.II, LFG Roland, and LVG C.III. A number of images document the visits of high-profile German personalities to the units--Kaiser Wilhelm, General von Hindenberg, and Germany's most famous ace, Baron von Richthofen--while several photographs memorialize the funeral of flying ace Oswald Boelcke.
Arrangement:
The Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album is in its original order. A group of ten postcards in folder two (acc. 1991.0054) are in no particular order.
Biographical/Historical note:
Willy Stupe (1889-1951) and his younger brother Albert (1891-1917) were born in Coburg, Germany, where they also began their military service. The brothers both served in the 95th Infantry Regiment (6th Thuringian) at some point during their military careers. Leutnant Albert Stupe was a decorated officer, having received two Iron Crosses and other combat medals. World War I German casualty lists for 1914-1919 show that Albert, who is said to have been a pilot, was killed in action on July 31, 1917.

Willy spent some of his military service as a paymaster and is said to have served in a motorcycle unit. He immigrated to the United States in 1921, declaring (as Willy Stuppe) his intentions be become an American citizen. Willy lived out the rest of his days with his wife, Cora Caesar, working as a merchant in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, area until his death in 1951.
Provenance:
Kevin B. Skinner, Gift, 1991, 1991.0037, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Germany  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
LFG Roland Family  Search this
Fokker E.II (M 14)  Search this
Gotha G.IV  Search this
LVG C.III  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Aircraft  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Germany  Search this
War -- World War I soldiers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Photographs
Citation:
Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album, Acc. 1991.0037, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0037
See more items in:
Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0037
Online Media:

Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album

Collection Creator:
Stupe, Albert  Search this
Stupe, Willy  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic album
435 Photographs
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic albums
Photographs
Date:
1908-1919
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album, Acc. 1991.0037, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Albert and Willy Stupe World War I Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0037-ref509

National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives

Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Aero Club of America  Search this
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
National Air Races  Search this
Extent:
80.75 Cubic feet
81.29 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1914-1995
bulk 1914-1995
Summary:
The National Aeronautical Association (NAA) was created to advance the art and science of aviation and related subjects and the diffusion of knowledge thereof by educational means.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of records of the National Aeronautical Association (NAA). The material includes documents on programs to heighten public awareness of aviation, such as the NAA newsletter and material on special events staged by NAA; material relating to the NAA's educational programs and clubs, such as college aviation clubs; material outlining NAA's active role in supporting and promoting competitive aeronautic events. The collection also includes Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) license cards, business records, minutes, and correspondence of the NAA and material on aviation awards supported or given by NAA such as the Wright and Collier Trophies.

There is also newspaper clippings, brochures, programs, reports, publications, magazines, certificates, books, ribbons, badges, maps, drawings and photos.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects. Documents with personally identifiable information (PII) have not been digitized.
Arrangement:
Arranged into series and subseries. Placed in chronological order within each series and subseries with undated materials placed at the end.

Series 1: Licenses & Registration

1:1 License Records

1:2 Registration of Race Airplanes

1:3 Sporting Licenses Records

1:4 Timers & Timing Info

Series 2: Women's Races / Events

2:1 All-Women International

2:2 Skylady Derby

2:3 All-Woman Transcontinental

2:4 Misc. Races/Events

Series 3: Events, Races & Awards

3:1 Wright Trophy

3:2 Collier Trophy

3:3 Brewer Trophy

3:4 Elder Statesman of Aviation

3:5 Air & Balloon Races

3:6 Gliding & Soaring

3:7 Aeromodeling

3:8 Parachuting & Skydiving

3:9 Aerobatics

3:10 Misc. Events

Series 4: Attempted & Sanctioned Records

4:1 Record Application Materials

4:2 Administrative re: Records

Series 5: Administrative Records

5:1 Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)

5: 2 National Aeronautical Association (NAA)

5:3 Chapters/Associations/Affiliates

5:4 Misc. Administrative Records

Series 6: Newsletters, Bulletins and Magazines of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) & National Aeronautical Association (NAA)

Series 7: Other Publications
Biographical / Historical:
The Aero Club of America, established in 1905, was reorganized in 1922 as the National Aeronautic Association (NAA). The NAA was created to advance the art and science of aviation and related subjects and the diffusion of knowledge thereof by educational means. The NAA has tried to meet this goal by keeping the public informed on the importance of aeronautics and space, by instituting space education programs to stimulate youth interest and by promoting and aiding competitive and sporting aeronautic events.
Provenance:
Jonathan Gaffney, gift, unknown date
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Awards  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautical sports  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
manuscripts  Search this
Awards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0209
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209
Online Media:

1968 National Aerobatic Competition Oct. 18-20 - Score Sheets; 2 of 3

Collection Creator:
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 103, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), Acc. XXXX-0209, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives
National Aeronautical Association (NAA) Archives / Series 3: Events, Races & Awards / 3.9: Aerobatics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0209-ref2026

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