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Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records

Creator:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Names:
Curtiss-Wright Airports Corporation  Search this
Keystone Aircraft Corp  Search this
Extent:
146 Cubic feet (228 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Reports
Drawings
Financial records
Date:
1868-1972
bulk 1925-1949
Summary:
This collection consists of the corporate records of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Included in the collection are technical and engineering reports of Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division's operations in St. Louis (Robertson), MO (1935-1945) and Buffalo, NY, (1932-1945), as well as AAS Material Division and AAF Air Technical Services Command memorandum reports collected by Curtiss-Wright's St. Louis and Buffalo technical reference libraries. The collection also contains the files of Curtiss-Wright's Patent Department, which hold records of patents filed by Curtiss-Wright and patent-infringement cases involving Curtiss-Wright. Also included in the collection are specifications issued by and photos commissioned by the Keystone Aircraft Corporation (Huff-Daland Airplanes, Inc. until March 1927), which had been acquired by Wright in 1928 along with Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp., and formed the Keystone Division of Curtiss-Wright until 1932 when Keystone's Bristol, PA factory closed its doors. The collection also contains financial records of the Curtiss-Wright Airports Corporation, which was liquidated in 1936, as well as an extensive negative collection featuring Curtiss-Wright aircraft from the 1930s and 1940s, concentrated especially on the war years.
Scope and Contents:
The Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records collection contains approximately 146 cubic feet of material. The collection contains the following material:

Army Air Service Material Division & Army Air Force Technical Services Command Memo

Reports & Technical Reports which include testing of various Curtiss-Wright models of aircraft and/or various parts of aircraft

Technical & Engineering Reports from the St. Louis, MO plant [Robertson] & Buffalo, NY plant

Patents, Patent Dockets, Patent Serial numbers, Suits, License Agreements, Patents filed by Curtiss-Wright & Patent Infringement Cases [1800s to 1940s]

Miscellaneous Research Files

Corporate & Financial Records [1923 to 1972]

Correspondence

Blueprint Drawings

Advertisements from Newspapers & Magazines in Scrapbooks

Engine Decals

Photographs

Negatives & Glass Plates
Arrangement:
This collection was arranged into Series and Subseries:

Series I: Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records

Subseries I: Corporation Reports\Records Subseries II: Patents Subseries III: Patent Serial Numbers Subseries IV: Patent Application/Dockets Subseries V: Patent Litigation Subseries VI: Aircraft & Engine Designations arranged by Designation Subseries VII: Photographs Subseries VIII: Keystone Aircraft Corporation Subseries IX: Oversize Scrapbooks of Advertising Material, Newspaper Clippings

Series II: Technical Reports

Subseries I: Air Corps Materiel Division, Reports [ACMR] Subseries II: Buffalo Reports Subseries III: St. Louis

Series III: Glass Plates [this part of the collection has not been processed]

Series IV: 1969 Accretion - Listing of Archival Material

Series V: Master Print Books [this part of the collection has not been processed]
Historical note:
An historic event in aviation occurred on June 26, 1929 when two major aircraft companies: the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company merged with the Wright Aeronautical Corporation to form the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. After this merger, the former Wright organization took over all of the engine and propeller manufacture while Curtiss concentrated on airplanes. This merger was completed by organizing two major divisions under their original names, but under the direction of a corporate headquarters located in New York City. However, there was a recognized separation of spirit as well as specialized facilities that was never completely resolved in succeeding years. The election of former Wright personnel to key corporate positions soon led to Wright becoming the dominant division. At the height of the Lindbergh Boom during the 1920s and 1930s, the Curtiss-Wright Corporation was made up of the following identified organizations: The Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Company; The Curtiss-Caproni Corporation; The Curtiss-Robertson Airplane Manufacturing Company; The Keystone Aircraft Corporation; The Moth Aircraft Corporation; The Travel Air Manufacturing Company; The Wright Aeronautical Corporation; Curtiss-Wright Flying Service; The Curtiss-Wright Sales Corporation; The Curtiss-Wright Export Corporation. Curtiss-Wright was quickly becoming the 'General Motors of the Air' until the great depression in October 1929. Sales dropped and Curtiss-Wright was forced to close certain satellite plants and transfer some of their product lines to the St. Louis facility. It looked like even the Buffalo plants would also have to close when Curtiss-Wright received an order from Colombia, South America for Hawks and Falcons. This was the largest military order to Curtiss since the war. The Colombia sale saved the Curtiss-Wright organization at this low point in its history. This order kept the production lines going until new military and civil markets began to open up as the depression waned and the build-up for World War II began. During the U.S. military build-up prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, all existing Curtiss-Wright plants were expanded and new aircraft factories were built at Columbus, Ohio and Louisville, Kentucky. The dropping of the two atomic bombs on Japan resulted in an unexpected early end to World War II. All of the major U.S. airplane builders including Curtiss-Wright were hit by massive contract cancellations because of the Japanese surrender. In 1946 Curtiss-Wright had only two experimental military models at hand for postwar delivery and no assurance of production orders. Curtiss-Wright was forced to shut down all airplane plants and transfer all units of the Aeroplane Division to their Columbus Plant. The eventual sale of the Airplane Division to North American included design rights to the former Curtiss-Wright airplanes. The Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division, which manufactured airframes, finally closed down in 1951.
Provenance:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, gift, XXXX, 1969
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Curtiss, General, Aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Curtiss-Wright aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Reports
Drawings
Financial records
Citation:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records, Acc. XXXX-0067, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0067
See more items in:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0067
Online Media:

Waco Aircraft Company records

Creator:
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Names:
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Weaver Aircraft Company  Search this
Brukner, Clayton J., 1896-1977  Search this
Junkin, Elwood J. (Elwood James), 1897-1926  Search this
Weaver, George E. "Buck", 1895-1924  Search this
Extent:
184.1 Cubic feet (168 Legal document boxes; 35 drawers)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial records
Drawings
Reports
Date:
1930-1950
Summary:
This collection consists of the records of the Waco Aircraft Company. The material includes office files of the company, marketing and sales information, and design data. Also included are original engineering drawings and report files.
Scope and Contents note:
In 1920 Clayton J. Bruckner, Elwood "Sam" Junkin and George "Buck" Weaver formed Weaver Aircraft Co. In April of 1923, they renamed the company Advanced Aircraft Co. and, in May of 1929, Waco Aircraft Co. By the 1930s the company was a leader in the design of wood and fabric aircraft. At their most widespread use, Waco aircraft were operated by public, private, military and corporate owners in thirty-five countries. During World War II, Waco devoted itself entirely to war production, manufacturing large numbers of troop- and cargo-carrying gliders. Following the war Waco attempted to market a wholly new design, but the post- war slump in the private aviation market and the high development costs of the aircraft forced Waco to withdraw from aircraft manufacture in June 1947. During its twenty-seven year existence Waco produced sixty-two different aircraft models and led all its competitors in the number of aircraft registered.

The Waco collection is divided into two parts. Part One comprises 24,855 drawings. The locations and descriptive information of these drawings are listed on an electronic database entitled the Waco Aircraft Engineering Drawings Data Base. The drawings vary greatly in size from small drawings of 4x5" to large sheets of over 150" in length. The majority of the drawings included in Part One are numbered, but many of the drawings are unnumbered. These drawings span most of the Company's existence and depict many of its powered and glider aircraft. There are several smaller sets of drawings which include layout drawings, tool drawings and stress analyses. Production charts and data charts are also among these drawings.

Part Two includes the business records of the Waco Aircraft Company. These documents can be generally divided between the engineering and sales departments. Most of the drawings within Part Two are from sub-contractors and U.S. Government agencies.

Waco aircraft company designations are confusing. Many variations exist regarding the practice of assigning model designations. Despite these exceptions, some basic rules serve as a guideline. Prior to 1930, Waco models were designated by a single number, 1 through 10. The last aircraft designated in this manner, the Waco 10, became the Waco Model O under the new scheme of designation.

Waco early models were additionally referred to by their horsepower. This may have been a practice of distributors and salesmen.

Since 1930, The Waco Aircraft Company used a combination of three letters with which to name its models. An example would be the Model ASO. The letters are best read from right to left. The letter on the right represents the fuselage, i.e. Model O. The middle letter represents a modification to the basic model, i.e. CSO for straight wing or CTO for tapered wing. The letter on the left represents the engine, i.e. CSO for Wright J-6, 225 horse power engine. Additionally, Waco models were often followed by a number indicating the year in which the aircraft was built. A YPF-6, for example, was manufactured in 1936.

Waco World War II gliders, designed for the U.S.A.A.F, were designated by an alpha-numeric combination. The four unpowered gliders produced shared the same letter prefixes of CG, which stood for cargo glider. The numeric suffix distinguishes the aircraft. They were the Models CG-3A, CG-4A, CG-13A and CG-15A. An X preceding the designation denotes experimental, i.e. XCG-4A. An addition of two letters denotes the manufacturer, i.e. CG-4A- TI for Timm Aircraft Co. Many of the Waco designed gliders were constructed by various companies. Powered versions of the gliders were referred to by the prefix PG for powered gliders.
Arrangement note:
Series 1: Numbered Engineering Reports

Series 2: Model Engineering Reports

Series 3: Engineering Documents

Series 4: Government Contracts

Series 5: Contractor Reports

Series 6: Correspondence

Series 7: Publications

Series 8: Sales

Series 9: Blueprints & Drawings

Series 10: Drawings Lists

Series 11: Model Indexes

Series 12: Contractor Drawings
Biographical/Historical note:
In 1920 Clayton J. Bruckner, Elmwood "Sam" Junkin, and Buck Weaver formed an aircraft company known as the Weaver Aircraft Company in Troy, OH. By the 1930s the company, known as Waco Aircraft Co. since 1929, was a leader in the design of wood and fabric aircraft, with Waco aircraft being operated by public, private, and corporate owners in thirty-five countries. During World War II Waco devoted itself entirely to war production, manufacturing large numbers of troop- and cargo-carrying gliders. Following the war Waco attempted to market a wholly new design but the postwar slump in the private aviation market and the high development costs of the aircraft forced Waco to withdraw from aircraft manufacture in June 1947. During its twenty-eight year existence Waco produced sixty-two different aircraft models and led all its competitors in number of aircraft registered.
Related Archival Materials note:
Other collections within the Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum which are relevant to Waco are as follows:

The Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers(1906-1982), Accession #XXXX-0171. Junkin was married first to George Weaver and later to Elwood Junkin, both founders of the Waco Aircraft Company.

The A. Francis Arcier(1890-1969) Collection, Accession #XXX-0072. Arcier was one of the leading engineers with the Waco Aircraft Company.

The National Air and Space Museum Archival Video Discs. Included in this collection are three blocks of Waco Aircraft photographs; prints listed by model type under the Company name in the Aircraft Finding Aid, prints listed under "Glider Aircraft" in the U.S. Air Force Collection finding aid and prints listed under the Company name in the "General Subjects" of the U.S. Air Force Collection Finding Aid.

The NASM Archives Technical Files. The documents filed under "Waco" include mostly photographs and newspaper articles. Information about some of the individual Waco employees, including Hattie Junkin and George Weaver, can be found filed under the individual's name in the biographical section of the Technical Files.
Provenance:
Ray Brandley, gift, 1970-1971, XXXX-0151
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Waco Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records
Drawings
Reports
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0151
See more items in:
Waco Aircraft Company records
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0151
Online Media:

Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection

Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Names:
Air University (U.S.). Air War College  Search this
United States Military Academy  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 332nd Fighter Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 477th Bombardment Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 99th Fighter Squadron  Search this
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994  Search this
Extent:
75.03 Cubic feet (168 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Place:
Tuskegee Army Air Field (Ala.)
Date:
1928-1990
Summary:
This collection consists of 72 linear feet of the papers of Benjamin O. Davis. Included are the following types of material: programs, invitations, certificates, correspondence, published material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material gathered by General and Mrs. Davis over the course of their lives to 1993. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, newsclippings, and photographs relating to or received by the Davises, especially after General Davis retired from the Air Force. The collection is particularly rich in materials from the black press of the 1940s, documenting the response of the black community to the activities of the 99th Fighter Squadron and 332d Fighter Group during and after World War II, and contains a small amount of material related to the controversy surrounding the units' combat performance and the morale issues raised by the segregated society of the 1940s. Most of the remainder of the material from Davis' military career centers on his own activities. Davis' tenure as the Director of Public Safety in Cleveland coincides with the activities of the Black Panther movement and the term of Mayor Carl Stokes, Cleveland's first mayor of African descent; the newclippings and correspondence from this period highlight police activities and public reaction in this racially-polarized atmosphere. Much of the material from Davis' early tenure at the Department of Transportation deals with civil aviation security, initially to counter the hijacking wave of the early 1970s and later to reduce cargo theft. The material from his later years, particularly during his years as a consultant, deals primarily with attempts to reduce gasoline consumption, especially his work promoting the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. The largest blocks of material from Davis' private life relate to his tenure on the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (1970) and the President's Commission on Military Compensation (1977-1978); these contain, respectively, materials on student protests, including the shootings at Kent State, and on issues surrounding military pay and retirement. There is also a significant body of material relating to his association with Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. and his speaking tours to increase public knowledge of the role of black servicemen during World War II.

Materials of a personal nature, particularly correspondence between General and Mrs. Davis, were retained by the Davises and therefore do not figure in this collection. Most official documents relating to Davis' activities in the military or civil service are held by the United States National Archives and Records Administration in Record Groups 18 (Records of the Army Air Forces), 341 (Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff)), 342 (Records of United States Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations), and 398 (General Records of the Department of Transportation). Official materials remaining in the collection are primarily contemporary copies given to Mrs. Davis relating to General Davis' travel or public appearances.

Some of the early material (through approximately 1948) was organized by Mrs. Davis into a series of scrapbooks, each of which contains photographs, correspondence, and newsclippings. The rest of the items in the collection were organized into envelopes by the Davises before donation, with the material generally arranged by posting (duty station) and chronology. The items in any given envelope were generally not organized and neither were the envelopes themselves grouped in any particular manner. Additionally, some military records gathered by General Davis as reference material while writing his autobiography were identified by the period of his posting, although the material itself was generally created after that period. Items relating primarily to Mrs. Davis were not separated by the Davises in any manner; during processing such material was treated in a like manner, remaining interfiled with material relating primarily to General Davis, except as noted below.

The collection as a whole has been organized into four chronological groups: Civilian and Family Life (predating Davis' admission to the US Military Academy at West Point, NY), Military Service, Private Life (post-dating Davis' retirement from the USAF), and Autobiography. The second of these (Military Service) has been organized chronologically by posting, then alphabetically by subject; the remaining groups have been organized alphabetically by broad subject areas, then chronologically.

A number of broad subject areas recur in both the civilian and military sections of this collection. In cases where such broad areas can be applied individually to Davis, Mrs. Davis, or Davis Sr., they have been grouped in that order. The subject areas are as follows:

Awards and Honors -- materials relating to medals, citations, or other awards or honors given to Davis (or other members of his family)

Newclippings -- clippings from newspapers or magazines, or complete newspapers or magazines, except when such clippings were enclosures which had remained with their associated cover letter

Official Duties -- materials relating to Davis' activities connected to his official duties (used in Series II only)

Social -- materials relating to the Davises' activities which are not obviously connected to his official duties

Travel -- materials relating to trips by the Davises which do not appear to be duty-related trips

Other subject areas are generally self-explanatory.

The collection contained two videotapes, one relating to the 50th Anniversary of the Tuskegee Airmen and the other to the 1992 Clinton Campaign, both of which have been transferred to the NASM Film Archives. Cross references to these tapes have been placed in the finding aid in the series or subseries into which they would have fallen had they been documents. A large number of three-dimensional items, particularly plaques, have been transferred to curatorial control. For access to these items, please contact the NASM Aeronautics Department. Oversized items remaining in the collection have been placed in appropriate-sized containers at the end of the document collection; reference to such items occurs in the file lists as "see oversized..." or "see also oversized..." as appropriate.

Researchers should also consult Davis' autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991).
Arrangement:
Series 1: Education and Civilian Life, to June 1932

Series 2: Military Career, June 1932 to January 1970

Series 3: Civilian Life, February 1970 to 1993

Series 4: Autobiography
Biographical / Historical:
Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. was born in Washington, DC on December 18, 1912, the second of three children born to Benjamin Oliver (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis. At that time Davis Sr.(1) was a First Lieutenant in the United States Army, having worked his way up from an enlisted cavalry trooper. Elnora Davis died from complications after giving birth to their third child (Elnora) in 1916 and three years later Davis Sr. married Sadie Overton, an English professor at Wilberforce University. Davis and his sisters lived with relatives in Washington while Davis Sr. completed his tour of duty in the Philippines with his new bride. The family was reunited in Tuskegee, AL when Davis Sr. taught military science and tactics at the Tuskegee Institute between 1920 and 1924. In 1924 Davis Sr. was assigned as an instructor to a federalized Ohio National Guard unit and the family moved to Cleveland, OH.

Davis finished his schooling in Cleveland, graduating from Central High School in 1929. He then attended Western Reserve University (1929-1930) and the University of Chicago (1930-1932) before gaining admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. He graduated in the Class of 1936 and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Infantry.(2) Upon graduation, he married Ms. Agatha Scott, whom he had met and dated while at the Academy.

After serving in the infantry for several years Davis was posted to the newly-established Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL for pilot training in 1942. He graduated in the first class from the new flying school and was officially transferred to the Army Air Corps. In August 1942 he assumed command of the 99th Fighter Squadron, leading it in combat in North Africa and Sicily. The 99th Fighter Squadron was the first unit of "Tuskegee Airmen," as black(3) units in the segregated Army Air Forces (AAF) have come to be called. Two units of Tuskegee Airmen saw combat during World War II: the 99th Fighter Squadron and the 332d Fighter Group (composed of the 100th, 301st, and 302d Fighter Squadrons). Davis, promoted to Colonel in 1944, commanded both of these units in turn, leading the 99th and 332d in combat in Europe and earning the Air Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, Legion of Merit, and Silver Star for his own actions and a Distinguished Unit Citation for the 332d Fighter Group.

Davis returned to the United States in June 1945 to assume command of the 477th Bombardment Group (composed of the 616th, 617th, 618th, and 619th Bombardment Squadrons; later redesignated the 477th Composite Group), another segregated black unit, at Godman Field, KY. Davis was expected to prepare the unit for deployment to the Pacific Theater, although the unit's training was badly behind schedule due to racial tensions between the white staff and black operating personnel of the unit. Davis quickly brought the unit up to deployment requirements, but the war ended before the 477th left the United States. Returning elements of the 332d and 99th were merged into the 477th, which was redesignated the 332d Fighter Wing in 1947. As the only remaining black unit in the newly-established, but still segregated, United States Air Force (USAF), the 332d suffered from a surplus of qualified personnel while remaining USAF units were often under manned. The performance of the units under Davis' command had laid to rest questions regarding the abilities of the "negro race" and in 1948 the Air Force determined that the efficient use of its manpower required the integration of its units. As a result the Air Force rapidly complied with President Truman's order for the integration of the United States military. Davis acted as an advisor to the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force in relation to the integration of the armed forces. The integration procedure, however, resulted in the deactivation of Davis' command as its personnel were dispersed among the rest of the Air Force; Davis himself was assigned to attend classes at the Air War College at Maxwell AFB, AL.

After completing the course of study at the Air War College (1949-1950), Davis was posted to a variety of command and staff positions both within the United States and abroad. He served in a number of staff positions in Headquarters, USAF, at the Pentagon.(4) He held both command and staff positions abroad in Korea (5), Japan (6), Taiwan (7), Germany (8), and the Philippines.(9) His final assignment was as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command at MacDill AFB, FL.

Davis was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1954 (10), after ten years as a Colonel. He was promoted to Major General in June 1959 and to Lieutenant General in April 1965. Despite persistent rumors of his impending promotion to full General (four stars), no such promotion was pending by the time of his retirement on January 31, 1970.

Throughout his military career Davis took great pains to insure good living conditions and fair treatment for the men under his command. He strove to create good relations between the US military forces and local military and civil authorities. In particular, he negotiated several Status of Forces Agreements and defused several antagonistic situations between US forces and local authorities while commanding units in Asia. In addition, he and Agatha established many personal relationships, which they maintained after their return to the United States.

After his retirement from the military, he served briefly as the Director of Public Safety for the City of Cleveland, OH (February-July 1970), leading the Cleveland Police and Fire Departments in the racially-polarized atmosphere in that city after the riots of the late 1960s. Following his resignation from Cleveland, he took a position as the Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (November 1970-June 1971), where he was responsible for implementing measures to counter the first wave of aerial hijackings of the 1970s. In July 1971 he was appointed Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (July 1971-September 1975), serving both the Nixon and Ford Administrations in that position.

Following his retirement from the civil service, he worked as a consultant to the Department of Transportation in the Ford and Carter Administrations on a number of issues, but was particularly linked to the promotion of the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. He served on a number of boards and commissions, including the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, the American Battle Monuments Commission, The President's Commission on Military Compensation, and the Board of Directors of the Manhattan Life Insurance Co. He was also active in a number of clubs and organizations, particularly the Tuskegee Airmen Inc., which awarded him a lifetime membership in 1991.

In the late 1980s he began work on his autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991). Following its publication, Davis pursued an active speaking career, crossing the country to talk to schools, clubs, and general audiences about his experiences. His book and

es, his contributions to the Black Wings exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum (opened 1983), and the work of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. did much to lift the veil that had fallen over the activities of black Americans during World War II, both in the air and on the ground. For his contributions, both during and after World War II, he received many awards, including the Order of the Sword (presented by the Non-Commissioned Officers of USAF Tactical Air Command, awarded 1978), designation as an Elder Statesman of Aviation (National Aeronautic Association, awarded 1991), and the Langley Medal (Smithsonian Institution, awarded 1992), as well as numerous lifetime and distinguished achievement awards.

On December 9, 1998, Davis was promoted to General on the Retired List, receiving his fourth star from President William Clinton in a ceremony held in the Presidential Hall of the Old Executive Office Building in Washington, DC. The promotion came only after the Tuskegee Airmen approached Senator John McCain of Airzona, who agreed that the promotion was warranted by Davis' service. McCain added the necessary language to a defense-related bill, which was passed by Congress in September 1998.

Agatha died early in 2002 and General Davis, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease, followed shortly after, passing away on July 4, 2002 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC.

Endnotes 1. For the sake of brevity, "Davis" refers to Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. "Davis Sr." refers to his father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr.

2. Davis had requested a commission in the Army Air Corps, but was refused due to his race. Davis was the fourth black American to graduate from West Point and the first in the twentieth century. In keeping with his sentiments, his ethnicity will only be mentioned when it has a direct bearing upon his career. See Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991).

3. At the request of General and Mrs. Davis the term "black" or "black American" is used in preference to "African-American". Patricia Williams, Memorandum for the Record, August 21, 1992, NASM Accession File 1992 0023.

4. Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division/Commands Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O; July 1950-January 1951); Chief, Air Defense Branch/Fighter Branch, DCS/O (January 1951-July 1953); Director of Manpower and Organizations, DCS/Programs and Requirements (August 1961-February 1965); Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements (February-May 1965).

5. Commander, 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing (November 1953-July 1954); Chief of Staff, United Nations Command/US Forces Korea (May 1965-August 1967)

6. Director of Operations and Training, Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo (July 1954-April 1957)

7. Commanding Officer, Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) and Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (June 1955-April 1957)

8. Chief of Staff, Twelfth Air Force (May-December 1957); Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, USAF Europe (December 1957-July 1961)

9. Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (August 1967-July 1968)

10. Davis was the first black American to achieve flag rank in the United States Air Force. He was the second in the armed forces, the first being his father, who was promoted to Brigadier General in the United States Army in 1940.

1912 December 18 -- Davis born in Washington, DC to First Lieutenant Benjamin O. Davis (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis

1914 September 1 -- World War I begins

1915 February -- Davis Sr. begins duties as instructor at Wilberforce University, OH

1916 February 9 -- Elnora Dickerson Davis dies

1917 April 6 -- United States declares war on Germany; direct U.S. involvement in World War I begins

1917 (Summer) -- Davis Sr. assigned to 9th Cavalry Regiment, Camp Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands

1918 November 11 -- World War I armistice signed; end of combat operations in Europe

1919 -- Davis Sr. marries Sadie Overton

1920 July -- Family moves to Tuskegee, AL (Davis Sr. instructs at Tuskegee Institute)

1924 July -- Family moves to Cleveland, OH (Davis Sr. instructs 372d Infantry Regiment, OH National Guard)

1929 -- Davis graduates from Central High School, Cleveland, OH

1929 --1930 -- Davis attends Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH

1930 --1932 -- Davis attends University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

1931 March -- Davis appointed to United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (fails entrance exam)

1932 March -- Davis passes USMA entrance exam

1932 July 1 -- Davis reports to USMA, West Point, NY (attends July 1, 1932-June 12, 1936)

1936 June 12 -- Davis graduates from USMA, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Infantry

1936 June 20 -- Davis marries Agatha Josephine Scott

1936 September 12 -- Davis reports to Company F, 24th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning, GA (Company Officer, September 12, 1936-August 27, 1937)

1937 July 7 -- Japanese forces invades China; World War II begins in Asia

1937 August 27 -- Davis reports to the Infantry School at Fort Benning, GA (attends normal course, August 27, 1937-June 18, 1938)

1938 June 18 -- Davis reports to Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, AL as Professor of Military Science (instructs June 18, 1938-February 14, 1941)

1939 June 12 -- Davis promoted to First Lieutenant

1939 September 1 -- German forces invade Poland; World War II begins in Europe

1940 October 9 -- Davis promoted to Captain (temporary promotion)

1940 October 25 -- Davis Sr. promoted to Brigadier General and placed in command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade at Fort Riley, KS

1941 February -- Davis assigned as Aide de Camp to Davis Sr. (serves February-May 1941)

1941 May 20 -- Davis reports to Flying School at Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL (student, May 20, 1941-March 7, 1942)

1941 December 7 -- Japanese aircraft attack Pearl Harbor, HI; direct U.S. involvement in World War II begins

1942 March 7 -- Davis is appointed Administrative Officer, Tuskegee AAF, AL (serves March 7-August 27, 1942)

1942 May -- Davis transferred from Infantry to Army Air Corps

1942 May 11 -- Davis promoted to Major (temporary promotion)

1942 May 21 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant Colonel (temporary promotion)

1942 August 27 -- Davis assumes command of 99th Fighter Squadron, Tuskegee AAF, AL (Squadron Commander, August 27, 1942-October 4, 1943)

1943 April 24 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Casablanca, French Morocco

1943 April 29 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Oued N'ja, French Morocco

1943 June 7 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Fardjouna, Tunisia

1943 July 28 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Licata, Sicily

1943 September 4 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Termini, Sicily

1943 September 17 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Barcellona, Sicily

1943 September -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1943 October 8 -- Davis assumes command of 332d Fighter Group, Selfridge Field, MI (Group Commander, October 8, 1943-June 7, 1945)

1944 February 3 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Montecorvino, Italy

1944 April 15 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Capodichino, Italy

1944 May 28 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Ramitelli Airfield, Italy

1944 May 29 -- Davis promoted to Colonel (temporary promotion)

1945 May 4 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Cattolica, Italy

1945 May 7 -- Germany surrenders; World War II ends in Europe

1945 June 10 -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1945 June 21 -- Davis assumes command of 477th Composite Group (Group Commander, June 21-30, 1945)

1945 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Godman Field, KY, and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, July 1, 1945-March 4, 1946)

1945 September 2 -- Japan surrenders; World War II ends in the Pacific

1946 March 4 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AAB and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, March 4, 1946-September 15, 1947) All units at Godman Field transferred to Lockbourne Army Air Base, OH

1947 July 1 -- 477th Composite Group redesignated 332d Fighter Wing

1947 July-August -- Davis travels to Liberia with Davis Sr. as a special representative of the United States Government for the establishment of Liberian independence

1947 September 16 -- Davis assumes direct command of 332d Fighter Wing (Wing Commander, September 16, 1947-June 30, 1949)

1947 October 1 -- United States Air Force created as an independent service.

1948 July 2 -- Davis' promotion to Lieutenant Colonel made permanent.

1948 July 26 -- President Truman signs Executive Order 9981 ordering the full integration of the United States armed forces.

1949 May 11 -- USAF issues Air Force Letter 35-3 stating that Air Force policy is equal treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Air Force regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin.

1949 June 30 -- 332d Fighter Wing deactivated

1949 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AFB, OH (Base Commander, July 1-August 16, 1949)

1949 August 16 -- Lockbourne AFB, OH transferred to Ohio Air National Guard

1949 August 17 -- Davis reports to Air War College, Maxwell AFB, AL (attends course, August 17, 1949-July 4, 1950)

1950 June 25 -- North Korean forces invade South Korea; Korean War begins

1950 July 19 -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O), Headquarters, United States Air Force, Washington, DC (serves July 19, 1950-January 4, 1951)

1950 July 27 -- Davis' promotion to Colonel made permanent

1950 August 8 -- Davis awarded Croix de Guerre by the French government for his actions during World War II

1950 September 12 -- Operations and Planning Division redesignated Commands Division of DCS/O

1951 January 5 -- Davis begins duty as Branch Chief, Air Defense Branch, Commands Division, DCS/O. (serves January 5, 1951-July 15, 1953)

1951 April 16 -- Air Defense Branch redesignated Fighter Branch, Control Division, DCS/O

1953 February 5 -- Davis reports to Craig AFB, AL for Jet Indoctrination Course (February 5-March 2, 1953); returns to Fighter Branch on completion of course

1953 July 16 -- Davis reports to Nellis AFB, NV for Advanced Jet Fighter Gunnery School (July 16-November 16, 1953)

1953 July 27 -- Korean War armistice signed; end of combat operations in Korea

1953 November 25 -- Davis assumes command of 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing at Suwon, Korea (Wing Commander, November 25, 1953-July 6, 1954)

1954 July 7 -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo, Japan to serve a Director of Operations and Training (serves July 7, 1954-April 1957)

1954 October 27 -- Davis is promoted to Brigadier General (temporary promotion)

1955 June -- Davis reports to Taipei, Taiwan to establish Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) (Commander, June 1955-April 1957), with simultaneous duties as Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force and Director of Operations and Training, FEAF

1957 March -- Davis awarded Command Pilot Rating

1957 May -- Davis assigned to Twelfth Air Force

1957 June -- Davises travel from Taiwan to Europe via United States

1957 July -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Twelfth Air Force at Ramstein, Germany (Chief of Staff, May-December 1957)

1957 December -- Davis begins duties as Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (ADVON) at Headquarters, USAF Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany (serves December 1957-July 1961)

1959 June 30 -- Davis is promoted to Major General (temporary rank)

1960 May 16 -- Davis' promotion to Brigadier General made permanent

1961 -- US military personnel sent to South Vietnam as advisors

1961 August -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Director of Manpower and Organizations, Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves August 1961-February 1965)

1962 January 30 -- Davis' promotion to Major General is made permanent

1965 February -- Davis begins duty as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves February-May 1965)

1965 April 30 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant General

1965 March 2 -- USAF begins "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign over North Vietnam

1965 May 13 -- Davis reports to Seoul, Korea to begin duties as Chief of Staff to the United Nations Command and United States Forces Korea (serves May 13, 1965-August 1, 1967)

1966 October 25 -- Sadie Overton Davis dies

1967 August -- Davis assumes command of Thirteenth Air Force, Clark Air Base, Philippines (Commanding Officer, August 1967-July 1968)

1968 August 1 -- Davis reports to MacDill AFB, FL to begin duties as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command (serves August 1, 1968-January 31, 1970)

1968 January -- Tet Offensive begins in Vietnam

1968 October 31 -- "Rolling Thunder" ends on orders from President Johnson

1969 January 20 -- Richard M. Nixon inaugurated President of the United States

1970 -- USAF begins withdrawing units from South Vietnam

1970 January 31 -- Davis retires from United States Air Force

1970 February 1 -- Davis begins work as Director of Public Safety for the Cleveland, OH (works February 1, 1970-July 27, 1970)

1970 June 13 -- Davis joins President's Commission on Campus Unrest (report issued September 27, 1971)

1970 July 27 -- Davis resigns from Cleveland position, citing lack of support from Mayor Stokes

1970 September 20 -- Davis begins work as a consultant to the United States Secretary of Transportation on air transportation security (works September 20, 1970-November 4, 1970)

1970 November 4 -- Davis begins work a Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (works November 4, 1970-July 1, 1971)

1970 November 26 -- Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. dies

1971 July 1 -- Davis becomes Acting Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves July 1, 1971-August 3, 1971)

1971 July 8 -- Nixon Administration nominates Davis to be Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs

1971 July 29 -- Senate confirms Davis in Assistant Secretary position

1971 August 3 -- Davis sworn in a Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves August 3, 1970-September 20, 1975)

1973 March 28 -- Last US Military personnel leave South Vietnam

1974 August 9 -- Nixon resigns as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald R. Ford becomes President

1975 September 20 -- Davis retires from Civil Service

1976 April -- Davis begins work as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation for the National Maximum Speed Limit

1977 January 20 -- James E. Carter inaugurated President of the United States

1977 June -- Davis joins President's Commission on Military Compensation (report issued March 1978)

1981 January 20 -- Ronald W. Reagan inaugurated President of the United States Davis leaves position as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation

1989 January 20 -- George H. W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

1991 -- Davis' autobiography – Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography – is published by Smithsonian Press

1991 June 30 -- Davis awarded a Lifetime Membership by Tuskegee Airmen Inc

1993 January 20 -- William J. Clinton inaugurated President of the United States

1998 December 9 -- Davis promoted to General (Retired) in a ceremony at the Old Executive Office Building

2001 January 20 -- George W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

2002 July 4 -- Davis dies at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

2002 July 17 -- Davis buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA
Provenance:
Benjamin O. Davis and Agatha S. Davis, Gift, various, 1992-0023
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Fighter pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0023
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0023
Online Media:

Gerard Post Herrick Papers

Creator:
Herrick, Gerard Post, 1873-1955  Search this
Names:
Convertoplane Corp  Search this
Herrick, Gerard Post, 1873-1955  Search this
Extent:
17.68 Cubic feet (2 records center boxes; 5 drawers)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Black-and-white negatives
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1909-1963
bulk 1909-1921
Summary:
This collection consists of correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings, handwritten technical notes, drawings, photographs, reports, and affidavits in support of historical statements. Also included are several hundred black-and-white negatives and three reels of motion-picture film of the Herrick Vertoplane.
Scope and Contents:
The material in this collection was donated to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in December 1958 and relates to Herrick, the Herrick Balanced Rotary Engine, and the Herrick Vertoplane/Convertoplane series. The material consists primarily of correspondence, news clippings, and engineering drawings or sketches. Portions of the collection were discovered in the Paul E. Garber Papers (NASM Archives Accession 1991-0063) during the preliminary processing of that collection and were returned to the Herrick Collection at that time. Only the materials that now make up the bulk of Series I (Patent Related Material) and Series II (Technical Material) were found in their original enclosures (mostly envelopes) and were organized based on those enclosures. Series III (Miscellaneous Material) was created during processing primarily from loose, unorganized materials. Series IV (Engineering Drawings) consists of oversized materials and engineering drawings which had been stored rolled or folded.

A collection of negatives donated with the accession are currently housed in the curatorial files of the NASM Aeronautics Department. Some photographs from the collection were included in the NASM Archives Videodisc project; such photographs and others from the collection are housed in the NASM Archives Technical Reference Files. Three motion picture films from the collection were transferred to the NASM Film Archives in January 1995.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The collection has been divided into four series. The first series contains patent-related material. The second pertains to technical materials. The third series, created during processing primarily from loose, unorganized materials, consists of miscellaneous material. The fourth series contains engineering drawings and oversized material which had been stored rolled or folded.

A collection of negatives are currently housed in the curatorial files of the NASM Aeronautics Department. Some photographs from the collection were included in the NASM Archives Videodisc project; such photographs and others from the collection are housed in the NASM Archives Technical Reference Files. Three motion picture films from the collection were transferred to the NASM Film Archives in January 1995.

SERIES I: Patent-Related Material

SERIES II: Technical Material

SERIES III: Miscellaneous Material

SERIES IV: Engineering Drawings and Oversized Material
Biographical / Historical:
Gerard Post Herrick (1873-1955) was a lawyer and engineer who is known as the inventor of the convertible aircraft. In 1911 Herrick, a graduate of Princeton (A.B.1895) and the New York Law School (L.L.B.1897), founded the Herrick Engine Co. to market his "balanced rotary engine" concept. During World War I, he served as a captain in the Army Air Service (1918-19). After the war, Herrick developed the concept of the convertible aircraft, which could operate both as a fixed-wing airplane and as a giroplane. In late 1930, Herrick engaged F. E. Seiler, ex-chief engineer of Kellett Aircraft Corp, to assist in the design of a full-scale Vertoplane, as Herrick called his invention. After delivering a number of drawings and reports to Herrick, Seiler began work at Heath Aircraft Co. and, before his death in mid-1931, pedaled the convertible aircraft concept and the data from his work with Herrick to C. L. Stauffer, a promoter and Heath dealer. In the meantime, Ralph H. McClarren, who had met Herrick in the late 1920s at the Guggenheim School of Aeronautics and had been Seiler's assistant at Kellett, left Kellett to join Heath, where he uncovered Seiler's and Stauffer's activities.

By this time Herrick had established the Vertoplane Development Corp. of New York to finance his aircraft. Herrick contracted with Heath for the actual construction of the craft, the design of which fell to McClarren. The first aircraft, the HV-1, was ready on November 6, 1931. The test pilot, Merrill Lambert, made several successful test flights in both fixed- and rotating-wing mode, but when he attempted an in-flight transition between the two, the aircraft fell out of control and crashed. Lambert bailed out of the aircraft, but was killed when his parachute failed to open.

Post-crash analysis found no fault with the basic convertible aircraft concept and Herrick continued development work with McClarren remaining as consulting engineer. The new aircraft, the HV-2, was flight tested beginning October 31, 1936 with George Townson as test pilot. Although the aircraft flew in both fixed- and rotating-wing mode, vibrations in the rotating wing delayed the first in-flight conversion until July 30, 1937.

Herrick continued to develop the convertible airplane concept with McClarren and others, including designs with both powered and unpowered rotors, as well as a variety of configurations and power plants. In the immediate post-World War II years, he changed the company name to Convertoplane Corp. and unsuccessfully lobbied financial interests and the government for support. He remained the president of Covertoplane and stayed active in the development process until his death in 1955.
Provenance:
Gerard P. Herrick, gift, 1958, NASM.XXXX.0097, unknown.
Restrictions:
Please see NASM Archives for restrictions.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Autogiros  Search this
Herrick Vertaplane Family  Search this
Herrick rotary engine  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Black-and-white negatives
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence
Drawings
Citation:
Gerard Post Herrick Papers, NASM.XXXX.0097, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0097
See more items in:
Gerard Post Herrick Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0097
Online Media:

Ingrid Pedersen Scrapbook

Topic:
Perfume and Motoroil (Monograph)
Creator:
Pedersen, Ingrid, 1933-  Search this
Names:
Norsk polarinstitutt  Search this
Pedersen, Ingrid, 1933-  Search this
Extent:
0.35 Cubic feet (1 flat box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Maps
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Arctic regions -- Aerial Exploration
Date:
1960s-1990s
Summary:
Ingrid Pedersen was a commercial pilot and flight instructor who became the first woman to pilot an aircraft over the North Pole in 1963. This collection consists of a scrapbook chronicling the aviation career of Ingrid Pedersen.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a scrapbook chronicling the aviation career of Ingrid Pedersen. The scrapbook contains the following types of material: photographs (black and white, color); correspondence; newspaper articles; programs; and maps. The collection also contains a small amount of loose material including photographs, news clippings, and other documents.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Ingrid Pedersen (1933--2012) was born in Stockholm, Sweden, and became a United States citizen in 1985. Pedersen obtained her Private Pilot license in 1957 and continued on to receive her Commercial, Instrument, and Airline Transport Ratings. In 1963, Pedersen become the first woman to pilot an aircraft over the North Pole, with her husband, Einar, as the navigator. Her aircraft on this historic flight was a Cessna 205, the Snow Goose. The flight originated in Fairbanks, Alaska, and was completed in Bodo, Norway. Between 1965 and 1987 Pedersen flew single engine Cessnas from Wichita, Kansas and Anchorage, Alaska, over arctic Canada, Greenland and Iceland, to Norway. As a commercial pilot in the Spitzbergen Islands from 1974-1975, she made successful landings on drift ice in the Arctic Ocean. During 1976-1977, Pedersen was on commission by the Norwegian Polar Institute and made seven landings on drift ice in the Arctic Ocean in order to place meteorological buoys between Spitzbergen, Greenland, and the North Pole. Beginning in 1979 she was a commercial pilot and flight instructor in Alaska and in 1992 she started work at the Alaska Aviation Heritage Museum, where she served as Associate Director. In 1963 she received the Amelia Earhart Medal from the Alaska Chapter of the 99's and she was awarded the Gold Plaque by the Royal Swedish Aero Club in 1964. In 1995 she published a book about her Arctic flying experiences, entitled Perfume and Motoroil.
Provenance:
Ingrid Pederson, Gift, 2000, NASM.2000.0042.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Cessna 205  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Maps
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Ingrid Pedersen Scrapbook, NASM.2000.0042, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2000.0042
See more items in:
Ingrid Pedersen Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2000-0042
Online Media:

George W. Beatty Collection

Creator:
Beatty, George W., -1955  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Wright Flying School  Search this
Beatty, George W., -1955  Search this
Page, Handley  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Extent:
0.63 Linear feet
0.68 Cubic feet (1 legal document box; 1 20 x 24 x 3 flatbox; 1 slim legal document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1910-1955
bulk 1910-1912
Summary:
George W. Beatty (-1955) was an Early Bird, aviator, and instructor.
Scope and Contents:
The George W. Beatty Collection (accessions 1989-0013 and 1991-0069) contains approximately one cubic foot of material relating to the career of this pioneering aviator. The bulk of the material dates from 1910 to 1912 and includes an Early Birds plaque, several small banners from flying meets, and a 1928 letter from Orville Wright. The collection also includes correspondence, a great deal of photographic material, and scrapbooks.
Arrangement note:
Original order, when identified, has been maintained.

SERIES Series in the collection are as follows:

Series I: Documentary Material Series II: Photographic Material Series III: Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1887 or 1888 in Whitehouse, New Jersey, George W. Beatty was employed as a young man as a linotype operator. He was shortly to enter the field that would define much of his life. In June of 1911 he enrolled at the Wright School at Nassau to be taught by Al Welsh. Soloing on July 23 of that year, he set a new two-man American altitude record on the same day. Throughout that summer, Beatty would set several more records, in altitude, weight-carrying and duration. On August 6, 1911, Beatty obtained license number 41 and subsequently attended meets where he was to break several American and world records. Also in that year, he would become the first to fly a plane in which air to ground communication was maintained throughout the flight.

Early in 1912, Beatty established a school on Long Island. Its proximity to New York allowed Beatty to become the first person to land on Manhattan when he flew over the city and into Central Park. He would soon need to take his skills elsewhere, however. After the unfortunate death of Al Welsh, Beatty took the place of his former instructor at College Park, Maryland, testing aircraft for the government.

The next year, Beatty shipped his Wright plane to England. The aircraft had by now been equipped with a GYRO seven-cylinder rotary motor. He formed a partnership with Handly-Page to establish a flying school at the Hendon Aerodrome, outside of London. This venture was highly successful and was to produce over one thousand fliers for the Royal Air Force. After the war, Beatty worked for a Parisian motorcycle manufacturer and remained in Europe for nineteen years.

In later life, Beatty was to return to the field of his youth, working for the Hughes Printing Company. On February 21, 1955, George W. Beatty, a member of the Early Birds and an outstanding figure in early aviation, passed away at 67.

George W. Beatty (-1955) was an Early Bird, aviator and instructor. After finishing school, Beatty became a mechanic and linotype operator. In 1909 he became interested in a New York gliding club and assisted in the construction of an unsuccessful home-built Santos-Dumont Demoiselle. In 1911 he entered the Wright Flying School and received his license in July of that year. He spent much of the remaining years before World War I carrying passengers, flying exhibitions, and instructing, both in England and the United States. In February 1914 he established a flying school at Hendon, near London, in cooperation with Handley Page and instructed military pilots during the war. Following the war he returned to the US and became superintendent of the Hughes Printing Company, where he remained until his death.
General note:
Other materials: Artifacts from this collection were transferred to the NASM Aeronautics Division; books were transferred to the NASM branch Library.
Provenance:
The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) received these materials in 1988, a donation from Louise Beatty.

Louise Beatty, gift, 1988, 1991, 1989-0013, 1991-0069, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit and Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
George W. Beatty Collection, Acc. 1989-0013, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0013
See more items in:
George W. Beatty Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0013
Online Media:

Victor Vernon Scrapbooks

Creator:
Vernon, Victor  Search this
Names:
American Airlines  Search this
Colonial Airlines  Search this
Curtiss Flying School  Search this
Oregon-Washington-Idaho Airplane Company  Search this
Acosta, Bert  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Mitchell, William, 1879-1936  Search this
Smith, C. R.  Search this
Vernon, Victor  Search this
Extent:
0.71 Cubic feet (2 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1903-1948
bulk 1915-1920
Summary:
Victor Vernon was an aviation pioneer, flight instructor, U. S. Navy aviator, and airline executive. This collection consists of three scrapbooks that chronicle Vernon's aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of three scrapbooks that chronicle Victor Vernon's aviation career and include numerous photographs, with an emphasis on Curtiss flying boats, the Curtiss Model H America, the Curtiss rebuilt Langley Aerodrome, and Curtiss tractor type aircraft. Besides the photographs, the scrapbooks contain many newspaper clippings covering Vernon's involvement with Curtiss, and his association with the Oregon-Washington-Idaho Airplane Company, as well as correspondence with William (Billy) Mitchel, Glenn Curtiss, and C.R. Smith. Miscellaneous items include route charts, correspondence, and photographs relating to Colonial Airlines and American Airlines, photographs of Bert Acosta and Vernon's naval aviator certificates. There is also material relating to Vernon's hydroaeroplane.
Arrangement:
Scrapbooks are in original order, additional material is arranged by type.
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Vernon was an aviation pioneer who began his career on Curtiss flying boats. In 1915 Vernon went to Toronto, Canada with the Curtiss School to teach Canadian pilots. During World War I, Vernon served with the U. S. Navy as an aviator and test pilot for the Naval Aircraft Factory. From 1919-1920, Vernon was instrumental in forming the Oregon-Washington-Idaho Airplane Company. In 1930 Vernon joined Colonial Airlines, a division of American Airways. He remained with American Airlines as Personnel Director and Assistant to the President until his retirement in 1948.
Provenance:
Victor Vernon, Gift, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0221.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Curtiss Model H "America" (H-1)  Search this
Langley Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Victor Vernon Scrapbooks, NASM.XXXX.0221, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0221
See more items in:
Victor Vernon Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0221
Online Media:

George Meese Photography Collection

Creator:
Meese, George  Search this
Names:
National Air Races  Search this
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
United States. Marine Corps -- Aviation  Search this
United States. Navy -- Aviation  Search this
Meese, George  Search this
Extent:
1.4 Cubic feet ((2 legal document boxes) (1 shoebox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
[ca. 1920s-1930s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 46 polaroid photographs, 412 negatives and 1,466 prints taken by George Meese from the mid-1920s until the late 1930s. This photograph collection focuses on the following aviation subject areas: aircraft at the 1930s National Air Races; World War I German Air Force aircraft; U.S. Army Air Corps and U.S. Navy/Marine aircraft, 1918-1941; airliners; record setting aircraft; and aviation personalities.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Richard Segar, unknown, 1990, 1991-0025, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Airplanes -- Germany  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0025
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0025
Online Media:

Helen Richey Pilot Log and Collection [Suskalo]

Creator:
Richey, Helen, 1909-1947  Search this
Names:
Bendix Air Races  Search this
Central Airlines  Search this
Great Britain. Air Transport Authority  Search this
United States. Bureau of Air Commerce  Search this
United States. Bureau of Air Commerce. National Air Marking Program  Search this
Women Airforce Service Pilots (U.S.)  Search this
Richey, Helen, 1909-1947  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet (2 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Clippings
Logs (records)
Date:
1933-1944
Summary:
This collection consists of Helen Richey's pilot log for 1944-1945, newspaper clippings covering the period from 1933 to 1944 and seven photographs of Ms. RIchey.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Helen Richey's pilot log for 1944-1945, newspaper clippings covering the period from 1933 to 1944 and seven photographs of Ms. Richey.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Helen Richey (1909 - 1947) was an aviation pioneer who made headlines as a stunt pilot, a racing champion, a holder of speed and altitude records, a flight instructor, an Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA) and Womens Air Service Pilot (WASP) during WWII, the first women to pilot a commercial airliner on a regular scheduled run, and as the first woman to ever fly the United States mail. In April of 1930, Richey enrolled as a student pilot at Bettis Field's Curtiss-Wright flying school and on June 28, 1930, she earned her pilot's license. In December 1930, Richey was granted a limited commercial pilot's license bythe Department of Commerce. During the 1930s, Richey set a number of records and placed in several races, including as a co-pilot to Amelia Earhart in the 1936 Bendix Race. In 1934 Richey applied for a pilot's job with Central Airlines. She was hired and flew Central's route between Washington and Detroit. However, the Bureau of Air Commerce warned Centeral management to keep her on the ground in bad weather and the pilot's union rejected her application for membership. Due to these restrictions, Richey resigned from Central in October 1935. The Bureau of Air Commerce then offered Helen a new job as an air marking pilot for the government. She stayed with the air marking service until 1937 when the job was completed. In 1940 Richey was the first woman to earn an instructor's license and she was appointed an instructor for air cadets at Pittsburgh - Butler Airport. In 1942, she joined the American wing of the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), where she ferried aicraft and needed materials thoughout the British Isles. Richey headed the ATA's American Group from 1942 until April 1943, when she returned to the States and joined the WASPs. Unable to find aviation employment after the WASPs disbanded in 1944, she committed suicide in 1947.
Provenance:
Gene Suskalo, Gift, 1998, NASM.1999.0006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airports  Search this
Airports -- Location  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Clippings
Logs (records)
Citation:
Helen Richey Pilot Log and Collection [Suskalo], NASM.1999.0006, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0006
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0006
Online Media:

Gwinn Aircar Drawings

Creator:
Gwinn Aircar Co.  Search this
Names:
Gwinn Aircar Co.  Search this
Gwinn, Joseph M., Jr.  Search this
Hawks, Frank  Search this
Love, Nancy  Search this
Extent:
2.18 Cubic feet ((2 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1936-1937
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of drawings of the Gwinn Aircar. It includes engineering and production drawings for the aircraft.
Biographical / Historical:
The Gwinn Aircar Company of Buffalo, NY was formed in 1935 by Joseph M Gwinn, Jr, former Chief Engineer at Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. The 'Aircar' was designed as a 'foolproof' airplane that would be simple and, above all, safe to fly since it would neither stall nor spin. The aircraft first flew in early 1937 and received Civil Aeronautics Authority Approved Type Certificate 682. Gwinn hired Frank Hawks, racing pilot and record setter, and Nancy Love, another famous pilot, to tour the country demonstrating the aircraft. On 23 August 1938, Hawk failed to clear high tension power lines while taking off in the Aircar and was killed in the resulting crash. Gwinn suspended production and closed the Aircar plant.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, unknown, XXXX-0064, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0064
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0064

Continental, Inc Archives

Creator:
Continental, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Continental, Inc.  Search this
Fulton, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet ((10 legal document boxes) (6 shoeboxes))
4.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1941-1955
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the files of Continental, Inc. from early planning documents predating Continental's creation through the company's collapse in 1954. It consists of technical reports and engineering drawings from the development of the Airphibian; correspondence between Continental, the CAA, and Continental's suppliers concerning marketing and certification of the aircraft; and the general correspondence of the company.
Biographical / Historical:
Continental, Inc. was formed in 1945 to develop a "roadable" aircraft designed by Robert E. Fulton, the company's president. The Fulton "Airphibian" was designed to convert from a light aircraft to a small, two-seat convertible for ground travel. The prototype Airphibian first flew on 7 November 1946. The Airphibian was awarded a Civil Aeronautics Authority Approved Type Certificate in December 1950, becoming the first roadable aircraft ever certified. Unfortunately, the Airphibian never found a place in the light aircraft market and the company collapsed in 1954.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Continental Inc Airphibian Family  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0059

Glenn H. Curtiss Collection

Creator:
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Names:
Aerial Experiment Association  Search this
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Herring-Curtiss Co.  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Extent:
2.7 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Financial records
Date:
1905-1931
bulk 1911-1930
Summary:
This collection consists of documents and memorabilia relating to Curtiss during the years of his active aviation pursuits. The bulk of the material relates to patent suits, including Wright v. Curtiss, Herring v. Curtiss, and Curtiss v. Janin.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the personal papers of Glenn H. Curtiss. These papers relate to his career as an aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturing business owner. This collection also includes a small amount of personal correspondence. Moreover, materials pertaining to patents filed by Curtiss and the Wright brothers, as well as legal documents and testimony, are found in this collection.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Professional materials

Subseries 1.1: Corporate correspondence

Subseries 1.2: Personal correspondence

Subseries 1.3: Miscellaneous corporate materials

Subseries 1.4: Patent materials

Subseries 1.5: Reports

Subseries 1.6: Photographs

Subseries 1.7: Menus, programs and tributes

Subseries 1.8: Books, journals, newsletters, and miscellaneous materials

Subseries 1.9: Newspaper clippings and articles

Series 2: Legal materials

Subseries 2.1: Curtiss versus Herring

Subseries 2.2: Curtiss versus Wright Brothers

Subseries 2.3: Lena P. Curtiss versus Herring
Biographical/Historical note:
Glenn Hammond Curtiss (1878-1930) is best known as an aviation pioneer and inventor and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co. Initially a bicycle repairman and designer, by 1902 Curtiss had begun to manufacture motorcycles using a lightweight internal combustion engine of his own design and founded the Curtiss Manufacturing Co. By 1904 Curtiss' engine had been co-opted by Thomas Baldwin for his airship experiments. This activity led to a connection between Curtiss and Alexander Graham Bell and, in 1907, to the foundation of the Aerial Experiment Association. In 1909 Curtiss joined with Augustus M. Herring to form the Herring-Curtiss Co to manufacture powered vehicles, but Herring's unsubstantiated claims to priority over the Wright Brother's aeronautical patents led to the Wright and Curtiss patent suits which continued until the merger of Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor with Wright Aeronautical in 1929. Curtiss and Herring split after the Wright's filed suit and Herring sued Curtiss, claiming that Curtiss had failed to turn his air race winnings over to the company. Despite these, and other, suits, Curtiss continued to advance the cause and technology of aviation, founding the first public flying school (1910) and later a chain of schools across the US, inventing the aileron (1909), the dual-control trainer (1911) and the hydroaeroplane (1911). In 1920 Curtiss retired from active aviation pursuits. After Curtiss died, his wife continued the legal fight on her husband's behalf until a judge decided in Herring's favor (1931).
Provenance:
Glenn H. Curtiss, Jr., gift, 1963, XXXX-0053
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Patent suits  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Financial records
Citation:
Glenn H. Curtiss Collection, Acc. XXXX-0053, National Air & Space Museum, Smithsonian Inst.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0053
See more items in:
Glenn H. Curtiss Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0053
Online Media:

Thomas Towle Ford Tri-Motor Collection

Creator:
Towle, Thomas, 1887-  Search this
Names:
Ford Motor Company. Airplane Division  Search this
Island Airways  Search this
Towle, Thomas, 1887-  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Reports
Drawings
Photographs
Pamphlets
Clippings
Date:
1921-1967
bulk 1925-1926
bulk 1953-1967
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material gathered by Towle to support his claim as the designer of the Ford Tri-Motor. The material consists of the following: newspaper and magazine articles; pamphlets; photographs pertaining to the history of the aircraft and its role in early air transportation; drawings; early flight test reports; technical notes relating to early Tri-Motor models; a short autobiography and resumeof Towle; and assorted postcards, stamps, articles, and so forth relating to Island Airways, an airline still flying Ford Tri-Motors
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Towle (1897- ) was a mechanical engineer and main designer of the Ford Tri-Motor. Following graduation from Yale University (1920) Towle worked as an engineer for a number of aircraft companies, including Dayton-Wright (1921-22), Martin (1922-23), Aeromarine (1923-24), and Stout Metal Airplane Co (1924-25) before joining Ford Motor Company's Airplane Division (1925-27). While at Ford, Towle designed a three-motored aircraft to replace the Stout 'Air Pullman:, the rights to which Ford purchased with Stout in 1925. Towle left Ford in 1927 to form his own company, Towle Marine Aircraft (1927) and Towle Aircraft Company (1928-32). In 1933 Towle joined Monocoupe and later moved to Lambert Aircraft (1933-35) before leaving the aircraft industry.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Tom Towle, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0102, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Ford Tri-Motor Family  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Reports
Drawings
Photographs
Pamphlets
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0102
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0102

Clement Melville Keys Papers

Creator:
Keys, Clement Melville, 1876-1952  Search this
Names:
Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America  Search this
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc.  Search this
Keys, Clement Melville, 1876-1952  Search this
Extent:
16.3 Cubic feet (32 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Financial records
Drawings
Date:
1916-1952
bulk 1928-1931
Summary:
Clement Melville Keys (1876-1952) was a financier and corporate organizer who promoted aviation through the post-World War I decade. In 1916 he came to the aid of the financially-troubled Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co. and was made an unsalaried vice president. Keys accompanied the American Aviation Mission to Europe in 1919, returning to purchase a controlling interest in Curtiss in 1920. He remained president of Curtiss until the 1929 merger with Wright Aeronautical Corp. to form Curtiss-Wright Corporation, whereupon he became president of the new company. In 1931, however, Keys resigned as chairman of T&WA following a bitter struggle for control of the airline. Mental collapse followed and Keys surrendered all his remaining aviation interests and left Curtiss-Wright in 1933.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists primarily of Keys' business records and correspondence from the 1920s and early 1930s. The bulk of the material relates to the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company/Curtiss-Wright Corporation and related firms, as well as Transcontinental Air Transport. The material includes business (operating) correspondence and records relating to Keys' financial interests.

The collection is divided into three series. The first series consists of materials dated through Keys' withdrawal from his aviation interests in 1932, followed by a second series of materials post-dating 1932. The final series consists of a small number of legal-sized documents not marked by Keys or his secretary and not otherwise placeable in either of the first two series. Because of the small amount of legal-sized material in the collection, the bulk of the collection has been stored in letter-sized containers; all legal-size documents have been placed in legal-sized containers at the end of the collection (Boxes 29-31) and a cross-reference note entered in the appropriate place in basic folder list. Larger materials have been placed in a single oversized box (Box 32) with cross-references in the folder list as appropriate.

Note: The digital images shown for this collection were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product which did not reproduce all materials found in this collection; some items have not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The processing of the Keys papers began as an intern project. The intern, however, was unable to complete the work before the end of the intemship period and I was assigned to rebox the materials that had been left unprocessed so that higher priority activities could continue. The long-term plan was that I would finish processing the collection when other projects had been completed. At this time I discovered two things: first, many of the documents had been marked for filing, apparently by Keys or Mr. Swan, his confidential secretary; second, much of the material was no longer in this order. When my work load allowed me to return to the processing of the Keys Papers, I surveyed the collection. The remaining original folder labels and cross-reference sheets appeared to confirm my first discovery - many of the documents had been marked for filing.

Most of my work since has been directed at undoing the mishandling from the initial work, most of which occurred in the files relating to the Curtiss group of companies. Almost all of the items dating from mid-1928 onwards carry some sort of filing marks: these items have been reorganized into the indicated filing units (see folder list, below). Unfortunately, enclosures often were not marked: some of these were refiled in 1987 and their provenance is, therefore, lost. A close textual analysis of the collection would be necessary to reunite enclosures with their cover letters; current work load and staff levels preclude this labor-intensive operation.

Almost all of the items dating from mid-1928 onwards carry some sort of filing marks: these items have been reorganized into the indicated filing units (see folder list). Unfortunately, enclosures often were not marked: some of these were refiled in 1987 and their provenance is, therefore, lost. A close textual analysis of the collection would be necessary to reunite enclosures with their cover letters; current work load and staff levels preclude this labor-intensive operation.

Materials pre-dating mid-1928 or otherwise unmarked have been filed by "best guess" from the correspondents and subject of the letters. Some materials doubtless remain misfiled. Researchers should examine folders that seem even marginally related to their topic for unmarked but related documents.

Titles appearing in brackets [ ] are the archivist's.

Series 1

Materials through 1932

Series 2

Post-1932 Material

Series 3

Miscellaneous Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Clement Melville Keys (1876-1952) was a financier and corporate organizer who promoted aviation through the post Word War I decade. Canadian-born, Keys graduated from Toronto University (B.A. 1897) and taught classics before coming to the United States in 1901 (naturalized, 1924). He went to work for the Wall Street Journal, first as a reporter (1901-1903), then as railroad editor (1903-1905) before becoming financial editor for World's Work (1905-1911). In 1911 he founded C. M. Keys & Co., an investment counseling firm and bond dealer. In 1916 he came to the aid of the financially-troubled Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co. and was made an unsalaried Vice President. Keys accompanied the American Aviation Mission to Europe in 1919, returning to purchase a controlling interest in Curtiss in 1920. He remained president of Curtiss until the 1929 merger with Wright Aeronautical Corp. to form Curtiss-Wright Corporation, whereupon he became president of the new company. During his tenure as president of Curtiss (1920-1929) and its successor, Curtiss-Wright Corp. (1929-1933), Keys brought the company from the brink of bankruptcy to a position as one of the leading aircraft manufacturers in the world. Curtiss also became the center of a group of aviation-related companies which served to market and operate Curtiss aircraft. At the same time, Keys expanded his own holdings until he was at the head of twenty-six corporations, including aviation holdings companies, such as North American Aviation and National Aviation Corp., as well as the first American transcontinental air service, Transcontinental Air Transport (later Transcontinental & Western Airline). In January 1932, Keys withdrew from all his aviation interests, citing ill health. He remained connected with C. M. Keys & Co., concentrating mainly on financial and real estate interests. Upon retiring from Keys & Co. in 1942, he started a new company, C. M. Keys Aircraft Service Co. and, after World War II, helped organize Peruvian International Airways, which began operating in South America in 1947.
Provenance:
Donated by Elizabeth Keys Stoney.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Financial records
Drawings
Citation:
Clement Melville Keys Papers, Accession XXXX-0091, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0091
See more items in:
Clement Melville Keys Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0091
Online Media:

Cunningham-Hall Collection

Creator:
Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp  Search this
Names:
Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp  Search this
Cunningham, Francis E.  Search this
Hall, Randolph Fordham, 1896-  Search this
Extent:
2.9 Cubic feet ((2 legal document boxes) (1 drawer))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1917-1940
bulk 1928-1930
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains drawings and preliminary analysis studies of the PT-6, PT-4, GA-21, PT-6F, GA-60, GA-36, GA-50, and an Experimental Observation and Training Airplane.
Biographical / Historical:
The Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corporation was created in 1928, with Francis E. Cunningham as President and Randolph F. Hall as 2nd Vice President and Chief Engineer. The company did not produce any aircraft from 1931-1934, and 1940-1945. The PT-6, a six-place all-metal cabin biplane, was built from 1928-1930. A four-seat version of the PT-6, the PT-4 was never constructed. During 1935, Cunningham-Hall reemerged to produce the GA-21M, a two-seat monoplane. The GA-21M was based on a high-lift wing design the company had entered in the 1929 Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition. A similar version, the GA-36, was introduced in 1936. The next Cunningham-Hall model was the PT-6F, the cargo version of the earlier PT-6. This cargo plane was built only in 1939; by 1940, Cunningham-Hall was involved in defense contract research rather than aircraft production.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Theodore A. Hall, gift, unknown, XXXX-0447, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Cunningham-Hall GA-21M  Search this
Cunningham-Hall GA-36  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Cunningham-Hall PT-6 (CHPT-6)  Search this
Cunningham-Hall PT-6F (CHPT-6F)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0447
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0447

William Carl Diehl Collection

Creator:
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Names:
Army Air Corps  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Pathe News  Search this
United Eastern Airplane Company  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Extent:
2.7 Cubic feet ((6 legal document boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox))
2.52 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1912-1972
bulk 1945-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of biographical information, business records, information on the aviation organizations with which Diehl was involved, aviation material collected by Diehl, and information on flight, events, and aviation accidents.
Biographical / Historical:
William Carl Diehl (1891-1974) was an aviation pioneer and a member of the Early Birds organization. In 1914 he built and flew a monoplane and in 1915 he helped establish two flying schools, an unsuccessful school in Chicago and a school on Long Island. During the time he was working at Long Island, he helped to organize the United Eastern Airplane Company which manufactured airplanes. During World War I, Diehl was a civilian instructor for the Army Air Corps. In the late 1910s and early 1920s, Diehl established a commercial flying taxi service, performed stunts for movie production and for Pathe News, and barnstormed around the nation. He began work in 1926 on patents for aircraft mufflers and values. Diehl worked during 1927-1930 at the Wright Aeronautical Corporation at Paterson, New Jersey as an engine flight test pilot. Diehl returned to his original occupation of plumbing but continued flying until 1945, and continued his patent work until the early 1970s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, XXXX-0469, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0469
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0469

Lawrance Aero-Engine Corporation Collection

Creator:
Lawrance Aero-Engine Corporation  Search this
Names:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Lawrance Engineering and Research Corp  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Lawrance, Charles Lanier, 1882-  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
[ca. 1910s-1920s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the following: documentation pertaining to the production and endurance test results of the J-1 Engine; engineering data for the Model Z-5 and the Model B engine; five engineering drawings for various parts; photographs;correspondence; price listings; lists of engines by serial number; service notes; calculations; and an obituary on C.L. Lawrance.
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrance Engines was established by Charles L. Lawrance in the late 1910s. Lawrance built the first air cooled radial engine, which evolved into the 200 horse power Wright Whirlwind engine. In 1924, Lawrance merged with the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. After serving as president of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation and vice president of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, he founded the Lawrance Engineering and Research Corporation in Linden, New Jersey (1930). Lawrance engines are associated with the aircraft flown by Charles Lindbergh, Rear Admiral Byrd and Amelia Earhart.
Provenance:
Joseph Worth, gift, 1972, XXXX-0579
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Lawrance J-1 9-cyl radial engine  Search this
Lawrance Model B 3-cyl radial engine  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0579
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0579

North American XB-70-1

Creator:
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Names:
American Supersonic Transport Program  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
0.36 Cubic feet ((1 letter document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Reports
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of drawings and reports relating to XB-70 Wind Tunnel Model, 1970.
Biographical / Historical:
The XB-70 was conceived in 1954 as a subsonic bomber capable of short supersonic dashes. In December of 1957, North American won a competition with Boeing for development of the new bomber. The government decided to build only two of this aircraft, and they were to be used purely for high-speed research. During the testing program, the second Valkyrie was lost in a midair collision. The first Valkyrie was then re-instrumented and served as a flying laboratory for the American Supersonic Transport program and in 1969 it was delivered to the US Air Force Museum.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Found in collection, unknown, unknown, 1996-0059, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Wind tunnel models  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Supersonic bombers  Search this
Supersonic transport planes  Search this
Supersonic planes  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
North American XB-70A (RS-70) Valkyrie  Search this
North American XB-70A (RS-70) Valkyrie Wind Tunnel Model  Search this
Aeronautics, Military -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautical laboratories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Reports
Identifier:
NASM.1996.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1996-0059

Monnett Experimental Aircraft, Inc. (MONI) Collection

Creator:
Monnett Experimental Aircraft Inc  Search this
Names:
Monnett Experimental Aircraft Inc  Search this
Monnett, John  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Receipts
Newsletters
Articles
Manuals
Drawings
Date:
1981
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: drawings; service bulletins; Installation Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Moni engine, 'KIM 107'; issues of the MONI Newsletters, 1988 - 1991, the Moni: The Newsletter of Monnett Experimental Aircraft, Inc.; HAPI Times: Newsletter for Sonerai, Monerai and Moni Builders; Monitor: Moni Technical and Operations Review 1989-1991; INAV Ltd. Ink 1985-1986; articles; packing lists, receipts, and news releases, and instruction manual.
Biographical / Historical:
The Moni was an Air Recreational Vehicle (ARV) which was a pure motor glider. Created by John Monnett, the Moni filled a gap between the pure sail plane and the next generation of powered hang gliders.
General:
A Monnett Moni is included in the National Air and Space Museum's collections.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Harold C. Weston, gift, 1992, 1992-0059, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautical sports  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Monnett Moni (homebuilt)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Receipts
Newsletters
Articles
Manuals
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0059

Colonel Alexis B. McMullen Collection

Creator:
McMullen, Alexis B.  Search this
Names:
National Association of State Aviation Officials  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. Air Transport Command. North African Division  Search this
Cody, Mabel  Search this
McMullen, Alexis B.  Search this
Extent:
28.15 Cubic feet (25 records center boxes; 2 legal document boxes; 1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Maps
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Diaries
Correspondence
Date:
1915-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection spans A.B. McMullen's aviation career and interests, from his involvement in WWI until his death. This collection includes correspondence, both personal and business, reports/material from his aviation corporations/distributorships and stint as Director of Florida Aviation and career in the NASAO. Also included are photographs, articles and newspaper clippings of his career as a barnstormer and of his military career.
Biographical / Historical:
Colonel Alexis B. McMullen participated in American aviation activities at the local, state and national level over a period of some 50 years, as well as international activities during two world wars. A.B. McMullen learned to fly during WWI, and he became an Aerobatic Flight Instructor and Base Engineering Officer. After the war, he barnstormed with Mabel Cody and owned/operated flying schools, aviation corporations and distributorships. In 1933 he became Florida's first State Director of Aviation. Under his leadership in this position, 84 new airports and flight strips were constructed and the first comprehensive state aviation map was published. From 1936-1942 McMullen served as Chief, Airports Section Bureau of Air Division. During WWII he actively served as Deputy Commander North African Division of Air Transport Command (ATC), stationed in Morocco. After the war he established the Washington, D.C. Headquarters of the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO) which he continued to serve with until his retirement.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Sarah Ann Lindsey, gift, 1990, 1990-0060, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeroanutics -- Florida  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Maps
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Diaries
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0060
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0060

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