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Records of the Field Offices for the State of Missouri, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
24 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 24 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1908. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Office of the Disbursing Officer for Missouri, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. The records of the disbursing officer are the only field records for Missouri, but they reflect his overall responsibility for freedmen affairs in the state. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters sent and received, registers of marriages, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and bounty payments.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, registers of bounty claimants, and a marriage register. The unbound documents consist of registered letters, registered letters received by endorsement, and unregistered letters received.
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1908
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Missouri, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1908
Online Media:

Edgar W. Bowlin papers, 1956-1961

Creator:
Bowlin, Edgar W., 1923-  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6785
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208911
AAA_collcode_bowledga
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208911

Comfort family papers relating to George Fisk Comfort, [ca.1857]-1955

Creator:
Comfort, George Fisk, 1834-1910  Search this
Subject:
Massaranti, Marcello  Search this
Cesnola, Luigi Palma di  Search this
Cox, Kenyon  Search this
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Johnson, Eastman  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Syracuse University  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9664
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211872
AAA_collcode_comfgeor
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211872

Records of the Field Offices for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
23 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 23 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1901. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Arkansas staff offices and subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, monthly reports, applications of freedmen for rations, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and homesteads.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen issued rations, special orders and circulars issued, registers of bounty claimants, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; amnesty oaths; applications of freedmen for rations; and records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1901.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. The Bureau's operations began in Arkansas in May 1865, when Brig. Gen. John W. Sprague took command as Assistant Commissioner. By order of Commissioner Howard in Circular No. 5, dated May 30, 1865, he established headquarters at St. Louis, MO, the next month. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Edward O. C. Ord relieved Sprague in October 1866 and was succeeded by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith in March 1867.

When Sprague arrived in St. Louis, his jurisdiction encompassed areas outside Arkansas, including Missouri, Indian Territory, parts of Kansas (around Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott), and Illinois (around Quincy and Cairo). By September 1865, Commissioner Howard felt that the laws of Missouri afforded enough protection to freedmen for the Bureau's activities to cease there. On October 16, 1865, Sprague received orders from Commissioner Howard to transfer headquarters from St. Louis to Little Rock, Arkansas, and operations of the Bureau were by-in-large withdrawn from Missouri. However, in April 1867 Frederick. A. Seely was assigned as a disbursing officer for Missouri with headquarters at St. Louis, a position he held until February 1872. Although much of Seely's work related to the processing and payment of claims, he was also in charge of freedmen's affairs in Missouri. The headquarters remained in Little Rock until the Bureau's activities were terminated. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Arkansas, for example, included those with headquarters at Arkadelphia, Augusta, Batesville, Camden, Lewisburg, Devall's Bluff, Fort Smith, Hamburg, Hampton, Helena, Jacksonport, Lake Village and Luna Landing, Lewisville, Little Rock, Madison, Magnolia, Marion, Monticello, Napoleon, Osceola, Ozark, Paraclifta, Pine Bluff, Princeton, South Bend, Union, and Washington. Under the direct supervision of the subassistant commissioners were the civilian and military agents. Occasionally, the Bureau retained military officers in a civilian capacity after the termination of their military service. For a list of known Arkansas subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

Constrained by limited resources, Southern opposition, and the politics of Reconstruction, the Bureau faced an enormous challenge in its efforts to assist the freedmen and refugees. Its relief efforts, without question, saved thousands of southerners from starvation. Its attempts to assist freedmen to become self-sufficient, to provide public education, administer justice, and, to a lesser degree, to provide land, all worked with varying degrees of success to lessen the difficulties during the transition from slavery to freedom. One of the Bureau's greatest legacies is the body of records it created and received during the course of its operations. These records are arguably some of the most important documents available for the study of the Federal Government's policies, efforts to reconstruct the South, and Southern social history and genealogy.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN ARKANSAS

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Arkansas and Missouri generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, and assisted freedmen in locating land.

To prevent widespread starvation and destitution in Arkansas and Missouri, the Freedmen's Bureau issued some 1,705,055 rations to both blacks and whites from June 1865 to September 1866. In May 1865, prior to the Bureau's relief efforts in the Arkansas district, the Federal Government had issued 75,097 rations to refugees and 46,845 to destitute freedmen. After late October 1865, the Bureau's ration–relief efforts were discontinued in Missouri. Because civil authorities in the Arkansas district failed to provide medical assistance to the "Destitute and Starving," the Bureau, with assistance from Northern societies, established asylums, hospitals, and various kinds of relief camps. By the fall of 1866, with two commissioned medical officers, contract physicians, and male and female attendants, the Bureau had treated more than 100 refugees and over 1,500 freedmen. In late October 1866, Assistant Commissioner John W. Sprague reported that Arkansas hospitals alone had given medical aid to 3,260 people, nearly 200 of them freedmen. By the end of June 1868, Bureau hospitals in Arkansas had treated four times as many patients as in previous years, and greatly curtailed the attacks of smallpox and cholera.1

The regulation of written labor contracts between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Bureau in Arkansas. In Circular Number 16, issued October 26, 1865, Commissioner Sprague outlined the rules governing the free labor system in Arkansas. Sprague ordered that all contracts in the Arkansas district were to be in writing with the approval of a Bureau official. Labor agreements were not to exceed 1 year, and no fixed rates were to be established. A 10–cent fee paid by the planter was required for each laborer. Generally, men could earn $16 per month, women $10, and children $6. First–class laborers could earn $20 per month, and received room and board, medical attention, and other essentials. In some cases, freedmen worked for a share of the crop. Whatever the agreement, subordinate Bureau officers were required to keep a record of labor contacts that they approved and witnessed, and freedmen were free to seek employment where they wished. Bureau officials often encouraged freedmen to give special consideration to employers who offered schools for their children.2

In response to Commissioner Howard's orders of July 12, 1865, concerning the education of refugees and freedmen, Assistant Commissioner Sprague appointed William M. Colby as general superintendent of refugee and freedmen schools. Colby was instructed "to cooperate with the state authorities and if possible work out a general system of education for those classes." Colby faced a great deal of opposition from southern whites who felt that freedmen taught by "evil emissaries from the North" encouraged social equality, an idea that they vehemently opposed. In spite of this bitter opposition, however, Bureau officials in Arkansas furnished buildings for schools, and sent agents throughout the district to advise freedmen about education. From November 1865 to September 1866, working with such groups as the Indiana Friends and the Western Department of the American Freedmen's Aid Commission, the Bureau paid more than 30 percent of the cost for instructing freedmen in the alphabet, arithmetic, geography, and writing. By the summer of 1868, there were more than 30 teachers and over 1,000 pupils attending some 27 day and night schools. Some 118 teachers were instructing over 1,800 students in 24 Sabbath schools.3

In January 1869, Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith, then Assistant Commissioner for Arkansas, reorganized the education branch into three districts, with an assistant superintendent for each, for the purpose of cooperating with State officials in the transfer of the Bureau schools to the State's system. William M. Colby, David C. Casey, and James T. Watson were appointed to these new positions. General Smith held the position of chief superintendent of education. The Assistant Commissioner's office was abolished in April 1869, and Commissioner Howard reappointed Colby as the superintendent of education on May 1, 1869. Colby held that position until July 1870. By that time the Bureau had turned over most of the schools to the State Board of Education.

When Commissioner Sprague established his headquarters in St. Louis, several benevolent societies had already begun work on the establishment of schools for freedmen in Missouri. In 1864, the American Missionary Society established a freedmen school at Warrensburg, and the Western Freedmen Aid Society (WFAC) assisted military officials in the education of freedmen at Benton Barracks. By the time disbursing officer Frederick A. Seely opened his office in Missouri in 1867, there were more than 1,000 students attending some 30 schools in St. Louis alone. Seely, however, did provide support and assistance to local groups in the construction of additional schools in St. Louis, Warrensburg, Kansas City, Westport, and Carondolet.4

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was of paramount concern to the Freedmen's Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard on May 30, 1865, Assistant Commissioners were directed to "adjudicate, either themselves or through officers of their appointment, all difficulties arising between Negroes themselves, or between Negroes and whites or Indians." In the Arkansas district, freedmen were tried in both provost courts and freedmen courts. Freedmen courts were used when Bureau officials determined that freedmen were being treated unjustly. A freedmen court consisted of a Bureau official and two citizens of a given county. The three–member court had jurisdiction over all matters involving labor disputes and other cases relating to freedmen and refugees that did not exceed $300, 30 days in prison, or a fine of $100. In October 1865, Sprague appointed civilian superintendents to administer justice, especially in instances where freedmen were denied the right to testify in courts. Superintendents were told to follow state court procedures and laws as long as the laws made "no distinctions on account of color." By summer 1866, despite continued allegations of mistreatment of freedmen, all cases except those relating to labor contracts were being handled by state courts or military authorities. In 1867, when reconstruction acts placed Arkansas under the fourth military district, both state and Bureau courts were put under military supervision.5

The Freedmen's Bureau in the Arkansas district sought, with limited success, to secure land for refugees and freedmen. It intended to establish freedmen on lands under its control that had been abandoned or confiscated. However, its efforts were nullified by President Andrew Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of May 29, 1865, which provided pardons and the restoration of lands to Confederates who took an oath of allegiance to the Federal Government. To minimize the impact of Johnson's Proclamation, the Bureau required that refugees and freedmen occupying land under cultivation be allowed to remain on the land until crops were harvested or just compensation was rendered. It also required that existing lease agreements be honored until they expired and that refugees and freedmen would not be moved from the land until arrangements could be made for them elsewhere. There was no complete effort to restore lands to their original owners in Arkansas until the Freedmen's Bureau was withdrawn from the State.6

The Southern Homestead Act (14 Stat. 66), approved by Congress on June 21, 1866, made available for public settlement 46 million acres of public lands in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Nine million acres of this Federal land was located in Arkansas. Because the Act specifically prohibited discrimination against applicants due to race, it offered an opportunity for Arkansas freedmen and others to become landowners. Generally, the Freedmen's Bureau, through "Locating Agents," assisted interested freedmen in finding plots, and provided them with 1–month subsistence, free transportation to their prospective tracts of land, and seeds for the initial planting. Despite his concerns that a large percentage of the Arkansas land was worthless and that many freedmen who were under labor agreements for the year would not be able to take full advantage of the Southern Homestead Act, Assistant Commissioner Sprague hired Dr. W. W. Granger as locating agent for Arkansas freedmen. By early summer 1867, Granger had located 1.5 million acres of land available for entry (application) and recommended more than 400,000 acres for settlement. By fall 1867, Granger reported that of the 243 tracts he had surveyed, freedmen had entered 116 of the 143 that were suitable for settlement. A total of 26,395 entries were made in Arkansas under the Southern Homestead Act during the 10 years of the Act's existence. Less than 11,000, however, were carried to completion. Of the approximately 250 freedmen who eventually made land entries, only 25 percent completed them. Whites made most of the entries in Arkansas, and many of the freedmen who sought land there came from Georgia.7

ENDNOTES

1 Thomas S. Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874 (New York: 1923), pp. 205 – 207.

2 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, pp. 77 and 255.

3 Thomas S. Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, pp. 207 – 210.

4 Richard O. Curry, ed. Radicalism, Racism, and Party Realignment: The Border States during Reconstruction (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1969), pp. 258 – 259.

5 House Ex. Doc. No. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45; Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874, pp. 211 – 215.

6 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 70 – 71.

7 Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, eds., The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999), pp. 73–77; see also Claude F. Oubre, Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Land Ownership (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1978), p. 109.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Arkansas:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Arkansas. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

ARKADELPHIA (Clark County)

July–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent William A. Stuart

Dec. 1865–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent William A. Britton

Oct. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Anthony E. Babricht

AUGUSTA (Woodruff County)

Nov. 1865–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent John Thorp

Nov. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Sebastian Geisreiter

BATESVILLE (Independence County)

Dec. 1865–ca. June 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Reuben Harplam

July 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. William Brian

Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. Walter O. Lattimore

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. Albert H. Andrews

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. John Harold

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. William J. Lyster

CAMDEN (Ouchita County)

July 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Lewis H. Carhart

June–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Nathan Cole

Oct. 1866–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Joseph L. Thorp

DEVALL'S BLUFF (Prairie County)

June 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent Willis Davis

July 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent William McCullough

July–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Hiram Willis

Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William McCullough

FORT SMITH (Sebastian County)

Oct. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Francis Springer

Mar.–May 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Thomas Abel

May–Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Sebastian Geisreiter

Aug. 1866–May 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Charles Banzhaf

May–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Elihu G. Barker

Aug.–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Charles Banzhaf

Nov. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Pinkney Lugenbeel

HAMBURG (Ashley County)

Mar.–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Fred A. Tencate

July 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Isaiah S. Taylor

Nov. 1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent George Towle

July–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Sebastian Geisreiter

HAMPTON (Calhoun County)

Oct. 1865–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent John Scroggins

HELENA (Phillips County)

1864–65 -- Superintendent and Agent H. Sweeney (Superintendent of Freedmen)

1867 -- Superintendent and Agent H. Sweeney (Superintendent)

1869–71 -- Superintendent and Agent James T. Watson (Claims Agent)

JACKSONPORT (Upper White River District)

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- General Superintendent J. M. Bowler

Mar. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- General Superintendent J. T. Watson

JACKSONPORT (Jackson County)

May–Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent Jonas Lindale (also Provost Marshal for the Department of Arkansas)

Aug.–Oct. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent William Tisdale (also Provost Marshal for the Department of Arkansas)

Oct.–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent J. M. Bowler

Dec. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Robert Anderson

Mar. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

Feb. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William Brian

LAKE VILLAGE AND LUNA LANDING (Chicot County)

July–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Thomas Abel

Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter

Dec. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Hersey

July–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent G. Benson

Dec. 1867–Nov. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. G. Cunningham

LEWISBURG (Conway County)

Feb.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent John Vetter

June 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William Morgan

LEWISVILLE (Lafayette County)

Oct. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Nathan Cole

July 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent V. V. Smith

LITTLE ROCK (Pulaski County)

Feb.–Sept. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent J. Raines (Superintendent of Freedmen until July 1865)

Nov. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent W. Tisdale

July 1866–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent F. Gross

Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent James T. Watson

Sept. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

LITTLE ROCK

Jan.–Mar. 1864 -- Superintendent of Freedmen W. G. Sargent (Superintendent at Helena)

Apr. 1864–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent of Freedmen W. G. Sargent

MADISON (St. Francis County)

Apr.–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Williams

MARION (Crittenden County)

Sept. 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Agent James R. Walker

Oct. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Agent E. G. Barker

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Agent Main

MONTICELLO

July 1865–ca. Jan. 1866 -- General Superintendent for the South Eastern District of Arkansas E. G. Barker (Agent)

Jan. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- General Superintendent for the South Eastern District of Arkansas E. G. Barker (General Superintendent)

MONTICELLO (Drew County)

Jan.–Oct. 1866 -- Agent G. Duvall

OSCEOLA (Mississippi County)

Apr. 1866–Oct. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Eli Mix

PARACLIFTA (Sevier County)

Dec. 1865–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent A. W. Ballard

Dec. 1866–Oct. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Hiram Willis

PINE BLUFF (Arkansas River District)

July 1866–Jan. 1867 -- General Superintendent William J. Dawes

Jan.–Feb. 1867 -- General Superintendent William D. Hale

Feb. 1867 -- General Superintendent William J. Dawes

PINE BLUFF (Jefferson County)

Dec. 1864–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent S. W. Mallory (Superintendent of Freedmen until July 1865)

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent D. H. Williams

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent A. Coats

Mar.–Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent E. Wallace

Sept. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter

Mar.–May 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent W. J. Dawes (Agent)

May1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter (Agent)

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent R. W. Barnard

PRINCETON (Dallas County)

1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Stubblefield

1866–68 -- Superintendent and Agent George W. Mallett

SOUTH BEND (Arkansas County)

May 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent William D. Hale

June–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Hersey

Sept. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. Coats

Mar.–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent DeWolf

UNION (Fulton County)

Oct. 1866–Sept. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Simpson Mason

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent John Martin

WASHINGTON (South West District of Arkansas)

Nov. 1865–Oct. 1866 -- General Superintendent E. W. Gantt

Oct. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- General Superintendent F. Thibant

WASHINGTON (Hemstead)

July–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent John R. Montgomery

Dec. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent James Williams

July 1866–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent F. Thibant

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent C. C. Gilbert
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1901
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1901
Online Media:

Alma Thomas papers

Creator:
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Names:
Art in Embassies Program (U.S.)  Search this
Martha Jackson Gallery  Search this
Bader, Franz, 1903-1994  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Johnson, Nathalie J. Cole  Search this
Sarg, Tony, 1882-1942  Search this
Tarbary, Celine  Search this
Taylor, Joshua Charles, 1917-  Search this
Thomas, J. Maurice (John Maurice), 1900 or 1901-  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Video recordings
Photographs
Date:
circa 1894-2001
Summary:
The papers of Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas, date from circa 1894-2001 and measure 5.5 linear feet. The papers document Thomas's work as a teacher, and her development and success as a painter of the Washington Color School, through biographical material, letters, notes and writings, personal business records, exhibition files, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographs, an audio recording, and two video recordings.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas, date from circa 1894-2001 and measure 5.5 linear feet. The papers document Thomas's work as a teacher, and her development and success as a painter of the Washington Color School, through biographical material, letters, notes and writings, personal business records, exhibition files, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographs, an audio recording, and two video recordings.

Biographical material includes identity cards, chronologies, an audio recording including a biographical account, and scattered documentation of Thomas's education and teaching careers with D.C. Public Schools, Howard University, and Thomas Garrett Settlement in Wilmington, Delaware. Also found are records relating to Thomas's participation in a summer marionette class taught by Tony Sarg in 1934, and a tour of European art centers which Thomas took in 1958.

Letters relate primarily to the exhibition of Thomas's work and related events and are from galleries, museums, other art institutions, colleagues, and friends including Franz Bader, Adelyn Breeskin, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Howard University Gallery of Art, Martha Jackson Gallery, Nathalie J. Cole Johnson, Vincent Melzac, Celine Tabary, and Joshua Taylor.

Notes and writings include four notebooks and autobiographical writings by Thomas, a "Birthday Book," and an annotated engagement calendar. J. Maurice Thomas's writings about Alma Thomas, her research for a bibliography on James Weldon Johnson, and writings by others, including Jacob Kainen, about Alma Thomas, are also found here.

Exhibition files contain a wide variety of documentation for many group and solo exhibitions of Thomas's work from the early 1950s through a 1998-2000 traveling retrospective exhibition, including solo exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1972. The records include letters from Franz Bader Gallery, David Driskell at Fisk University, and Vincent Melzac. Photographs include Thomas with individuals including William Buckner, Jeff Donaldson, David Driskell, James W. Herring, and Vincent Melzac. Also found is a photograph of the 1951 Little Paris Studio Group picturing Lois Mailou Jones, Celine Tabary, Alma Thomas, and others. Two video recordings are of events related to the 1998-2000 retrospective at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art and the Columbus Museum of Art. Records documenting a 1981-1982 exhibition at the Smithsonian National Museum of American Art, A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, includes the script of a video written by Adolphus Ealey.

Personal business records include price lists, gift and loan receipts, and files concerning the Art in Embassies Program, the Martha Jackson Gallery, a benefit auction for the Corcoran School of Art, and the designation of the Thomas family home in Washington, D.C. as a historic property.

Eleven scrapbooks document Thomas's teaching career through the activities of the art classes she taught at Shaw Junior High School.

Printed materials include announcements and catalogs for exhibitions and other events; clippings which document Thomas's career and subjects of interest to her; Christmas cards featuring block prints designed by Thomas; and other programs and publications featuring Thomas.

Photographs are of Alma Thomas, family, and friends and colleagues including Sam Gilliam, James V. Herring, and Nathalie V. Cole Johnson; art classes taught by Thomas; Thomas's homes in Columbus, Georgia and Washington, D.C.; and exhibitions not documented in Series 4: Exhibition Files, including photographs of Alma Thomas at an opening at Barnett Aden Gallery with Alonzo Aden and others.
Arrangement note:
The papers have been arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1911-2001 (Box 1; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Letters, circa 1930-2001 (Boxes 1-2; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, circa 1920s-circa 1998 (Box 2; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1951-2000 (Boxes 2-3, OV 7; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, circa 1950s-1994 (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1908-2000 (Boxes 3-5, OV 7; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1930-1946 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1894-2001 (Boxes 5-6; 0.6 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas (1891-1978) was known for her abstract paintings filled with dense patterns of color, and was considered a major artist of the Washington Color School.

Thomas was born in Columbus, Georgia, in 1894, and was the eldest of the four daughters of John Harris Thomas and Amelia Cantey Thomas. The family moved to Washington, D.C. in 1906 and Thomas was first introduced to art classes at Armstrong Technical High School. Following her graduation in 1911 she took a course in kindergarten teaching at the Miner Normal School, and subsequently worked as a substitute teacher in the Washington, D.C. public school system until 1914, when she took a teaching position on the Eastern shore of Maryland. From 1916 to 1923 she taught kindergarten at Thomas Garrett Settlement House in Wilmington, Delaware.

Thomas originally enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. as a home economics major in 1921, but after studying under Lois Mailou Jones amd James V. Herring in Herring's newly established art department, she earned a Bachelor's degree in Fine Art in 1924, and became the first person to graduate from the program. Thomas then began her teaching career at Shaw Junior High School in Washington, D.C. that lasted from 1924, until her retirement in 1960. During this time she established community arts programs that would encourage her students to develop an appreciation of fine arts. Activities included marionette programs, distribution of student-designed holiday menu cards for dinners given for soldiers at the Tuskegee Veterans' Hospital, art clubs, lectures, and student exhibitions. In 1943 she became the founding vice president of Barnett Aden Gallery, which was established by James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden and was the first integrated gallery in Washington, D.C.

In 1934 Thomas earned an M.A. degree in Art Education from Columbia University. At American University in Washington, D.C., she studied creative painting under Joe Summerford, Robert Gates, and Jacob Kainen from 1950 to 1960, and began to break away from representational painting and experiment more seriously with Abstract Expressionism. In 1958 she participated in a tour of the art centers of Western Europe under the auspices of the Tyler School of Fine Arts at Temple University in Philadelphia.

Following her retirement from teaching in 1960, Thomas devoted herself full-time to painting, and continued to develop her signature style. She was inspired by nature and the desire to express beauty through composition and color, and refused to be constrained by societal expectations related to her race, gender, and age, achieving her greatest success in the last decade of her life. Her work was exhibited at the Dupont Theatre Art Gallery, Franz Bader Gallery, and the Howard University Gallery of Art, before she was honored in 1972 with exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Thomas's work has been exhibited at the White House and can be found in the permanent collections of major museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Museum of Women in the Arts, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Separated Materials note:
In 1979, J. Maurice Thomas loaned papers for microfilming. Most, but not all, of the loaned material was later donated and is described in this finding aid. Loaned materials not donated at a later date are available on reels 1541-1543 and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
J. Maurice Thomas, the artist's sister, loaned portions of the collection for microfilming in 1979. Most, but not all of this material was then later donated in several accretions by J. Maurice Thomas, between 1979 and 2004. Charles Thomas Lewis, Thomas' nephew, gave additional papers in 2010.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Alma Thomas papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Educators -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Washington Color School (Group of artists)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Video recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Alma Thomas papers, circa 1894-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.thomalma
See more items in:
Alma Thomas papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-thomalma
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Online Media:

Comfort family papers relating to George Fisk Comfort

Creator:
Comfort, George Fisk, 1834-1910  Search this
Names:
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Syracuse University. College of Fine Arts  Search this
Cesnola, Luigi Palma di, 1832-1904  Search this
Cox, Kenyon, 1856-1919  Search this
Johnson, Andrew, 1808-1875  Search this
Johnson, Eastman, 1824-1906  Search this
Massaranti, Marcello  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear feet ((on 3 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
[ca.1857]-1955
Scope and Contents:
Biographical materials, correspondence, manuscripts, notes, sketchbook, subject files, photographs and printed materials documenting George Fisk Comfort's career as an educator and museum director, selected from the Comfort Family papers at Syracuse University.
Biographical materials consist of autobiographical writings, a biographical essay and abstract of a thesis about Comfort, and an address given at his funeral. Personal and professional correspondence includes numerous lengthy letters to his son, Ralph Manning Comfort. Correspondents include Luigi di Cesnola, Kenyon Cox (1901), Eastman Johnson (1902) and Andrew Johnson, who writes about the aims of his administration shortly after becoming President. Interfiled in the correspondence are a 15-page holograph list of "Works of Art Exhibited in the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts" (1903); a brochure on the organization and first meeting of the American Association of Museums (1906); and material relating to the founding of the Metropolitan Museum of Art including minutes, a transcript of Comfort's address at the 40th anniversary, and a brochure about the role he played in the organization of the museum. Also included are correspondence and documents relating to the Southern College of Fine Arts, La Porte, Texas, and a sketchbook of an Italian tour. The subject files concern the (Marcello) Massaranti collection; the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, including organizational material, minutes of trustees meetings, correspondence, and exhibition materials; and Syracuse University, including Comfort's resignation and printed materials about the role he played in the organization of the museum.
Drafts and completed manuscripts of Comfort's unpublished writings include a 12-page history of Syracuse University, a 2-page holograph on the art season of 1909-1910 in New York, and miscellaneous notes including "Fine Art Notes," possibly by a student, which contains a summary of a lecture by Comfort. Lectures consist of manuscripts of 4 talks given at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and an excerpt from an address about establishing a Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts. Other materials consist of clippings and photographs of Comfort, his family, his home and of works of art depicting him.
Biographical / Historical:
Museum director, educator, and one of the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y. Comfort established the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts (now known as the Everson Museum of Art) and the College of Fine Arts, Syracuse University. He served as dean of the College (1873-1893) and as director of the Syracuse Museum from its founding in 1869 until his death in 1910.
Other Title:
Comfort Family papers (George Arents Library for Special Collections, Syracuse University, N.Y.)
Provenance:
Comfort's son, the architect Ralph Manning Comfort, assembled and donated the family's papers to the George Arents Research Library for Special Collections at Syracuse University. The Archives of American Art microfilmed selected material from the papers pertaining to George Fisk Comfort. The lender kept letters exchanged among family members with the papers of the writer, not the recipient. Therefore, letters from relatives to Comfort are to be found in the author's papers rather than Comfort's and were not microfilmed.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Art museum directors -- New York (State) -- Syracuse  Search this
Educators  Search this
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- Syracuse  Search this
Function:
Art museums -- New York (State)
Art museums, University and college -- New York (State) -- Syracuse
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.comfgeor
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-comfgeor

Edgar W. Bowlin papers

Creator:
Bowlin, Edgar W., 1923-  Search this
Extent:
27 Items
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1956-1961
Scope and Contents:
A brief biography; a résumé; a typescript of a speech delivered by Bowlin on October 12, 1956 at the unveiling of his statue of Andrew Johnson; a list of sculpture by Bowlin; comments of his sculpture, PLEASED BOY; four photographs; and clippings and other printed material.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor and painter (Blountville, Tenn.)
Provenance:
Donated 1961 by Edgar W. Bowlin.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Sculptors  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.bowledga
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bowledga

For the Union and the Constitution

Associated person:
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 18 1/4 in x 13 1/2 in; 46.355 cm x 34.29 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Associated date:
1864
Subject:
Presidential Candidates  Search this
Related event:
Presidential Campaign of 1864  Search this
Credit Line:
Ralph Becker
ID Number:
PL.227739.1864.F06
Catalog number:
227739.1864.F06
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Campaign Collection
Princeton Posters
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a3-55e9-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_524498

Portraits of United State

Print Maker:
John Chester Buttre, 1821 – 1983  Search this
Sitter:
George Washington, American, 1732–1799  Search this
Abraham Lincoln, American, 1809–1865  Search this
Andrew Johnson  Search this
Andrew Jackson  Search this
Medium:
Steel engraving Support: white wove paper
Type:
ephemera
Print
Object Name:
Print
Place:
USA
Made in:
USA
Date:
ca. 1888
Credit Line:
Gift of Cooper Union Museum Picture Library
Accession Number:
1957-148-50-a
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq441ba77a9-d7a4-4afe-884d-239c0c484cc4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1957-148-50-a

Captain, Tanner, Farmer, General, Impersonator

Alternate Title:
Ulysses S. Grant
Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Copy after:
Thomas Nast, 27 Sep 1840 - 7 Dec 1902  Search this
Sitter:
Ulysses Simpson Grant, 27 Apr 1822 - 23 Jul 1885  Search this
Medium:
Chromolithograph on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 33.2 × 18.8 cm (13 1/16 × 7 3/8")
Sheet: 35.4 × 23.1 cm (13 15/16 × 9 1/8")
Type:
Print
Date:
1872
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Cigar  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Chain  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Male  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military\Army\Officer\Civil War  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.87.78
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
American Origins
On View:
NPG, East Gallery 110a
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4d5c52233-022d-4516-9333-46062095f76c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.87.78

Grand Reception of the Notabilities of the Nation at the White House 1865

Depicted:
Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson)  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Lincoln, Mary Todd  Search this
Grant, Julia Dent  Search this
Sherman, William Tecumseh  Search this
Sumner, Charles  Search this
Meade, George Gordon  Search this
Hooker, Joseph  Search this
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Publisher:
Leslie, Frank  Search this
Maker:
Sarony, Major, & Knapp  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
image: 14 7/8 in x 20 1/4 in; 37.7825 cm x 51.435 cm
overall: 17 3/4 in x 22 in; 45.085 cm x 55.88 cm
Object Name:
Lithograph
Object Type:
Lithograph
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1865
Subject:
Communication, magazines  Search this
U.S. National Government, executive branch  Search this
Lighting  Search this
Furnishings  Search this
Uniforms, Military  Search this
Architecture, Historic Residences  Search this
White House  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Related event:
Presidential Inauguration of 1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Harry T. Peters "America on Stone" Lithography Collection
ID Number:
DL.60.2587
Catalog number:
60.2587
Accession number:
228146
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Clothing & Accessories
Domestic Furnishings
Art
Peters Prints
NMAH Reception Suite
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-1810-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_324898

The End of the Rebellion in the United States, 1865

Depicted:
Washington, George  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson)  Search this
Davis, Jefferson  Search this
Lee, Robert E.  Search this
Butler, Benjamin Franklin  Search this
Sherman, William Tecumseh  Search this
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Booth, John Wilkes  Search this
Maker:
Kimmel and Forster  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
image: 17 3/16 in x 24 5/16 in; 43.65625 cm x 61.75375 cm
Object Name:
Lithograph
Object Type:
Lithograph
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1856
1865
Date made:
1866
Subject:
Chronology: 1860-1869  Search this
Patriotism and Patriotic Symbols  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Uniforms, Military  Search this
Reform Movements  Search this
Blacks  Search this
Liberty  Search this
Political Caricatures  Search this
Flags  Search this
Columbia  Search this
Eagles  Search this
Justice  Search this
Related event:
Civil War  Search this
Credit Line:
Harry T. Peters "America on Stone" Lithography Collection
ID Number:
DL.60.2620
Catalog number:
60.2620
Accession number:
228146
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Domestic Furnishings
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a3-be56-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_324930

Prison Hoods of the Abraham Lincoln Conspirators

Associated Name:
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Physical Description:
canvas; rope (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 14 in x 13 in x 12 in; 35.56 cm x 33.02 cm x 30.48 cm
Object Name:
prison hoods
Subject:
Assassination  Search this
National Symbols  Search this
Related Publication:
Rubenstein, Harry R.. Abraham Lincoln: An Extraordinary Life
Credit Line:
Transfer from the War Department
ID Number:
COLL.CONHDS.005001
Accession number:
42272
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Selections from the Abraham Lincoln Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-6fd1-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1359511

jacket

Measurements:
overall (padded): 28 in x 22 in x 3 in; 71.12 cm x 55.88 cm x 7.62 cm
Object Name:
Jacket
Associated date:
1952
Credit Line:
Lieutenant Andrew Johnson
ID Number:
AF.59691M
Catalog number:
59691M
Accession number:
216652
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a2-4bb6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_430771
Online Media:

Child

Maker:
Brady, Mathew B.  Search this
Physical Description:
albumen (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 10 cm x 6 cm; 3 15/16 in x 2 3/8 in
Object Name:
photograph
silver albumen print
ID Number:
1985.0736.56.07
Catalog number:
85.736.56.7
Accession number:
1985.0736
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Seville Collection
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a7-536a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_905577
Online Media:

Abraham Lincoln Campaign Badge

Depicted:
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Maker:
Scovill Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 2.6 cm; 1 in
Object Name:
medal, political
Related event:
Presidential Campaign of 1864  Search this
ID Number:
1981.0296.1077
Accession number:
1981.0296
Catalog number:
1981.0296.1077
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Industry & Manufacturing
Scovill Manufacturing Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-0790-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1379904
Online Media:

Abraham Lincoln Campaign Badge

Depicted:
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Maker:
Scovill Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 2.5 cm; in
Object Name:
medal, political
Related event:
Presidential Campaign of 1864  Search this
ID Number:
1981.0296.1115
Accession number:
1981.0296
Catalog number:
1981.0296.1115
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Industry & Manufacturing
Scovill Manufacturing Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-0903-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1379953
Online Media:

Andrew Johnson Commemorative Token

Depicted:
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Maker:
Scovill Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 2.5 cm; in
Object Name:
medal, political
ID Number:
1981.0296.1277
Accession number:
1981.0296
Catalog number:
1981.0296.1277
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Industry & Manufacturing
Scovill Manufacturing Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-073f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1382271
Online Media:

Abraham Lincoln Campaign Medal

Depicted:
Lincoln, Abraham  Search this
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Maker:
Scovill Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 4.1 cm; 1 5/8 in
Object Name:
medal, political
Related event:
Presidential Campaign of 1864  Search this
ID Number:
1981.0296.1297
Accession number:
1981.0296
Catalog number:
1981.0296.1297
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Industry & Manufacturing
Scovill Manufacturing Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-07dc-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1382291
Online Media:

Andrew Johnson Medal

Depicted:
Johnson, Andrew  Search this
Maker:
Scovill Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 3.2 cm; 1 1/4 in
Object Name:
medal, political
ID Number:
1981.0296.1571
Accession number:
1981.0296
Catalog number:
1981.0296.1571
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Industry & Manufacturing
Scovill Manufacturing Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-153e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1382602
Online Media:

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