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Elayne Zorn Collection

Source:
Cutipa Lima, Juan de Dios  Search this
California Academy of Sciences. Anthropology Department  Search this
Textile Museum (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Author:
Zorn, Elayne  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Brooklyn Museum of Art  Search this
University of Central Florida. Department of Sociology & Anthropology  Search this
Cahlander, Adele  Search this
Former owner:
California Academy of Sciences. Anthropology Department  Search this
Textile Museum (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Cutipa Lima, Juan de Dios  Search this
Extent:
1,474 Photographic prints
11526 Negatives (photographic)
10 Videocassettes
11 Linear feet
57 Sound recordings (57 cassette tapes.)
11412 Slides (photographs)
Culture:
Quechua  Search this
Aymara  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Videocassettes
Sound recordings
Slides (photographs)
Negatives
Research
Audiocassettes
Writings
Field notes
Place:
Sacaca (Bolivia)
Potosí (Bolivia : Dept.) -- Description and travel.
Puno (Peru : Dept.)
Andes Region -- Economic integration.
Taquili (Peru) -- Economic conditions
Peru
Taquili (Peru) -- Social life and customs
Date:
1971-2010
Summary:
The Elayne Zorn Collection measures 11 linear feet and contains thousands of photographic objects including negatives, slides and prints. The collection material spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from around 1975 until 2010. The material in this collection reflects Zorn's long association with the community in Taquile, Peru which led up to the publication of her book, Weaving a Future, in 2004. Zorn also spent a significant amount of time conducting field research in Andean communities in Bolivia examining the relationships between tourism and textiles. Zorn's additional professional activities included serving as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions as well as performing academic duties at the University of Central Florida.
Scope and Contents:
The Elayne Zorn Collection spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from 1975 until 2010. This includes material from Zorn's field research in the Andean Regions of Peru and Bolivia as well as her professional activities as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions. This collection is arranged into six series with additional subseries. Series 1, Field Research, includes field notebooks, correspondence, and general research from Taquile, Peru, Sakaka, Bolivia and La Paz, Bolivia. Series 2, Professional Activities, includes presentation and lecture notes, object catalogs for various museum collections and Zorn's academic work conducted at the University of Central Florida. Series 3, Publications and Writings, contains both articles written by Zorn, including her Master's thesis and dissertation, and articles published by colleagues. Series 4, Ephemera and Miscellaneous, contains a variety of materials including posters, postcards, datebooks and calendars as well as material gathered by Zorn's former husband, Juan Cutipa. Series 5, Photographs, includes negatives, slides, prints and digital media that document Zorn's work in the field. The bulk of the photographs capture the daily lives of weavers as well as important community holidays and festivals. Series 6, Audio-Visual Materials, includes a small amount of VHS tapes as well as audio-cassettes on which Zorn recorded traditional Andean music performed at festivals she attended in Peru and Bolivia.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Field Research, 1975-2006

Subseries 1.1: Taquile, Peru, 1975-1994 [1977-1981]

Subseries 1.2: Sakaka, Bolivia, 1985-1994

Subseries 1.3: La Paz, Bolivia, 2006

Subseries 1.4: Miscellaneous Field Notes, 1976-2006

Series 2: Professional Activities, 1978-2010

Subseries 2.1: Conferences and Presentations, 1977-2009

Subseries 2.2: Museum Work, 1976-2008

Subseries 2.3: General, 1976-2010

Series 3: Publications and Writings, 1979-2009

Subseries 3.1: Elayne Zorn, 1979-2009

Subseries 3.2: Other Authors, 1979-2005

Series 4: Ephemera and Miscellaneous, 1975-2009

Series 5: Photographs, 1970-2006

Subseries 5.1: Negatives, 1976-1997

Subseries 5.2: Slides, 1970-2002

Subseries 5.3: Prints, 1978-2000

Subseries 5.4: Digital Media, 2002-2006

Series 6: Audio-Visual Materials, 1983-1994

Subseries 6.1: Cassette Tapes, 1983-1991

Subseries 6.2: Videotapes, 1991-1994
Biographical / Historical:
Elayne Leslie Zorn was born on February 3, 1952 in New York City. She attended Hunter College High School and Barnard College. She received her Bachelor's of Fine Arts degree in Textile Arts from the California College of the Arts in 1975. She then began a long association with the community on the Island of Taquile, in the Puno region of Peru, conducting fieldwork on native weaving techniques. She also began a long-term affiliation with the Museo Nacional de Etnografia y Folklore in La Paz, Bolivia and collected textiles in the Macusani region of Peru for an exhibit at the California Academy of Sciences. She received her Master's degree in Latin American Studies from the University of Texas, Austin in 1983, with fieldwork concentrated on economic development and tourism in Taquile, Peru. During her time in Peru in the 1970's and 1980's, Zorn became an accomplished musician, playing the charango and Bolivian mandolin in performances in Andean towns as well as in New York City. Zorn resumed graduate studies in 1985 at Cornell University where she received her Master of Arts degree in anthropology in 1987 followed by her Ph.D. in 1997. At Cornell she worked under the supervision of Professor Billie Jean Isbell and conducted much of her dissertation fieldwork in Sakaka, Bolivia focusing on the global transformation of cloth and identity in highland Andean regions. Zorn worked as a visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Colgate University from 1997 to 1998 and then hired as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Central Florida from 1998 until 2010. While at the University of Central Florida, Zorn received both teaching-related and research-related awards as well as grants to continue her fieldwork in the Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia. She also co-directed the PeruVine/PeruDigital Project, an interactive and immersive website to present field data from Peru's Institute of Ethnomusicology online. In 2004 Zorn published her book, Weaving a Future: Tourism, Cloth and Culture on an Andean Island (University of Iowa Press), an analysis of textile traditions as it relates to global change.

In addition to her academic duties, throughout her career Zorn collaborated with various museums and cultural institutions as a consultant and collector. These included, but are not limited to, The Brooklyn Museum, The Textile Museum, Smithsonian Center for Folklife Programs, UNICEF and the Inter-American Foundation. She was also a member of various professional societies including the American Anthropological Association, the Bolivian Studies Association, the Society for Latin American, Carribean, and Latino Studies as well as the Textile Society of America. Zorn passed away June 15, 2010 and was survived by her mother, Sandra Gordon, and her son, Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn.

Sources: http://anthropology.cos.ucf.edu/include/file/people/cv/zorn_elayne.pdf (Accessed May 01, 2012) http://digitalethnography.dm.ucf.edu/pv/Zorn.html (Accessed May 1, 2012)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn, Elayne Zorn's son in April of 2011.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Tourism -- Andes Region  Search this
Women weavers -- Social life and customs -- Photographs  Search this
Festivals -- Bolivia -- Potosí  Search this
Textile fabrics -- Andes Region  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research
Slides (photographs)
Audiocassettes
Writings
Field notes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.022
See more items in:
Elayne Zorn Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-022
Online Media:

H. Scudder Mekeel photographs

Creator:
Mekeel, H. Scudder (Haviland Scudder), 1902-1947  Search this
Names:
Laboratory of Anthropology (Museum of New Mexico)  Search this
Collier, John, 1884-1968  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Photographer:
Fiske, Frank Bennett, 1883-1952  Search this
Rise, Carl H., 1888-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Print (photochrom)
443 Negatives (nitrate)
235 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Taos Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Teton Indians  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Siouan Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Hualapai Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Negatives
Place:
Standing Rock Indian Reservation (N.D. and S.D.)
Oraibi (Ariz.)
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Date:
bulk 1930-1933
circa 1920-1947
Scope and Contents note:
The photographs primarily document ceremonies, people, and lands of American Indians in the Plains and Southwest, taken during Mekeel's field research from 1929 to 1936. A large portion of the collection depicts Mekeel's research during the early 1930s among the Oglala of the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Another large portion of the collection includes personal photos depicting Mekeel's homes and children.
Biographical/Historical note:
H. Scudder Mekeel (1902-1947) was an anthropologist who studied social and psychological aspects of American Indian cultures. Educated at Harvard University (BA, 1928), the University of Chicago (MA, 1929), and Yale University (PhD, 1932), he was a member of the 1929 Laboratory of Anthropology (Santa Fe) ethnological field school led by Alfred L. Kroeber. In 1929-1932, he carried out three field expeditions to the Sioux Indians of South Dakota, working mainly on the Pine Ridge Reservation. He joined the Bureau of Indian Affairs as Director of Applied Anthropology under Commissioner John Collier in 1935. Two years later, he was appointed Director of the Laboratory of Anthropology at Santa Fe and continued there until 1940, when he accepted a teaching position at the University of Wisconsin.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 94-21
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds copies of Mekeel's Field Notes from the summers of 1930 and 1931 in the White Clay District of the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota (MS 7088). Originals of these field notes and Mekeel's population notes on the White Clay District are held by the American Museum of Natural History, Division of Anthropology Archives (.M454).
The Human Studies Film Archives holds Mekeel's film footage of a Lakota Sioux Sundance from 1930 (HSFA 92.8.1).
Correspondence from Mekeel held in the National Anthropological Archives in the William Duncan Strong papers, Raoul Weston LaBarre Papers, and Bureau of American Ethnology Administrative File.
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require special arrangements for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Photo Lot 94-21, the H. Scudder Mekeel photographs, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.94-21
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-94-21

Edward Adamson Hoebel photographs of Shoshoni and Comanche Indians and dances

Creator:
Hoebel, E. Adamson (Edward Adamson), 1906-1993  Search this
Names:
Laboratory of Anthropology (Museum of New Mexico)  Search this
Linton, Ralph, 1893-1953  Search this
Extent:
33 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1933-1934
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Edward Adamson Hoebel during a 1933 Laboratory of Anthropology field school session led by Ralph Linton. They consist of images of Comanche Indians, including a Comanche brush dance at Walters, Oklahoma, and images of Shoshoni Indians during a sun dance at Fort Hall, Idaho, in 1934.
Biographical/Historical note:
Edward Adamson Hoebel (1906-1993) was an anthropologist and educator who pioneered studies of the legal systems of pre-literate societies. He received his PhD in anthropology from Columbia University in 1934, publishing his dissertation, "The Political Organization and Law-ways of the Comanche Indians," after conducting field research on Comanche legal systems at the Santa Fe Laboratory of Anthropology under the direction of Ralph Linton. Hoebel taught sociology and anthropology at New York University from 1929 until 1948 and later became a professor, head of the anthropology department, and Dean of Arts and Sciences at the University of Utah. Hoebel took visiting professorships at the universities of Harvard, Chicago, Nijmegen, Arizona, and Lehigh and served as president of the American Ethnological Society and the American Anthropological Association. He retired as Regents' Professor of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 91-9
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Reports and correspondence by Hoebel held in the National Anthropological Archives in the American Ethnological Society records, Bureau of American Ethnology Administrative File, Esther Schiff Goldfrank Papers, and Raoul Weston LaBarre Papers.
Additional photographs of Comanche Indians at Walters held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7505.
The American Philosophical Society holds the E. Adamson Hoebel Papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Sun Dance  Search this
Indian dance -- North America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 91-9, Edward Adamson Hoebel photographs of Shoshoni and Comanche Indians and dances, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.91-9
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-91-9

Photographs of anthropologists at the University of California, Berkeley

Names:
Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology  Search this
University of California, Berkeley  Search this
Ishi, d. 1916  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Lowie, Robert Harry, 1883-1957  Search this
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959  Search this
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Extent:
2 Copy prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Yana Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting Robert Lowie and other anthropologists at the University of California, Berkeley. One photograph depicts the Yana Indian Ishi with Robert Harry Lowie, Paul Radin, Edward Sapir, and Thomas T. Waterman. The second photograph, which appears to have been made around the same time, shows Alfred Louis Kroeber, Lowie, a man, and a woman, in front of the metal shed that housed the Museum of Anthropology (later the Lowie Museum) at the University of California at Berkeley.
Biographical/Historical note:
The photographs were probably made in the summer of 1915 when Ishi was living with Thomas T. Waterman and employed as an informant by Edward Sapir. Robert Lowie, who was engaged in field work as a member of the staff of the American Museum of Natural History, may have traveled to California to attend a special meeting of the American Anthropological Association held in August.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81-16
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Kroeber and Lowie at the University of California, Berkeley, can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 77-68.
A letter from Kroeber to Waterman concerning Sapir, Ishi, and the Zuni language can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7116.
An additional photograph of Ishi can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24.
Papers and notes by Paul Radin can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 3609, MS 4652, and MS 1800-a-b-c-d-e.
Papers and notes by Sapir can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 1751, MS 2806 and MS 4929.
Papers, notes, and photographs by Waterman can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 3183, MS 1863, MS 2916, MS 2915, MS 2938, and MS 1864.
Papers and notes by Kroeber can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 2622, MS 2560, and MS 3134.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 81-16, Photographs of anthropologists at the University of California, Berkeley, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81-16
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81-16

Morris Steggerda photographs of Maya Indians

Creator:
Steggerda, Morris, 1900-1950 (collector and probable photographer)  Search this
Names:
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Genetics  Search this
Extent:
70 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Mayas  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
1931
Scope and Contents note:
Anthropometric portraits of Maya Indians in the vicinity of Chichen Itza, probably made for Steggerda's Carnegie Institution publication 434, Anthropometry of Adult Maya Indians: A Study of Their Physical and Physiological Characteristics, 1932.
Biographical/Historical note:
Morris Steggerda (1900-1950) was a physical anthropologist and authority on Mayan culture. He received his BA from Hope College in Michigan (1922) and his MA (1923) and PhD (1928) from the University of Illinois Department of Zoology. While still in his PhD program, he met Charles Davenport of the Department of Genetics at Carnegie Institution of Washington, with whom he studied the indigenous people of the British West Indies and published Race-Crossing in Jamaica (1929). Steggerda became an assistant professor at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, (1928-1930) before joining the research staff of the Carnegie Institution Department of Genetics based in Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York. During his fourteen-year career with the Institution, Steggerda did research in Yucatan, Mexico, and wrote two reports that were published by the Carnegie Institution in 1932 and 1941. In 1944, he was appointed professor of Anthropology at Hartford Seminary Foundation (Connecticut), a position which he kept until his death. Steggerda was a founding member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1930 (later serving on its Executive Committee and as its vice president) and a councilmember for the American Anthropological Association.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 3319
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Steggerda photographs held in the National Anthropological Archives in the Bureau of American Ethnology-Smithsonian Institution Illustrations.
Correspondence from Steggerda held in the National Anthropological Archives in the Handbook of South American Indians Records, Bureau of American Ethnology General correspondence, John Lawrence Angel Papers, Ales Hrdlicka Papers, and MS 4846.
The Otis Historical Archives, National Museum of Health and Medicine holds the Steggerda Collection of anthropometric records.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 3319, Morris Steggerda photographs of Maya Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.3319
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-3319

Letter to WJ McGee

Creator:
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Addressee:
McGee, W J, 1853-1912  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Collection Collector:
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
April 6, 1903
Scope and Contents:
Regarding reorganization or founding of an anthropological society.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4372(16)
Topic:
Anthropology -- History  Search this
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4372 Miscellaneous material relating to the history of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the history of anthropology, and anthropological controversies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4372-ref17

MS 4282 Miscellaneous American Indian manuscripts

Collector:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Creator:
Payne, John Howard, 1791-1852  Search this
Padilla, Augustin Davila  Search this
Catesby, Mark, 1683-1749  Search this
Culture:
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contents: John Howard Payne's account of the Green Corn Dance of the Cherokee ?, from the Continental Monthly, Volume I, 1862, reprinted in the Journal of the Oklahoma Historical Society with notes by Dr J. R. Swanton. Father Augustin Davila Padilla's account of the De Luna expedition. Spanish census of the Indians in some villages of Indian refugees in Florida. The Indians of Chicora, from Latin edition of Peter Martyr's "De Orbe Novo." A section of Mark Catesby's "Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands" bearing on Indians. A "Relation a La Louisiane" by an unidentified French author, in the Ayer Collection of Americana at the Newberry Library, Chicago. The Choctaw section and some minor portions have been printed in Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association and elsewhere. George Stiggins' Creek History from the Manuscript in the Draper Collection in the Library of the Wisconsin Historical Society. Ca. 100 sheets. Title: "A Historical narration of the Genealogy traditiona and downfall of the Ispocoga or Creek tribe written by one of the tribe." "Photocopies of parts of the Memorias of Juan A. de Morfi, the original of which is in the Library of Congress. Parts on Indians translated and printed by Chabot and used from his translation by Myself. May 25, 1944." --John R. Swanton.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4282
Topic:
Dance -- Cherokee ?  Search this
Censuses -- American Indian -- Florida  Search this
Florida -- census of Indians  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4282, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4282
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4282

MS 3226 Keetoowah Constitution

Creator:
Fullerton, Eula E.  Search this
Extent:
16 Pages
Culture:
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Biographical / Historical:
Constitution of Keetoowah segment, sometimes called the "nighthawks" or Redbird Smith Movement (elsewhere written up by R. K. Thomas, M. A. Thesis, University of Arizona, and in a paper by him in Cherokee-Iroquois symposium, American Anthropological Association, Wash., D.C., November 1958, publication in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 180, 1961 - Information from Raymond Fogelson, University of Pennsylvania.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3226
Citation:
Manuscript 3226, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3226
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3226

MS 1889 "The Cheyenne Indians"

Creator:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Extent:
112 Pages
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1907
Scope and Contents:
Includes proofsheets of the above with A. notes. Printed Document 30 pages.
Published in "Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association" v.1 pt. 6, 1907, pp. 357-478.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1889
Local Note:
Typescript document and Manuscript document
Citation:
Manuscript 1889, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1889
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1889

Frederica de Laguna Papers

Creator:
McClellan, Catharine  Search this
Guédon, Marie Françoise  Search this
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004  Search this
Correspondent:
Stearns, Mary Lee  Search this
Aberle, David F. (David Friend), 1918-2004  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baird, Melissa  Search this
Balzer, Marjorie  Search this
Bersch, Gretchen  Search this
Birket-Smith, Kaj  Search this
Black, Lydia  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Chowning, Ann  Search this
Clark, J. Desmond (John Desmond), 1916-2002  Search this
Codere, Helen F., 1917-2009  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Colton, Harold Sellers, 1881-1970  Search this
Conklin, Harold C., 1926-2016  Search this
Corbett, John M.  Search this
Darnell, Regna  Search this
Dauenhauer, Nora  Search this
Dauenhauer, Richard  Search this
Davenport, William  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Drucker, Philip, 1911-1982  Search this
Du Bois, Cora Alice, 1903-1991  Search this
Duff, Wilson, 1925-  Search this
Fair, Susan  Search this
Fitzhugh, William W., 1943-  Search this
Foster, George McClelland, 1913-  Search this
Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983  Search this
Giddings, James Louis  Search this
Gjessing, Gutorm, 1906  Search this
Grinev, Andrei V.  Search this
Hanable, William S.  Search this
Hara, Hiroko, 1934-  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Heizer, Robert F. (Robert Fleming), 1915-1979  Search this
Helm, June, 1924-  Search this
Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963  Search this
Holtved, Erik  Search this
Jenness, Diamond, 1886-1969  Search this
Kahn, Mimi  Search this
Kan, Sergei  Search this
Krauss, Michael E., 1934-  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Larsen, Helge, 1905-1984  Search this
Leer, Jeff  Search this
Lindgren, E. J. (Ethel John), 1904-1988  Search this
Lomax, Alan, 1915-2002  Search this
Low, Jean  Search this
Mathiassen, Therkel, 1892-1967  Search this
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Olson, Wallace  Search this
Rainey, Froelich G. (Froelich Gladstone), 1907-1992  Search this
Riddell, Francis A. (Francis Allen), 1921-2002  Search this
Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995  Search this
Schneider, William  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Shinkwin, Anne D.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Underhill, Ruth, 1883-1984  Search this
VanStone, James W.  Search this
Weiner, Annette B., 1933-  Search this
Weitzner, Bella, 1891?-1988  Search this
White, Leslie A., 1900-1975  Search this
Woodbury, Natalie Ferris Sampson  Search this
Woodbury, Richard B. (Richard Benjamin), 1917-2009  Search this
Workman, Karen Wood  Search this
Workman, William B.  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Bryn Mawr College  Search this
Photographer:
Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940  Search this
Extent:
2 Map drawers
38 Linear feet (71 document boxes, 1 half document box, 2 manuscript folders, 4 card file boxes, 1 flat box, and 1 oversize box)
Culture:
Yakutat  Search this
Tutchone Indians  Search this
Tsimshian  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Tanana  Search this
Kawchottine Indians  Search this
Ahtna (Ahtena)  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Northern Athapaskan  Search this
Chugach  Search this
Eskimos -- Greenland  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Eyak Indians  Search this
Hare Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Ingalik Indians  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Map drawers
Manuscripts
Maps
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Sound recordings
Place:
Alaska -- Archaeology
Aishihik (Yukon)
Angoon (Alaska)
Alaska -- Ethnology
Chistochina (Alaska)
Greenland
Copper River (Alaska)
Klukshu (Yukon)
Hoonah (Alaska)
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Klukwan (Alaska)
Saint Lawrence River Valley
New Brunswick -- Archaeology
Yukon Island (Alaska)
Date:
1890-2004
bulk 1923-2004
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps. A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catherine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athabaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara Sue's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series X: Card Files. Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March. Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps.

A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. Among her notable correspondents are Kaj Birket-Smith, J. Desmond Clark, Henry Collins, George Foster, Viola Garfield, Marie-Françoise Guédon, Diamond Jenness, Michael Krauss, Therkel Mathiassen, Catharine McClellan, and Wallace Olson. She also corresponded with several eminent anthropologists including Franz Boas, William Fitzhugh, J. Louis Giddings, Emil Haury, June Helm, Melville Herskovitz, Alfred Kroeber, Helge Larsen, Alan Lomax, Margaret Mead, Froelich Rainey, Leslie Spier, Ruth Underhill, James VanStone, Annette Weiner, and Leslie White.

The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catharine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athapaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series 10: Card Files.

Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March.

Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. The collection also contains copies of photographs from the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Arrangement note:
Arranged in 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1923-2004; (2) Field Research, 1947-1968; (3) Writings, 1926-2001; (4) Teaching, 1922-1988; (5) Professional Activities, 1939-2001; (6) Subject Files, 1890-2002; (7) Writings by Others, 1962-2000; (8) Personal, 1923-2000; (9) Photographs, 1929-1986; (10) Card Files; (11) Maps, 1928-1973; (12) Sound Recordings, 1904-1973
Biographical / Historical:
Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna was a pioneering archaeologist and ethnographer of northwestern North America. Known as Freddy by her friends, she was one of the last students of Franz Boas. She served as first vice-president of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) from 1949 to 1950 and as president of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) from 1966-1967. She also founded the anthropology department at Bryn Mawr College where she taught from 1938 to 1972. In 1975, she and Margaret Mead, a former classmate, were the first women to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

Born on October 3, 1906 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, de Laguna was the daughter of Theodore Lopez de Leo de Laguna and Grace Mead Andrus, both philosophy professors at Bryn Mawr College. Often sick as a child, de Laguna was home-schooled by her parents until she was 9. She excelled as a student at Bryn Mawr College, graduating summa cum laude with a degree in politics and economics in 1927. She was awarded the college's prestigious European fellowship, which upon the suggestion of her parents, she deferred for a year to study anthropology at Columbia University under Boas. Her parents had recently attended a lecture given by Boas and felt that anthropology would unite her interests in the social sciences and her love for the outdoors.

After a year studying at Columbia with Boas, Gladys Reichard, and Ruth Benedict, de Laguna was still uncertain whether anthropology was the field for her. Nevertheless, she followed Boas's advice to spend her year abroad studying the connection between Eskimo and Paleolithic art, which would later became the topic of her dissertation. In the summer of 1928, she gained fieldwork experience under George Grant MacCurdy visiting prehistoric sites in England, France, and Spain. In Paris, she attended lectures on prehistoric art by Abbe Breuil and received guidance from Paul Rivet and Marcelin Boule. Engaged to an Englishman she had met at Columbia University, de Laguna decided to also enroll at the London School of Economics in case she needed to earn her degree there. She took a seminar with Bronislaw Malinowski, an experience she found unpleasant and disappointing.

It was de Laguna's visit to the National Museum in Copenhagen to examine the archaeological collections from Central Eskimo that became the turning point in her life. During her visit, she met Therkel Mathiassen who invited her to be his assistant on what would be the first scientific archaeological excavation in Greenland. She sailed off with him in June 1929, intending to return early in August. Instead, she decided to stay until October to finish the excavation with Mathiassen, now convinced that her future lay in anthropology. When she returned from Greenland she broke off her engagement with her fiancé, deciding that she would not able to both fully pursue a career in anthropology and be the sort of wife she felt he deserved. Her experiences in Greenland became the subject of her 1977 memoir, Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology.

The following year, Kaj Birket-Smith, whom de Laguna had also met in Copenhagen, agreed to let her accompany him as his research assistant on his summer expedition to Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. When Birket-Smith fell ill and was unable to go, de Laguna was determined to continue on with the trip. She convinced the University of Pennsylvania Museum to fund her trip to Alaska to survey potential excavation sites and took as her assistant her 20 year old brother, Wallace, who became a geologist. A close family, de Laguna's brother and mother would later accompany her on other research trips.

In 1931, the University of Pennsylvania Museum hired de Laguna to catalogue Eskimo collections. They again financed her work in Cook Inlet that year as well as the following year. In 1933, she earned her PhD from Columbia and led an archaeological and ethnological expedition of the Prince William Sound with Birket-Smith. They coauthored "The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, Alaska," published in 1938. In 1935, de Laguna led an archaeological and geological reconnaissance of middle and lower Yukon Valley, traveling down the Tanana River. Several decades later, the 1935 trip contributed to two of her books: Travels Among the Dena, published in 1994, and Tales From the Dena, published in 1997.

In 1935 and 1936, de Laguna worked briefly as an Associate Soil Conservationist, surveying economic and social conditions on the Pima Indian Reservation in Arizona. She later returned to Arizona during the summers to conduct research and in 1941, led a summer archaeological field school under the sponsorship of Bryn Mawr College and the Museum of Northern Arizona.

By this time, de Laguna had already published several academic articles and was also the author of three fiction books. Published in 1930, The Thousand March: Adventures of an American Boy with the Garibaldi was her historical fiction book for juveniles. She also wrote two detective novels: The Arrow Points to Murder (1937) and Fog on the Mountain (1938). The Arrow Points to Murder is set in a museum based on her experiences at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the American Museum of National History. Fog on the Mountain is set in Cook Inlet and draws upon de Laguna's experiences in Alaska. Both detective novels helped to finance her research.

De Laguna began her long career at Bryn Mawr College in 1938 when she was hired as a lecturer in the sociology department to teach the first ever anthropology course at the college. By 1950, she was chairman of the joint department of Sociology and Anthropology, and in 1967, the chairman of the newly independent Anthropology Department. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1949; 1972-1976) and at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1960; 1972-1973.)

During World War II, de Laguna took a leave of absence from Bryn Mawr College to serve in the naval reserve from 1942 to 1945. As a member of WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service), she taught naval history and codes and ciphers to women midshipmen at Smith College. She took great pride in her naval service and in her later years joined the local chapter of WAVES National, an organization for former and current members of WAVES.

In 1950, de Laguna returned to Alaska to work in the Northern Tlingit region. Her ethnological and archaeological study of the Tlingit Indians brought her back several more times throughout the 1950s and led to the publication of Under Mount Saint Elias in 1972. Her comprehensive three-volume monograph is still considered the authoritative work on the Yakutat Tlingit. In 1954, de Laguna turned her focus to the Atna Indians of Copper River, returning to the area in 1958, 1960, and 1968.

De Laguna retired from Bryn Mawr College in 1972 under the college's mandatory retirement policy. Although she suffered from many ailments in her later years including macular degeneration, she remained professionally active. Five decades after her first visit to Greenland, de Laguna returned to Upernavik in 1979 to conduct ethnographic investigations. In 1985, she finished editing George Thornton Emmons' unpublished manuscript The Tlingit Indians. A project she had begun in 1955, the book was finally published in 1991. In 1986, she served as a volunteer consultant archaeologist and ethnologist for the U. S. Forest Service in Alaska. In 1994, she took part in "More than Words . . ." Laura Bliss Spann's documentary on the last Eyak speaker, Maggie Smith Jones. By 2001, de Laguna was legally blind. Nevertheless, she continued working on several projects and established the Frederica de Laguna Northern Books Press to reprint out-of-print literature and publish new scholarly works on Arctic cultures.

Over her lifetime, de Laguna received several honors including her election into the National Academy Sciences in 1976, the Distinguished Service Award from AAA in 1986, and the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999. De Laguna's work, however, was respected by not only her colleagues but also by the people she studied. In 1996, the people of Yakutat honored de Laguna with a potlatch. Her return to Yakutat was filmed by Laura Bliss Spann in her documentary Reunion at Mt St. Elias: The Return of Frederica de Laguna to Yakutat.

At the age of 98, Frederica de Laguna passed away on October 6, 2004.

Sources Consulted

Darnell, Regna. "Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." American Anthropologist 107.3 (2005): 554-556.

de Laguna, Frederica. Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology. New York: W.W. Norton Co, 1977.

McClellan, Catharine. "Frederica de Laguna and the Pleasures of Anthropology." American Ethnologist 16.4 (1989): 766-785.

Olson, Wallace M. "Obituary: Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." Arctic 58.1 (2005): 89-90.
Related Materials:
Although this collection contains a great deal of correspondence associated with her service as president of AAA, most of her presidential records can be found in American Anthropological Association Records 1917-1972. Also at the National Anthropological Archives are her transcripts of songs sung by Yakutat Tlingit recorded in 1952 and 1954 located in MS 7056 and her notes and drawings of Dorset culture materials in the National Museum of Canada located in MS 7265. The Human Studies Film Archive has a video oral history of de Laguna conducted by Norman Markel (SC-89.10.4).

Related collections can also be found in other repositories. The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania holds materials related to work that de Laguna carried out for the museum from the 1930s to the 1960s. Materials relating to her fieldwork in Angoon and Yakutat can be found in the Rasmuson Library of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks in the papers of Francis A. Riddell, a field assistant to de Laguna in the early 1950s. Original photographs taken in the field in Alaska were deposited in the Alaska State Library, Juneau. Both the Archive of Folk Culture at the Library of Congress and the American Philosophical Library have copies of her field recordings and notes. The American Museum of Natural History has materials related to her work editing George T. Emmons' manuscript. De Laguna's papers can also be found at the Bryn Mawr College Archives.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Frederica de Laguna.
Restrictions:
Some of the original field notes are restricted due to Frederica de Laguna's request to protect the privacy of those accused of witchcraft. The originals are restricted until 2030. Photocopies may be made with the names of the accused redacted.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Anthropology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Maps
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Sound recordings
Citation:
Frederica de Laguna Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-89
See more items in:
Frederica de Laguna Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-89
Online Media:

Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers

Creator:
Goldfrank, Esther Schiff  Search this
Extent:
7 Linear feet
Culture:
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Lakota -- Teton  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Kainah Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Manuscripts
Letters (correspondence)
Date:
1920-1980
Summary:
The Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers, 1920-1980, document her professional life in anthropology. Much of the field material and reading notes relate to Goldfrank's work on the Pueblos, Navahos, Blood, and Teton Dakota. There is also considerable material of colleagues. Some of this seems to have been given to her directly. Other material, particularly that of Ruth Benedict's Blackfoot project, was acquired by Margaret Mead and then sent to Goldfrank. Included are field notes or manuscript articles concerning the Blackfoot Indians by Benedict, Harry D. Biele, Marjorie Lismer, Jane Richardson, and George D. Spindler. Most of the photographs in the collection concern Goldfrank's early travels with Franz Boas or Harvey Biele's work with the Bloods. Copies of illustrations used in her autobiography are also included.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document the professional life of anthropologist Esther Schiff Goldfrank (b. 1896) through correspondence, arranged both alphabetically and chronologically; correspondence specifically referencing the Isleta paintings; manuscripts by Goldfrank; field, reading and typescript notes; material from other anthropologists; miscellaneous printed material such as articles, reports, papers and invitations; transparencies of artwork from Isleta paintings; facsimiles of the Joe B. Lente letters; and, photographs, mostly concerning Goldfrank's early travels with Franz Boas and Harvey Biele's work with the Bloods. The collection dates from 1920 through 1980.

Among correspondents whose letters are included in the papers, are David F. ABERLE, John ADAIR, M. F. ASHLEY-MONTAGUE, Victor BARNOUW, Ruth F. BENEDICT, Franz BOAS, Charles E. BORDEN, Henry B. COLLINS, Carlton S. COON, George DEVEREUX, Rene d'HARNONCOURT, Edward P. DOZIER, Fred R. EGGAN, Ward H. GOODENOUGH, Alfred I. HALLOWELL, June HANKS, Byron HARVEY III, Florence M. HAWLEY, E. Adamson HOEBEL, Alfred V. KIDDER, Solon T. KIMBALL, Clyde KLUCKHOLN, R. Weston LABARRE, Oliver LAFARGE, Dorothea C. LEIGHTON, Oscar LEWIS, Edward M. LOEB, John P. LUCERO, Margaret MEAD, Robert MURPHY, Morris OPLER, Elsie Clews PARSONS, Herbert PARSONS, Jane RICHARDSON, M. Estellie SMITH, Frank G. SPECK, Leslie SPIER, Morris SWADESH, Sol TAX, Mischa TITIEV, Caroline TRUJILLO, Leslie A. WHITE, Nathalie F. S. WOODBURY, and Richard B. WOODBURY.

The bulk of the material concerns Goldfrank's work on the genesis and publication of the Isleta paintings and her research on and fieldwork with the Pueblo, Navaho, Blood and Teton Dakota. Additionally, there are field notes and manuscript articles by Ruth F. Benedict, Harry D. Biele, Marjorie Lismer, Jane Richardson, and George D. Spindler.

There is also a good deal of autobiographical material and information about her interaction with other anthropologists (Franz Boas and Ruth F. Benedict among others) in the various drafts of Goldfrank's privately published autobiography, "Notes on an Undirected Life" (1978).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into the following series: (1) Correspondence arranged by correspondent or subject; (2) Correspondence arranged in chronological order, 1922-1950; (3) Correspondence arranged in chronological order, 1951-1980; (4) Manuscripts by Goldfrank; (5) Isleta paintings, 1949-1976, undated; (6) Blackfoot and Blood Indians; (7) Navajo and Pueblo Indians; (8) Teton Dakota (Sioux) Indians; (9) Miscellany; (10) Photographs.
Biographical Note:
Esther Schiff Goldfrank took an undergraduate course under Franz Boas when she was a student at Barnard College. This led to her becoming his secretary between 1919 and 1922 and, at the same time, taking graduate courses in anthropology at Columbia University. With the financial and intellectual assistance of Elsie Clews Parsons, she also traveled with Boas and his wife in the Southwest and carried out anthropological field work at Laguna and Cochiti Pueblos between 1920 and 1922. Out of this work came her Social and Ceremonial Organization of Chochiti, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, number 23, 1927.

Although she married Walter Goldfrank in 1922 and became a homemaker, her interest in Pueblo life continued. In 1924, she carried out field work at Isleta for the Southwest Society under arrangements made by Parsons.

After her husband's death in 1935, Goldfrank worked for Caroline Zachry's Study of Adolescents for the Commission on Secondary School Curriculum of the Progressive Education Association and, later, became a nondegree graduate student in anthropology, again at Columbia University, In 1939, she took part in a program of field studies of four Blackfoot tribes that was directed Ruth Fulton Benedict. The purpose of the program was to determine differences in the effects of American and Canadian policies on similar cultures.

Goldfrank's work was among the Blood Indians of Canada, and she reported it in her Changing Configurations in the Social Organization of a Blackfoot Tribe during the Reserve Period, J. J. Austin, 1945.

In 1940, Goldfrank married Karl A. Wittfogel and, in 1943, became staff anthropologist for the Chinese History Project, which her husband directed. Shortly after her marriage, she undertook work on historical aspects of Teton Dakota culture through library studies. Her interest in Pueblo cultures continued, however, and she contributed two major publications concerning them. In 1962, under her editorship, Elsie Clews Parsons' Isleta Paintings was published as Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 181. In 1967, her own The Artist of "Isleta Paintings" in Pueblo Society was issued as Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, volume 3.

Under the influence of her husband, she also became interested in the implications for southwestern cultures of the need to control water.

Goldfrank was active with several anthropological organizations but especially with the American Ethnological Society. She served as its secretary-treasurer in 1945-1947 and its president in 1948. In the latter position, she was particularly concerned with the constitution of the society and, especially, its anomolous relationship with the American Anthropological Association. She was also the society's editor from 1952 to 1956.

Chronology

1896 -- Born

1918 -- Bachelor of Arts, Barnard College

1919-1922 -- Took graduate courses in anthropology at Columbia University Became secretary to Franz Boas Conducted field work with Franz Boas among the Indians at Laguna and Cochiti

1922 -- Married Walter S. Goldfrank

1924 -- Pursued field work at Isleta for the Southwest Society

1927 -- Published Monograph, "The Social and Ceremonial Organization of Cochiti," Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, number 23, 1927

1935 -- Death of Walter S. Goldfrank

1939 -- Took part in a study of four Blackfoot tribes directed by Ruth F. Benedict

1940 -- Married Karl A. Wittfogel

1943 -- Became staff anthropologist for Wittfogel's Chinese HistoryProject

1944 -- Published Monograph, "Changing Configurations in the Social Organization of a Blackfoot Tribe During the Reserve Period," J. J. Austin, 1945

1945-1947 -- Served as Secretary-Treasurer of the American Ethnological Society

1948 -- Served as President of the American Ethnological Society

1952-1956 -- Publication of "Isleta Paintings,"Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 181, with Introduction and Commentary by Elsie ClewsParsons and edited by Esther S. Goldfrank Served as editor for the American Ethnological Society

1967 -- Goldfrank's "Artist of 'Isleta Paintings' in Pueblo Society" was issued as Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, volume 3

1978 -- Publication of the Memoirs of Esther S. Goldfrank, entitled, "Notes on an Undirected Life," New York, Queens College, 1978

1988 -- Death of Karl A. Wittfogel

1997 April 23 -- Died
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Esther Schiff Goldfrank in 1982. A small addition was made in 1984.
Restrictions:
The Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers are open for research.
Rights:
Restrictions on the use of the material specify that living informants are not to be mentioned in publications; no material is to be used to defame any individual; and, transparencies of the Isleta Paintings and copies of Joe B. Lente's letters cannot be reproduced (copies should be obtained from the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia).
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Manuscripts
Letters (correspondence)
Citation:
Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1982-24
See more items in:
Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1982-24

George Hubbard Pepper photograph collection

Creator:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1292 Negatives (photographic)
23 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Nambe Pueblo  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Pojoaque Pueblo  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Sandia Pueblo  Search this
Santa Ana Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
Zia Pueblo  Search this
Hopi [Hano]  Search this
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Mexica (Aztec) (archaeological culture)  Search this
Pueblo (Anasazi) (archaeological)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
New Mexico
Texas
New York
Montana
Arizona
Basin
Illinois
Mexico
Southwest
Guatemala
Ecuador
Utah
Plains
Date:
1895-1918
Summary:
George Hubbard Pepper specialized in the study of cultures of the American Southwest and Ecuador. Tribes which he studied are Acoma, Aztec, Blackfeet, Cochiti, Hopi, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, Navajo, Picuris, Pojuaque, Puye, San Carlos Apache, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Sandia, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Taos, Tarascan, Tesuque, Ute, Zia, and Zuni. Photographs in the collection are of an excavation in Tottenville, New York, 1895; Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Cañon, New Mexico: Hyde Expedition, 1896-1900; and expeditions to the occupied Pueblos of the Southwest, 1904; Mexico, 1904, 1906; Guatemala; and Ecuador, 1907. There are also photos which complement a study Pepper did of the technique of Navajo weaving, and miscellaneous scenic and personal photos.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
George Hubbard Pepper was born on February 2, 1873 in Tottenville, Staten Island, New York. As a young boy he exhibited a strong interest in archaeology and after his graduating from high school followed encouragement from Prof. Fredric W. Putnam to study at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, where Pepper stayed from 1895-96. In 1896 he was appointed assistant curator of the Department of the Southwest in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. From 1896 to 1900, Pepper was a member of the Hyde Exploring Expedition, which conducted excavations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. In 1904, he conducted an ethnological survey of the occupied pueblos of the Southwest and at the same time continued his study of the weaving techniques of the Navajo. Pepper also participated in excavations in the yacatas of the Tierra Caliente of Michoacan in Mexico sponsored by George Gustav Heye, and in 1907 he went with Marshall Saville on an expedition to the Province of Manabi in Ecuador, also for Heye. In 1909 Pepper was appointed assistant curator in the Department of American Archaeology at the University Museum of Philadelphia, but after only a year there he joined the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in New York City, where he stayed until his death. In 1914 he excavated a Munsee cemetery of the historic period near Montague, New Jersey and in the following year he went on the exploration of the Nacoochee mound in the old Cherokee region in Georgia. In 1918 he joined the Hawikku explorations of the Hendricks-Hodge Expedition in New Mexico. Pepper died on May 13, 1924, in New York City. George H. Pepper was a co-founder of the American Anthropological Association, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Ethnological Society of New York, a member of the American Folklore Society, and a corresponding member of the Academia Nacional de Historia of Ecuador. A complete bibliography of his works can be found in Indian Notes, v. 1, no. 3, July 1924, pp. 108-110. The George Hubbard Pepper Papers are in the Latin American Library, Tulane University Library, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Provenance:
According to Frederick Dockstader, director of MAI from 1960 to 1975, in a letter dated March 26, 1968, the collection was given to MAI by Pepper. However, the 1965 Annual Report (p. 26) states that the Photographic Department acquired through the donation of Mrs. Jeannette Cameron approximately 500 new negatives pertaining to field work done by her father from 1900-1910; and the 1966 Annual Report (p. 9) states that many papers of Dr. George H. Pepper were acquired through the courtesy of his daughter, Mrs. Jeanette Cameron.
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.034
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-034

Alanson Buck Skinner photograph collection

Photographer:
Van Schaick, C.J.  Search this
Smith, Huron H. (Huron Herbert), 1883-1933  Search this
Creator:
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Extent:
454 Negatives (photographic)
99 Photographic prints (black and white)
5 Lantern slides
Culture:
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Odawa (Ottawa)  Search this
Plains Cree (Prairie Cree)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Bribri  Search this
Plains Ojibwa (Bungi)  Search this
Cayuga  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Saulteaux  Search this
Shinnecock  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
James Bay Cree  Search this
Seneca [Cattaraugus]  Search this
Potawatomi [Forest County, Wisconsin]  Search this
Kesagami (Kesagmi) Cree  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Negatives
Place:
Minnesota
Wisconsin
Costa Rica
Oklahoma
Mexico
Canada
Florida
New York
New Mexico
Wyoming
Date:
circa 1870 to before 1926
Summary:
Tribes covered in the photographs are: Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Iowa, Iroquois, Mahican, Menomini, Ojibwa, Oto, Plains Cree, Potawatomi, Seminole, Seri, Shinnecock, Sioux, Winnebago, Zuni Pueblo. The majority of photographs (552) have Skinner listed as the photographer and presumably are photographs he took on his expeditions. However, 104 photos are of the Seminole in Florida. According to Dennis P. Carey's biography of Skinner (Unpublished? 1980) Julian Q. Dimock, a well-known photographer, accompanied him on his expedition to the Seminole in Florida; how many of the photos were taken by Dimock is unknown, but he is listed as the photographer for 23 of them. Skinner's other photographs are of the Seneca Iroquois in New York; the Zuni Pueblo and Hawikku site; several tribes in Wisconsin; the Chippewa in Minnesota; and miscellaneous shots taken in Canada, Costa Rica, Florida and New York. Two photographs of the Mahican were taken by Huron H. Smith (1923) and two of the Winnebago were taken by C.J. Van Schaick (c. 1870). The remaining photographs have no photographer listed but were in Skinner's collection of photographs and are of varying tribes with dates ranging from 1909 to 1923.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Alanson Buck Skinner was born in Buffalo, New York, on September 7, 1886. His parents moved to Staten Island, New York, when Alanson was still very young. There Alanson met W.T. Davis who taught him to find arrowheads and other traces of ancient Indian life. When he was older he consulted with Prof. F.W. Putnam and George H. Pepper at the American Museum of Natural History about his interest. In the summer of 1902 Skinner went on his first fieldwork expedition near Shinnecock Hills, Long Island, for the American Museum of Natural History with Arthur C. Parker and Mark R. Harrington. Two years later Skinner and Harrington went on another archeological expedition in western New York State for the Peabody Museum and while there he attended his first Native ceremony on the Cattaraugus reservation. After high school Skinner joined the staff of the AMNH as an assistant in anthropology. In 1908 he led an expedition to Hudson Bay to study the Cree Indians. In 1910 he went to Wisconsin where he met John V. Satterlee, part Menomini, and Judge Sabatis Perote, a full-blooded Menomini, who adopted him into the tribe under the Thunder clan name of Sekosa or "Little Weasel." He later went on expeditions to collect from the Seminoles in the Florida Everglades, and other tribes in Wisconsin, Oklahoma, and other states. During these years he was also studying anthropology at Columbia under Boas, Farrand, Saville, and Bandelier, and at Harvard under Dixon, Tozzer, and Farrabee. In 1916 Skinner joined the Museum of the American Indian and remained there until 1920, when he took a position as curator of anthropology at the Public Museum of Milwaukee. He returned to the MAI in 1924 where he remained until his untimely death on August 17, 1925 in a car accident in North Dakota. He was a member of the American Anthropological Association, the Wisconsin Archeological Society, the Explorer's Club, a York Rite Mason and a Shriner. A more detailed biography by Dennis P. Carey (1980) can be found in the vertical file. A complete bibliography of Skinner's writings can be found in Indian Notes, Vol. II, No. 4 (October 1925).
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- Wisconsin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Lakes Region  Search this
Indians of North America -- New York (State)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern states  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.036
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-036

Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989

Creator:
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987  Search this
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987  Search this
Production place:
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)  Search this
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)  Search this
Repository:
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
Extent:
520 Linear feet (520 boxes)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patient medical records
Date:
circa 1947 - circa 1989
Summary:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records consist of data collected by the Krogman Growth Center over a 40-year period documenting physical growth and faciodental development in Philadelphia children from approximately 1947-1989. The study observed children throughout their lives, starting at infancy once Philadelphia's participation in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974) began. In all, the data collected from these growth studies helped establish healthy growth standards for children, and reflect largest and longest U.S. studies on growth, pregnancy, and childhood. The collection includes a variety of mixed materials and medical records, including: photographs, clinical notes, patient evaluations, family medical histories, newspaper clippings, X-rays, and dental records.
Scope and Contents:
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.

The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records contain the data collected for the Philadelphia branch of the National Collaborative Perinatal Program (CPP) (1954-1974) and for a 40-year longitudinal study (1947-1983) by Wilton M. Krogman (and his successor, Solomon H. Katz) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Data was collected in the form of a variety of medical records, including pediatric, dental, and hospital records, all of which contain PII: National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) numbers; birthdays; photographs; clinical notes; family medical histories; pediatric, psychological, and neurological evaluations; X-rays; and death reports (including autopsies and related newspaper clippings).

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series: (1) National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Dental Program, 1959-1976; and (2) Child Growth and Development: Patient Files Information, circa 1947-circa 1989.
Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development (originally known as the Philadelphia center for Research in child Growth) was founded by anthropologist Wilton M. Krogman in 1947. The Center was located in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).

Its objective was to establish growth standards for "normal," healthy children, as determined by age, sex, and race. Longitudinal research for this study began in approximately 1947. The study involved approximately 9,000 initial participants (7,200 of which were followed up on), who were observed annually for physical growth, psychological performance, faciodental development with cleft lip and/or palate, facial growth in regards to tooth development, and any existing endocrine disorders and orthopedic concerns.

Additionally, the Center led the Philadelphia portion of the 11-city Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) (1959-1974), which remains the largest and longest U.S.-based study of pregnancy and childhood ever conducted. In all, the research of the Center compromises the largest longitudinal study ever conducted on growth in the U.S. and the largest in the world on people of African descent, and produced hundreds of publications between 1959 and 2011. Many of the original participants contributed to later phases of the project as adults for decades thereafter, making a significant contribution to the study of aging. The results of Krogman's initial research helped establish physical growth standards for elementary and high school age children.

Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development

1947 -- Founded by Wilton M. Krogman (originally named the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth)

1947-1983 -- Longitudinal Research, Child Growth: Physical Growth, Faciodental Development, Dental Program

1959-1974 -- Longitudinal Research, National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Philadelphia

1970 -- Krogman publishes growth study findings through the Society for Research in Child Development

1971 -- Dr. Solomon H. Katz becomes new Center Director

1972 -- Krogman republishes growth study findings in his book Child Growth
Wilton Marion Krogman:
Wilton Marion "Bill" Krogman was born on June 28, 1903 to Lydia Magdalena Wriedt and Wilhelm Claus Krogman in Oak Park, Illinois.

He attended the University of Chicago from 1921-1929, where he majored in anthropology, minored in biology and geo-paleontology, and earned his PhD. His postdoctoral work included several fellowships, teaching positions, and summer archeological "digs" through the Archaeological Survey of Illinois.

As a student, Krogman's work caught the attention of Dr. Milo Hellman, an orthodontist and physical anthropologist. At Hellman's suggestion, Krogman submitted a paper to the Chaim Prize Committee's annual Morris L. Chaim Prize of the First District Dental Society of New York City. Krogman's paper, "Anthropological Aspects of the Human Teeth and Dentition," received first prize and was published in its entirety in the Journal of Dental Research in 1927, for which Hellman was on the editorial board. Krogman received additional attention as a student from Dr. Thomas Wingate Todd, an anatomist, physical anthropologist, and director of the Department of Anthropology for Western Reserve University in Ohio. As such, Todd arranged a fellowship for Krogman from 1928-1929.

After receiving his PhD in 1929, Krogman participated as a National Reserve fellow at the Royal College of Surgeons in London from 1930-1931. Afterwards, he returned to Western Reserve University, where he joined the faculty as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology. During this time, Krogman worked under Todd as a researcher for the Brush Foundation and the Bolton Fund, which focused on physical and psychological development in children, and on faciodental growth in children, respectively. It is during this time that Krogman also began his studies in craniology.

In 1938, Krogman returned to Chicago to join the faculty of the University of Chicago as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology.

In 1947, Krogman moved to Pennsylvania to join the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as a professor of physical anthropology for the Graduate School of Medicine and for the School of Dental Medicine. While teaching, he also served as a curator at the university's museum and was on staff at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Here, he founded the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth—which would later be renamed the Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development. The Center carried out a 40-year longitudinal study that documented physical growth and faciodental development in children across age, sex, and race. Additionally, it participated in the Philadelphia portion of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974). (See "Biographical/Historical: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development," and collection series/sub-series descriptions for more information on the Center's research.)

While carrying out his child growth studies, Krogman's research contributed greatly to many interests in the field of anthropology, including: osteology, racial studies, genetics, medical anthropology, paleoanthropology, constitutional anthropology, and human engineering. Furthermore, together with Dr. Todd of Western Reserve University, he pioneered the study of forensic anthropology. His 1962 book, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, which has served as a definitive text for medical and police professionals alike.

In 1970, Krogman published the findings of his growth study through the Society for Research in Child Development.

In 1971, Krogman retired from the University of Pennsylvania becoming emeritus staff. That same year, Krogman became the director of research at the H. K. Cooper Clinic, where he continued to research and publish about oral and facial development and growth until retiring in 1983 due to health concerns.

Over the course of his career, Krogman earned a number of awards and honors, and held prestigious positions, including, but not limited to: chair for Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1948-1949), president of the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association (1937-1938), president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1942-1949), chair of the Department of Physical Anthropology in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1951), the Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology (1950), chair of the Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology of the National Research Council (1955-1971), the Drexel Institute Award (1958), president of the Society for Research in Child Development (1959-1961), president of the International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology (1962-1963), and election to the National Academy of Sciences (1966).

Wilton M. Krogman died on November 4, 1987 at age 84.

Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman

1903 June 28 -- Born in Oak Park, Illinois

1921-1929 -- Student, University of Chicago

1928-1929 -- Research Fellow, Western Reserve University

1929 -- Ph.D., University of Chicago (Anthropology)

1930-1931 -- National Reserve Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons, London

1931-1938 -- Faculty, Western Reserve University Researcher, Western Reserve University (Brush Foundation) Researcher, Western Reserve University (Bolton Fund)

1933-1945 -- Secretary, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science

1937–1939 -- President, Central Section, American Anthropological Association

1938-1947 -- Faculty, University of Chicago

1944-1949 -- President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

1947-1971 -- Faculty, University of Pennsylvania

1947 -- Founder, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)

1947-? -- Curator, Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1947-1951 -- Chair, Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology, National Research Council

1947-1971 -- Staff, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Researcher, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)

1948-1949 -- Chair, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science

1949-1950, 1957-59 -- Member, Board of Governors, Society for Research in Child Development

1950 -- Recipient, Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology

1955-1971 -- Chair, Department of Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

1955 -- LL.D., Honorary Degree, Baylor University

1958 -- Recipient, Drexel Institute Award

1959-1961 -- President, Society for Research in Child Development

1962-1963 -- President, International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology

1966 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1967 -- Recipient, Callahan Award and Medal, Ohio State Dental Association

1969 -- Recipient, Ketcham Award, American Association of Orthodontists

1969 -- D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Michigan

1971 -- Krogman retires

1971-1983 -- Faculty, University of Pennsylvania (Professor Emeritus) Director of Research, H. K. Cooper (cleft palate) Clinic, Lancaster

1973 -- Honorary Senior President, Third Inernational Orthodontic Congress, London

1979 -- D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Pennsylvania

1982 -- Recipient, Annual Award, American Association of Orthodontists

1983 -- Recipient, Honors Award, American Cleft Palate Association

1987 November 4 -- Died in Lititz, Pennsylvania
Provenance:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Solomon Katz in 2017.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropology, physical  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- Anthropologists  Search this
Babies  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Infants  Search this
Physical anthropologists  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- dental anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- growth studies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patient medical records
Citation:
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2017-20
See more items in:
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2017-20

William Duncan Strong papers

Creator:
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Names:
Columbia University  Search this
Institute of Andean Research Viru Valley Project  Search this
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition  Search this
Extent:
64.88 Linear feet (87 boxes; 16 map folders; and 14 boxes of nitrate negatives, which are not included in the linear feet extent measurement)
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Naskapi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
North Dakota -- Archeology
South Dakota -- Archeology
Great Plains
Honduras -- Archeology
Labrador (N.L.)
Nebraska -- Archeology
Columbia River Valley
Date:
1902-1965
bulk 1927-1955
Summary:
William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World and was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, where he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.
Scope and Contents:
Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.

Strong's papers reflect his professional life, but there is little personal material. Except for the Rawson-MacMillan Labrador Expedition, there is little information from Strong's years at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Other than information on field work expenses, there is little light shed on Strong's personal financial situation. There is no personal correspondence with either of his wives and little correspondence with family members, except for his brother, Ronald. Some correspondence from the late 1930s to the early 1940s is not present and its whereabouts is not known. Of special interest is a collection of drawings by Naskapi Indian children collected while Strong was on the Labrador expedition in 1928. Strong collected obituaries, vitae, news articles, and writings on and by other anthropologists. He was an inveterate doodler, and his fascinating creations appear throughout the papers.

Strong also collected materials from other researchers, including Loren Eiseley's 1931 field notes from the Morrill Expedition, Maurice Kirby's 1932 notes on the Signal Butte excavations, notes and drawings from the 1936 Honduras expedition by Alfred V. Kidder II, and the field notebooks kept by Clifford Evans for the 1946 Virú Valley expedition in Peru. Contributed photographs from field expeditions are from A.T. Hill, Waldo Wedel, and John Champe.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 12 series: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1914-1963; (2) Correspondence, 1922-1965; (3) Materials relating to field work, 1921-1963; (4) Miscellaneous research notes, 1917-1960, most undated; (5) Maps and charts, 1902-1949; (6) Drawings by Naskapi Indians and Eskimos, 1910, 1928; (7) Manuscripts of writings, 1922-1962, undated; (8) Writings by other authors, 1902-1961; (9) Papers relating to organizations, 1926-1961; (10) Teaching materials and course work, 1909, 1928-1961; (11) Miscellany, 1902-1961, most undated; (12) Photographs, 1913-1950.
Biographical Note:
William Duncan Strong (1899-1962) was a major figure in American anthropology. His accomplishments were as a field worker in archaeology and ethnology, archaeological theorist, writer, and teacher. He was, furthermore, a leader in anthropological organizations. In 1954, his position in the field was recognized by the award of the Viking Fund Medal for his contributions to archaeology.

William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World, including Labrador, southern California, Honduras, and Peru. Strong was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, and it was there that he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. His work in all these areas are represented by notebooks, diaries, specimen catalogues, maps, and photographs.

Strong spent the majority of his professional life affiliated with various universities and taught many anthropologists who became influential in their own right. His students included Loren Eiseley, Waldo R. Wedel, Joseph Jablow, Oscar Lewis, John Landgraf, Dorothy Keur, David Stout, Charles Wagley, Eleanor Leacock, John Champe, Albert C. Spaulding, Victor Barnouw, John M. Corbett, Walter Fairservis, and Richard B. Woodbury. Strong preserved the student papers by some of these anthropologists as well as their correspondence with him.

Strong influenced American anthropology by his service in professional societies. He served as president of the American Ethnological Society, the Institute of Andean Research, and the Society for American Archaeology. He was the director of the Ethnogeographic Board (his journal from his tenure as director is in the papers) and chairman of the Committee on Basic Needs of American Archaeology. In this latter capacity, Strong was involved in establishing a program to salvage archaeological sites before they were destroyed by public works. Strong served as the anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs during Franklin Roosevelt's administration and advised on new directions to be taken in Indian Service policy.

Strong died suddenly on January 29, 1962.

Chronology

1899 -- Born January 30 in Portland, Oregon

1917 April-1919 January -- In the United States Navy aboard the U.S.S. South Dakota on convoy duty in the Atlantic Ocean

1922 -- Collected faunal specimens in the Canadian Rockies, Skeena River district, for the University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology

1923 -- A.B., University of California Studied Max Uhle's Peruvian archaeological collection Collected faunal specimens, Columbia River, Washington

Winter, 1923-1924 -- Archaeological investigations in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California under the direction of Edwin Winslow Gifford

1924-1925 -- Expedition to study Shoshonean tribes (the Serrano, Cahuilla, Cupeño, and Luiseño) of Southern California (Riverside and San Diego counties) under Alfred Louis Kroeber Archaeological surveys and excavations of three months each in the middle Columbia River Valley in Oregon and Washington

1925 -- Archaeological expedition and collection of faunal specimens in the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Baja California under W. Egbert Schenk

1925-1926 -- Research Assistant, Department of Anthropology, University of California

1926 -- PhD, Anthropology, University of California

1926 July-1929 August -- Assistant Curator of North American Ethnology and Archaeology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

1927 -- An Analysis of Southwestern Society (doctoral dissertation)

1927 June-1928 September -- Anthropologist on the Rawson-MacMillan September, 1928 Subarctic Expedition of the Field Museum Studied Naskapi and Eskimos in Labrador and on Baffin Island

1929 -- Married Jean Stevens

1929 August-1931 July -- Professor of Anthropology, University of Nebraska

1929 -- Published The Aboriginal Society of Southern California

1929-1931 -- Director, Archaeological Survey of Nebraska, University of Nebraska

1930 June 11-September 6 -- Excavated at Rock Bluff cemetery site

1931 -- Helped organize the First Plains Conference (held August 31-September 2)

1931-1932 -- Morrill Expedition, central and western Nebraska and North and South Dakota: ethnological investigations of Arikaras at Nishu, North Dakota; excavation at Signal Butte, Nebraska; and excavation at Leavenworth and Rygh village sites in South Dakota

1931 July-1937 August -- Senior Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution

1932 -- Archaeological survey of northeastern Honduras along the Mosquito Coast and the Patuca River, archaeological work on the Bay Islands, and ethnological investigation of Sumu Indians

1933-1934 -- Two Civilian Works Administration archaeological expeditions (five months each) in California in southern San Joaquin Valley, Kern County, at Tulamniu (a Yokuts village) and eastern Chumash area

1934-1937 -- Trustee, Laboratory of Anthropology, Sante Fe

1935 -- Anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs Assistant editor, American Antiquity Published Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras and An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology

1935-1937 -- Member, Committee on State Archeological Surveys, National Research Council

1936 -- Smithsonian Institution-Harvard expedition to northwestern Honduras to the valleys of the Chamelecon and the Ulua Rivers, Naco and other sites

1937-1962 -- Professor, later Chairman, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1937-1938 -- Vice-President, American Anthropological Association

1938 -- Fort Abraham Lincoln (Slant Mandan village) site and Sheyenne-Cheyenne village site excavations in North Dakota

1939 -- Chairman, National Research Council's Committee on Basic Needs in American Archaeology Excavated at Arzberger site in South Dakota and the area between the Chamberlain and Cheyenne Rivers

1940 -- Member, National Research Council's Committee on War Services of Anthropology Expeditions to western Florida and southwestern United States, especially New Mexico Peruvian archaeological survey

1941 -- Chairman, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1941-1942 -- President, American Ethnological Society Peruvian excavations at Pachacamac in the Chancay Valley and the Ancon-Supe excavations

1942? -- Peruvian excavations in the Naxca and Ica Valleys

1942-1944 -- Director, Ethnogeographic Board

1943 -- Published Cross Sections of New World Prehistory Appointed to Loubat Professorship at Columbia University

1945 -- Married Helen Richardson

1946 -- Peruvian excavations, Virú Valley Project National Research Council liaison member of the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains President, Institute of Andean Research

1948-1949 -- Chairman, Anthropology Section of New York Academy of Sciences

1949 July-August -- Peru-Mexico trip

1950 -- Talking Crow site expedition Excavated at Signal Butte

1952-1953 -- Peruvian expeditions, Nazca and Ica Valleys

1954 -- Awarded the Viking Fund Medal Trip to western United States

1955-1956 -- President, Society for American Archaeology

1962 -- Died January 29

Selected Bibliography

1929 -- Strong, William Duncan. Aboriginal Society of Southern California. Vol. 26, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1929.

1935 -- Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935. Strong, William Duncan. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. Vol. 93, no. 10, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935.

1938 -- Strong, William Duncan, Alfred Kidder, II, and A.J. Drexel Pail, Jr. Preliminary Report on the Smithsonian Institution-Harvard University Archeological Expedition to Northwestern Honduras, 1936. Vol. 97, no. 1, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1938.

1943 -- Strong, William Duncan. Cross Sections of New World Prehistory: a Brief Report on the Work of the Institute of Andean Research, 1941-1942. Vol. 104, no. 2, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1943. Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Studies in Peru, 1941-1942. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

1948 -- "The Archeology of Honduras." In The Circum-Caribbean Tribes Vol. 4, Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward, 71-120. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 143. Washington: U.S. Government Print Office, 1948.

1952 -- Strong, William Duncan, and Clifford Evans. Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley, Northern Peru. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952.

For a complete bibliography of Strong's works, see Solecki, Ralph, and Charles Wagley. "William Duncan Strong, 1899-1962," American Anthropologist 65, no. 5 (October 1963): 1102-1111. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00080
Related Materials:
Additional materials in the National Anthropological Archives relating to William Duncan Strong can be found in the records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Handbook of South American Indians, Institute of Social Anthropology, River Basin Surveys, the Society for American Archaeology, and Tulamniu Project (1933-1934); the papers of Ralph Leon Beals, John Peabody Harrington, Frederick Johnson, Frank Maryl Setzler, Ruth Schlossberg Landes, Albert Clanton Spaulding (including information on the Arzberger site), and Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel; Photographic Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File; Photographic Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Photographs of American Indians; Photographic Lot 77-80, Portraits of Smithsonian Anthropologists; Photographic Lot 92-35, Ralph S. Solecki Photographs of Anthropologists; Numbered Collections, MS 4821 (records of the Anthropological Society of Washington), MS 4261 (photographs made on a site survey in the Santa Barbara Mountains, California, 1934), MS 4302 (journal covering the 1936 expedition to Honduras), MS 4846 (correspondence between BAE authors and the BAE editor's office), and MS 7200 (original field catalog of Honduran artifacts, 1936); and in the non-archival reference file. There are also materials in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in record units 87 (Ethnogeographic Board), 9528 (Henry Bascom Collins interviews), and 1050102 (papers of T. Wayland Vaughan). In the Human Studies Film Archives there is material on Strong in the video dialogues of Charles Wagley, 1983.
Provenance:
The Strong papers were donated to the archives by Strong's widow, Mrs. Helen Richardson Strong. Most of the arrangements were handled by Ralph S. Solecki, then of Columbia University. He sent the papers to the archives between 1974 and 1979, and there have been small accretions since that time. These accretions came through Richard G. Forbis, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary; Mildred Mott Wedel and Waldo R. Wedel, Department of Anthropology; and Nan A. Rothschild, Department of Anthropology, Barnard College. Mrs. Strong donated the rights in the unpublished material in the collection to the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions:
The William Duncan Strong papers are open for research.

Access to the William Duncan Strong papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Citation:
William Duncan Strong papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-28
See more items in:
William Duncan Strong papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-28
Online Media:

J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, circa 1897-circa 1937

Creator:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Names:
Abram, Charles, Chief  Search this
Buck, Emeline  Search this
Buck, John, Chief  Search this
Buck, Joshua  Search this
Buck, Susan  Search this
General Mrs  Search this
General, Myrtle  Search this
Gibson, Simeon, 1889-1943  Search this
Hill, George  Search this
Hill, Simon  Search this
Jamieson  Search this
Jamieson, Clara Miss  Search this
Jamieson, James Mrs  Search this
Sandy, William  Search this
Sandy, William Mrs  Search this
Extent:
307 Photographs (2 document boxes)
305 Negatives (3 negative boxes, nitrate)
Culture:
Iroquois -- Six Nations Reserve -- Wampum  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Onondaga Indians  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Iroquois -- Tuscarora  Search this
Iroquois -- Cayuga  Search this
Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Cayuga  Search this
Iroquois -- Seneca  Search this
Iroquois -- Mohawk  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Iroquois -- Six Nations  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Tutelo Indians  Search this
Iroquois -- Oneida  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Negatives
Date:
circa 1897-circa 1937
Summary:
Photographs documenting Iroquois people made circa 1897-circa 1937 on and near the Six Nations Reserve by J.N.B. Hewitt, linguist with the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology.
Scope and Contents note:
Hewitt's photos primarily depict Mohawk, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga, Tuscarora, Oneida, and Tutelo Indians. There are also a few images of Iroquois houses and other structures, Hewitt's mask collection, and Onondaga Chief John Buck and family, Seneca Chief John Arthur Gibson and family, Cayuga Chief James Jamieson and family, and Cayuga-Seneca Chief Simeon Gibson. Most of the photographs were taken during several trips between 1897 and 1937, on and near the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, including in New York (Niagara Falls, Nedrow, and Syracuse) and Ontario (Oshweken, Deseronto, and Brantsford).
Arrangement note:
For Photo Lot 155 Hewitt's original arrangement and numbering has been maintained. The order of the photographs does not follow the chronology that they were taken; for instance there are often several photographs of an individual that were clearly made in different years. The original negatives also represent a variety of film and camera types.

The arrangement and numbering for MS 4596, established at an unknown time, was maintained.
Biographical note:
J.N.B. (John Napoleon Brinton) Hewitt (December 6, 1859-October 14, 1937) was a linguist and ethnographer who specialized in Iroquoian and other Native American languages. Born on the Tuscarora Indian Reservation near Lewiston, New York, his mother was of Tuscarora, French, Oneida, and Scottish descent. His father's heritage was English and Scottish, but he was raised in a Tuscarora family. Hewitt spoke English growing up, but when he left the reservation to attend schools in Wilson and Lockport, he learned to speak the Tuscarora language from other students. Hewitt grew up planning to become a physician, like his father. However, the course of Hewitt's interests changed when, in 1880, he was hired by Erminnie A. Smith of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of Ethnology (now the Bureau of American Ethnology) as an assistant ethnologist tasked with collecting myths among the Iroquois tribes of New York. He continued this work from 1880-1884, and then was briefly employed by the Jersey City Railways Co. (1884-1885) and Adams Express Co. (1885-1886). Upon Smith's death in 1886, Hewitt returned to the BAE to continue her work, remaining employed there until his death.

Over the course of his career, Hewitt became the leading authority on the organization of the Iroquois League and the ceremonials, customs, and usages of the tribes composing it. He acquired an intimate knowledge of the languages of the League, including a speaking knowledge of Mohawk and Onondaga, and also became acquainted with several Algonquian dialects. On February 28, 1914, in recognition of his services in preserving for posterity a knowledge of the history and ethnology of the Indians of New York state, he was awarded the Cornplanter medal for Iroquois Research.

Additionally, he was a founder of the American Anthropological Association and an active member of the Anthropological Society of Washington and the American Museum of Natural History, serving as both treasurer (1912-1926) and president (1932-1934) of the latter. Hewitt also contributed over one hundred articles for the Handbook of American Indians (Bulletin 30) and published the two volume Iroquoian Cosmology (1903 and 1928).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Wampum  Search this
Trade, gifts and other exchanges -- Wampum  Search this
Wampum -- Iroquois  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 155, J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.155
See more items in:
J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, circa 1897-circa 1937
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-155

MS 4851 Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., papers and photographs

Creator:
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Greenwood, Walter B.  Search this
Hill, Ernest H. Jr  Search this
Kyte, Dorothy  Search this
Leonard, Jane  Search this
Morgan, Dorothy  Search this
Smith, George Hubert  Search this
Stern, Theodore  Search this
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
United States. Federal Civil Works Administration  Search this
Correspondent:
Allyn, Harriet M.  Search this
Antevs, Ernst V.  Search this
Baker, Frank C.  Search this
Chaney, Ralph W.  Search this
Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977  Search this
Figgins, J.D.  Search this
Gazin, C. Lewis (Charles Lewis), 1904-1996  Search this
Guthe, Carl E. (Carl Eugen), 1893-1974  Search this
Hall, Marion  Search this
Harcus, John  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Hitchcock, Virginia Beth  Search this
Hooton, Earnest Albert, 1887-1954  Search this
Howard, Edgar B.  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Judson, Sheldon  Search this
Kellogg, A. Remington  Search this
Krieger, Alex D. (Alex Dony), 1911-1991  Search this
Leonard, Jane  Search this
McCarty, Oscar  Search this
Miller, Carl F.  Search this
Moomaw, Jack C.  Search this
Ray, Cyrus N.  Search this
Reiter, Paul David  Search this
Richards, Horace G.  Search this
Shapiro, Harry L. (Harry Lionel), 1902-1990  Search this
Shepard, Anna O.  Search this
Van Devanter, D.W.  Search this
Van Riet, Clarence  Search this
Wheat, Joe Ben  Search this
Woodbury, George  Search this
Author:
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Anderson, Jack C.  Search this
Baby, Raymond S.  Search this
Atkins, Ruth  Search this
Deacon, John C.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Papers : 5.4 linear feet (16 boxes)
1 Item (Photographs : ca 3100 prints and negatives)
1 Item (Maps and illustrations )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
United States -- Archeology
Bc53, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico -- Archeology
Chaco Canyon (N.M.) -- Archeology
Colorado -- Archeology
Arizona -- Archeology
New Mexico -- Archeology
Agate Basin, Wyoming -- Archeology
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This collection of Rober's papers and photographs is almost excluvely concerned with his scientific fieldwork and resulting publications. It is not complete; for example, there is little in the photographs concerning his work at Agate Basin in Wyoming (though some related site forms are part of the records of the River Basin Surveys). Apparently, some of the series that form the records of the RBS began as Roberts's own files and were simply continued once his interest turned to the administration of the RBS. For instance, there is correspondence concerning Robert's work in New Mexico among the RBS correspondence series. The file of correspondence in manuscript 4851 is a miscellany with few letters from any one correspondent.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr. studied history and English at the University of Denver and after receiving his B.A.worked briefly as a journalist. Entering graduate school at Denver he was influenced by Etienne Bernadeau Renaud and, later, Jean Allard Jeacon. Although his studies toward a master's degree were in political science, he carried out archeological work among ruins in the Piedra-Pagosa region of the San Juan River valley in southwestern Colorado and became an instructor in archeology at the University of Denver. In 1923, he became an assistant curator at the Colorado State Museum.
Robert's formal training in archeology came through subsequent studies at Harvard University, where he received a Ph.D. in 1927. While a student, he worked during the summers of 1925 and 1926 for Neil Merton Judd on expeditions to Chaco Canyon. Judd offered him the opportunity to study pottery sequences, expanding upon work already carried out successfully for the Piedra region. From his work under Judd, Roberts produced his dissertation. The work also led to a permanent appointment as an archeologist with the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology in 1926.
For some time after this, Roberts continued to work primarily among ruins in the Southwest. In 1927, he conducted excavations at Shabik'esche Village in Chaco Canyon and carried on excavations at Kiathuthlunna on the Long H Ranch in eastern Arizona. In 1930, he excavated in the Village of the Great Kivas on the Zuni reservation and, in 1931-1933, worked along the Whitewater River in eastern Arizona and at a site near Allantown, Arizona. For the University of New Mexico Field School in 1940-1941, Roberts directed expeditions to the Bc-53 site in Chaco Canyon.
Throughout this work Roberts's primary interest was "the early structure and sequences of Southwestern culture." This led to Roberts's ultimate interest in the problem of early man in America. He was asked to inspect the discoveries at the original Fosom site in 1927, and over time became convinced of an error in contemporary thinking about the relatively recent arrival of humans in the New World. He was increasingly drawn to study the problem and particuarly after 1933, devoted most of his field work to it. Between 1934 and 1940, he worked at Lindenmeier, a Folsom campsite in northern Colorado. In 1941, he excavated the Mons site near the Peaks of Otter in Virginia, though failing to find expected remains of early man. In the same year, he worked at a Folsom site at San Jon, New Mexico, and, in 1942, another Folsom site in the Agate Basin in Wyoming. In 1943--again in connection with this interest in early man--he carried out a reconnaissance of the Clear Fork of the Brazos River in Texas. In addition, Roberts inspected other sites in Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Saskatchewan.
Roberts also worked briefly with other interests. In 1932, he served as an advisor to the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., in its excavation at Chichen Itza and Uxmal in the Yucatan. In 1933-1934, he conducted a Civil Works Administration expedition to excavate mounds in the Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee. In 1956-1960, he was on the advisory council for the National Park Service's Wetherill Mesa Project.
In the administration of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Roberts became the assistant chief under Matthew Williams Stirling in 1944. In 1946, he became, in addition, the director of the BAE's River Basin Surveys, a salvage archeological program concerned with areas where the federal government was planning dams and reservoirs. In 1947, he became the associate director of the BAE and, in 1958, its director. In addition to these duties and his scientific work, Roberts served as American representative to the League of Nations' International Conference of Archeologists at Cairo in 1937 and as representative on the International Commission for Sites and Monuments in 1939-1942. During World War II, he was involved with the Ethnogeographic Board, an organization that provided liaison between federal war agencies and the scientific community. For the board, Roberts prepared a survival manual and a volume on Egypt and the Suez Canal that was issued as one of the Smithsonian's War Background Studies. For several years later in his life, Roberts was also on the National Council for Historical Sites and Buildings. He also served the Smithsonian on committees concerned primarily with personnel.
Outside official duties, Roberts represented the American Anthropological Association on the National Research Council in 1935-1949. In 1936, he was president of the Anthropological Society of Washington and, in 1944, vice president of the AAA. In 1949, he became president of the Washington Academy of Sciences. A founding member of the Society for American Archaeology and a member of the committee that drafts its constitution and bylaws, Roberts served that organization as president in 1950. In 1952, he became a vice president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Local Numbers:
MS 4851
Restrictions:
The photographic negatives are in special storage and require advance notice to view.
Topic:
Early man -- in America  Search this
Shiloh National Military Park  Search this
Lindenmeier site, Colorado -- Archeology  Search this
Shiloh Mound, Tennessee -- Archeology  Search this
San Jon, New Mexico -- Archeology  Search this
Piedra District, Colorado -- Archeology  Search this
Kiathuthlanna, Arizona -- Archeology  Search this
Village of the Great Kivas, New Mexico -- Archeology  Search this
Whitewater District, Arizona -- Archeology  Search this
Wyoming -- Archeology  Search this
Clear Fork site, Texas -- Archeology  Search this
Texas -- Archeology  Search this
Pagosa Springs, Colorado -- archeolgoy  Search this
Peaks of Otter -- Virginia -- Archeology  Search this
Virginia -- Archeology  Search this
Citation:
MS 4851, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4851
See more items in:
MS 4851 Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4851
Online Media:

Odd Halseth collection of negatives and photograph

Creator:
Halseth, Odd S.  Search this
Extent:
158 Negatives (photographic) (black and white)
4 Photographic prints (black and white)
Culture:
Puye Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Zia Pueblo  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui) [Pascua Yaqui]  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Date:
1920-1925
Summary:
The collection consists of negatives and photographs made by Halseth from 1920 to 1925 in Arizona and New Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of negatives and photographs made by Halseth from 1920 to 1925 in Arizona and New Mexico. The materials are primarily informal, outdoor group and individual portraits of Akimel O'odham (Pima), Diné (Navajo), Yoeme (Yaqui) [Pascua Yaqui], Piipaash (Maricopa), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Zia Pueblo, San Ildefonso Pueblo, Jemez Pueblo, Cochiti Pueblo, Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo), and Tesuque Pueblo men, women, and children. In addition among the Akimel O'odham photographs are depictions of dwellings, potters, ladle makers, baskets, the construction of an oven, food preparation, dwellings, and mattress factory wokers; among the K'apovi ceremonials and village views; among the Zia pottery and portraits of and paintings by Velino Shije Herrera; among the Jemez ceremonials and village views; among Kewa ovens; and among San Ildefonso village views and paintings by Awa Tsireh. The collection also includes photogrpahs depicting the pictographs at Puye.
Arrangement note:
Negatives Arranged by negative number (N32893-N33051)

Prints Arranged by print number (P19345-P19346, P19630-P19631)
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1893 in Moss, Norway, Halseth was an anthropologist, museum director, educator, author, art critic, and lecturer. As a young man he studied electrical engineering and anthropology in Germany and served both Norway and the United States during World War I. While in San Diego for military training, he met archaeologist Edgar L. Hewett and after the war accepted a position with Hewett as the curator of art at the San Diego Museum. In 1923, he moved to Santa Fe, where he was on both the staff of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico. After four years, Halseth was appointed director of the newly established Arizona Museum in Phoenix and in 1929 initiated the excavation of the Pueblo Grande Indian ruins and founded the Pueblo Grande Museum. Halseth was also Phoenix's head archaeologist and superintendent of the city's Division of Archaeology. Active in his field, Halseth was a fellow of the American Anthropological Association, a member of the Society of American Archaeology, and the author of numerous publications on Arizona archaeology and indigenous arts and crafts. He retired in 1960.
Provenance:
Historically, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation managed all photographic materials separately. This collection description represents current management practices of organizing and contextualizing related archival materials.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Odd Halseth collection of negatives and photographs, 1920-1925, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.038
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-038

Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 Negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

Ales Hrdlicka photograph collection of American Indians for the Panama-California Exposition

Collector:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Photographer:
Fiske, Frank Bennett, 1883-1952  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Micka, Frank  Search this
Extent:
1 Copy negative
135 Prints (circa, silver gelatin and albumen)
2 Copy prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Teton Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Yankton Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Prints
Copy prints
Date:
1912
Scope and Contents note:
Front and profile images of Apache, Kiowa, Omaha, Osage, Teton, and Yankton Indians made for Ales Hrdlicka's use in preparing busts and physical anthropological exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition in 1915. Accompanying the photographs are notes produced under the supervision of Lucile Eleanor St. Hoyme; these include the tribe, age, sex, name(s), photographer, and number of corresponding bust. Photographers represented in the collection are Frank Micka, a sculptor hired by the exposition to make busts, as well as photographers Frank Bennett Fiske, De Lancey W. Gill, and others.
Biographical/Historical note:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Czechoslovakia and came to the United States at the age of thirteen. Originally trained in medicine, he developed an interest in physical anthropology while working with the New York State hospitals and researching with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals. Hrdlicka joined the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and made his own expeditions to study physical characteristics of Southwest tribes. In 1903, he was appointed head of the United States National Museum's newly-formed Division of Physical Anthropology.

In 1912, Hrdlicka planned and directed seven expeditions, gathering information that helped him prepare physical anthropology exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, California (1915). During this process, he hired sculptor Frank Micka to make busts of people from around the world. While in the field making casts, Micka also took front and profile photographs of subjects. Hrdlicka made his own trip to photograph the people in Urga, Mongolia, making 360 images of Mongolians and some Tibetans for use in the exposition.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 9, USNM ACC 61302
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds original negatives for many of these photographs (Photo Lot 73-26B) and images of resulting busts (Photo Lot 88-25).
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943.
Material from Hrdlicka, mostly correspondence, is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the papers and records of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, Frank Spencer, the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution).
Hrdlicka photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 8, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 97, Photo Lot 73-26B, Photo Lot 73-26G, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 92-46.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Photo lot 9, Aleš Hrdlička photograph collection of American Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.9
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-9

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