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Basil Lee Rowe Collection

Creator:
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Names:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
West Indian Aerial Express  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Extent:
5.35 Cubic feet (5 document boxes, 4 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Date:
1917-1973
bulk 1930-1968
Summary:
Basil Lee Rowe (1896-1973) enjoyed a long and successful career in aviation, initially as a military exhibition pilot, barnstormer, air racer, charter operator, flight instructor, aircraft salesman, and rumrunner, before moving to the West Indies to start an airline, the short-lived West Indian Aerial Express, bought out by Pan American Airways in 1928. Rowe became a pioneering senior pilot for Pan Am, flying with them for 28 years before his retirement in 1956. This collection includes scrapbooks, photo albums, memorabilia, and first day covers, in addition to the draft manuscript for Rowe's 1956 autobiography, Under My Wings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of Rowe's pilot's log books covering his career from 1927 to 1956, assorted periodicals, cartoons featuring Rowe, scrapbooks and photo albums assembled by Rowe (featuring newspaper clippings, photographs, and ephemera), several draft manuscripts of Rowe's 1956 autobiography Under My Wings, and first day air mail postal covers collected by Rowe.
Arrangement:
Materials in this collection are grouped into series by format. See individual series Scope and Content notes for details on arrangement within that series. Note that with the exception of the chronologically arranged flight log books, Rowe did not appear to organize his materials in any particular order.
Biographical / Historical:
Basil Lee Rowe, born February 10, 1896, grew up in the small town of Shandaken, New York, in the Catskill Mountains. He began his flying career in 1914 as an apprentice to aviator Turk Adams after seeing Adams fly at a local county fair. Impatient to become a military pilot, Rowe arranged to join the Royal Canadian Air Force, but was sidelined by a ruptured appendix before he could get to Canada. By the time Rowe had recovered, the United States had entered World War I and Rowe was able to join the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps; he was sent to Texas. During the Third Liberty Loan drive, Rowe was assigned to a group of fliers who were to give exhibition flights; after his discharge, he used his savings to buy a used Avro biplane and barnstormed around the East Central United States, using Hadley Field (New Brunswick, New Jersey) as his home field. Rowe soon bought a second aircraft, hired pilot William S. "Bill" Wade, and moved his base of operations to the Aeromarine Base at Keyport, near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Rowe prospered through the early 1920s, and his troupe the "Rowe Fliers" (including at various times wingwalkers Bill Stacy and Marguerite L. "Peggy" Roome) toured the eastern US giving exhibition flights and passenger rides. In the winter, Rowe moved his operation to Florida, and, with a rebuilt Curtiss Seagull, ferried passengers eager to escape Prohibition from Miami to Nassau, Bahamas--with a bit of rumrunning on the side. Back in New Jersey, Rowe formed the Chamberlin-Rowe Aircraft Corporation with fellow aviator Clarence Chamberlin to buy and resell Army surplus aircraft; the short-lived business went bust in 1924 when the government finished selling off its aircraft. Rowe, a talented racing pilot, kept busy from 1924 through 1926 on the racing circuit, winning numerous prizes.

By the end of 1926, at the age of thirty, Rowe felt that he had reached a turning point in his life. Dismayed by the increase in US government regulation of aviation, Rowe moved his operations to the West Indies, settling in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. With Bill Wade, Rowe rapidly established a business flying charters around the country, with flights to neighboring Haiti and Puerto Rico. In June 1927, with financial backing provided by sugar industry businessmen and the government of the Dominican Republic, Rowe founded West Indian Aerial Express (abbreviated variously as WIAE or WIAX) to provide airline service between Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, hoping to be well positioned to bid on future US foreign air mail routes. With this in mind, Rowe returned to the Unites States and purchased a Fairchild FC-2W floatplane (christened "La Niña") and a larger Keystone K-47 Pathfinder trimotor (the former "American Legion," r/n NX179, rebuilt by the Keystone factory following a crash in April 1927 and rechristened as "Santa Maria"). To his dismay, Rowe was forced to acquired a US transport pilot license in order to be allowed to fly the "Santa Maria" back to Santo Domingo; he hired Canadian pilot Cy Caldwell to ferry "La Niña." On the way south in mid October 1927, Rowe found himself and his two aircraft in Florida just as Pan American Airways (PAA), which had been successful in obtaining a temporary contract to deliver mail from the US to Cuba, found itself without any aircraft able to fly out of their Key West, Florida, field to fulfill the contract before it expired. PAA struck a deal with Rowe to lease "La Niña" (piloted by Caldwell) to fly the first Pan American Airways flight on October 19, 1927.

With its two new aircraft, West Indian Aerial Express started regularly scheduled twice-weekly flights on December 1, 1927, between Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico, later extending the routes to St. Thomas and St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands. On June 30, 1928, WIAX filed a bid with the US government for air mail service on the route from Key West to Puerto Rico, but was outmanuevered by the more politically-savvy Pan American Airways which won the contract. A final crippling blow was dealt to WIAX in September 1928 when a severe hurricane hit their base in San Juan, Puerto Rico, destroying "La Niña" and two older Waco biplanes. Rowe made his last flight in the "Santa Maria" on September 20, 1928, before turning the aircraft over to Pan American. On October 16, 1928, PAA purchased WIAX, with Rowe becoming PAA's senior pilot.

During his first ten years with Pan Am, Rowe flew a record number of hours and surveyed most of the new air routes through the Caribbean to Central and South America, several times flying with Charles Lindbergh. When the US entered World War II, Rowe was assigned to Pan Am's Africa and Orient Division to serve with the US Army Air Forces Air Transport Command on their supply route across the South Atlantic and Africa to India and China (the "Cannonball Run"). His wife, Florence May Sharp, whom Rowe had married in 1930, served as an aircraft spotter during the war. During the Korean Conflict, Rowe was once again pressed into service, and was transferred to Pan Am's Pacific Division to fly transpacific supply routes and medical evacuation flights. May's early death in 1943 left Rowe a widower at his retirement from Pan Am in 1956. At their Coral Gables, Florida, home he wrote his autobiography, Under My Wings (The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., New York, 1956) and remained active as a tennis instructor until his death on October 28, 1973.
Related Materials:
See related collection Basil Lee Rowe First Day Air Mail Covers, NASM.XXXX.0487.

Basil Lee Rowe air racing medals in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection:

Medal, 1926 National Air Races [Winner, Relay Race], A19690242000. Medal, 1926 National Air Races [Winner, Relay Race], A19690243000. Medal, Aviation [Dayton Air Race], A19690244000. Medal, Third Annual Dayton Air Race Winner, A19690245000. Medal, 1926 National Air Races [2nd Place, Free-For-All Race, 510 cu. in. Class], A19690246000. Medal, 1926 National Air Races [Winner, First Elimination, 500 cu. in. Class], A19690247000.

Basil Lee Rowe air racing trophies in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection:

Trophy, Allen W. Hinkle, Basil L. Rowe, A19690238000 [Allen W. Hinkle Trophy for Two, Three, and Four Place Airplanes, 1924] Trophy, Glenn H. Curtiss, Basil L. Rowe, A19690239000 [The Glenn H. Curtiss Trophy for Two Seater Low Horsepower Airplane, National Air Races, Mitchel Field L. I., 1925] Plaque, B.B.T. Corporation, National Air Races 1926, A19690240000 [B.B.T. Corporation of America Relay Race for Commercial Planes won by Basil L. Rowe, Charles S. Jones, A. H. Kreider] Plaque, 1926 National Air Races, Benjamin Franklin Trophy, A19690241000 [Benjamin Franklin Trophy donated by Joseph A. Steinmetz, Relay Race for Commercial Planes won by Basil L. Rowe, Charles S. Jones, A. H. Kreider]
Provenance:
Basil Lee Rowe, gift, 1969; United States Air Force Museum, transfer, 1973; NASM.XXXX.0019
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Citation:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0019, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0019
See more items in:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0019
Online Media:

William Carl Diehl Collection

Creator:
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Names:
Army Air Corps  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Pathe News  Search this
United Eastern Airplane Company  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Extent:
2.7 Cubic feet ((6 legal document boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox))
2.52 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1912-1972
bulk 1945-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of biographical information, business records, information on the aviation organizations with which Diehl was involved, aviation material collected by Diehl, and information on flight, events, and aviation accidents.
Biographical / Historical:
William Carl Diehl (1891-1974) was an aviation pioneer and a member of the Early Birds organization. In 1914 he built and flew a monoplane and in 1915 he helped establish two flying schools, an unsuccessful school in Chicago and a school on Long Island. During the time he was working at Long Island, he helped to organize the United Eastern Airplane Company which manufactured airplanes. During World War I, Diehl was a civilian instructor for the Army Air Corps. In the late 1910s and early 1920s, Diehl established a commercial flying taxi service, performed stunts for movie production and for Pathe News, and barnstormed around the nation. He began work in 1926 on patents for aircraft mufflers and values. Diehl worked during 1927-1930 at the Wright Aeronautical Corporation at Paterson, New Jersey as an engine flight test pilot. Diehl returned to his original occupation of plumbing but continued flying until 1945, and continued his patent work until the early 1970s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, XXXX-0469, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0469
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0469

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Names:
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Extent:
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1891-1914
bulk 1891-1900
Summary:
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Provenance:
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494
Online Media:

Charles Stuart Sheldon II Papers

Creator:
Sheldon, Charles Stuart, II, 1917-1981  Search this
Names:
Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Council (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Astronautics  Search this
United States. Congress. House. Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration  Search this
United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee  Search this
Sheldon, Charles Stuart, II, 1917-1981  Search this
Extent:
13.08 Cubic feet ((12 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Place:
Outer space -- Exploration -- Soviet Union
Outer space -- Exploration -- United States
Date:
1934-1980
bulk 1958-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists mainly of Sheldon's research correspondence files from his tenure at CRS and NASC. The collection also reflects his activities as Staff Economist for the Joint Economics Committee (1955-57), Assistant Director, House Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration (1958), and Technical Director, House Committee on Science and Astronautics (1959-61). The bulk of the material consists of papers and notes regarding U.S. and Soviet space programs (both manned and unmanned) in connection with various papers and speeches prepared by Dr. Sheldon, including original drawings of Soviet spacecraft, various photos of U.S. and Soviet craft, articles, and papers touching on various aerospace subjects, as well as notes of lectures given by Dr. Sheldon, and copies (both rough-draft and final) of speeches given by him in the 1960s.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Charles Stuart Sheldon II (1917-1981) was an economist, author, and advisor to Congress and the President on aerospace matters. Sheldon graduated from the University of Washington (BA, 1936; MA, 1938) and Harvard University (AM, 1939; Ph.D., 1942) and worked in several transportation and economics-related positions before World War II. During and after the war he served in the United States Navy (1943-1952) before transferring to the Naval Reserve. He spent several several years on the staff of the University of Washington Departments of Transportation (1940-48), including three years as Director (1946-48), and Economics (1949-55), before joining the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress (CRS) as Senior Specialist, Transportation and Communications (1955-58). At the same time he served as director of several congressional committees relating to astronautics. He joined the professional staff of the National Aeronautics and Space Council (1961-66), which advised the President on aerospace matters, before returning to CRS (1966-81).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
C.S. Sheldon II, Gift, 1984, XXXX-0141, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0141
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0141

James Vernon Martin Papers

Creator:
Martin, James Vernon, 1885-1956  Search this
Names:
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co.  Search this
Harvard Aeronautical Society  Search this
Harvard Boston Aero Meet  Search this
Manufacturers Aircraft Association  Search this
Martin Aeroplane Co (Martin, James Vernon)  Search this
Martin Aeroplane Factory (Martin, James Vernon)  Search this
United States. Merchant Marine  Search this
Martin, James Vernon, 1885-1956  Search this
Martin, Lilly Irvine  Search this
Extent:
2.25 Cubic feet ((5 legal document boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Drawings
Financial records
Date:
1885-1956
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material documenting Martin's life. The material includes letters, photos, and documents relating to his Merchant Marine career and his aircraft and aeronautical inventions. Also included are documents pertaining to his conspiracy charges against the government and aircraft industry.
Biographical / Historical:
James Vernon Martin (1885-1956) was an aviator and inventor during the early days of aviation. He joined the Merchant Marine (1900) before attending the University of Virginia and Harvard (graduate degree, 1912). While at Harvard he organized the Harvard Aeronautical Society (1910), served as its first director, and, through the Society, organized the first international air meet in the United States (1910). He traveled to England in January 1911 for flight training and received Royal Aero Club F.A.I. Certificate #55. After returning to the U.S. in June 1911, he traveled the exhibition circuit (1911-13) before rejoining the Merchant Marine as commander of USS Lake Frey (1914). During 1915 he flew flight test for the Aeromarine Co. In 1917, he formed the Martin Aeroplane Company in Elyria, OH on the strength of nine aeronautical patents, including his automatic stabilizer (1916) and retractable landing gear (1916). In 1920 he moved the concern to Dayton, OH as Martin Enterprises and offered free use of his patents to the American aeronautical industry. He moved to Garden City (Long Island), NY in 1922, called the company the Martin Aeroplane Factory, and, two years later, sued the United States government and the Manufacturers Aeronautical Association, claiming that they conspired to monopolize the aviation industry. The suit was dismissed in 1926, but Martin continued to press his claims of collusion through the 1930s. During World War II he again returned to the sea, commanding a troop transport in the Pacific. Afterwards he tried to raise interest in a large catamaran flying boat, the Martin 'Oceanplane', but failed in the face of the growth in commercial trans-ocean service by conventional aircraft.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, unknown, XXXX-0162, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Drawings
Financial records
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0162
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0162

NASA F-8 Supercritical Wing Collection

Creator:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center  Search this
Names:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Whitcomb, Richard, 1921-  Search this
Extent:
5.85 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Drawings
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Notes
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1964-1972
Summary:
The supercritical wing concept was developed by Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Whitcomb's airfoil was designed to delay formation of shock waves at high speeds.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains documents gathered from Langley Research Center on the development of the supercritical wing concept and the F-8 test bed program. The material primarily consists of notes and reports covering the wind tunnel development, flight testing, and evaluation of the concept. The collection also includes general and press information about the program.
Series and Subseries Organization:
The NASA F-8 Supercritical Wing Collection is divided into four series:

Series 1 - Background Information

The Background Information Series contains publicity material, articles, general information, and technical reports. The technical reports are then arranged chronologically.

Series 2 - Wind Tunnel Testing

Test reports of the Wind Tunnel Testing Series are arranged numerically, and reports are arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Series 3 - Development and Flight Testing

The Development and Flight Testing Series begins with work statements and requests for proposal (RFP) information. These are followed by notes arranged in chronological order. Developmental technical reports are in alphabetical order by folder title. The flight test reports are arranged chronologically. These reports are then followed by photographs.

Series 4 - Evaluation of the Supercritical Wing

Evaluation reports on the Supercritical Wing Series are in chronological order
Biographical Note:
Richard T. Whitcomb (1921- ) was born in Evanston, Illinois. His family later moved to Worcester, Massachusetts, where Whitcomb attended public schools. He received a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1943. Following graduation he accepted a position with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, the forerunner of NASA) at Langley Laboratories, Virginia. Whitcomb devoted much of his career to research in the problems of supersonic flight.

In the early 1950s Whitcomb discovered the transonic area rule concept. This rule amounts to a sensitive balance of fuselage and wing volume, which minimizes drag at transonic speeds. This concept was applied to post World War II fighters and resulted in operational military aircraft capable of supersonic flight.

Whitcomb earned international acclaim through his accomplishments with the area rule concept and the supercritical wing. Until his retirement from NASA he worked on aircraft energy efficiency and new winglet configurations.
Historical Note:
The supercritical wing concept was developed by Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Whitcomb's airfoil was designed to delay formation of shock waves at high speeds.

In comparison with conventional wing cross sections, the supercritical wing was flattened on top, delaying the formation of shock waves and moving them further aft along the wing to increase total wing efficiency. To compensate for the lift lost with the flattened wing top, the rear lower surface was shaped with a deeper, more concave curve. The Mach number (the speed of the aircraft calculated as a percentage of the speed of sound) at which the relative airflow reaches the speed of sound at some point on the airframe is called the critical Mach number. Below the critical Mach number the flow is said to be subcritical, and above the critical Mach number it is called supercritical. The initial wind tunnel tests of the supercritical wing indicated that the new airfoil shape could allow highly efficient flight near the speed of sound of approximately 660 mph at cruising altitudes.

Initial designs for the supercritical wing were produced in 1964. The development of the supercritical airfoils included three phases: slotted (1964-1966); integral (1967); and thickened trailing edge integral (1968-1969). Flight testing of the supercritical wing began in 1971 and ended in December 1972. A Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) F-8 aircraft modified with the supercritical wing was used in these tests, making its first flight on 25 March 1955. The LTV F-8 was a single place land or carrier based supersonic aircraft equipped with radar to provide an all-weather capability. Its most unusual feature was the hydraulically operated variable incidence wing.

The blunt leading edge of the supercritical wing led to better takeoff, landing, and maneuvering characteristics. Subsonic transports, business jets, STOL (short takeoff and landing) aircraft, and remotely piloted vehicles made use of the supercritical wing technology, using less fuel and flying more efficiently than aircraft with conventional wings.

The F-8 Supercritical Wing Collection was received by the National Air and Space Museum in July 1984 from NASA's Langley Research Center. The collection was assembled originally by Dennis W. Bartlett Richard Whitcomb's colleague at Langley's 8-Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The material in the collection came from the offices and warehouses of the tunnel facility.
Provenance:
NASA, gift, 1984, XXXX-0104, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Vought F-8 (F8U) Crusader Family  Search this
Airplanes -- Flight testing  Search this
Aerodynamics  Search this
Transonic wind tunnels  Search this
Aerodynamics, Transonic  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Drawings
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Notes
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
NASA F-8 Supercritical Wing Collection, Acc. XXXX-0104, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0104
See more items in:
NASA F-8 Supercritical Wing Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0104
Online Media:

Continental, Inc Archives

Creator:
Continental, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Continental, Inc.  Search this
Fulton, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet ((10 legal document boxes) (6 shoeboxes))
4.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1941-1955
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the files of Continental, Inc. from early planning documents predating Continental's creation through the company's collapse in 1954. It consists of technical reports and engineering drawings from the development of the Airphibian; correspondence between Continental, the CAA, and Continental's suppliers concerning marketing and certification of the aircraft; and the general correspondence of the company.
Biographical / Historical:
Continental, Inc. was formed in 1945 to develop a "roadable" aircraft designed by Robert E. Fulton, the company's president. The Fulton "Airphibian" was designed to convert from a light aircraft to a small, two-seat convertible for ground travel. The prototype Airphibian first flew on 7 November 1946. The Airphibian was awarded a Civil Aeronautics Authority Approved Type Certificate in December 1950, becoming the first roadable aircraft ever certified. Unfortunately, the Airphibian never found a place in the light aircraft market and the company collapsed in 1954.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Continental Inc Airphibian Family  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0059

A. Francis Arcier Collection

Creator:
Arcier, A. Francis, 1890-1969  Search this
Names:
Air Force Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Fokker Aircraft Corp  Search this
GAC (General Airplanes Corp)  Search this
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Wittemann Aircraft Corp  Search this
Arcier, A. Francis, 1890-1969  Search this
Extent:
2.97 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Financial records
Publications
Date:
Circa 1890-1981
Summary:
A. Francis Arcier, (1890-1969) was an aviator, scientist, designer and engineer whose pioneering work in aviation design spanned six decades and earned him many honors.
Scope and Contents:
The A. Francis Arcier Collection contains approximately 3 cubic feet of material relating to his extraordinary career in aviation. This collection has biographical and professional documents, technical information on aircraft designs, patents, correspondence, newspaper clippings, publications, certificates, photographs, negatives and three scrapbooks.

Note: The digital images shown for this collection were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product which did not reproduce all materials found in this collection; some items have not been scanned.
Arrangement:
Every effort was made to provide dates when possible and each series is arranged in chronological order.

The collection is arranged as follows:

Series 1: Biographical and professional material

Series 2: Technical material

Series 3: Publications

Series 4: Photographs

Series 5: Scrapbooks
Biographical/Historical note:
A. Francis Arcier, (1890-1969) was an aviator, scientist, designer and engineer whose pioneering work in aviation design spanned six decades and earned him many honors. Born in London, he studied aeronautics in Passey, France under Sir Gustave Eiffel, the designer of the Eiffel Tower. He served as draftsman for such notable aircraft designers as Gabriel Voisin, Henri Coanda, Frank Barnivell and Gordon England. At the age of 21, he learned to fly and received his international aviator's certificate. He served as a flight instructor at the Hall School of Flying in Hendon, England and during World War I, with Handley Page, Ltd. He designed the first twin engine and the first four engine bombers used by the United States and its Allies. Arcier emigrated to the United States in 1919 and was employed as Chief Engineer at the Witteman Aircraft Corporation, makers of the Barling Bomber designed by Arcier. It was the largest heavier-than-air aircraft of its time. During his years with Witteman, Arcier won the Army Air Service Engineering Divisions' design competition for a bomber aircraft design. That same year, Arcier became Chief Engineer for the Fokker Aircraft Corporation, where among other notable accomplishments, he designed the Fokker Trimotor Transport which was used by Amelia Earhart and by Richard Byrd in his flight over the North Pole and also across the North Atlantic. After Arcier attained his United States citizenship in 1929, he became Vice President of Operations and Director of the General Airplanes Corporation in Buffalo, New York. In 1930 under his leadership, the "Mailplane", one of the first all-metal airplanes, was built. Later in 1930, Arcier became Chief Engineer of the Weaver Aircraft Company, WACO. He worked for WACO for 17 years in various capacities. Arcier and the Waco Aircraft Company made many contributions to the National Defense Program during World War II such as the Model UPF-7. The Waco Company was entrusted with the entire combat and cargo glider Program of the U.S. Army Air Forces. This was initiated in an Army Design Competition which the Company won and resulted in a program involving the design, prototype construction and, in some cases, production construction of some twelve models ranging from Model CG-3A to the CG-15A. These gliders were built by the thousands under Arcier's technical direction by sixteen prime contractors and many hundreds of sub-contractors throughout the nation. In 1948, Arcier became Chief Scientist for U.S. Air Force Intelligence at Wright- Patterson AFB until he retired in 1963. After his retirement, he served as consultant to the Commander, Foreign Technology Division and Special Advisor to the Division's Advisory Group on scientific and technical intelligence matters. Among his honors were the USAF Meritorious Civilian Service Award (1953), and the USAF Distinguished Civilian Service Award (1961.) A. Francis Arcier died on November 21, 1969.
Provenance:
Elizabeth Arcier, gift, 1972, additional material received from Francis Arnoult, 2019, NASM.XXXX.0072.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Financial records
Publications
Citation:
A. Francis Arcier Collection, NASM.XXXX.0072, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0072
See more items in:
A. Francis Arcier Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0072
Online Media:

William J. Hammer Collection

Creator:
Hammer, William Joseph, 1858-1934  Search this
Names:
Hudson-Fulton Celebration (1909)  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Hammer, William Joseph, 1858-1934  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
5.66 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Publications
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1881-1934
bulk 1905-1915
Summary:
The collection is the result of Major Hammer's passion for amassing material related to aeronautics and technology, and it is arranged into eleven series: articles, clippings, correspondence, drawings and blueprints, leaflets, legislation, minutes, miscellaneous, photographs, programs and publications. Housed in 23 folders, the correspondence is the most comprehensive series, reflecting the original order which grouped the letters into series by topic. Much of the correspondence concerns the planning of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration of 1909, and the involvement of Wilbur Wright and Glenn Curtiss. There is also a scrapbook of black and white photographs providing front and side views of specified airplanes. Each page has 3 photos showing different views of the same plane accompanied by a label with additional information. (See written copy for details. Also, please see information written on 8x11 notebook paper.)
Scope and Contents:
The William J. Hammer Collection reflects Hammer's great interest in aeronautics --a passion he cultivated for several decades by accumulating a veritable storehouse of materials. Hammer's important contributions to the early development of aviation are also evident in this collection.

The collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into two series. The first series includes correspondence, reports, handbooks, drawings, brochures, programs, leaflets, magazines, articles, newspaper clippings and miscellaneous materials. The second series is comprised of photographs of various sizes, scrapbooks, scrapbook pages and miscellaneous materials (the front pages of newspapers, certificates, posters, etc.).

Hammer's papers are arranged both chronologically and alphabetically. Correspondence, drawings, brochures, programs, leaflets, miscellaneous materials, scrapbook pages, articles and newspaper clippings are organized by the former method. Reports, handbooks, magazines and booklets are grouped alphabetically by either title of publication or author. Photographs are arranged either by subject or chronologically.

The reader should note that at some point, Hammer produced a series of large format photographs. These mounted photographs are duplicates. Due to the very fragile condition of these particular images, the photographs and are not available to researchers.

Additional photographic material regarding Hammer Collection photographs can be found in the NASM Archives Images database. An Archives staff member will assist you with research using this database.

Box 13 of the William J. Hammer Collection has not been scanned.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The William J. Hammer Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical/Historical note:
William J. Hammer was born in Cressona, Pennsylvania, on February 26, 1858, was an associate of Thomas Edison and an early aviation supporter and enthusiast. He began his career as an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In 1879, he moved on to a new position as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. His duties ranged from aiding in conducting experiments on such devices as the phonograph, telephone and ore separator to acting as Edison's key person in further developing the incandescent electric lamp. By 1880, he was made chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. A year later, Edison dispatched Hammer to London to be chief engineer of the English Electric Light Company. In this position, he helped construct the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This was the first central station ever built for incandescent electric lighting. In 1883, Hammer became chief engineer for the German Edison Company. This task included planning and supervising the construction of all Edison plants in Germany. He returned to the United States late in the following year and acted as chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. In 1886-87, Hammer was general manager and chief engineer of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. In 1888, he worked as an independent engineer and supervised the completion of the then-largest isolated electric lighting plant, located at the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine, Florida. During that year, Hammer also was chosen as consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition. Subsequently, Edison selected him as his personal representative to the Paris Exposition of 1889. This assignment rounded out Hammer's eleven years with Edison. During his time as one of Edison's most trusted and important employees, Hammer devised a number of innovations to the incandescent electric lamp. He designed and built the first electric sign, which spelled out the name "Edison". While in Germany, he invented the automatic motor-driven flashing electric lamp sign. This particular sign flashed the word "Edison" letter by letter and then all at once. At the International Electrical Exhibition, held in Philadelphia in 1884, Hammer also constructed the first flashing column of electric lights.

Upon his return to the U.S. in 1890, Hammer worked as an independent consulting electrical engineer by assisting in a variety of electrical projects, carrying out tests, giving lectures and providing expert testimony in patent disputes. He based this modest enterprise in an office in New York City and continued in this occupation until 1925. His career as an electrical engineering consultant was interrupted by World War I. In June 1918, he was commissioned a major in the U.S. Army. He was assigned to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division of the General Staff in charge of Aeronautical and Electrical Inventions at the Army War College, Washington, D.C.. By December of that year, he was attached to the Operations Division General Staff at the War Department (Inventions Section). During the war and on into 1919, Hammer also worked for the U.S. Patent Office by identifying any aviation-related patents likely to convey too much information to potential enemies. In conjunction with his War Department duties, he acted as a member of the Advisory Board of Experts affiliated with the Alien Property Commission.

Busy as he was with his private consulting work, Hammer also immersed himself in other scientific activities. He took a particular interest in radium after visiting Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris in 1902. The two discoverers of radium gave him some samples of this substance. Soon after returning to the United States, Hammer experimented with radium. His research yielded numerous useful applications for this material such as radium-luminous powders and paints that were used to coat everything from watch and clock dials to aeronautical instruments, switches and toys. Hammer also advocated the use of radium for cancer and tumor treatment. Beyond his interest in this material, he invented selenium light-sensitive cells and recommended many practical uses for them. He also conducted a great deal of laboratory work on X-rays, ultraviolet and cathode rays, phosphorescence and wireless communications. Accordingly, he lectured and published extensively on many of these fields of research and study.

Hand in hand with his overall interest in science and technology, Hammer had a particular passion for aeronautics. Beyond paying careful attention to the rapid progress made in this field at the turn of the twentieth century, he also played an active role as participant and supporter. He made his first balloon flight over France during the Paris Exposition of 1889. His last lighter-than-air journey took place in 1931 aboard the U.S. Navy dirigible Los Angeles. Moreover, he attended and officiated over many balloon, airship and airplane exhibitions and races. Hammer was a member of the Aero Club of America and a director of the Aeronautical Society. This latter group made the first ever purchase of an airplane in January 1909. He served as expert and secretary of the Aeronautics Committee on the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission of 1909 and wrote the contracts for Wilbur Wright and Glenn Curtiss to fly their airplanes for this event. This occasion in New York was important as it marked the first time a large gathering of people in the U.S. witnessed heavier-than-air powered flight. As a friend of the Wright brothers, Hammer testified as an expert witness on their behalf during various patent litigation suits. His contact with aviation pioneers went beyond the Wrights and Curtiss. He also knew and interacted with, among others, Samuel Langley, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Henri Farman and Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin. Even his work with radium had applications for aviation. Hammer developed radium-based luminous compounds and used them on aircraft instruments so pilots could more easily view their cockpits' dials and gauges.

Hammer's last years were filled with serving as Historian General of the Military Order of the World War, as well as participating in many scientific, engineering and aeronautical committees and societies. During this time, he was the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, John Scott Medal from the Franklin Institute and the Cross of the Legion of Honor from France. Up until his death on March 24, 1934, he also labored in his efforts to organize a vast personal collection of rare and valuable scientific artifacts, photographs and other materials accumulated since his days with Edison. Following Hammer's death, this important collection was left in the care of his daughter Mabel (his wife of twelve years, Alice, having died in 1906). Some years later, International Business Machines (IBM) acquired it. In 1962, IBM donated the William J. Hammer Scientific Collection to the Smithsonian Institution. The bulk of the collection resides with the National Museum of American History's Archives Center. In the mid 1980s, the aeronautical portion of this collection was transferred to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives.
Provenance:
IBM (Mr. William J. Hammer Collection), gift, 1961, XXXX-0074, not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Publications
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0074, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0074
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0074
Online Media:

Charles W. Chillson Collection

Creator:
Chillson, Charles W., 1910-  Search this
Names:
American Rocket Society  Search this
Chillson, Charles W., 1910-  Search this
Goddard, Esther C.  Search this
Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977  Search this
Extent:
3.12 Linear feet
3.5 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Drawings
Publications
Date:
1950-1956
Summary:
This collection largely documents Chillson's affiliation with the ARS, particularly his presidency in the early 1950s, and includes correspondence with ARS members, aerospace companies, and organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the British Interplanetary Society, the International Astronautical Federation, and the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences. There is also correspondence with Wernher von Braun and Esther C. Goddard. The collection also includes papers presented to or published by the ARS, some diagrams and photographs highlighting rocket plans or capabilities, and some pamphlets and articles on rockets.
Scope and Contents:
This collection largely contains documents of Chillson's affiliation with the American Rocket Society (ARS), particularly his presidency in the early 1950s. The collection includes ARS organizational documents, correspondence regarding arrangements for National and Regional meetings, copies of technical papers presented at conventions and a few photographs. The collection is arranged as follows:
Arrangement:
Series I:

ARS National Meetings ARS Regional Meetings Director Correspondence Conventions Meetings Committees

Series II:

Joint Meetings Technical Papers Publications

Each series was listed in chronological order. The ARS Regional Meetings are listed alphabetically by state and then in chronological order.
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles W. Chillson (1910 - ) was an expert in air and rocket propulsion. Chillson received his B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University in 1931 and went to work in Chemical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology from 1931 until 1936. During those years, Chillson worked with C. K. Greene on a mechanical controllable-pitch propeller which progressed through whirl-testing at the Army Air Force Engineering Division at Wright Field, OH. Chillson then moved to Curtiss-Wright's Curtiss Propeller Division as an engineer and project designer (1936-1940) and was later promoted to chief researcher for the years 1940 to 1947. In 1947, Chillson won the Collier Trophy for his propeller work and became chief engineer of the newly formed Rocket Department at Curtiss-Wright. In 1950, he became program chairman of the American Rocket Society (ARS) Board of Directors and was later elected vice president (1951) and president (1952-1955), before being made a fellow of the ARS in 1956.
Provenance:
Charles W. Tillson, Gift, 1971, XXXX-0008
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Jet propulsion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Drawings
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0008
See more items in:
Charles W. Chillson Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0008
Online Media:

Jerome Clarke Hunsaker Papers

Creator:
Hunsaker, Jerome Clarke, 1886-1984  Search this
Names:
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
Goodyear-Zeppelin  Search this
Hunsaker, Jerome Clarke, 1886-1984  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (28 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Date:
1916-1969
Summary:
The Hunsaker Papers are rich in aeronautical information relating to the 1920s and 1930s. The material furnishes a generous account of his contributions in the aeronautics field as an engineer. Interested researchers should pursue materials pertaining to Hunsaker in such repositories as MIT's Institute Archives and Special Collections Department, the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Corporation, the U.S. Navy History and Archives at the Washington Navy Yard, and the NASA History Office, Headquarters Building, Washington, DC. This archivist views the Hunsaker Papers, NASM.XXXX.0001, most relevant to research dealing with Hunsaker's professional career.
Scope and Contents:
These papers include material beginning with Hunsaker's work during his naval career. The largest quantity of material consists of correspondence, memos, and reports covering Hunsaker's tenure at Bell Telephone Laboratories and Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company; his association with the Chrysler and Sperry Corporations; and his tenure as Chairman of NACA while teaching at MIT.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The papers can be grouped into three categories. The first is documentation pertaining to his work while Chief of the Aircraft Division, Bureau of Construction and Repair, Navy Department. In this capacity, Hunsaker was in a position to influence US Naval planning for all aspects of aviation during the post-World War I period. The second category of documentation concerns Hunsaker's entrance into the civilian work force. By this time, Hunsaker had begun to create an identity for himself as a determined leader. He was actively publishing and delivering papers on all facets of aeronautical engineering. When Hunsaker joined the staff of MIT as Head of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering in 1933, the world aviation community recognized and began to call upon his expertise regarding all aspects of aviation. The final category of documentation reflects Hunsaker's involvement with many professional societies including the American Philosophical Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He served as member and chairman of many corporate boards including the Chrysler Corporation, the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Corporation as well as the Guggenheim Medal Board.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jerome Clarke Hunsaker (b. August 26, 1886; d. September 10, 1984) was an aeronautical engineer and designer. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1908 at the head of his class and received his Masters of Science (1912) and Doctor of Science (1916) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) before being posted as Chief, Aircraft Division, Bureau of Construction and Repair, Navy Department (1916-1921). He advanced to Chief of the Design Division (1921-1923) where he designed the airship USS Shenandoah (ZR-1, commissioned in 1923). He served as Assistant Naval AttachŽ, Europe beginning in 1923 until resigning his commission in November of 1926. Between 1927 and 1928, he worked as Assistant Vice President and Research Engineer for Bell Telephone Laboratories. In this position, he helped standardize wire, radio and weather service for America's developing airways. He moved to Goodyear-Zeppelin Company as Vice President in 1928 where he supervised the design and construction of the airships USS Akron (ZRS-4) and USS Macon (ZRS-5). In 1933, he returned to MIT as Chairman of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering. Dr. Hunsaker served on numerous committees, including the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) between 1923 and 1956. He was NACA's Chairman from 1941 to 1956. Hunsaker also served NACA as a Main Committee member during 1922, 1923 and 1938 to 1958.
Provenance:
Jerome Clarke Hunsaker, gift, 1964, NASM.XXXX.0001, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Electricity in aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Diaries
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Citation:
Jerome Clarke Hunsaker Papers, NASM.XXXX.0001, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0001
See more items in:
Jerome Clarke Hunsaker Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0001
Online Media:

Fairchild Industries, Inc. collection

Creator:
Fairchild Aircraft Corp  Search this
Names:
Fairchild Aircraft Corp  Search this
Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp  Search this
Fokker Aircraft Corp  Search this
Hiller Aircraft Corp  Search this
Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co.  Search this
Pilatus Flugzeugwerke AG  Search this
Republic  Search this
Swearingen Aircraft  Search this
Fairchild, Sherman M.  Search this
Extent:
277.95 Cubic feet (255 records center boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Financial records
Negatives
Photographs
Videotapes
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1919-1980
Summary:
This collection consists of historical files on FI, its predecessors, and subsidiaries. The material consists primarily of historical/public relations material, including photographs and brochures, but also includes significant amounts of business records for FEAC, Kreider-Reisner, Hiller, Republic, Ranger, Stratos, and Swearingen. The collection also documents Fairchild's joint ventures with Fokker, Pilatus, and other aircraft manufacturers. The material also includes an extensive negative collection as well as film and videotape libraries.
Scope and Contents note:
Sherman Mills Fairchild (1896-1971) founded Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation (FAEC) in 1920. FAEC was incorporated in New York State for the purpose of developing, manufacturing and selling aerial photographic equipment. It went through many changes over the course of its existence. By 1971, FAEC was called Fairchild Industries, Inc. and had become an enormous corporation that produced such famous and history making aircraft as the Model 24 and A-10 as well as acquired other aviation industry giants such as Republic Aviation and Hiller Aircraft Company.

The Fairchild Industries, Inc. Collection, accessions 1989-0060 and 1990-0047, was donated to the Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and 1990. The collection consists of printed and photographic materials. The subject matter of the material has a wide scope that includes, but is not restricted to, the following subject areas: public relations, legal matters, production photography, aircraft drawings and manuals, company published materials such as brochures and press releases, and history files. This collection does not contain the engineering files or the complete photo holdings or corporate records of Fairchild Industries, Inc or any of its predecessors.

The collection was maintained for many years by Theron Rinehart, a Fairchild Industries employee. Due to the large size and lack original order, the Archives Division decided to create a database as well as a traditional finding aid for access to the collection. Access to the Fairchild Docs database is available from the Archives Division by appointment. Aircraft types and designations are listed in the database and finding aid as they are in The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Directory of Airplanes Their Designers and Manufacturers, edited by Dana Bell, 2002 (Greenhill Books: London). Folder titles are those that appeared on the original folders and dates are provided for those materials that had them. The material was rehoused by the Archives Division and is now in acid free folders and boxes. There are few instances of water damage; these materials are indicated in the finding aid and database.

This finding aid contains a corporate history and chronology of the companies owned by of Fairchild Industries, Inc and a list of the Fairchild, Hiller, Republic and Swearingen aircraft documented in this collection. The books, periodicals and artifacts that were part of this collection have been removed. This finding aid contains a list of these materials. Please ask for assistance in contacting the NASM Branch and Smithsonian Libraries and the NASM Aeronautics Division.

Sherman Mills Fairchild's personal papers, The Sherman Fairchild Papers, can be found in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress.
Biographical/Historical note:
The following information was taken from The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Directory of Airplanes: Their Designers and Manufacturers, edited by Dana Bell, 2002 (Greenhill Books: London).

"In 1924, Sherman Fairchild established the Fairchild Aviation Corp as the parent company for his many aviation interests. In 1930, The Aviation Corp (AVCO) purchased Fairchild Aviation and its subsidiaries, initially operating the various companies under their original names. The following year, Sherman Fairchild repurchased Fairchild Aviation Corp and began repurchasing the subordinate companies. In a December 1936 reorganization, Fairchild Aviation Corp divested itself of all aircraft manufacturing interests, placing them under a new Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co.

The original aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of Fairchild Aviation Corp was Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Co; it was created in 1924 to design and build aircraft as platforms for Fairchild's aerial survey cameras. Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing was one of the subsidiaries purchased by AVCO in 1930, but not one of the first companies repurchased by Sherman Fairchild. In 1931 AVCO combined the aircraft company with Fairchild Engine Co, forming American Airplane and Engine Corp. Fairchild Aviation Corp bought American Airplane and Engine in 1934, renaming the company the Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co.

In the 1936 reorganization that divided Fairchild Aviation Corp assets, Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co became Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co and took charge of all Fairchild aircraft and engine holdings. Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co became Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp in 1950 and Fairchild Stratos Corp in 1961. With the 1964 purchase of Hiller Aircraft Corp, Fairchild Stratos was renamed Fairchild Hiller Corp, then, again, renamed Fairchild Industries after the separation of all Hiller interests in 1973. Although Fairchild Industries closed and sold its military and commercial aircraft manufacturing divisions in 1987, "Fairchild" aircraft continued to be produced through the Swearingen Metro and Fairchild Dornier lines (see below).

Fairchild created, purchased, and merged with several companies during its history. The following are the most important subsidiaries:

Fairchild Aircraft Ltd was created in 1929 as Fairchild Aviation Corp's Canadian subsidiary. The company ended all aircraft production in 1948.

The Kreider Reisner Aircraft Co Inc was formed in 1927. Kreider Reisner became a wholly-owned division of (first) the Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Co in 1929, (second) AVCO's American Airplane and Engine Corp (which renamed KR aircraft "Pilgrims") in 1931, and (third) Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing and Engine Co in 1934. Kreider-Reisner was renamed the Fairchild Aircraft Corp in 1935, becoming Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co's principle US aircraft manufacturing subsidiary. Fairchild Aircraft Corp was renamed the Fairchild Aircraft Division in 1939, the Fairchild Aircraft and Missiles Division in 1961, the Fairchild Stratos Aircraft and Missiles Division in 1961, the Aircraft-Missiles Division in 1965, and the Aircraft Division in 1967. With a growing number of aircraft subsidiaries reporting to Fairchild Industries, the Aircraft Division was broken up in a corporate reorganization of the 1970s. While the Kreider Reisner Midget is listed under Kreider Reisner, all Kreider Reisner Challenger series aircraft (designated "KR" biplanes by Fairchild) appear under Fairchild.

In 1936 Fairchild Engine and Airplane Co founded the subsidiary Duromold Aircraft Corp to better account for time spent developing the Duromold wood/resin bonding process and the Model 46 aircraft. In 1938, the majority interest in Duromold was bought by a group of investors (including process inventor Col. Virginius E. Clark), who formed the Clark Aircraft Corp. Fairchild kept a minority interest in Clark, retaining Duromold as a holding company. In September 1938, Fairchild renamed its Duromold division Fairchild Airplane Investment Corp, and Clark created a subsidiary called Duramold Aircraft Corp (note the spelling change). In 1938 Duramold was renamed Molded Aircraft Corp. In 1939, Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp bought back a controlling interest in Clark and renamed Molded Aircraft Duramold Aircraft Manufacturing Corp. The Duramold and Clark companies disappeared during one of Fairchild's World War II reorganizations.

In 1952 Fairchild licensed the rights to Dutch Fokker's F.27 medium-range airliner. In 1953, the USAF transferred production contracts for the Chase Aircraft Co, Inc C 123 to Fairchild. The Chase-built XC 123 and XC 123A appear under Chase, while Fairchild's C-123 production is listed under Fairchild.

In 1954, the American Helicopter Co, Inc (founded 1947) became the Helicopter Division of Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp. The division closed by the end of decade.

In 1964, Fairchild Stratos purchased Hiller Aircraft Corp, and both companies were renamed: Hiller Aircraft Co Inc become a subsidiary of Fairchild Hiller Corp. In the 1973 reorganization of Fairchild Hiller into Fairchild Industries, Hiller helicopter interests passed to an independent Hiller Aviation Inc….

In 1965, the Republic Aviation Corp became Republic Aviation Division (also known as Fairchild Republic) of Fairchild Hiller Corp. In 1987, Republic was shut down when Fairchild Industries ceased building commercial and military aircraft.

Swearingen Aircraft formed in the late 1950s, modifying Beech aircraft for executive transport. In 1965 the company produced its first new design, the Merlin. In 1970 Swearingen began development of the Metro, a joint venture to be marketed by Fairchild Hiller Corp. As a subsidiary of Fairchild Industries, Swearingen became Swearingen Aviation Corp, in 1971, Fairchild Swearingen in 1981, and Fairchild Aircraft Corp in September 1982. When Fairchild Industries closed its aircraft design and production facilities in 1987, Fairchild Aircraft Corp was sold to GMF Investments, Inc; GMF continued to operate the company under the Fairchild name. In 1990, Fairchild Aircraft filed for Chapter 11 protection and was purchased by Fairchild Acquisition Inc as Fairchild Aircraft Inc. Fairchild Aircraft delivered its last aircraft in 2001. Most Swearingen designs are filed under Swearingen; the Metro and Expediter can be found under Fairchild.

In 1996, Fairchild Acquisition became Fairchild Aerospace. While continuing to operate Fairchild Aircraft, the company also purchased 80% of the stock of Germany's Dornier Luftfahrt GmbH (with the remaining 20% of shares held by Daimler Benz Aerospace). Dornier's aircraft manufacturing operations were taken over by Fairchild Dornier Luftfahrt Beteiligungs GmbH. In 2000, Fairchild Aerospace was renamed Fairchild Dornier Aerospace, with corporate headquarters moved to Germany. Dornier designs predating Fairchild's takeover are listed under Dornier. Subsequent designs are found under Fairchild Dornier."

The following lists companies owned by Sherman Fairchild Industries and their years of incorporation. Major divisions of Fairchild are also listed. This list does not include when these entities were divested of or liquidated.

1920 -- Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation

1922 -- Fairchild Aerial Surveys (of Canada) Limited

1924 -- Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Incorporated

1924 -- S.M. Fairchild Flying Corporation

1925 -- Fairchild Aerial Camera

1925 -- Fairchild Caminez Engine Corporation

1925 -- Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation

1925 -- Fairchild Flying Company, Incorporated (name change from S.M. Fairchild Flying Corp.)

1925 -- Fairchild Aviation Corporation (holding company for Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation, Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc., Fairchild Flying Company, Inc, Fairchild Caminez Engine Corporation, Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation and Fairchild Aerial Surveys (of Canada) Ltd.)

1925 -- Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation

1926 -- Elliot-Fairchild Air Service, Limited

1926 -- Elliot-Fairchild Air Transport, Limited

1926 -- Fairchild Aviation, Limited (name change from Fairchild Aerial Surveys (of Canada) Limited)

1926 -- Fairchild Air Transport, Limited (name change from Elliot-Fairchild Air Transport, Limited)

1927 -- Fairchild Aviation Corporation (reorganization and refinancing of the following subsidiaries and minority holdings, Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation, Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc., Fairchild Flying Company, Inc, Fairchild Caminez Engine Corporation, Fairchild Airplane Manufacturing Corporation, Fairchild Aviation, Limited, Compania Mexicana de Aviacion, S.A. [20% stock] and International Aerial Engineering Company [20% stock])

1928 -- Faircam Realty Corporation

1928 -- Fairchild Boats, Incorporated

1928 -- Fairchild Engine Corporation

1928 -- V.E. Clark Corporation

1928 -- West Indian Aerial Express, Incorporated

1928 -- Fairchild Aviation Corporation of Illinois

1929 -- Fairchild Shares Corporation

1929 -- Fairchild Aircraft, Limited

1930 -- Fairchild-American Photo Aerial Surveys, S.A.

1932 -- Fairchild Airplane Sales Corporation

1934 -- Fairchild Aircraft Corporation

1936 -- Fairchild Aviation, Incorporated

1936 -- Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation (holding company for Fairchild Aircraft Corporation, Ranger Engineering Corporation and Fairchild Aircraft, Limited [50% stock])

1937 -- Duramold Aircraft Corporation

1938 -- Clark Corporation

1938 -- Fairchild Airplane Investments Corporation

1938 -- Duramold Aircraft Corporation

1938 -- Molded Aircraft Corporation (name change from Duramold Aircraft Corporation)

1938 -- Duramold Aircraft Corporation

1939 -- Ranger Corporation

1941 -- AL-FIN Corporation

1941 -- Stratos Corporation

1945 -- Fairchild Pilotless Planes Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1945 -- Fairchild Personal Planes Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1946 -- Fairchild – NEPA (nuclear powered aircraft engines) Division is formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1949 -- Fairchild Guided Missiles Division (name change from Fairchild Pilotless Planes Division)

1953 -- Fairchild Speed Control Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1953 -- Fairchild Aviation, (Holland) N.V.

1954 -- American Helicopter Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1954 -- Fairchild Kinetics Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1955 -- Fairchild Armalite Division formed by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation

1956 -- Fairchild Electronics Division (name change from American Helicopter Division)

1957 -- Jonco Aircraft Corporation

1958 -- Fairchild Arms International, Limited

1958 -- Fairchild Astronautics Division (name change from Fairchild Guided Missiles Division)

1958 -- Fairchild Aircraft and Missiles Division (name change from Fairchild Aircraft Division)

1958 -- International Aluminum Structures Incorporated

1960 -- Astrionics Division (name change from Electronics Systems Division)

1960 -- Aircraft Service Division

1961 -- Fairchild Stratos Corporation (operating division, subsidiaries and affiliates: Aircraft-Missile Division, Aircraft Service Division, Electronic Systems Division, Stratos Division, Fairchild Arms International Ltd, Fairchild Aviation (Holland) N.V., and Aerotest Laboratories, Inc.)

1962 -- Space System Division formed by Fairchild Stratos Corporation

1962 -- Data Systems Engineering formed by Fairchild Stratos Corporation

1964 -- Hiller Aircraft Company, Inc

1964 -- Fairchild Hiller Corporation (name change from Fairchild Stratos Corporation; division and subsidiaries: Aircraft Missiles Division, Aircraft Service Division, Electronic Systems Division, Data Systems Engineering, Space Systems Division, Stratos Division, Hiller Aircraft Company, Inc., Fairchild Aviation (Holland) N.V. and Fairchild Arms International, Inc.)

1965 -- Republic Aviation Corporation

1965 -- Republic Aviation Division

1965 -- Electronic and Information Systems Division (formed by combining Electronic Systems Division, Data Systems Engineering and similar disciplines from Republic Aviation Corporation)

1966 -- Burns Aero Seat Company, Incorporated

1966 -- Fairchild Hiller – FRG Corporation

1966 -- Aircraft Division (formed by combining Aircraft-Missiles Division and Hiller Aircraft Company, Inc.)

1966 -- Space and Electronics Systems Division (formed by combining Space Systems Division and Electronic and Information Systems Division)

1966 -- Industrial Products Division (forms from the Industrial Products Branch of Stratos Division)

1967 -- S.J. Industries, Inc.

1967 -- Air Carrier Engine Services, Inc.

1967 -- Fairchild Chemical Corporation

1967 -- EWR-Fairchild International

1968 -- Fairchild Aircraft Marketing Company

1968 -- FAIRMICCO

1969 -- Fairchild-Germantown Development Company, Incorporated

1970 -- Fairchild Aviation (Asia) Limited

1971 -- Fairchild Industries, Incorporated (name changes from Fairchild Hiller Corporation, division and subsidiaries: Fairchild Aircraft Marketing Company, Fairchild Aircraft Service Division, Fairchild Industrial Products Division, Fairchild Republic Division, Fairchild Space and Electronics Division, Fairchild Stratos Division, Burns Aero Seat Company, Incorporated, Fairchild Arms International, Ltd., Fairchild Aviation (Asia) Limited, Fairchild Aviation (Holland) N.V., Fairchild-Germantown Development Company, Incorporated and S.J. Industries, Inc.)

1971 -- Fairchild KLIF, Incorporated

1971 -- Swearingen Aviation Corporation

1972 -- American Satellite Corporation

1972 -- Fairchild Minnesota, Incorporated

1972 -- Fairchild International Sales Corporation

1979 -- Bunker Ramo Corporation [18.4% interest]

1980 -- American Satellite Company

1980 -- Space Communications Company (Spacecom) [25% interest]

1980 -- VSI Corporation

1980 -- Saab-Fairchild HB

1981 -- Fairchild Swearingen Corporation (name change from Swearingen Aviation Corporation)

1982 -- Fairchild Credit Corporation

1982 -- Fairchild Control Systems Company (name change from Fairchild Control Systems Company)

1983 -- Fairchild Space Company and Fairchild Communications and Electronics Company (formed from the Fairchild Space and Electronics Company)

1929 -- Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company, Incorporated [82% stock]
Fairchild, Hiller, Republic and Swearingen Aircraft documented in this collection:
Fairchild

Fairchild A 10 Thunderbolt

Fairchild YA 10 Thunderbolt II

Fairchild A 10A Thunderbolt II

Fairchild YA 10B Thunderbolt II (N/AW, Night/Adverse Weather)

Fairchild XAT 13 Yankee Doodle

Fairchild XAT 14 Gunner

Fairchild XAT 14A Gunner

Fairchild AT 21 Gunner

Fairchild XBQ 3

Fairchild XC 8

Fairchild C 8

Fairchild C 8A

Fairchild (American) Y1C 24 (C 24) Pilgrim

Fairchild XC 31 Pilgrim

Fairchild UC 61 Forwarder

Fairchild UC 61A Forwarder

Fairchild UC 61K Forwarder

Fairchild XC 82 Packet

Fairchild C 82A Packet

Fairchild UC 86

Fairchild UC 96

Fairchild C 119A (XC 82B) Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119B Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119C Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119F Flying Boxcar

Fairchild C 119G Flying Boxcar

Fairchild AC 119G Shadow Gunship

Fairchild YC 119H Skyvan

Fairchild C 119J Flying Boxcar

Fairchild YC 119K Flying Boxcar

Fairchild AC 119K Stinger Gunship

Fairchild C 119L Flying Boxcar

Fairchild XC 120 Packplane

Fairchild XC 123 Avitruc

Fairchild XC 123A Avitruc

Fairchild C 123B Provider

Fairchild (Stroukoff) YC 123E Provider (Pantobase)

Fairchild YC 123H Provider

Fairchild C 123J Provider

Fairchild C 123K Provider

Fairchild NC 123K (AC 123K) Provider

Fairchild UC 123K Provider

Fairchild VC 123K Provider

Fairchild (Stroukoff) YC 134A (BLC, Pantobase)

Fairchild YF 1 (F 1, C 8)

Fairchild F 27 Friendship

Fairchild F 27A Friendship (Fokker F.27 Series 200)

Fairchild F 27B Friendship (Fokker F.27 Series 300)

Fairchild F 27E Friendship

Fairchild F 27F Friendship

Fairchild F 27G Friendship

Fairchild F 27J Friendship

Fairchild F 27M Friendship

Fairchild F 27 (M 258) Military Configuration

Fairchild FH 227 Friendship

Fairchild FH 227B Friendship

Fairchild FH 227C Friendship

Fairchild FH 227D Friendship

Fairchild FH 227E Friendship

Fairchild F 47

Fairchild F 78 (M 82) Packet

Fairchild FB 3 (Special Flying Boat Monoplane)

Fairchild FC 1

Fairchild FC 2L

Fairchild FC 2W

Fairchild FC 2W, NASM

Fairchild FC 2W2

Fairchild FC 2W2 Stars and Stripes

Fairchild FC 2W2 City of New York

Fairchild GK 1

Fairchild JK 1

Fairchild J2K 1

Fairchild J2K 2

Fairchild XJQ 2 (XRQ 2, FC 2)

Fairchild KR 21 (Challenger C 6)

Fairchild KR 31 (Challenger C 2)

Fairchild KR 34 (Challenger C 4)

Fairchild M 62

Fairchild M 84

Fairchild M 186

Fairchild M 225

Fairchild M 253

Fairchild M 270D

Fairchild M 288

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro II

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro III

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro IV

Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro 23

Fairchild XNQ 1

Fairchild (American) Pilgrim 100

Fairchild (Pilatus) Porter (Heli Porter, Turbo Porter)

Fairchild PT 19

Fairchild PT 19A

Fairchild PT 19B

Fairchild PT 23

Fairchild PT 23A

Fairchild PT 26 Cornell

Fairchild XR2K 1 (F 22)

Fairchild R4Q 1 Packet

Fairchild SF 340

Fairchild T 46 NGT

Fairchild AU 23A Peacemaker (Armed Pilatus Turbo Porter)

Fairchild VZ 5 Fledgling (M 224 1)

Fairchild 21 (FT 1)

Fairchild 22

Fairchild 24

Fairchild 24R40

Fairchild 34 42 Niska

Fairchild 41

Fairchild 42

Fairchild 45 (F 45)

Fairchild 45 80 Sekani Floatplane

Fairchild 46

Fairchild 51

Fairchild 51A

Fairchild 71

Fairchild 71A

Fairchild 71B

Fairchild 71C

Fairchild 71CM

Fairchild Super 71

Fairchild 91 Baby Clipper (942, XA 942A, XA 942B)

Fairchild 125

Fairchild 135

Fairchild 140

Fairchild 150

Hiller

Hiller YOH 5 (YHO 5, Model 1100)

Hiller H 23A (Model UH 12A) Raven

Hiller H 23B (Model UH 12B, OH 23B) Raven

Hiller H 23C (OH 23C) Raven

Hiller H 23D (OH 23D) Raven

Hiller H 23F (Model 12E 4, OH 23F) Raven

Hiller YH 32 (Model HJ 1 Hornet)

Hiller YH 32A (Sally, 3 Seat)

Hiller Model XH 44

Hiller Copter

Hiller Model XH 44

Hiller Copter, NASM

Hiller Model HJ 1 (Model J 1) Hornet

Hiller HOE 1 (Model HJ 1 Hornet)

Hiller HTE 1 (Model UH 12A)

Hiller HTE 2 (Model UH 12B)

Hiller Model J 5

Hiller XROE 1 Rotorcycle

Hiller YROE 1 Rotorcycle

Hiller STORC (Self Ferrying Trans Ocean Rotary Wing Crane)

Hiller Model UH 4 Commuter

Hiller Model UH 5

Hiller Model UH 12 (Model 12) Family

Hiller Model UH 12E 4 (E 4)

Hiller Model UH 12L 4 (L 4, SL 4)

Hiller VZ 1 Pawnee (YHO 1E, Flying Platform)

Hiller Model X 2 235

Hiller X 18 Propelloplane

Hiller Model 360

Hiller Model Ten99

Hiller Model 1100 (FH 1100)

Republic

Republic (Sud) Alouette II

Republic AT 12

Republic EP 1

Republic XF 12 (R 12) Rainbow

Republic XF 84 (XP 84) Thunderjet

Republic YF 84A (YP 84A) Thunderjet

Republic F 84B (P 84B) Thunderjet

Republic F 84E Thunderjet

Republic YF 84F (YF 96A) Thunderstreak

Republic F 84F Thunderstreak

Republic YRF 84F Thunderflash

Republic RF 84F Thunderflash

Republic F 84G Thunderjet

Republic XF 84H Thunderjet

Republic XF 91 Thunderceptor

Republic XF 103

Republic YF 105B Thunderchief

Republic F 105B Thunderchief

Republic YP 43 Lancer

Republic P 43 Lancer

Republic XP 44 (AP 4J, AP 4L) Rocket (Warrior)

Republic P 47B Thunderbolt

Republic P 47C Thunderbolt

Republic P 47D (F 47D) Thunderbolt

Republic TP 47G Thunderbolt

Republic XP 47J Thunderbolt

Republic XP 47K Thunderbolt

Republic P 47M Thunderbolt

Republic P 47N (F 47N) Thunderbolt

Republic XP 72

Republic RC 2 Airliner

Republic RC 3 Seabee

Swearingen

Swearingen Excalibur (Modified Beech Twin Bonanza)

Swearingen Merlin I

Swearingen Merlin II

Swearingen Merlin IIA

Swearingen Merlin III

Swearingen Merlin IV
List of Artifacts:
Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co., Inc, 1925, corporate stamp

Dummy 30mm canon round (used on A-10)

Cork screw

Brief case with map holder detached

Bronze Plaque, William Preston Lane, Jr., 189 --1967, Attorney, Publisher, Governor of Maryland 1947 --1951, Director of Fairchild Hiller Corporation 1951 - 1966

Fairchild flag 1964-71
Provenance:
Fairchild Industries, gift, 1989, 1989-0060
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Financial records
Negatives
Photographs
Videotapes
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0060
See more items in:
Fairchild Industries, Inc. collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0060
Online Media:

Colonel Alexis B. McMullen Collection

Creator:
McMullen, Alexis B.  Search this
Names:
National Association of State Aviation Officials  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. Air Transport Command. North African Division  Search this
Cody, Mabel  Search this
McMullen, Alexis B.  Search this
Extent:
28.15 Cubic feet (25 records center boxes; 2 legal document boxes; 1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Maps
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Diaries
Correspondence
Date:
1915-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection spans A.B. McMullen's aviation career and interests, from his involvement in WWI until his death. This collection includes correspondence, both personal and business, reports/material from his aviation corporations/distributorships and stint as Director of Florida Aviation and career in the NASAO. Also included are photographs, articles and newspaper clippings of his career as a barnstormer and of his military career.
Biographical / Historical:
Colonel Alexis B. McMullen participated in American aviation activities at the local, state and national level over a period of some 50 years, as well as international activities during two world wars. A.B. McMullen learned to fly during WWI, and he became an Aerobatic Flight Instructor and Base Engineering Officer. After the war, he barnstormed with Mabel Cody and owned/operated flying schools, aviation corporations and distributorships. In 1933 he became Florida's first State Director of Aviation. Under his leadership in this position, 84 new airports and flight strips were constructed and the first comprehensive state aviation map was published. From 1936-1942 McMullen served as Chief, Airports Section Bureau of Air Division. During WWII he actively served as Deputy Commander North African Division of Air Transport Command (ATC), stationed in Morocco. After the war he established the Washington, D.C. Headquarters of the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO) which he continued to serve with until his retirement.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Sarah Ann Lindsey, gift, 1990, 1990-0060, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeroanutics -- Florida  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Maps
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Diaries
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0060
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0060

Monnett Experimental Aircraft, Inc. (MONI) Collection

Creator:
Monnett Experimental Aircraft Inc  Search this
Names:
Monnett Experimental Aircraft Inc  Search this
Monnett, John  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Receipts
Newsletters
Articles
Manuals
Drawings
Date:
1981
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: drawings; service bulletins; Installation Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Moni engine, 'KIM 107'; issues of the MONI Newsletters, 1988 - 1991, the Moni: The Newsletter of Monnett Experimental Aircraft, Inc.; HAPI Times: Newsletter for Sonerai, Monerai and Moni Builders; Monitor: Moni Technical and Operations Review 1989-1991; INAV Ltd. Ink 1985-1986; articles; packing lists, receipts, and news releases, and instruction manual.
Biographical / Historical:
The Moni was an Air Recreational Vehicle (ARV) which was a pure motor glider. Created by John Monnett, the Moni filled a gap between the pure sail plane and the next generation of powered hang gliders.
General:
A Monnett Moni is included in the National Air and Space Museum's collections.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Harold C. Weston, gift, 1992, 1992-0059, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautical sports  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Monnett Moni (homebuilt)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Receipts
Newsletters
Articles
Manuals
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0059

Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection

Creator:
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Names:
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
Florida Airways Corp  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service. 22nd Pursuit Group  Search this
United States. Department of Commerce. Aeronautics Branch  Search this
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Extent:
13.72 Cubic feet (31 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Financial records
Diaries
Drawings
Publications
Photographs
Videotapes
Date:
1910-1988
Summary:
This collection consists of the personal papers and memorabilia of Arthur Raymond Brooks. It includes photographs, correspondence, documents, and certificates relating to Brooks' aviation career, as well as personal correspondence, photographs, and diaries (1907-87).
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the personal papers of Arthur Raymond Brooks. These papers relate to his military career with the U.S. Army Air Service (1917-22), his years in both civilian government service and the private sector (1923-60), as well as a lifetime's involvement in numerous military, academic, aeronautical, and professional associations and organizations. Additionally, there are examples of correspondence and autographed photographs from such aerospace notables as Eddie Rickenbacker, Jimmy Doolittle, Billy Mitchell, Clayton Bissell, Reed Chambers, and Michael Collins.

The collection is arranged into two broad series. First, is the material relating to his professional life. This includes Brooks' official military documents (U.S. Army commission, discharge papers, etc.), correspondence, reports, photographs (mostly from his time spent as an Air Service officer in France and the U.S.), handbooks, manuals, brochures, programs, speeches, magazines, newsletters, newspaper clippings, and articles. The second series contains items pertaining mainly to his personal life. Included here are personal documents such as income tax receipts, last will and testament, correspondence, photographs (both largely from and of family and friends), diaries, biographical notes, transcripts from audio tape cassettes, logbooks, travel guides, and books. Miscellaneous materials retained by Brooks such as a commemorative medallion, prints, posters, publications, a stamp album, photograph albums, newspapers, and address books are also found in this series.

Brooks' papers are arranged both chronologically and alphabetically. Official military and personal documents, correspondence, reports, photographs, brochures, programs, newspaper clippings and articles, diaries and day timers, biographical notes, transcriptions, logbooks, travel guides, maps, atlases, timetables, and newspapers are organized by the former method. Handbooks, instructions, manuals, magazines, and newsletters are grouped alphabetically by title. The books are arranged alphabetically by author.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Professional material

1.1 Official military documents

1.2 Correspondence

1.3 Reports

1.4 Handbooks, instructions, and manuals

1.5 Photographs

1.6 Brochures

1.7 Programs

1.8 Magazines

1.9 Newsletters

1.10 Newspaper clippings and articles

Series 2: Personal materials

2.1 Personal documents

2.2 Correspondence

2.3 Diaries and day-timers

2.4 Photographs

2.5 Biographical notes

2.6 Transcripts

2.7 Logbooks

2.8 Travel guides, maps, atlases, and train/airline timetables

2.9 Books

2.10 Miscellaneous materials

2.11 Oversized materials

2.12 Posters, prints and maps

2.13 Newspapers and newspaper supplements
Biographical/Historical note:
Arthur Raymond Brooks (1895-1991) was a fighter pilot for the U.S. Army Air Service during World War I and later, a civil aviation pioneer. Born in Framingham, Massachusetts on November 1, 1895, Brooks graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1917 with a Bachelor of Science degree in electrochemical engineering. In July of that year, he enlisted in the Aviation Section of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. His flight training was provided by the Royal Flying Corps' School of Military Aeronautics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He was then sent for further flight training to Fort Worth, Texas where he flew with the 139th Squadron, 2nd Pursuit Group. In March 1918, Brooks left for France and completed pursuit training at the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center, American Expeditionary Force (AEF), at Issoudun. The 139th was placed at the Vaucouleurs Aerodrome, Toul sector, where the squadron was equipped with SPAD VII aircraft. Brooks was eventually made its flight commander. By early August, he was assigned as flight commander of the 22nd Aero Squadron, 2nd Pursuit Group. His new squadron was supplied with SPAD XIII pursuit craft. Altogether, he flew 120 missions in four different aircraft. He named each of the aircraft Smith in honor of his fiancée (Ruth Connery) who was attending Smith College in Massachusetts. The final plane he flew in combat, the Smith IV, is on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.

On July 29, 1918, Brooks achieved his first confirmed aerial victory by downing a German Fokker aircraft. Later, he destroyed two more Fokkers while flying over enemy lines on September 14. On that day, Brooks single-handedly engaged eight enemy aircraft in combat thus, earning him the Distinguished Service Cross. By the war's end, he had six confirmed kills to his credit.

Following the armistice of November 11, 1918, Brooks remained in France as the 22nd Squadron's commanding officer. His squadron was kept in reserve for possible German occupation duty. Upon his return to the United States in July 1919, Brooks was promoted to Captain. He decided to stay in the Air Service and was subsequently assigned as commanding officer for the 95th Pursuit Squadron, stationed at Kelly Field, Texas. From May 1920 to August 1921, he was put in charge of the 1st Pursuit Group at Ellington Field, Texas. Following that assignment, Brooks attended Air Service Field Officer's School, Langley Field, Virginia. After graduation, he stayed on duty at Langley Field until his resignation from the U.S. Army Air Service in December 1922. This action was spurred both by Brooks' frustration with being on the Army's stagnant promotion list and an interest in entering the private sector. During 1920-21, while in the service, he was involved in a failed Framingham-based commercial aviation business called the Brooks, Banks and Smith Corporation. Also in 1920, Brooks married Ruth. Their only child, Peter, was born in 1929.

Brooks' first job after his honorable discharge from the Air Service was as secretary for the National Automobile Association during 1923-24. During 1924-25, he worked in advertising sales for the financial magazine, United States Investor. Once again, his desire to be engaged in commercial aviation compelled him to become involved in establishing and organizing the Florida Airways Corporation from late 1925 into 1926. In time, Florida Airways became Eastern Airways. Brooks left this financially struggling enterprise and joined the Department of Commerce's Aeronautics Branch in August 1926. For the next seventeen months, he worked as an airway extension superintendent and associate airways engineer. His main task with the Aeronautics Branch was to survey air routes and supervise the installation of beacons to assist air mail pilots navigate the Appalachian Mountains from Virginia to Pennsylvania. He left government service in early 1928 and was hired by Bell Telephone Laboratories. He spent the next few decades working as a scientist, engineer and chief pilot for the company at Hadley Field, New Jersey. There, Brooks and his staff conducted pioneering research on ground-to-air radiotelephone communications and electronic aviation navigation equipment. During much of this period, he piloted a Fairchild FC2-W Wasp and a Ford Tri-Motor that operated as flying laboratories for the team's communications research. He was Bell's publications manager for New Jersey operations at the time of his retirement in 1960.

Brooks stayed active in aviation for the remainder of his life. Even in his nineties, he enjoyed flying all sorts of aircraft, including ultralights, gliders and hot-air balloons. He belonged to many aviation-related and professional associations and organizations such as the American Legion, Military Order of the World Wars, Combat Pilots Association, Order of Daedalians, OX-5 Aviation Pioneers Association, Telephone Pioneers of America, Cross and Cockade, Associate Fellow of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Quiet Birdmen, WWI Overseas Flyers and the American Fighter Aces Association. Brooks also remained involved with the alumni affairs of his alma mater – MIT. He attended numerous air shows and reunions, including the sixty-fifth, and final reunion, held for the Lafayette Flying Corps in Paris, France in 1983. In 1980, he was inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame of New Jersey. Brooks lived long enough to see his Smith IV restored by the National Air and Space Museum during the 1980s. Brooks, the last surviving American World War I ace, died in Summit, New Jersey, on July 17, 1991.
General note:
Other materials: medals and memorabilia transferred to NASM Aeronautics Division.
Provenance:
A. Raymond Brooks, Gift, 1989, NASM.1989.0104
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Fighter pilots  Search this
Works of art  Search this
SPAD XIII (S.13) "Smith IV"  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Financial records
Diaries
Drawings
Publications
Photographs
Videotapes
Citation:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection, NASM.1989.0104, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0104
See more items in:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0104
Online Media:

S. Fred Singer Papers

Creator:
Singer, S. Fred (Siegfried Fred), 1924-  Search this
Names:
National Environmental Satellite Center (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Department of Commerce  Search this
United States. Department of Transportation  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
United States. Office of Naval Research  Search this
University of Maryland at College Park  Search this
University of Miami. School of Environmental and Planetary Science  Search this
University of Virginia  Search this
Singer, S. Fred (Siegfried Fred), 1924-  Search this
Extent:
54.5 Cubic feet ((50 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Financial records
Notes
Correspondence
Place:
Outer space -- Exploration -- United States
Outer space -- Exploration
Date:
1953-1989
bulk 1960-1980
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Singer's personal papers. The material consists of correspondence and research files, as well as financial records. The collection covers Singer's career beginning with his tenure at Maryland and continued through his retirement in 1989.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Siegfried Fred Singer (1924- ) is a professor, physicist, and administrator. Singer emigrated to the United States from Vienna in 1940 (naturalized 1944) and attended Ohio State University (BEE 1943; D.Sc. (honorary) 1970) and Princeton (AM 1944, Ph.D. (physics) 1948). He taught briefly as a doctoral candidate at Princeton (1943-44) before joining the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory as a physicist (1946-50). He acted as the Office of Naval Research Scientific Liaison Officer at the US Embassy in London (1950-53), then joined the faculty of the University of Maryland (assoc. professor, physics 1953-59; professor 1959-62). He continued to alternate between public and academic positions, working at the National Weather Satellite Center, Department of Commerce (Director, 1962-64); School of Environmental and Planetary Science, University of Miami (Dean, 1964-67); Department of the Interior (Deputy Assistant Secretary for Water Quality and Research, 1967-70); University of Virginia (Professor, Environmental Science, 1971-87); and the Department of Transportation (Chief Scientist, 1987-89). Singer authored a number of papers and articles on astrophysics, space exploration, and environmental issues and was involved in formulating public policies on these topics.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
S. Fred Singer, gift, 1989, 1989-0130, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astrophysics  Search this
Environmental sciences  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Astronautics and state  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Financial records
Notes
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0130
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0130

Bendix Air Races Collection

Creator:
Bendix Corporation.  Search this
Bendix Aviation Corp  Search this
Names:
All-Women Trans-Continental Air Race  Search this
Bendix Air Races  Search this
First Annual Aircraft Show (Cleveland, 1946)  Search this
Gordon Bennett Balloon Race  Search this
Intercollegiate Air Meet  Search this
Medallic Art Company  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. John F. Kennedy Space Center  Search this
National Air Races  Search this
National Intercollegiate Flying Association  Search this
National Soaring Contest  Search this
Soaring Society of America  Search this
Cochran, Jacqueline  Search this
Doolittle, James Harold, 1896-1993  Search this
Mantz, Paul  Search this
Stewart, James  Search this
Thaden, Iris Louise McPhetridge  Search this
Extent:
7.28 Cubic feet (5 records center boxes, 1 16 x 20 x 3 inch flatbox, 1 12 x 16 x 3 inch flatbox)
7.66 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Audiotapes
Telegrams
Ephemera
Date:
1931-1985
bulk 1931-1939
bulk 1946-1962
Summary:
The Bendix Corporation (1924-1983), manufacturers of devices for the automotive and aviation industries, sponsored the Bendix Trophy Race—a transcontinental speed competition for aircraft—annually from 1931-1939, then sporadically from 1946-1962. This collection includes race-related materials from the Bendix Advertising and Publicity department, along with materials from other aviation events for which Bendix was a sponsor. Approximately a third of the collection relates to the corporation's activities from circa 1960 to 1983, including military and commercial avionics and communications systems, and support for the Unites States space program, particularly the construction of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 39.
Scope and Contents:
This collection centers on the activities of the Bendix Advertising and Publicity department (later Advertising and Public Relations), for many years directed by William A. Mara (later Eldon E. Fox) and assisted by the New York public relations firm Carl Byoir and Associates, Inc. Materials include correspondence, telegrams, documents, brochures, press releases, photographs, and black and white and color negatives and transparencies. As the Bendix Trophy Races were closely associated with the National Air Races, the collection includes race programs, schedules, entry forms, and related air racing ephemera, as well as a number of photographs by Robert E. Burke and Associates, for many years the official photographer of the National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio. Similar materials relate to the National Soaring Contest held in Elmira, New York (1935-1946), and the All Woman Transcontinental Air Race (1956-1962) for which Bendix was a sponsor, various National Aircraft Shows and National Aviation Shows, and Bendix's membership in the Aircraft Industries Association of America (AIAA). The collection also includes materials relating to the design and production of the Vincent Bendix Trophy and related replicas and engraved plaques by the Medallic Art Company (New York, NY) and plaster models and plaques by The Potter-Bentley Studios, Inc. (Cleveland, Ohio). Also included are photographs and two sets of 11 audio cassette tape recordings each of interviews made as part of the 1985 program "The Golden Years," and photographs taken at the related October 30, 1985, event at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. The later third of the collection relates to Bendix's activities circa 1960-1985, with documents and photographs relating to the construction of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 39, followed by a small amount of assorted advertising ephemera for various Bendix electronic products and services.
Arrangement:
The materials are arranged in the original physical order as received from the donor, and have been grouped into four series. Folders within a series generally run in chronological order, although the last series contains an assortment of materials many of which would be more logically placed in earlier series. Folders of correspondence are generally arranged in reverse chronological order within the folder. Many of the photographs appearing in Series 2 (Bendix Trophy Races, By Year) can be found duplicated elsewhere in the collection. Boxes 6 and 7 both contain oversized materials.
Biographical / Historical:
The Bendix Corporation, founded in 1924 by inventor Victor Bendix, began as a manufacturer of devices for use in the automotive industry, initially of engine-related items such as starting motors and carburetors, but soon expanding to brakes and hydraulic systems. In 1929, renamed as Bendix Aviation, the corporation branched out into the design and manufacture of equipment for the closely related aeronautics industry, including aircraft hydraulics for brake and flap systems, aircraft engine carburetors, and various electric and electronic instruments. In 1931, Bendix decided to sponsor the first Bendix Trophy Race—a transcontinental speed competition open to all comers, male or female—"to encourage experimental developments by airplane designers and to improve the skills of aviators in cross-country flying techniques such as weather plotting, high altitude and instrument flight." The Bendix Trophy Races were held in conjunction with the National Air Races, occurring with great fanfare annually from 1931-1939, but were suspended from 1940-1945 during World War II. In 1946, the races resumed, but now had to contend with the invention of the jet engine—accordingly, the Bendix Trophy Race was split into two categories: the "R" Division for reciprocating engine airplanes, and the "J" Division for U.S. military jet airplanes. Interest in air racing had declined in the post-war period, and no race was run in 1950. In 1951 the races resumed, and from this point on were limited to U.S. military jets only. Subsequent Bendix Trophy Races occurred in 1953-1957, and then (after a three-year gap) in 1961, with the last race held in 1962.

By this point in time, the Bendix Corporation—which had branched out to dominate the US market in aircraft radio and radar equipment during World War II—was producing missile and radar systems for the US military. In the 1960s Bendix was also building ground and airbourne telecommunications and telemetry systems for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Bendix Field Engineering division worked on the construction of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 39 at the Merritt Island Launch Area (MILA) adjacent to Cape Canaveral, Florida, including the Apollo Launch Control Center, Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), and operational support equipment. In the 1970s, Bendix and its numerous Divisions were involved in a series of mergers, sales, and other changes involving the Raytheon and Allied (later Allied-Signal Aerospace) corporations, followed by a hostile takeover attempt in 1982 by Martin Marietta. In 1983, Bendix was acquired by Allied-Signal Aerospace (later Honeywell International) which retained the avionics part of the business.

The original Vincent Bendix Trophy was donated to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in 1985 [artifact number A19850368000]. On October 30, 1985, an event sponsored by Bendix/Allied-Signal was held at the museum in Washington, D.C., honoring aviators involved in the Bendix Trophy Races. Titled "The Golden Years," the program included interviews with several winners of the Bendix Trophy.
Provenance:
Allied-Signal Aerospace Corp, gift, 1988, NASM.1988.0115
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Mercury Project  Search this
Gemini Project  Search this
Apollo Project  Search this
Project Apollo (U.S.)  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Trophies  Search this
Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle  Search this
Radar air traffic control systems  Search this
Avionics  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
McDonnell F-4 (F4H) Phantom II Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Audiotapes
Telegrams
Ephemera
Citation:
Bendix Air Races Collection, Acc. NASM.1988.0115, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1988.0115
See more items in:
Bendix Air Races Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1988-0115
Online Media:

Airborne Radar Technical Archives

Creator:
Szewczyk, Zdzislaw I.  Search this
Names:
General Motors Corporation  Search this
Szewczyk, Zdzislaw I.  Search this
Extent:
25.42 Cubic feet ((25 legal document boxes) (13 records center boxes) (3 flatboxes))
24.02 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Notebooks
Date:
1941-1974
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material documenting the development of airborne radar and related avionics assembled by Zdzislaw I. Szewczyk, an engineer with the General Motors Company. The material consists of a 35-volume catalog of ready reference information on radar hardware, arranged by country and manufacturer. Catalog entries refer to specific supporting documents that comprise the remainder of the collection. The remaining material consists of technical manuals, books, periodicals, and technical pamphlets, as well as radar hardware which has been accessioned separately into the National Air and Space Museum artifact collection. In September 1999, an additional notebook and four books were donated and added to this collection.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Zdzislaw I. Szewczyk, gift, 1986, 1986-0121, Not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Avionics  Search this
Radar in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Notebooks
Identifier:
NASM.1986.0121
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1986-0121

Donald G. Cathcart Ballooning Collection

Creator:
Cathcart, Donald Guthrie, 1889-  Search this
Names:
National Association of American Balloon Corps Veterans  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service. Army Balloon School -- Fort Omaha, Neb.  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service. Army Balloon School -- Ross Field, Cal.  Search this
Wingfoot Lighter-Than-Air Society  Search this
Cathcart, Donald Guthrie, 1889-  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1932-1965
bulk 1932-1951
Summary:
This collection consists of the following: photographs of Donald Cathcart during training at the Army Balloon schools at Arcadia, California (Ross Field) and at Ft. Omaha, Nebraska; miscellaneous material on the National Association of American Balloon Corps Veterans (NAABCV) including copies of "Haul Down & Ease Off", the official publication of the NAABCV, membership lists; and several copies of the "Wingfoot Lighter than Air Society Bulletin".
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: photographs of Donald Cathcart during training at the Army Balloon schools at Arcadia, CA (Ross Field) and at Ft. Omaha, NE; miscellaneous material on the NAABCV including copies of Haul Down & Ease Off, the official publication of the National Association of American Balloon Corps Veterans (NAABCV) and membership lists; and several copies of the Wingfoot Lighter than Air Society Bulletin.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Donald G. Cathcart Ballooning Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Guthrie Cathcart [1889-1973] reported to the United States Army Balloon School in 1917. He was a free balloon pilot, an aerial observer, and flight instructor before his honorable discharge in 1920. Cathcart served at both Ross Field, Arcadia, California, and Fort Omaha, Nebraska. He was also a member of National Association of American Balloon Corps Veterans (NAABCV) and the Wingfoot Lighter than Air Society.
Provenance:
Donald G. Cathcart, gift, 1964-1965, XXXX-0344, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Donald G. Cathcart Ballooning Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0344, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0344
See more items in:
Donald G. Cathcart Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0344
Online Media:

Edgar S. Gorrell Collection

Creator:
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Names:
Air Transport Association of America  Search this
United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces  Search this
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Extent:
3.95 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Date:
1893-1943
Summary:
This collection contains documents relating mainly to Gorrell's activities as president of the Air Transportation Association of America. The materials include copies of Gorrell's addresses and Congressional testimony, as well as press clippings concerning Gorrell's activities. The collection also includes albums of World War I vintage photographs collected by or presented to Gorrell.
Scope and Contents:
The Edgar S. Gorrell Collection is largely comprised of material relating to Gorrell's career as president of the Air Transport Association of America. The material includes his correspondence and speeches, the Congressional hearings and reports for the bills he advocated, and publications and newspaper articles about him and his career. Also in the collection are several photographs and photograph albums from World War I and other miscellaneous material.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Arranged into two series:

Series 1: GENERAL. This series contains correspondence, addresses delivered by E.S. Gorrell, and publications and newspaper articles, some written by Gorrell. There are also Congressional hearings and reports, and some miscellaneous material. The documents are arranged in chronological order.

Series 2: PHOTOGRAPHS/ALBUMS. This series contains photographs and photo albums. Many of these are aerial photographs of trenches taken c. 1916 --1918, but there are also many photographs of aerial and land transport equipment.
Biographical/Historical note:
Colonel Edgar S. Gorrell (1891-1945) was a pilot and an advocate for aviation safety. He graduated from West Point in 1912 and then spent two years as an infantryman in Alaska before transferring to the Signal Corps, where he joined the 1st Aero Squadron, serving under Gen. John J. Pershing in Mexico. On one of his flying missions in Mexico, Gorrell ran out of gas and was stranded in the desert for several days before being rescued. Upon returning to his unit, he began to criticize the poor equipment US pilots were forced to use, both in terms of actual aircraft components and the signals and communication equipment used on land. In 1917 he was promoted to Captain, and in World War I he became the Chief Engineering Officer for the Air Service, and eventually the Chief of Staff for the Air Service, with the rank of Colonel. After the war, Gorrell remained in Europe representing the US at conferences and peace talks.

In March 1920, he resigned his commission in the Army and joined the automobile business. He served as the vice president of Marmon Motor Car Company until 1925. Then he became vice president, director, and general manager, and later president, of the Stutz Motor Car company of America. In January 1936, Gorrell again switched fields when he was elected the first president of the Air Transport Association of America, shortly after its conception. It was with this organization that he was known for his role in promoting safety in civil aeronautics. He was a strong advocate for the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 which provided government control and regulation of civil aeronautics, and he provided testimony before congressional committees several times. Gorrell continued to support civil aeronautics, especially through his role as president of the Air Transport Association of America, until his death, in 1945.
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, unknown, XXXX-0057
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Citation:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection, Acc. XXXX-0057, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0057
See more items in:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0057
Online Media:

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