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Santos-Dumont 20 Demoiselle Type, American Homebuilt Version

Extent:
6 Digital images (Scans from original 4 x 5 inch glass plate negatives loaned by donor for copying. Original negatives had extensive silver mirroring in dense areas (severe at edges), dust spotting, surface dirt, and chipping of emulsion at edges of plates., 600 ppi RGB TIFF files, 6100 x 4851 pixels)
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Date:
circa 1911
Scope and Contents:
Six views of a homebuilt version of a Santos-Dumont 20 Demoiselle design (no engine mounted) on the ground in the back yard of a suburban area, probably somewhere in the Boston, Massachusetts, metropolitan area circa 1911.

These scans from the original 4 x 5 inch glass plate negatives have been processed to correct exposure and desaturated to reduce yellowing.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Collection Citation:
Early Boston Area Aviation Photography, NASM Acc. 2018.0062, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Early Boston Area Aviation Photography
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b9ac8fbb-809f-4b79-b3ae-5acb3f2a5d27
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2018-0062-ref1

Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection

Creator:
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Extent:
4.36 Cubic feet (4 records center boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Manuscripts
Date:
circa 1960s-1970s
Summary:
This collection consists of 355 biographies written by Harold E. Morehouse and intended for publication. These biographies discuss Morehouse's fellow early aviation pioneers, many of whom belong to the Early Birds, an organization open to those who soloed before December 17, 1916. Each biography discusses the subject's life and the majority of biographies include a photograph of the individual.
Contents note:
The Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection (accession XXXX-0450) contains approximately four cubic feet of material. It is also known as The Harold and Marvel Morehouse Aviation Pioneers Collection. The collection includes photographs, negatives, and typewritten material.
Arrangement note:
Container List: Series I: Biographies of Flying Pioneers; Series II: Miscellaneous related materials; Series III: Oversized materials
Biographical note:
This collection consists of over 350 short biographies of early aviation's trailblazers written by Harold E. Morehouse (1894-1973). Conspicuous by its absence is a biography of the author, himself an innovator.

Born in Michigan, Morehouse channelled a youthful fascination with flight into training in the field of mechanical engineering. He began work in 1915 for the Van Blerck Motor Company and assisted in their development of aircraft engines. In 1917, Morehouse was working as a layout draftsman on the Standard J-1 Training Airplane for the Dayton-Wright Aeroplane Company. However, this assignment was quickly superseded by his placement on a secret project, supervised by C.F. Kettering and Orville Wright. Its aim was the production of a selfflying aerial torpedo which has since become known as the Kettering Bug. Morehouse contributed to all phases of this project, including its design, engine development and flight testing. The armistice arrived before the actual deployment of the Bug; Morehouse was to spend the next few years in engine design and development.

In 1925, Morehouse joined the Wright Aeronautical Corporation and both the Wright-Morehouse engine and the Wright-Whirlwind J-5 (a re-design of the J-4) were developed here under Morehouse. The latter engine was later to serve as the powerplant for the historic 1927 trans-Atlantic flight of the Spirit of St. Louis and this was a great source of satisfaction to Morehouse. He left Wright Aero in 1929 and in subsequent years designed the inverted Rover for the Michigan Aero Engine Company, the A-50 for the Continental Motors Corporation and the Engineering and Research Corporation's Erco engine.

About ten years prior to his retirement in 1965, Harold Morehouse began work on a personal project. His aim was to gather information on significant contributors to early aviation and distill this data to produce a set of brief biographies of these innovative men and women. He was assisted in this by his wife, Marvel Dyer. After Harold's death, Marvel worked in concert with Paul E. Garber of the National Air Museum to procure publication of the work. Sadly, the passing of Marvel Dyer and later of Paul Garber seemed to bring plans for publication to a halt.

This collection consists of hundreds of biographical narratives concerning the lives of the "Flying Pioneers." Many of those featured were members of the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc., a group whose members had the distinction of having soloed prior to 1916. Most of the biographies are accompanied by one or more photographs of their subject and comprise an invaluable resource on the accomplishments and sacrifices of those intrepid individuals who forged the history of American aviation. However, it should be borne in mind that the biographies are based in large measure on personal interviews and are concerned primarily with their subjects' careers in aviation.

Other sources should be consulted to obtain a complete portrait.
Provenance:
Mr. and Mrs. Harold E. Morehouse, gift, 1960-1972, XXXX-0450, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection, Acc. XXXX-0450, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0450
See more items in:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg290f745b5-b062-4c1b-aa49-9b494fcb7d1c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0450
Online Media:

Langley Experiments Scrapbooks

Creator:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Names:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Walcott, Charles D. (Charles Doolittle), 1850-1927  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1914-1915
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two scrapbooks kept by Glenn H. Curtiss and filled with photographs of himself and Samuel Langley. The photos show the two men and their experiments with Langley's aircraft, the Langley Aerodrome. The trial flights were conducted on Lake Kewka, near Hammondsport, NY. Each photo is labeled with a caption and a date. The second (chronologically) book of the set is a continuation of the photos of the Langley experiments by Glenn H. Curtiss, and while the photos are numbered, they have no captions or labeling on them. Some dates are available on the photos. Curtiss' autograph appears inside the cover of one scrapbook.
Biographical / Historical:
Nine days before the Wright brothers' first successful flight, Smithsonian Secretary Samuel Langley had the trial for his steam-powered machine, called the Great Aerodrome. Heavily funded by the United States government, the Aerodrome broke apart almost immediately upon takeoff in a highly-publicized event, and Langley and the Smithsonian Institution suffered embarrassment over the incident. After Langley passed away in 1906, his successor, Charles Walcott, claimed that although Langley may not have flown that December morning the Aerodrome was certainly capable of it. Walcott's "proof" was in a rebuilt version of Langley's Aerodrome, which was later successfully flown by American airplane manufacturer Glenn Curtiss. Curtiss, who was engaged in a patent suit with the Wright brothers, rebuilt and flew Langley's Aerodrome with 1914 modifications with the hope of showing the courts that the Wrights did not invent the airplane. While Curtiss eventually lost the patent suit, the flight was used by the Smithsonian to redeem Langley's role in the history of flight.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Glenn H. Curtiss, gift, unknown, XXXX-0294, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome)  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0294
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg20f365351-3f87-4196-9b31-11562889dc8d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0294

Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Collection

Creator:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Extent:
22.05 Cubic feet (49 Boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Correspondence
Date:
1928-circa 1980s
Summary:
This collection consists of the records and historical materials of the Early Bird organization, including correspondence; photographs; the organization's newsletter, Chirp; financial records; reunion memorabilia; biographical material of members; and membership lists. This material was donated to the Museum after the National Air Museum was designated as the official repository for Early Bird records.
Scope and Contents:
The Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Collection (acc. XXXX-0566) contains approximately 18 cubic feet of material relating to this group of early pilots. The material includes correspondence, financial records, periodicals, photographic material, published materials and various other media containing information on the organization and its individual members.

The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) was designated by the Early Birds as the official repository for the organization in 1960 and the Museum has obtained materials at different times from various members. Much of the material in the collection is comprised of the records and memorabilia of the organization's officers, including Paul Garber, past President as well as Archivist/Historian for the group. In addition to the records contained in this collection, members have donated to NASM aircraft, plaques and other items of historical interest.

Some preliminary processing work had been done on this collection by 1996, but much of the material remained without obvious order. Original order, when identified, has been maintained.

Material was added from the Museum's Archives' Technical Files on organizations but researchers seeking information on individual members may wish to cross-reference the biographical section of the Technical Files located in NASM's Archives downtown which includes folders for most of the Early Birds.

Some members of the Early Birds remained quite active with the organization until the late 1980s. The material in the collection therefore spans over eighty years.
Arrangement note:
Container List: Series I: Core organizational documents; Series II: Organizational correspondence and records; Series III: Publications; Series IV: Events; Series V: Individual members; Series VI: Miscellaneous; Series VII: Scrapbooks

Appendices. Appendix I: Chronological List of Officers Appendix II: Membership list Related collections in NASM's holdings
Biographical / Historical:
Founded after the National Air Races of 1928, the Early Birds (later to be known as the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc.) consisted of pioneer aviators banded together for the purposes of preserving aviation history, advancing interest in aeronautics and the enjoyment of good fellowship. Membership in the group necessitated documentary evidence of solo flight in heavier- or lighter-than-air craft before December 17, 1916. This date was of some significance to the Early Birds, being the thirteenth anniversary (that number being considered propitious) of the first sustained, powered, heavier-than-air flight by the Wrights at Kitty Hawk. Those interested in flying in this pre-World War I period were often required to build their own craft and instruct themselves in the necessary skills to pilot it and members took great pride in this evidence of initiative. (For nationals of countries other than the United States which were engaged in the War the conditional date was set at August 4, 1914.)

As an organization, the Early Birds was responsible for the preservation of aircraft and records, the erection of numerous markers and monuments and the education of the public on the importance of aviation. With members including Glenn Curtiss, Blanche Stuart Scott, Matilde Moisant, Grover Loening, Roy Knabenshue, Sir Thomas Sopwith, Katherine Stinson, Marjorie Stinson, Earle Ovington, Matty Laird, Anthony Fokker and Giuseppe Bellanca, their contributions as individuals were incalculable.

Numbering nearly 600 members at its peak, the Early Birds was conceived of as a "last man's club" whose existence would cease with the passing of its last surviving member.
Related Collections in NASM's Holdings:
NOTES FOR STAFF

NameMaterialAccession NumberLawrence M. AllisonBiographical material1988-0021Charles A. ArensScrapbooksXXXX-0016Ralph S. BarnabyPersonal Papers1987-0048Carl T. Batts Collection1992-0048George W. BeattyCollection 1989-0013/1991-0069Lucielle A. Belmont Exhibition AdvertisementXXXX-0078Edward R. BolandMemorabiliaXXXX-0063Frank T. CoffynScrapbookXXXX-0065Harry D. CoplandSlide CollectionXXXX-0439H. Paul CulverScrapbookXXXX-0401H.P. Culver Airmail Scrapbook & InvoicesXXXX-0401Glenn CurtissScrapbookXXXX-0320Glenn H. CurtissCollectionXXXX-0053Charles H. DayScrapbookXXXX-0028Curtiss LaQ. DayScrapbookXXXX-0292William Carl Diehl CollectionXXXX-0469Early Aviation ('06-'10)ScrapbooksXXXX-0404Early Aviation (ca. '10)ScrapbooksXXXX-0299Early AviationPhotograph ScrapbookXXXX-0322Early AviationPhotograph ScrapbookXXXX-0048Early AviationScrapbookXXXX-0291"Early Birds"Reunion AutographsXXXX-0124Luis DeFlorezScrapbook/MemorabiliaXXXX-0069Paul E. GarberScrapbookXXXX-0246Thomas Foster Hamilton Collection1989-0129Edward HoltermanScrapbookXXXX-0223S. Jerwan/MoisantScrapbookXXXX-0231Walter E. JohnsonScrapbook1987-0068Ernest Jones AeronauticalCollectionXXXX-0096Roy KnabenshueAutobiography ManuscriptXXXX-0136Frank P. LahmCollection1984-0044Lahm Airport Memorial& DedicationScrapbook S-118XXXX-0268R.F. MacFieScrapbookXXXX-0296Glenn L. MartinScrapbookXXXX-0018James V. MartinScrapbookXXXX-0236Thomas deWitt MillingPersonal PapersXXXX-0133Harold E. Morehouse "Flying Pioneers" BiographiesXXXX-0450George A. PageCollectionXXXX-0126Evan J. Parker ScrapbookXXXX-0348Fred ParkerScrapbookXXXX-0224Edwin C. ParsonsScrapbookXXXX-0308Roland RohlfsScrapbookXXXX-0278Martin F. Scanlon ScrapbooksXXXX-0037Blanche Stuart ScottMemorabiliaXXXX-0062William H. Sheahan Early Aviation PhotographsXXXX-0523Thomas SteptoeScrapbookXXXX-0229Paul R. StocktonWorld War I Aviation ScrapbookXXXX-0283Paul StudenskiCollection1989-0012Henry ToncrayScrapbook1989-0012John H. TowersWorld War I Aviation ScrapbookXXXX-0033Victor VernonScrapbookXXXX-0221John B.R. VerplanckScrapbookXXXX-0012Clifford L. Webster CollectionXXXX-0559Elling D. Weeks (E.D. "Hud" Weeks)Early Aviation Collection1984-0004, 1984-0006Bernard L. Whelan Photographs1992-0055Orville & Wilbur WrightMemorabiliaXXXX-0079
Provenance:
Early Birds of Aviation, Inc., gift, 1960s-1980s, XXXX-0566, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Societies, etc.  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0566
See more items in:
Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg20ee50635-5fc1-481e-8f06-a3efd25fe64c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0566
Online Media:

Wright Brothers Medal Presentation Scrapbook

Creator:
Aero Club of America  Search this
Names:
Aero Club of America  Search this
Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.31 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cartoons (humorous images)
Speeches
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1909
Scope and Contents:
This scrapbook is one of three prepared by the Aero Club of America in honor of the presentation of the Aero Club of America medals to Orville and Wilber Wright by President William Howard Taft. The book consist of photos, editorials, articles, and cartoons published on 16 June 1909, the day of the presentation, and given to the club for inclusion in the book. Also included are several copies of speeches made at the presentation as well as letters from ten governors and 13 scientific bodies.
Biographical / Historical:
Wilbur Wright was born April 16, 1867, his brother Orville Wright on August 19, 1871. They, along with sister Katharine and brothers Reuchlin and Lorin, were raised near Millville, Indiana and in Dayton, Ohio by their mother, Susan Wright, and father, Milton Wright, bishop of the United Brethren Church. As young men, Wilbur and Orville launched a printing business and a bicycle shop. An interest in aeronautics, spurred by the accounts of the experiments of Otto Lilienthal, prompted Wilbur to request information on the subject from the Smithsonian Institution in 1899. In August of 1900, Wilbur built his first glider and that year and the next the brothers tested gliders at Kitty Hawk. The Wrights constructed a wind tunnel to gather accurate aeronautical data and, benefiting from this new information, another glider was built in 1902. In 1903, the brothers were ready to began construction of a powered craft. With the assistance of mechanic Charles Taylor, they added a 4-cylinder, 12-horsepower engine and propellers to the 1903 Flyer and it was sent to Kitty Hawk for testing. At 10:35 am, December 17, on Kill Devil Hill, Orville achieved a flight of 12 seconds--traveling a distance of 120 feet. By 1908 the Wrights were demonstrating their machines in Europe. The U.S. Army Signal Corps advertised for bids for a two-seat observation aircraft and in 1908 and 1909, the Wrights flew at official Army trials at Fort Myer, Virginia. (It was here that powered flight's first fatality occurred: the tragic death of Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.) The Army was to purchase the Military Flyer (Signal Corps No. 1) for {dollar}30,000 in 1909. In that same year, The Wright Company was established to manufacture Wright aircraft. Wilbur died in Dayton, Ohio on May 30,1912. Orville Wright would live until January 30, 1948.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Aero Club of America, Gift, 1915, XXXX-0324, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aero Club of America Medal  Search this
Aeronautics -- Awards  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartoons (humorous images)
Speeches
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0324
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a404b650-6d8e-459c-b58b-95aa9ceb75b3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0324

Signal Corps Photographs

Creator:
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Beachey, Lincoln  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Law, Ruth  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographs
Date:
1908 to circa 1921; bulk date 1921
Summary:
This collection contains two groups of photographs. The first group, mounted on pages removed from a photo album, contains views of aircraft and facilities at the United States Army Air Service Fairfield Intermediate Air Depot, Fairfield, Ohio, circa 1921. The second group consists of loose photographs of aircraft, most of which are historic views of early Aerial Experiment Association and Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company aircraft by photographer Harry M. Benner.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 86 photographs collected by the donor's father, roughly divided into two groups. The first group, most of which is mounted on black paper pages removed from a photo album, shows facilities and aircraft at the Fairfield Air Intermediate Depot in 1921, including aerial views of the field. Many of the aircraft pictured (circa 1918-1921) were undergoing technical assessment by the Army Air Service at nearby McCook Field and Wilbur Wright Field. Several photographs show the wreckage of Dayton Wright DH-4 and Curtiss JN-4D Jenny training aircraft crashed in the local area. Aircraft pictured in this group include Bristol Fighter F.2B (Brisfit) [McCook Field no. P-37], Engineering Division USD-9A (D.H.9) [McCook Field no. P-43], Fokker D.VII (V.18) [McCook Field No. P-108], LePère 11 (C-11, C II, LUSAC 11), Martin (MB-1) MP Mailplane, Martin (Glenn L.) (MB-1) GMB-TA Transatlantic Aircraft, Nieuport 24, Orenco Type B [McCook Field no. P-41], Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a, SPAD XIII (S.13), Standard (NJ) Handley Page O/400 "Langley", Standard (NJ)-Built Caproni Ca.5 Night Bomber, Thomas-Morse S-4C, Verville (Alfred) VCP-R (R-1), and Vought VE-7 [McCook Field no. P-23].

The second, smaller group of photographs consists of historical images (circa 1908-1913) relating to the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, Hammondsport, New York, most of which were taken by Curtiss photographer Harry M. Benner. This group contains photographs of Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) aircraft (the Aerodrome No 1 Red Wing, the Aerodrome No 2 White Wing, the Aerodrome No 3 Loon, the Aerodrome No 4 Silver Dart, and the Cygnet II) and an assortment of Curtiss models, including Lincoln Beachey at the controls of his Curtiss Beachey Special, Curtiss C-2 (AB-2), Ruth Law at the controls of her Curtiss Model D Headless, Curtiss Flying Boat No.2 "The Flying Fish," Curtiss Flying Boat Model F, the twin-engined Curtiss Model H "America" (H-1), Curtiss J (floatplane version), Curtiss JN-2 Jenny, Curtiss NC-1, Curtiss 18-T Wasp (Curtiss-Kirkham), and the Curtiss 1914 Rebuild of the Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A. These widely reproduced images also appear in other NASM Archives collections from the period.
Biographical / Historical:
The Fairfield Aviation General Supply Depot, opened by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in Fairfield (Ohio) in January 1918, was designed to provide supply and logistical support for wartime aviation training operations. The largest of the depot's buildings was constructed around a double spur of track connecting it with the main railroad lines (still in use decades later as Building 1, Area C, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base). As World War I came to a close, the Army Air Service made plans for reducing training operations and managing war surplus materiel; accordingly, in January 1919 they shut down training at adjacent Wilbur Wright Field and shifted control and use of that field to the depot, now renamed as the Wilbur Wright Air Service Depot. In November 1919, the facility was transferred to the Air Service's list of permanent depots and renamed as the Aviation General Supply Depot, Fairfield, Ohio. As post-war demobilization continued, millions of dollars of property flowed into Fairfield from Europe and closed-down Air Service facilities in the continental United States, and a large civilian workforce was hired to deal with the massive influx of materiel. The name changed to Air Service Supply and Repair Depot after an aviation repair unit was transferred to Fairfield in September 1920; the depot's Engineering and Repair Section was tasked with the repair and maintenance of Air Service aircraft and the overhaul of engines. After undergoing four name changes in just over two years, in January 1921 the depot's name and mission as a center for supply and repair was clarified by the War Department with the establishment of four "air intermediate depots" at San Antonio (Texas), Rockwell (California), Middletown (Pennsylvania), and Fairfield, which became the Fairfield Air Intermediate Depot (FAID).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Donald G. Williams, Gift, 1992, NASM.1992.0040
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aerial Experiment Assoc Aerodrome No 3 June Bug  Search this
Aerial Experiment Assoc Aerodrome No 4 Silver Dart  Search this
Bristol Fighter F.2B (Brisfit)  Search this
Curtiss Model H "America" (H-1)  Search this
Curtiss JN-4 Jenny Family  Search this
Curtiss JN-4D Jenny  Search this
Curtiss NC-1 (P2N-1)  Search this
Dayton Wright DH-4  Search this
Fokker D.VII (V.18)  Search this
Handley Page Aircraft Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild  Search this
Martin Aircraft Family  Search this
Royal Aircraft Factory (RAF) S.E.5  Search this
SPAD XIII (S.13)  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Signal Corps Photographs, Acc. 1992.0040, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0040
See more items in:
Signal Corps Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21bf47bee-ee0a-4e28-8a40-6c1868dc07bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0040
Online Media:

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Names:
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Extent:
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1891-1914
bulk 1891-1900
Summary:
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Provenance:
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21fa211d9-0818-40b9-a8e7-60709d4400a8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494
Online Media:

Fred Wiseman Scrapbook

Creator:
Wiseman, Fred, 1875-1961  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Wiseman-Peters (Fred Wiseman and J. W. Peters) (Aircraft manufacturer)  Search this
Extent:
0.59 Cubic feet (1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Tickets
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1909-1968
bulk [ca. 1910s, 1950s]
Summary:
Fred Wiseman, along with J. W. Peters and D.C. Prentiss, built a biplane named the Wiseman-Peters. During July 1910, both Peters and Wiseman flew the Wiseman-Peters and the following year Wiseman entered the 1911 Aviation Meet at Selfridge Field, Michigan. On February 17, 1911, Wiseman made the first airplane-carried mail flight officially sanctioned by any local U.S. post office and made available to the public when he carried mail, a bundle of newspapers and a sack of groceries from Petaluma, CA, to Santa Rosa, CA. After the 1911 season, Wiseman gave up flying.

This collection consists of a large scrapbook. Inside the scrapbook are newspaper clippings, correspondence, 1st Day Covers, race tickets, and photographs chronicling both Wiseman's automobile and aviation careers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a large scrapbook. Inside the scrapbook are newspaper clippings, correspondence, 1st Day Covers, race tickets, and photographs chronicling both Wiseman's automobile and aviation careers.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Materials are in the order the donor attached them to the scrapbook. Correspondence is often located within the envelope that is attached to the scrapbook. Some materials are loose and have been left in the arrangement in which they were found, unless a portion of a newspaper article could be matched to its other parts.
Biographical / Historical:
Fred Wiseman (1875-1961) was born in Santa Rosa, California, and after attending local schools he engaged in both the bicycle and automotive businesses. Wiseman won considerable fame racing Stoddard-Dayton cars on the West Coast as well as in the Chicago area. He became interested in aviation after attending the Wright brothers' homecoming celebration in 1909 and the first Los Angeles aviation meet at Dominguez Field in 1910.

After these two events, Wiseman was convinced he wanted to learn to fly and so he returned to his home in Santa Rosa and persuaded Ben Noonan to put up $10,000 to build a plane. Wiseman, along with J. W. Peters and D.C. Prentiss, built a biplane named the Wiseman-Peters. During July 1910, both Peters and Wiseman flew the Wiseman-Peters and the following year Wiseman entered the 1911 Aviation Meet at Selfridge Field, Michigan.

On February 17, 1911, Wiseman made the first airplane-carried mail flight officially sanctioned by any local U.S. post office and made available to the public when he carried mail, a bundle of newspapers and a sack of groceries from Petaluma, CA, to Santa Rosa, CA. (The first air mail flight sanctioned by the U.S. Post Office in Washington, D.C., took place on September 23, 1911, when Earle Ovington carried mail from Garden City, Long Island, to Mineola; and the first continuously scheduled U.S. air mail service began on May 15, 1918, with routes between Washington, Philadelphia, and New York.)

During 1911, Wiseman had an active season of exhibition work, including flying for one week at the California State Fair. However, after this season Wiseman gave up flying because he thought there was no future in it. He sold his plane and returned to the automobile business. He later worked for Standard Oil Company of California. Wiseman was a member of the Early Birds of Aviation, an organization of pilots who flew solo in an aircraft prior to December 17, 1916.

Weldon Cooke, another pioneer aviator from California, bought and modified the Wiseman-Peters aircraft, renaming it the Wiseman-Cooke. Cooke flew the Wiseman-Cooke for exhibition and air mail flights. The Wiseman-Cooke aircraft is currently part of the Smithsonian Institution's collections.
Provenance:
No donor information, Gift?, unknown, XXXX-0618, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Automobile racing  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Wiseman-Peters #2 Biplane (1910)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Tickets
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Fred Wiseman Scrapbook, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0618, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0618
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b1a6ef9c-06ed-414f-adc3-98f31de066e0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0618
Online Media:

Matthew Bacon Sellers II Collection

Creator:
Sellers, Matthew Bacon, II, 1869-1932  Search this
Names:
1909 Fort Myer Military Trials  Search this
Sellers, Matthew Bacon, II, 1869-1932  Search this
Extent:
0.68 Cubic feet ((2 legal document boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Photographs
Correspondence
Notes
Diaries
Place:
Fort Myer (Va.)
Date:
1889-1924
Scope and Contents:
This donation includes the following: eighteen diaries of Sellers, 1899-1903 and 1907-1909; his laboratory daybook in which he wrote many of the details of his aeronautical work; Sellers' personal correspondence, 1899-1917; photographs, including images of Sellers quadruplane hang gliders, wind tunnels, and biplane; photographs by Sellers of the Wright Model A at the 1909 Fort Myer Military Trials; miscellaneous reports; and family papers.
Biographical / Historical:
Matthew Bacon Sellers II (1869 - 1932) received a LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 1893 and during 1893-94 studied chemistry, physics, and mechanical arts from the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University, and Drexel Institute. From childhood, Sellers exhibited an interest in artificial flight, making his own kites, hot-air and hydrogen balloons, and various kinds of 'mechanical birds.' In 1903 Sellers began to direct his full attention to aeronautical research and invention. From 1903 to 1925, Sellers was involved with building gliders, aircraft and wind tunnels to accurately measure lift and drag of various airfoil curves. Sellers made his first powered hop in 1908 and among the mechanical innovations that he received patents on was an undercarriage design featuring retractable wheels. He was considered a leading authority on aerodynamics and was appointed to several boards, including the Aerodynamic Laboratory Commission, and the Naval Consulting Board as an expert on aviation and related matters. Sellers was also the technical editor of 'Aeronautics' and authored 30 articles on aerodynamics.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
John Clark Sellers and Matthew Bacon Sellers III, Gift, 1986, 1986-0050, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aerodynamics  Search this
Wind tunnels  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Sellers 1908 Quadruplane (Sellers No 5)  Search this
Sellers 1909 Quadruplane (Sellers No 6)  Search this
Sellers 1924 Multiplane  Search this
Wright (Co) Type A Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Photographs
Correspondence
Notes
Diaries
Identifier:
NASM.1986.0050
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2ab2af4a9-be8b-4c87-8b0c-bbb98a8ef8eb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1986-0050

Charles E. Taylor Collection

Creator:
Taylor, Charles Edward, 1868-1956  Search this
Names:
Wright-Martin Aircraft Co.  Search this
Taylor, Charles Edward, 1868-1956  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Biographies
Date:
1928-1966
bulk 1928-1956
Scope and Contents:
This accession includes Taylor's correspondence with his son, Rueben W. Taylor, (1928-1948), and the Garrison Machine Works, (1953-1956), makers of gears used in the Wright flyer engines. The letters to Rueben Taylor are originals, while the Garrison Machine Works correspondence are mostly xerox copies. Also included are brief biographical sketches of Taylor.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Edward Taylor (1868-1956), sometimes referred to as 'the first airplane mechanic,' worked intermittently from 1901 to 1920 for Orville and Wilbur Wright and the Wright-Martin Company. Born in Nebraska in 1868, Taylor built the first engine that powered an airplane in flight, a little four-cylnder, gasoline engine which was used in the Wright 1903 Flyer at Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Charles Edward Taylor, II, Gift, 1986, 1987-0006, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Wright (Brothers) 1903 Flyer  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Biographies
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0006
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg279aad7d1-3a4d-42df-a2d7-5554e5b51fd5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0006

E. D. "Hud" Weeks Collection

Creator:
Weeks, E. D. "Hud" (Evert D.)  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Allison, Lawrence M.  Search this
Arens, Charles A., 1895-1967  Search this
Brock, Walter L.  Search this
Hildesheim, Erik  Search this
Jones, Ernest La Rue, 1883-1955  Search this
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Parker, Will D.  Search this
Tibbs, Burrell  Search this
Waterman, Walter D.  Search this
Weeks, E. D. "Hud" (Evert D.)  Search this
Extent:
1.51 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Diaries
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Photographs
Date:
1907-1981
Summary:
Hud Weeks, pilot and restorer of early aircraft, exchanged correspondence with many early aviators and possessed a strong interest in the career of the exhibition pilot Lincoln Beachey.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists primarily of correspondence between E. D. "Hud" Weeks, a cosmetics manufacturer and aviation enthusiast from Des Moines, Iowa, and various aviation personalities and members of the Early Birds, a not-for-profit organization established in 1928 and composed of persons who had piloted an aircraft or airship prior to 17 December 1916. The collection also includes material gathered by Weeks on early aeronautical events, both in the US and abroad. Included within this collection are newspaper articles on Lincoln Beachey's life and tragic death, a great deal of photographs of the daring aeronaut and correspondence between Hud Weeks and former colleagues of Beachey's such as Art Mix and Warren Eaton.
Arrangement note:
The E.D. "Hud" Weeks Collection contains approximately one and a half cubic fee of material, including photographs, printed, typewritten, and handwritten material. It was donated to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in two installments in 1985 (accessions NASM.1985.0004 and NASM.1985.0006).

Original order of the materials, where identified, has been maintained.

Series in the collection are as follows:

I. I. Personal

II. II. Correspondence

III. III. Lincoln Beachey

IV. IV. Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Evert D. "Hud" Weeks of Des Moines, Iowa, first learned to fly in 1930. It was an experience that would guide his future life. A cosmetics manufacturer by trade, Weeks devoted his spare time to the collection and restoration of antique aircraft and the recreation of pioneer aircraft. To further this avocation, Weeks entered into correspondence with many early aviators and fellow collectors. Several of these were Early Birds, members of an organization having the distinction of soloing before December 17, 1916. Weeks possessed a strong interest in the career of the exhibition pilot, Lincoln Beachey.
Provenance:
E. D. "Hud" Weeks, gift, 1985, NASM.1985.0004
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Wright (Co) Model G Aeroboat  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Diaries
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Photographs
Citation:
E. D. "Hud" Weeks Collection, Acc. NASM.1985.0004, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1985.0004
See more items in:
E. D. "Hud" Weeks Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27dc0efca-182e-4f65-97bf-7731d0256686
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1985-0004
Online Media:

George W. Beatty Collection

Creator:
Beatty, George W., -1955  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Wright Flying School  Search this
Beatty, George W., -1955  Search this
Page, Handley  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Extent:
0.63 Linear feet
0.68 Cubic feet (1 legal document box; 1 20 x 24 x 3 flatbox; 1 slim legal document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1910-1955
bulk 1910-1912
Summary:
George W. Beatty (-1955) was an Early Bird, aviator, and instructor.
Scope and Contents:
The George W. Beatty Collection (accessions 1989-0013 and 1991-0069) contains approximately one cubic foot of material relating to the career of this pioneering aviator. The bulk of the material dates from 1910 to 1912 and includes an Early Birds plaque, several small banners from flying meets, and a 1928 letter from Orville Wright. The collection also includes correspondence, a great deal of photographic material, and scrapbooks.
Arrangement note:
Original order, when identified, has been maintained.

SERIES Series in the collection are as follows:

Series I: Documentary Material Series II: Photographic Material Series III: Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1887 or 1888 in Whitehouse, New Jersey, George W. Beatty was employed as a young man as a linotype operator. He was shortly to enter the field that would define much of his life. In June of 1911 he enrolled at the Wright School at Nassau to be taught by Al Welsh. Soloing on July 23 of that year, he set a new two-man American altitude record on the same day. Throughout that summer, Beatty would set several more records, in altitude, weight-carrying and duration. On August 6, 1911, Beatty obtained license number 41 and subsequently attended meets where he was to break several American and world records. Also in that year, he would become the first to fly a plane in which air to ground communication was maintained throughout the flight.

Early in 1912, Beatty established a school on Long Island. Its proximity to New York allowed Beatty to become the first person to land on Manhattan when he flew over the city and into Central Park. He would soon need to take his skills elsewhere, however. After the unfortunate death of Al Welsh, Beatty took the place of his former instructor at College Park, Maryland, testing aircraft for the government.

The next year, Beatty shipped his Wright plane to England. The aircraft had by now been equipped with a GYRO seven-cylinder rotary motor. He formed a partnership with Handly-Page to establish a flying school at the Hendon Aerodrome, outside of London. This venture was highly successful and was to produce over one thousand fliers for the Royal Air Force. After the war, Beatty worked for a Parisian motorcycle manufacturer and remained in Europe for nineteen years.

In later life, Beatty was to return to the field of his youth, working for the Hughes Printing Company. On February 21, 1955, George W. Beatty, a member of the Early Birds and an outstanding figure in early aviation, passed away at 67.

George W. Beatty (-1955) was an Early Bird, aviator and instructor. After finishing school, Beatty became a mechanic and linotype operator. In 1909 he became interested in a New York gliding club and assisted in the construction of an unsuccessful home-built Santos-Dumont Demoiselle. In 1911 he entered the Wright Flying School and received his license in July of that year. He spent much of the remaining years before World War I carrying passengers, flying exhibitions, and instructing, both in England and the United States. In February 1914 he established a flying school at Hendon, near London, in cooperation with Handley Page and instructed military pilots during the war. Following the war he returned to the US and became superintendent of the Hughes Printing Company, where he remained until his death.
General note:
Other materials: Artifacts from this collection were transferred to the NASM Aeronautics Division; books were transferred to the NASM branch Library.
Provenance:
The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) received these materials in 1988, a donation from Louise Beatty.

Louise Beatty, gift, 1988, 1991, 1989-0013, 1991-0069, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit and Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
George W. Beatty Collection, Acc. 1989-0013, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0013
See more items in:
George W. Beatty Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg29e11cf8b-c309-432c-a2f5-d3adc3dc43a9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0013
Online Media:

Sir Hiram S. Maxim Collection

Creator:
Maxim, Hiram H.  Search this
Names:
Maxim Gun Co.  Search this
United States Electric Lighting Co.  Search this
Maxim, Hiram S., 1840-1916  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1890-1916
bulk 1890-1894, 1912
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains material by or about Maxim. The bulk of the collection consists of published works, but does include an unpublished paper about Maxim's aeronautical experiments and a collection of newclippings regarding Maxim's life. This accession includes the following five books: Li Hung Chang's Scrapbook by Sir Maxim, 1913; The Life and Work of Sir Hiram Maxim: Knight, Chevalier de la Legion D'Honneur, by P. Fleury Mottelay, 1920; A Genius in the Family: Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim through a small Son's Eyes, by Hiram P. Maxim, 1936; My Life: Sir Hiram S. Maxim, by Sir Maxim, 1915; and A New System for Preventing Collisions at Sea, by Sir Maxim, 1912. This collection also includes two binders of material: 'Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, February 5, 1840 - November 25, 1916. Chevalier de Legion d' Honneur Photos, Press Notices, Etc.' and 'Sir Hiram Maxim's Airplane about 1890' which includes a description and photographs of the steam powered heavier than air flying machine designed and built in 1890 in England by Sir Maxim.
Biographical / Historical:
Sir Hiram Maxim (1840-1916) was an engineer and inventor. In 1878, while serving as Chief Engineer of the United States Electric Lighting Company, he contested and lost a priority battle with Thomas Edison over the invention of the electric light. He then turned to Mechanical Engineering and invented the first efficient machine gun. The United States government was not interested in the gun, so Maxim traveled to England in 1881 and established the Maxim Gun Company. The company merged with Nordenfeldt Company (1888) and Vickers Company, which eventually formed Vickers Sons and Maxim (1896). The British War Office adopted the gun and Maxim became a British citizen (1901). In 1901 Queen Victoria knighted Maxim. Maxim experimented in aeronautics during the thirty years before his death including and wrote a number of books and articles on the subject, including 'Artificial and Natural Flight' in 1908. Maxim also built a steam-powered aircraft, the Maxim (H.S.) Flying Machine, in 1894.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Hiram H. Maxim, gift, 1989, 1989-0031, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Machine guns  Search this
Maxim gun  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Maxim 1894 Flying Machine  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0031
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2223d9d2d-abd1-4de1-97f9-7aac327d21dd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0031

Max Lillie Collection

Creator:
Lillie, Max T., 1881-1913  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
bulk 1898 - 1912
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following material relating to Max Lillie and his aviation career: four 3 by 5 inch black and white photographs of Lillie, his Wright B aircraft and various colleagues; a metal data plate from Lillie's Wright B; various Swedish navy papers; a listing of the passengers from the SS Astoria, which Lillie sailed on to America; a letter to Mrs. Wynona Lillie from her sister-in-law; a cover of Hydro and Aero featuring Lillie and a postcard featuring Lillie and Frank Gotch.
Biographical / Historical:
Maximillian Theo Liljestrand (1881-1913) was born in Sweden and after graduating from an engineering university and serving in the Swedish navy, he emigrated to the United States in 1904. After he became an American citizen he changed his name to Max T. Lillie. Lillie first went to work for an engineering and construction firm in St. Louis, Missouri, and later he established his own business, Lillie Construction Company. In July of 1911, Lillie and Andrew Drew, a local newspaper reporter and aviation enthusiast, formed the Pioneer Aeroplane and Exhibition Company. Soon Walter Brookins joined the group and it was Brookins that trained Lillie to fly. Lillie made his first short solo flight on October 23, 1911, and received his license, No. 73, five days later. That fall, Lillie bought out the Pioneer venture and took the aircraft south for flying exhibitions, settling in Atlanta, Georgia, where he started a flying school and established a base for his winter flying operations. That following spring, Lillie shipped north to Cicero Field, Chicago, where he made his headquarters for the active 1912 summer season. Besides teaching, carrying passengers, and exhibition work, Lillie also carried authorized mail on several occasions and on September 14, 1912, he flew for his Expert Pilot License, No. 1. During the winter of 1912-1913, Lillie moved his base to San Antonio, Texas. During February of 1913, Lillie announced the formation of the Weckler-Armstrong Lillie Corporation which was to manufacture airplanes and airboats. The 1913 summer season was again based at Cicero, and the summer was busy with school flying and carrying passengers, including Mrs. Wynona Lillie who often flew with her husband. Lillie made more than four thousand flights and carried over seventeen hundred passengers without a major accident before September 15, 1913. However on that date he was killed when flying in an exhibition at the District Fair Grounds in Galesburg, Illinois. Lillie was buried in St. Peters Cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri.
Provenance:
Betty Myers, Gift, 2005
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Wright (Co) Model B  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Max Lillie Collection, Accession number 2005-0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2005.0063
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21d0d7a60-ab24-4e6c-a6d3-95620997eeb7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2005-0063

Wright 1903 Flyer "Operation Homecoming" Scrapbook

Creator:
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Science Museum of London  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Extent:
0.66 Cubic feet (1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Clippings
Correspondence
Programs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1948-1949
Summary:
This scrapbook chronicles the return of the Wright 1903 Flyer to the United States, beginning with the early negotiations with England to the reception at the Smithsonian following receipt of the aircraft.
Scope and Contents:
This scrapbook chronicles the return of the Wright 1903 Flyer from the early negotiations with England to the reception following receipt of the aircraft. The scrapbook includes the following types of material: reception invitation and program; remarks from the reception; a letter sent by Harry Truman which was read during the reception; newspaper articles; and photographs, including shots of the curators setting up the display and hanging the aircraft in the National Air Museum in the North Hall of Arts and Industry Building.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
After disagreements with the Smithsonian Institution, Orville Wright elected to loan his Wright 1903 Flyer to the Science Museum in England. Upon his death, an agreement was reached to return to aircraft to the United States where it would be housed by the National Air Museum.
Provenance:
Prepared by the National Air Museum, Transfer, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0393
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Wright (Brothers) 1903 Flyer  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Clippings
Correspondence
Programs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Wright 1903 Flyer "Operation Homecoming" Scrapbook, NASM.XXXX.0393, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0393
See more items in:
Wright 1903 Flyer "Operation Homecoming" Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27e56f6af-47eb-4b87-b003-7c516252b6ee
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0393
Online Media:

Charles Arens Scrapbooks

Creator:
Arens, Charles A., 1895-1967  Search this
Names:
Arens Controls, Inc.  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
LWF Engineering Co.  Search this
National Air Races  Search this
Arens, Charles A., 1895-1967  Search this
Laird, E. M.  Search this
Weaver, George E. "Buck", 1895-1924  Search this
Extent:
1.05 Cubic feet (4 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Scrapbooks
Business cards
Date:
1911-1960
Summary:
This collection consists of four albums and some additional material including photographs (many of which appear to be originals); news clippings; catalogues and advertisements; event programs; and other ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of four albums and some additional material including photographs (many of which appear to be originals); news clippings; catalogues and advertisements; event programs; and other ephemera. The collection includes images of aircraft and pilots with whom Charles Arens worked or came into contact with during his working years, and some of the photographs have been autographed. Also included are images of many aircraft at the Cicero and Ashburn Fields in Chicago; photographs taken at the 1930, 1931 and 1932 National Air Races; aerial photography; images of airships including the U. S. Navy ZR-3 Los Angeles; and some U.S. Army Signal Corps photographs. There is a considerable amount of material relating to Arens Controls Company, Inc. in Volume D, as well as in additional items that were added to the collection in 2006.

Aircraft seen in the photographs include numerous models of aircraft made by Curtiss, LWF, and Laird ("Matty") and many other aircraft including the Sperry Messenger; Sperry Curtiss JN-4 Monoplane; Verville (Alfred) VCP-R (R-1); Thomas-Morse S-4C; Standard (NJ) Handley Page O/400; Burnelli (Remington-Burnelli) RB-1; John's Multiplane (1920); Ansaldo S.V.A.; SPAD XIII (S.13); Nieuport 27; Martin (Glenn L.) MB-2; Fokker T-2 (F.IV); Stinson (Aircraft) SM-1 Detroiter; Ireland Meteor; Loening (Corp) OL-1; Ryan NYP Spirit of St Louis; Lockheed Model 5 Vega Yankee Doodle; Bellanca WB-2 Miss Columbia; Fokker C-2, Civil America; Breguet Bre.19 A2 Nungesser-Coli; Boeing Model 80A; Sikorsky S-38B Amphibion untin Bowler; Howard (Benjamin O.) DGA-3 Pete; Lockheed Model 8 Sirius Tingmissartoq; Springfield Bulldog (V High Wing Racing); Wedell-Williams Model 44 I (NR 278V) (Race #s: 44, 91); Chester (Art) Goon; Robinson (W. C.) Monoplane; Curtiss NC-3 and NC-4 (P2N-1); and the Vought VE-10.

Besides Arens himself, other notable figures in aviation that are seen in the photographs include Laura Bromwell; Bertrand Blanchard Acosta; Russell L. Maughan; Alford Joseph "Al" Williams; Harold James Brow; Lillian Boyer Werner; William S. "Billy" Brock; Perry Hutton; Henry S. "Pop" Keller; Charles Augustus Lindbergh; Anne Spencer Morrow Lindbergh; Richard Reginald Blythe; Arthur C. "Art" Goebel; Ruth Elder; Lloyd W. Bertaud; Guiseppe Mario Bellanca; Charles W. "Speed" Holman; Erwin E. "Eddy" Ballough; Emil Matthew Laird; Joseph Le Brix; Dieudonné Costes; Clarence Duncan Chamberlin; Robert F. "Bob" Shank; Florence Klingensmith; Arthur Charles Chester; Will D. "Billy" Parker; Anthony "Tony" Stadlman; Stanley Van Winkle Hiller; Robert G. Fowler; Warren Samuel Eaton; Leslie L. Irvin; Benjamin Delahauf Foulois; Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold; James Harold "Jimmy" Doolittle; Roscoe Turner; Otto W. Timm; Overton M. "Rusty" Bounds; Katherine (Otero) Stinson; Arthur R. "Art" Smith; Mickey McGuire; Marjorie C. Stinson; Victor Carlstom; Charles B. Kirkham; George E. "Buck" Weaver; Henry B. Crewdson; Edward Albert "Al" Johnson; Charles W. "Pop" Dickinson; Joseph Lee Cato; and Harold W. Blakely.
Arrangement:
Albums are labeled in sequence with a letter code and they are housed in this order. Additional material added to the collection in 2006 is housed at the end.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Anthony Arens (1895-1967), an early aviation enthusiast, was active in aviation from 1911 until the end of his life. He was active at the Cicero Flying Field (1912-1919) and the new Ashburn Field (1916) in Chicago. He worked with E. M. Laird and George "Buck" Weaver of Waco Aircraft. He built and flew a biplane in 1915 which qualified him for membership in the Early Birds. He was elected secretary of the Early Birds in 1960 and was active in this organization until his death. In December 1916, Arens went to work for the LWF Engineering Company, College Point, Long Island, as a mechanic. He worked for LWF until they went out of business in 1923. He held A&E Mechanic License No. 240. In 1923 he went to work for the E. M. Laird Airplane Company. He later developed a control system for aircraft. He formed his own company in 1923, and provided controls for early Ford and Boeing aircraft. He opened his own plant in 1934, and founded Arens Controls Company, Inc. in 1939. He was also secretary of the E. M. Laird Airplane Company, which provided control systems for many World War II aircraft. Arens sold his interest in the company in 1944. He later formed a company to do engineering work.
Provenance:
Charles Arens, Gift, 1971, NASM.XXXX.0016
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Scrapbooks
Business cards
Citation:
Charles Arens Scrapbooks, NASM.XXXX.0016, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0016
See more items in:
Charles Arens Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg261e78902-d220-4e89-a281-9d3ec7be0b4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0016
Online Media:

Stephen Balzer Correspondence

Creator:
Balzer, Stephen M.  Search this
Names:
Balzer, Stephen M.  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Rathbun, Richard, 1852-1918  Search this
Extent:
0.56 Cubic feet ((1 16x20x3 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Financial records
Date:
1898-1962
bulk 1899-1932
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of correspondence between Stephen Balzer and S.P. Langley, Richard Rathbun, Charles M. Manley, and others pertaining to the 52-HP Radial Engine he designed. In addition Balzer designed and built the first automobile to run in New York City, which was exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution. Balzer's engine-building ability came to the attention of Langley in 1898, who decided that a gasoline engine would be more practical for his proposed man-carrying airplane than a steam power plant. There are five items that have no date, including a voucher for payments to Balzer by the Smithsonian Institution, a summary of the engine's progress by Balzer, and the cover of a mail package from V.W. Balzer to Philip S. Hopkins (NAM).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No Donor information, XXXX-0129, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Langley-Manly-Balzer Aero Engine of 1903 5-Cyl. Radial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Financial records
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0129
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg26de21175-6df0-4c9f-b1c2-602e4fd31561
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0129

James Vernon Martin Papers

Creator:
Martin, James V. (James Vernon), 1885-1956  Search this
Names:
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co.  Search this
Harvard Aeronautical Society  Search this
Harvard Boston Aero Meet  Search this
Manufacturers Aircraft Association  Search this
Martin Aeroplane Co (Martin, James Vernon)  Search this
Martin Aeroplane Factory (Martin, James Vernon)  Search this
United States. Merchant Marine  Search this
Martin, James V. (James Vernon), 1885-1956  Search this
Martin, Lily Irvine  Search this
Extent:
1.97 Cubic feet (4 legal document boxes, 1 legal folder, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Drawings
Financial records
Date:
1894-1979
Summary:
James Vernon Martin (1885-1956) was an aviator and inventor during the early days of aviation. This collection consists of material documenting the life of James Vernon Martin. The material includes letters, photos, and documents relating to his Merchant Marine career and his aircraft and aeronautical inventions. Also included are documents pertaining to his conspiracy charges against the government and aircraft industry, as well as his attempts to revive Augustus M. Herring's patents. There are also documents regarding Lily Irvine, his wife, and her career as a pilot.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material documenting the life of James Vernon Martin. The material includes letters, photos, and documents relating to his Merchant Marine career and his aircraft and aeronautical inventions. Also included are documents pertaining to his conspiracy charges against the government and aircraft industry, as well as his attempts to revive Augustus M. Herring's patents. There are also documents regarding Lily Irvine, his wife, and her career as a pilot.

The majority of materials were donated by Edna Jahn, Martin's friend. But there are also materials from other National Air and Space Museum Archives collections that were incorporated later into the Martin Collection. Collections include: Wright Field Technical Documents (NASM.XXXX.0428) and National Air Museum Photography Collection (NASM.XXXX.0572). When possible, these materials were placed in folders designated as "NASM Generated." There are also curatorial documents generated by the Smithsonian Institution regarding the acquisition of Martin artifacts Martin K.III Kitten (A19250004000); Model, Tractor Biplane (A19350061000) and Medal, Order of St. Stanislaus First Class (A19880024000).

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged into five series: Biographical Material, Martin Aircraft and Automobiles, Patents and Litigation, Photographs, and Newspapers and Magazines. Within each series materials are arranged roughly chronologically.
Biographical / Historical:
James Vernon Martin (1885-1956) was an aviator and inventor during the early days of aviation. He joined the Merchant Marine (1900) before attending the University of Virginia and Harvard (graduate degree, 1912). While at Harvard he organized the Harvard Aeronautical Society (1910), served as its first director, and, through the Society, organized the first international air meet in the United States (1910). He traveled to England in January 1911 for flight training and received Royal Aero Club F.A.I. Certificate #55.

While in England, Martin met and married Lily Irvine. Born in South Africa to Scottish parents, Irvine learned to fly from Martin, making her first successful flight at Hendon in 1911. In July 1914, with Tony Jannus as her mechanic, Irvine completed one of the largest flights across water from Sandusky, Ohio, to Euclid over Lake Erie, breaking a speed record set by Glenn Curtiss in 1910.

After returning to the U.S. in June 1911, Martin traveled the exhibition circuit for several years. He made the first flights in Alaska in 1913, accompanied by Irvine. During 1915 he flew test flights for the Aeromarine Company. In 1917, he formed the Martin Aeroplane Company in Elyria, OH on the strength of nine aeronautical patents, including his automatic stabilizer (1916) and retractable landing gear (1916). He joined the Merchant Marine and became Master of the SS Lake Fray in May 1919, earning the Order of St. Stanislaus from Russia in appreciation for assistance rendered to the Russian North-Western Army. In 1920 he moved the company to Dayton, OH as Martin Enterprises and offered free use of his patents to the American aeronautical industry, though evaluations of the efficacy of his inventions were mixed. He moved to Garden City (Long Island), NY in 1922, renaming the company as the Martin Aeroplane Factory.

In 1924, Martin sued the United States government and the Manufacturers Aeronautical Association, claiming that they conspired to monopolize the aviation industry. The suit was dismissed in 1926, but Martin continued to press his claims of collusion through the 1930s. Martin also became the assignee for aviation pioneer Augustus M. Herring and attempted to revive claims on Herring's early patents.

During World War II, he worked for the Office of Research and Development before returning to the U.S. Maritime Service in 1944, serving as first mate on a ship and then commanding a troop transport in the Pacific. After he left the service in 1946, he tried to raise interest in a large catamaran flying boat, the Martin "Oceanplane," but failed in the face of the growth in commercial trans-ocean service by conventional aircraft.
Provenance:
Edna Jahn, gift, 1964, NASM.XXXX.0162. Also NASM Generated.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Drawings
Financial records
Citation:
James Vernon Martin Papers, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0162, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0162
See more items in:
James Vernon Martin Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21c4abbf5-7252-4a20-bb70-ec5cd93bc642
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0162
Online Media:

Thomas E. Steptoe Scrapbook Collection

Creator:
Steptoe, Thomas E.  Search this
Names:
Christmas, William Whitney (Aircraft manufacturer)  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
LZ 129 Hindenburg (Airship)  Search this
Sloane Aircraft Co, Inc.  Search this
Sloane Flying School  Search this
Bryant, Alys McKey  Search this
Firth, Agnes  Search this
Pegoud, Adolph  Search this
Reid, Percival  Search this
Steptoe, Thomas E.  Search this
Williams, Al  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Clippings
Photographs
Date:
1911-1958
Scope and Contents:
Included in this collection are numerous photographs of early Sloane, Deperdussen and Bleriot type aircraft. Newspaper clippings, photos and letters pertaining to the establishment of airmail service are an integral part of the collection. Photos of pioneer aviators such as Adolph Pegoud, Alys McKey Bryant, Percival Reid, Agnes Firth, and others are contained herein. Of interest are photos of the airship Hindenberg (purported to have been taken on her final voyage), a letter from Al Williams concerning the return of the Wright Flyer from London, and letters from the Christmas Aircraft Company.
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas E. Steptoe, an early proponent of Airmail service, learned to fly at the Sloane Flying School, circa 1910. A paper on aviation in the postal service, which he wrote in 1916, urged adoption of Air Mail Service. Mr. Steptoe was granted his 'Expert Pilot' certificate by the Aero Club of America 26 April 1920. He was also a member of The Early Birds.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Thomas E. Steptoe, gift, unknown, XXXX-0229, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Sloane Aircraft Family  Search this
Bleriot Aircraft Family  Search this
Deperdussin Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Clippings
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0229
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b614b1b5-58d9-4152-bbae-c2ef5e7abbef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0229

George A. Page Jr. Collection

Creator:
Page, George Augustus, Jr., 1892-1983  Search this
Names:
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co.  Search this
Aeronca (Aeronautical Corp of America)  Search this
American Trans Oceanic Co.  Search this
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Heinrich Aeroplane Co, Inc.  Search this
Moisant Monoplane Co.  Search this
Page, George Augustus, Jr., 1892-1983  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Logs (records)
Publications
Clippings
Date:
1921-1977
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following material documenting Page's aviation career: membership cards and licenses; log books; newspaper and magazine articles; biographical material; and photographs.
Biographical / Historical:
George Augustus Page (1892-1983) was an Early Bird and a pioneer aircraft designer. Page was issued his pilot's license in 1914 and went on to became an aeronautical engineer despite the fact that he had no formal training. Page began his aeronautical design career by working for small aviation companies -- Aeromarine Plane and Motor Co., Heinrich Aeroplane Company, Inc, and Moisant. Besides a brief time in 1919-1921, when Page was a mechanic and pilot for American Trans Oceanic Co. -- an early airline operation between Miami and Cuba, Page worked for Curtiss-Wright Air Plane Division from 1917 to 1951. Curtiss-Wright hired Page as director of engineering and in this position he directed production of 130 types of aircraft. One of Page's most famous designs was the C46 cargo plane use in the India-Burma-ChinaTheater during World War II. Page left Curtiss-Wright in 1951 to work for Aeronca, Inc.
Provenance:
Estate of George Page, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0126
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Logs (records)
Publications
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0126
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f6ee5b93-5f37-4bf0-ab0f-ab883b03d48d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0126

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