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articles from Los Angeles Times, 14 Feb 1971

Collection Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 231, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Arrangement:
Missing Title

"Nigeria to Take First Steps in Growth Plan"

"Nickel Spells Gold for New Caledonia, French Boom Land" (Ian McCausland)
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers / Series 4: Reference Files / Earth / Resources / Remote Sensing / Open World / Miscellaneous Reference Materials / 1971
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2003-0025-ref4207

Out of Egypt, Howard, Jeanette

Collection Donor:
Mattachine Society of Washington  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1994
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection / Series 4: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1428-ref608

I Dreamed of Africa

Collection Collector:
Gay Life Magazine  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 31
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2000
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Motion Picture Press Kit Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Motion Picture Press Kits Collection
Motion Picture Press Kits Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Press Kits
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1353-ref194

"Dr. Matilda Arabella Evans" by Burnett W. Gallman, Jr., M.D [photocopy]

Collection Creator:
Evans, Matilda Arabella, Dr., 1872-1935  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1931
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection of archival material, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection
Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection / Series 5: Reference Material / 5.2: Research Material
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2019-109-ref56
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Purchasing Department and Biol. Board Memos re: purchase of guinea pigs for experimental purposes. 1904 January 15.

Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Container:
Box 414, Folder 41
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 13: Addenda
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref8372

Losie, Gertrude. Memo with attachments to Dr. L. A. Sweet re: Purchase of guinea pigs.

Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Container:
Box 414, Folder 42
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 13: Addenda
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref8373

Sarber, R.W., Hemans, M.J., 1954, Guinea Pig Safety Test on Poliomyelitis Vaccine, Tuberculosis Control of Virus, Section Monkeys,

Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Container:
Box 165 (Subseries 10.5), Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 10: Publications / Series 10.5: Miscellaneous Reports and Manuals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref4200

Research animals

Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
includes images of guinea pigs, frogs, fish, cattle, and rabbits.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref8705

[Six Guinea pigs; b & w photoprint]

Creator:
Parke, Davis & Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 2.1" x 5.0")
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Opaque
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Photograph has been retouched with a white opaquing medium.
Local Numbers:
AC0001-0000006 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs mut be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Guinea pigs  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Research  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Laboratory animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Opaque
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs / Research animals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9456

[Two Guinea pigs; b & w photoprint.]

Creator:
Parke, Davis & Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 3.0" x 5.2")
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
AC0001-0000007 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs mut be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Guinea pigs  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Research  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Laboratory animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs / Research animals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9457

[Seven guinea pigs in a pen; b & w photoprint.]

Creator:
Parke, Davis & Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 2.2" x 3.0")
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
AC0001-0000008 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs mut be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Guinea pigs  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Research  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Laboratory animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs / Research animals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9458

[Guinea pigs in row of stacked pens; b & w photoprint.]

Creator:
Parke, Davis & Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 7.4" x 9.0")
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
AC0001-0000009 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs mut be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Guinea pigs  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Research  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Laboratory animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs / Research animals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9459

[Rows of stacked guinea pig pens and two laboratory workers: b & w photoprint.]

Creator:
Parke, Davis & Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 7.1" x 9.3".)
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
AC0001-0000010 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs mut be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Guinea pigs  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Research  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Laboratory animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs / Research animals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9460

[Rows of stacked Guinea pig pens: b & w photoprint.]

Creator:
Parke, Davis & Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper, 6.9" x 9.4")
Container:
Box 424, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Retouching
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Floor area of print has been painted.
Local Numbers:
AC0001-0000011 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs mut be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Guinea pigs  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Research  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Laboratory animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Retouching -- Dye
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 5: Photographs / Research animals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9461

James A. Baldwin Collection

Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Names:
Baldwin, Daniel  Search this
Baldwin, David  Search this
Dandridge, Frank  Search this
Evers, Charles  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Whaley, Paula Baldwin  Search this
Extent:
4.29 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
France
Turkey
Venice (Italy)
Date:
1935-1988
Summary:
James Baldwin was a writer and an activist and is one of the most prominent voices from his generation to bring light to issues of racial and sexual discrimination. This collection contains correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and awards. The collection provides insight into his family, writing process, and travels during his lifetime.
Scope and Contents:
The James Baldwin Collection provides insight into Baldwin's life as a writer and activist. The collection contains correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and awards. A significant portion of the collection are photographs by photojournalist Frank Dandridge. The collection focuses on Baldwin's grade school educational career, his writing process, as well as his thoughts about social equality and civil rights.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into six series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content. Series 6 has been broken down into a smaller subseries dedicated to the Frank Dandridge photographic prints. Series 8: Oversize Materials acts as an extension of the first five series, with materials that could not be housed with their corresponding materials due to size constraints. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Biographical Sketch:
James Arthur Baldwin (1924–1987) was born in Harlem, New York, on August 2, 1924, to Emma Berdis Jones, originally from Princess Anne, Maryland. He was reared by his mother and stepfather David Baldwin, whom Baldwin referred to as his father and whom he describes as extremely strict. He did not know his biological father. As the oldest of nine children, Baldwin took seriously the responsibility of being a big brother and his mother's right hand. He cared for and protected his three younger brothers and five sisters in a household governed by the rigid rules of their father, a Baptist preacher, originally from New Orleans, Louisiana.

Between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, Baldwin, himself, became a preacher at the Fireside Pentecostal Assembly, where he developed a celebrated preaching style. Baldwin's brief experience in the church would have a sustained impact on his rhetorical style and on the themes, symbols, and biblical allusions in his writings. Baldwin's Pentecostal experience is, in fact, essential to understanding his complex views on Christianity, which he espoused in his speeches and publications. His experience would also serve in part as the underpinnings of his stance on religion. In The Fire Next Time, Baldwin proclaims, "If the concept of God has any validity or any use, it can only be to make us larger, freer, and more loving. If God cannot do this, it is time we got rid of Him." During his early teen years, Baldwin attended Frederick Douglass Junior High School, where he met his French teacher and mentor Countee Cullen, who achieved prominence as a poet of the Harlem Renaissance. Baldwin went on to DeWitt Clinton High School, where he edited the school newspaper The Magpie and participated in the literary club, just as Cullen had done when he was a student there. By high school graduation, he had met his close friends at DeWitt Clinton—Richard Avedon, Emile Capouya, and Sol Stein.

The 1940s marked several turning points in Baldwin's life. In 1942, he graduated from high school, and a year later he witnessed the New York Race Riots and experienced the death of his father. After this emotional loss, Baldwin felt more than ever it was important to play father figure to his siblings. He worked at menial jobs during the day, and at night he played guitar in Greenwich Village cafes and wrote long hours, trying to fulfill his dream of becoming a writer.

In 1944, Baldwin met Richard Wright, whose written work spoke to his heart and who would also become a mentor. Baldwin appreciated Wright's strong opinions about race in America, and he greatly valued their intellectual exchange. Wright helped Baldwin to obtain a fellowship to write his first novel, which enabled him to leave for Paris in 1948, where the older writer had relocated a few years earlier. However, the two were often at odds about the ways in which they approached race in their work. Baldwin wrote three essays explicating his critique of Wright's "protest art." This conflict eventually led to the demise of their friendship.

In 1948, at age twenty-four, Baldwin left the United States to live in Paris, France, as he could not tolerate the racial and sexual discrimination he experienced on a daily basis. Professor Kendall Thomas of Columbia Law School explains that Baldwin left his country because of racism and Harlem because of homophobia--two aspects of his identity that made him a frequent target of beatings by local youth and the police. Years later, when asked about his departure, Baldwin explained in a Paris Review interview: "My luck was running out. I was going to go to jail, I was going to kill somebody or be killed" (1984). In Paris, Baldwin began to interact with other writers. He reconnected with Richard Wright, and for the first time, he met Maya Angelou, with whom he maintained a close relationship.

Baldwin would spend the next forty years abroad, where he wrote and published most of his works. Between 1960 and 1970, Baldwin lived regularly in Istanbul, Turkey. Still, the violence and assassinations in the United States during the politically turbulent 1960s took an emotional toll on Baldwin. After the assassination of his three friends—Medgar Evers in 1963, Malcolm X in 1965, and Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968—Baldwin suffered an emotional breakdown and eventually moved to the South of France to recuperate. In 1970, he settled in a house in the village of St. Paul de Vence, where he would live the rest of his life.

During his years abroad, Baldwin returned to the United States frequently and considered himself a "transatlantic commuter." In 1955, he signed a lease for an apartment at 63 West 97th Street in New York, and from the mid 1960s on, he maintained a home at 137 West 71st Street in Manhattan. When Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in 1968, Baldwin was actually living in California. Many of Baldwin's extended visits were to spend time with his large and beloved family and to participate in Civil Rights Movement events. He attended the March on Washington in 1963 and the Selma to Montgomery March in 1965. Baldwin also participated in literary events, such as the 1965 conference titled "The Negro Writer's Vision of America" sponsored by the New School of Social Research in New York. During his presentation, Baldwin addressed the conference theme, stating, "I know a story which America denies. And it denies it for the very good reason that my story, once told, confronts it with the truth about itself. In fact, my story, once told, will liberate America. The possibility of liberation—the necessity of becoming responsible for one's own life—is what most people most profoundly fear."

Baldwin passed away on November 30, 1987, in his house in St. Paul de Vence after a short battle with stomach cancer. A week later, he was laid to rest at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City and buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in New York. Family members and friends participated in a large service during which Toni Morrison, Amiri Baraka, and Maya Angelou delivered touching remarks about their friend and brother. Angelou stated that Baldwin's love "opened the unusual door for me, and I am blessed that James Baldwin was my brother."

Literary and Civil Rights Timeline

1924 -- Born August 2nd

1938 -- Graduates from Frederick Douglass Junior High School, where his early ambitions in writing were encouraged by his teacher Countee Cullen, the Harlem Renaissance poet

1942 -- Graduates from DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a member of the literary club and edited the school newspaper The Magpie

1944 -- Meets writer Richard Wright, who refers Baldwin's first draft of Go Tell It On The Mountain to Harper and Brothers publishing house

1945 -- Receives a $500.00 Saxton Fellowship from Harper and Brothers; the first draft of Go Tell It On The Mountain is rejected by Harper and Doubleday; Baldwin begins writing reviews for The Nation and The New Leader

1947 -- Publishes essay "History as Nightmare" in The New Leader

1948 -- Publishes essay "The Harlem Ghetto" and short story "Previous Condition" in Commentary; Baldwin moves to Paris

1949 -- Publishes "Everybody's Protest Novel," in which he critics Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and Richard Wright's Native Son; jailed in Paris for eight days for theft (falsely accused of stealing hotel bed sheets)

1951 -- Publishes "Many Thousands Gone" in the Partisan Review; attack on Richard Wright leads to breakup; Baldwin completes Go Tell It On the Mountain in Switzerland, where he stayed three months with Swiss friend and lover Lucien Happersberger

1953 -- Publishes "Stranger in the Village" in Harper's Magazine; the essay is based on his stay in Switzerland

1954 -- Wins Guggenheim Fellowship; attends MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire

1955 -- Attends Yadao, an artists' community in Sarasota Springs, New York; revises Amen Corner during Howard University rehearsals and publishes it the same year; also publishes the collection of essays Notes of a Native Son and an autobiographical narrative "Equal in Paris," about being jailed in Paris in 1949, originally published in Commentary magazine

1956 -- Publishes Giovanni's Room with Dial Press; accepts National Institute of Arts and Letters Award and a Partisan Review fellowship; covers First Conference of Negro and African Writers and Artists at the Sorbonne, sponsored by Presence Africanize

1957 -- Publishes "Sonny's Blues" in the Partisan Review; Travels to the South on assignment for the Partisan Review, where he interviews student protests and meets with Martin Luther King, Jr.

1959 -- Awarded a two-year Ford Foundation grand to complete Another Country; Interviews film director Ingmar Bergman in Sweden; publishes essay "A Letter From the South: Nobody Knows My Name" in the Partisan Review ; apprentice on Elia Kazan's productions of Sweet Bird of Youth and J.B.

1960 -- Covers sit-ins in Tallahassee, Florida; interviews student at Florida A & M; published "They Can't Turn Back" in Mademoiselle Magazine; Richard Wright dies suddenly

1961 -- Publishes second collection of essays Nobody Knows My Name, Dial Press; publishes the essay "Alas, Poor Richard," another scathing critic of Richard Wright's work; appears on radio and television to promote Nobody Knows My Name and to speak about civil rights; meets Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X; completes Another Country; Swiss television produces "Stranger in the Village"; publishes the "Black Boy Looks at the White Boy"; makes first visit to Turkey at the invitation of Turkish actor Engin Cezzar

1962 -- Publishes Another Country, Dial Press, and it becomes a national best seller; Baldwin travels to West Africa; "Letter from a Region in My Mind" published in The New Yorker, later printed in The Fire Next Time as "Down at the Cross"

1963 -- Publishes The Fire Next Time to national acclaim; appears on the cover of May 17th issue of Time magazine; NAACP Field Secretary and friend Medgar Evers is assassinated on June 12 outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi; starts lecture tour for CORE in the South and the North; registers voters in Alabama for SNCC; wins Polk Memorial Award for outstanding magazine journalism; participates in March on Washington; travels to Nairobi, Kenya, with Harry Belafonte and Sidney Poitier to celebrate Kenya's independence

1964 -- Elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters; publishes the play Blues for Mr. Charlie, Dial Press, and theater production of Blues for Mr. Charlie appears at the historic American National Theater and Academy (ANTA) in New York; publishes Nothing Personal with photographer and high school friend Richard Avedon, Atheneum Books

1965 -- Debates William F. Buckley at Cambridge and receives standing ovation for his response to "Is the American Dream at the Expense of the American Negro?"; Malcolm X is assassinated in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity; Baldwin attends Selma to Montgomery March; publishes Going to Meet the Man, Dial Press; The play The Amen Corner is performed in New York, Israel, and Europe

1968 -- Publishes the novel Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone, Dial Press; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee; Baldwin speaks at the World Council of Churches in Sweden against apartheid in South Africa; testifies at a Congressional hearing in support of a commission to establish a national museum of African American history and culture; receives personal attacks from Soul on Ice author Eldridge Cleaver

1969 -- Publishes New York Times article "The Price May Be Too High" about black writers in a white publishing industry; directs John Herbert's "Fortune and Men's Eyes" in Istanbul, Turkey

1970 -- Becomes the subject of photographs and a short film From Another Place , both by Sedat Pakay in Istanbul; holds conversations with anthropologist Margaret Mead titled "A Rap On Race"

1971 -- Baldwin and anthropologist Margaret Mead publish the transcript of conversations held in New York in 1970 in a co-authored book titled A Rap On Race; publishes "An Open Letter to My Sister Angela Davis" in New York Times Review of Books; moves to a house in St. Paul de Vence in the South of France

1972 -- Publishes No Name In The Street, Dial Press; publishes the screenplay One Day When I Was Lost, based on Alex Haley's bestselling classic The Autobiography of Malcolm X .

1973 -- Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates secures rare interview with James Baldwin and Josephine Baker together in James Baldwin's house in St. Paul de Vence, France; Baldwin appears with television host and poet Nikki Giovanni on "Soul," and the transcript is published as a dialogue

1974 -- Publishes If Beale Street Could Talk, Dial Press; becomes the third recipient (after writer Tennessee Williams and dancer Martha Graham) of the prestigious Centennial Medal awarded to "The Artist As Prophet" by the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York

1976 -- Publishes what would be his only children's book Little Man, Little Man: A Story of Childhood, with illustrations by Yoran Cazac, Dial Press; publishes the book-length essay The Devil Finds Work

1978 -- Teaches a spring course in contemporary literature at Bowling Green State University in Ohio (returns in the fall of 1979 and 1981); awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Medal

1979 -- Publishes Just Above My Head, his sixth and last novel, Dial Press; goes into seclusion after friend and mentor Beauford Delaney dies in March; teaches at UC Berkeley in the spring and speaks in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Santa Barbara; begins writing and lecturing on black English; publishes "Open Letter to the Born Again" in The Nation; meets Chinua Achebe at the University of Florida, African Literature Association; travels throughout the South

1982 -- Film makers Dick Fontaine and Pat Harley release television documentary of Baldwin' trip through the South "I Heard It Through The Grapevine"

1983 -- Publishes selected poems in Jimmy's Blues, St. Martin's Press; teaches Afro American Studies at University of Amherst in the fall

1984 -- Hospitalized for exhaustion; works on the play The Welcome Table

1985 -- Publishes "Freaks and the American Ideal of Manhood" in Playboy; American Playhouse dramatizes Go Tell It On The Mountain; publishes The Evidence of Things Not Seen, Holt, Rinehart & Winston Publishing; publishes The Price of the Ticket: Collected Non-Fiction, 1948–1985, St. Martin's Press

1986 -- Receives France's highest civilian recognition, the Legion of Honor; travels to the Soviet Union for an international conference and to London for a production of Amen Corner ; suffers fatigue and becomes ill

1987 -- Returns to St. Paul de Vence and is diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus, which spreads to the stomach; grants his last interview to poet and journalist Quincy Troop in mid-November in bed at his home; dies November 30 and his friend and assistant publicly announces his death December 1; memorials are held in St. Paul de Vence and Harlem; is eulogized by Maya Angelou, Toni Morrison, and Amiri Baraka at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York; body buried at Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York
Provenance:
Acquired as a purchase from Baldwin's sister, Paula Baldwin Whaley in 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Literature  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Theater  Search this
LGBTQ  Search this
Activism  Search this
Awards  Search this
Education  Search this
Communication  Search this
Families  Search this
finance  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Justice  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Politics  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Sexuality  Search this
Travel  Search this
Identity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2017.47
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47
Online Media:

"James Baldwin: Another Country" (1962)

Collection Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1962
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
James A. Baldwin Collection / Series 2: Writings
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47-ref73
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"The President requests the pleasure of the company of Mr. Baldwin at the luncheon…" Invitation to the White House

Collection Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1961
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
James A. Baldwin Collection / Series 5: Ephemera
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47-ref91
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Historical Records of the DeWolf Family

Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Names:
Bellin, J.H.  Search this
DeWolf, George  Search this
Elfelt, Peter  Search this
Oliver, Louis  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Cuba
Caribbean
Rhode Island
West Indies
Date:
1757-1947
Scope and Contents:
The Papers of the DeWolf Family shed light on one of the wealthiest New England families in the 18th-19th centuries who made their fortune by engaging in each part of the transatlantic slave trade. This collection is comprised of photographs, correspondence, publications, and business records including daily logs and ship manifests. Included in the collection are ship business records and documents from multiple countries including Cuba, the Netherlands, China, and India.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into five series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content.
Biographical / Historical:
Rhode Island dominated the North American transatlantic slave trade, led by the DeWolf family of Bristol. They financed their wealthy lifestyle by engaging in each part of the triangular trade, which involved the shipping of natural resources from the Caribbean to America and Europe for manufacturing, then using them to fund the purchase of enslaved persons. The DeWolf family owned numerous sugar and coffee plantations in Cuba. Sugar from the Cuba plantations was made into molasses, transported to Rhode Island in DeWolf vessels, and transformed into rum in DeWolf-owned distilleries. The rum was then taken to Africa and used as payment for enslaved captives, who were eventually sold in Cuba and other southern ports for tremendous profit. Between 1769 and 1820, it is believed the DeWolf-owned vessels carried more than 12,000 enslaved Africans across the Middle Passage. The profit generated from these trade endeavors allowed the family to start a bank and insurance company.

The first patriarch of the DeWolf family was Mark Anthony DeWolf (1726-1792). Mark emigrated from Guadeloupe Island in the West Indies after serving as a deckhand on a slave trading ship owned by privateer Simeon Potter. Mark married Potter's sister Abigail and they had 15 children. Their son James DeWolf, born on March 18, 1764 in Bristol, was most apt to take over the family business. James, like his father, worked as a slave trader, privateer, and a politician, including time as an U. S. Senator for Rhode Island. During the Revolutionary War, DeWolf served as a sailor on a private armed vessel that was twice captured by the British. By his early twenties, his past experiences saw him promoted to the rank of captain of a ship. James married Nancy Ann Bradford, daughter of the Massachusetts governor William Bradford, in 1790. Together they had 11 children.

In 1791, DeWolf was indicted for murdering an enslaved woman on his ship. The enslaved woman may have had smallpox and DeWolf claimed that she threatened the lives of all the enslaved persons and crew members on board. DeWolf and two crew members agreed to throw the woman overboard to her death. Judge John Jay discovered the story and reported it to President George Washington who gave orders for DeWolf's immediate arrest, citing violation of the Federal Slave Trade Law of 1790. DeWolf fled to the West Indies and by 1795 the charges were dropped. The judge declared that "this act of James De Wolfe was morally evil, but at the same time physically good and beneficial to a number of beings." Further, it was the "least" of the "two evils," and the accusations against DeWolf were "groundless."

Buoyed by the acquittal, DeWolf's family continued their criminal activity within the slave trading business. In 1794, Congress outlawed Americans carrying slaves between foreign countries or into countries that had statutes against the trade. In order to circumvent these laws, DeWolf called in a favor with Thomas Jefferson to appoint his brother-in-law, Charles Collins, a customs inspector. Collins ignored many of the slave ships moving in and out of the harbor that in turn allowed the DeWolf family to continue profiting from human suffering. DeWolf funneled his slave trading efforts through Cuba, the only open Caribbean trade port with American access. DeWolf continually shipped men, women, and children from American soil to Cuba.

In 1808, Congress banned the importation of enslaved into the United States and DeWolf turned to new ventures to keep his wealth, including privateering. During the War of 1812, his ship Yankee was the most successful privateer of the war, capturing prizes worth over three million dollars. In order to continue to profit off slavery, DeWolf founded the Arkwright Mill in Coventry, Rhode Island, which became a pioneer in the processing and manufacturing of cotton harvested by enslaved people. The family also maintained plantations in Cuba, and James' nephew, George DeWolf, continued trading enslaved persons at least until 1820 when it became punishable by death. From 1817-1821, DeWolf served as a member of the Rhode Island State House of Representatives; he was promoted to Speaker of the House from 1819-1821. In 1821, he was elected a U.S Senator for Rhode Island and served five years of his six-year term. He resigned and returned to the State House of Representatives from 1829 until his death in 1837. James DeWolf died in New York City on December 21, 1837. It was reported at his death that he was the second wealthiest man in America.

Historical Timeline

1726 -- Mark Anthony DeWolf was born

1764 -- James DeWolf was born in Bristol, Rhode Island, son of Mark Anthony and Abigail DeWolf

1775-83 -- James DeWolf served as a sailor in the Revolutionary War

1790 -- James DeWolf married Nancy Bradford, daughter of Massachusetts Governor William Bradford

1791 -- James DeWolf was indicted for murdering an enslaved woman on his slaving ship

1792 -- Mark Anthony DeWolf died leaving the business to his son, James

1795 -- All charges against James in the death of an enslaved woman on-board his ship in 1791 were dismissed

1808 -- Congress abolishes the African slave trade

1812 -- James DeWolf built the Arkwright Mills in Coventry, Rhode Island. He also served a privateer in the War of 1812

1817 -- James DeWolf began serving as a representative in the Rhode Island House of Representatives

1819 -- DeWolf began serving as the Speaker of the House in Rhode Island State General Assembly

1821-25 -- James DeWolf served as U.S. Senator for Rhode Island

1829 -- James DeWolf returned as a member of the State House of Representatives

1837 -- James DeWolf died in New York City, New York
Provenance:
Acquired through a purchase by the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Slavery  Search this
Domestic Slave Trade  Search this
Middle Passage  Search this
Sugar  Search this
Transatlantic Slave Trade  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Rum  Search this
United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783  Search this
United States -- History -- Colonial period -- Societies  Search this
Photography  Search this
Shipping  Search this
United States -- History -- 1815-1861  Search this
United States -- History -- 1783-1815  Search this
United States -- History -- 1865-1921  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.17.2
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2
Online Media:

Invoice of spice and merchandise shipped by Taylor and Taylor on board of the Brig Dolphin bound for Calcutta

Collection Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1809
Collection Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family / Series 3: Businesss Records, 1757-1899; undated / 3.2: Receipts and Business Documents, 1757-1899; undated
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2-ref100
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Health assessment in the Port of Savannah of the captain, officers, seamen, and passengers of Ship Patterson are health and free of disease and plague to continue travel to Tonniger

Collection Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1810
Collection Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family / Series 3: Businesss Records, 1757-1899; undated / 3.2: Receipts and Business Documents, 1757-1899; undated
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2-ref101
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Health assessment in the Port of Savannah of the captain, officers, seamen, and passengers of Ship Patterson are health and free of disease and plague to continue travel to Tonniger digital asset number 1

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