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[Trade catalogs from Ashland Electric Products, Inc.]

Company Name:
Ashland Electric Products, Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
custom motors ; fans and blowers ; hysteresis synchronous motors ; reluctance synchronous motors ; torque motors ; induction motors ; axial flow fans ; miniature axial flow fans ; gear motors ; centrifugal blowers ; rack mounted blowers...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Long Island City, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Aviation (aircraft; balloons; etc.)  Search this
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Computers  Search this
Engines  Search this
Motors  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_34773
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_34773

[Trade catalogs from Atlantic India Rubber Company]

Company Name:
Atlantic India Rubber Company  Search this
Notes content:
sheet and sponge rubber ; vacuum lifters ; table and lathe ; molded parts : military standard grommets ; grommets ; grommet bumpers ; stem bumpers ; screw bumpers ; tack bumpers ; motor mounts ; recessed bumpers ; bumper pads ; bottle corks ; laboratory stoppers ; bumpers ; tips ; knobs ; caps ; suction and vacuum cups ; bushings ; washers ; balls ; cord rings ; belts ; extruded parts ; u-channels ; c-channels ; h-channels ; l-strips ; t strips ; p strips ; e strips ; weatherstrips and bumpers ; solid bumpers ; tubing and cord ; locking channels...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Physical description:
3 pieces
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Automobiles and automotive equipment (including trucks and buses)  Search this
Aviation (aircraft; balloons; etc.)  Search this
Laboratories and laboratory supplies and equipment  Search this
Military equipment and supplies (including uniforms)  Search this
Plastics and rubber  Search this
Topic:
"Laboratories -- Furniture, equipment, etc."  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Armed Forces -- Equipment  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Military supplies  Search this
Military uniforms  Search this
Motor vehicles  Search this
Plastics industry and trade  Search this
Rubber industry and trade  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_34775
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_34775

[Trade catalogs from Automatic Switch Co.]

Company Name:
Automatic Switch Co.  Search this
Related companies:
ASCO  Search this
Notes content:
Contactors, relays, remote control switches, automatic transfer switches, two-way direct acting solenoid valves. 1970 & 1983 catalogs ; two way solenoid valves ; three way solenoid valves ; four way solenoid valves ; manual reset two, three, and four way solenoid valves ; special purpose valves ; combustion valves for fuel gas and fuel oil service ; air operated two, three, and four way valves ; check valves ; flow control valves ; quick exhaust valves ; shuttle valves ; shut-off valves ; strainers ; mini-proximity sensors ; air switches ; electric switches ; AC solenoids ; manually reset valves ; electrically reset valves...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Physical description:
97 pieces; 3 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Florham Park, New Jersey, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Automobiles and automotive equipment (including trucks and buses)  Search this
Aviation (aircraft; balloons; etc.)  Search this
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Fuel (includes oil; petroleum; gas; coal; etc.)  Search this
Hardware and hand tools  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Coal  Search this
Engines  Search this
Fuel  Search this
Hardware  Search this
Motor vehicles  Search this
Motors  Search this
Petroleum  Search this
Tools  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_34781
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_34781

[Trade catalogs from BEI Sensors & Motion Systems Company]

Company Name:
BEI Sensors & Motion Systems Company  Search this
Related companies:
BEI Motion Systems Co. ; Industrial Encoder Div.  Search this
Notes content:
Brushless DC motors and voice coil actuators ; absolute shaft angle optical encoders ; incremental shaft angle optical encoders ; optical encoders ; precision potentiometers ; pressure sensors ; brushless omtors ; actuators ; accelerometers ; solid state gyros ; vibration meters...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
5 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Carlsbad, California, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Aviation (aircraft; balloons; etc.)  Search this
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Electrical apparatus and equipment  Search this
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Computers  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Engines  Search this
Motors  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_34791
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_34791

Les Appareils SPAD Construits par Blériot Aéronautique Sales Brochure

Creator:
Bleriot  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Brochures
Date:
1919
Summary:
This collection consists of a sales brochure that features information on Blériot Aéronautique and SPAD aircraft and includes four multi color lithograph illustrations.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of an eight page sales brochure, 11.5 x 9 inch, bound with white cord at center fold and printed on light beige heavy weight paper. The brochure features information, in French, on Blériot Aéronautique and SPAD aircraft in general and on the following specific models: SPAD S.30; SPAD XV (S.15); SPAD S.29; and SPAD S.27. The brochure also features a multi color lithograph illustration, 7 x 5.6 inches, for each model listed above.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
The original SPAD aircraft manufacturing company was formed by Armand Deperdussin in 1910. The acronym SPAD was derived from the company's formal name, Société pour les Appareils Deperdussin. SPAD was taken over in 1914 by the famous aviation pioneer, Louis Blériot, when the firm was experiencing serious financial difficulties. Blériot renamed the company Société pour l'Aviation et ses Dérives, thus retaining the same acronym.
Provenance:
Unknown, Unknown, Unknown, NASM.XXXX.0891
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
SPAD Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures
Citation:
Les Appareils SPAD Construits par Blériot Aéronautique Sales Brochure, NASM.XXXX.0891, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0891
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0891
Online Media:

Exhibition Flight Collection

Topic:
Exhibition Flight. 1973
Creator:
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
1.04 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1911-1973
bulk 1911-1940
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the research material used by curators Robert Mikesh and Claudia Oakes to prepare Exhibition Flight (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1973), a companion volume to the Exhibition Flight exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Claudia M. Oakes, Transfer from National Air and Space Museum Aeronautics Department, XXXX-0423
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Stunt flying  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0423
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0423

United States Navy World War II Aircraft Recognition Model Plans

Creator:
United States. Navy  Search this
Names:
United States. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare  Search this
United States. Navy  Search this
United States. Navy. Bureau of Aeronautics [BuAer]  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pamphlets
Drawings
Date:
1942
Scope and Contents:
This collection consisits of the complete set of the Navy WWII model drawings and a booklet explaining the project.
Biographical / Historical:
Accurate scale model aircraft have often been helpful in training recognition of aircraft, range estimation and determination of cones of fire. In December 1941, the Secretary of the Navy asked the US Commissioner of Education for the schools to make 500,000 scale model airplanes. This alliance resulted in a joint project between the US Navy, Bureau of Aeronautics, who supplied the authoritative drawings and plans, and the US Office of Education, who perepared educational and informational material.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Paul E. Garber, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0438, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes -- Recognition  Search this
Airplanes -- Models  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics and state -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics -- History  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pamphlets
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0438
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0438

Wright Model B Modified Flyer

Creator:
Fairmont East High School, Kettering, Ohio  Search this
Fairmont West High School, Kettering, Ohio  Search this
Names:
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
0.22 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1976
Scope and Contents:
There are 73 drawings including a 3 view assembly, front view, side view, top view and tail section as well as 22 drawings of wing details (including engine mounts, seats, etc.); 6 drawings of tail details; 7 drawings of horizontal stabilizer and bellcrank details; 5 drawings of rudder details; 8 drawings of landing gear, 2 drawings of front skid assembly; 13 drawings of control assembly; 4 drawings of radiator details and one drawing of the fuel tank.
Biographical / Historical:
The Wright Model B was a one-man machine built by Wilbur and Orville Wright to be used for exhibition work. With a maximum length of 31 feet, maximum breadth of 39 feet and supporting surface of 500 square feet, its total weight was 1250 lbs. including aviator and passenger. The Model B's motor was a 30-35 h.p. 4 cylinder one. This set of drawings was a bicentennial project done in 1976 by members of the drafting departments of Fairmont East and Fairmont West High Schools in Kettering, Ohio.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0460, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Wright (Co) Model B  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0460
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0460

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Names:
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Extent:
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1891-1914
bulk 1891-1900
Summary:
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Provenance:
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494
Online Media:

Richard E. Schreder Papers and Drawings

Creator:
Schreder, Richard E. "Dick"  Search this
Extent:
11.67 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Logs (records)
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
bulk 1930-2000
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of eleven cubic feet of archival material chronicling the aviation career of Richard E. Schreder. Included are the following types of material: 95 drawings of Schreder's kit designs; logbooks; correspondence; photographs; awards; military paperwork; and Schreder interview tapes with CD copies.;
Biographical / Historical:
Richard E. Schreder (1915-2002) was a naval aviator and American sailplane enthusiast who designed and developed kit sailplanes. Schreder built his first powered aircraft, a single seat aircraft with a Henderson motorcycle engine, at age 19. He received a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering form the University of Toledo in 1938 and he then joined the US Navy as a Naval Aviation Cadet. Schreder served in the Navy until 1952, rising to the rank of Commander. He won the Distinguished Flying Cross for the sinking of a German U-boat during World War II. After leaving the Navy, Schreder founded a successful drafting supplies business in Toledo Ohio, and continued experimenting with small aircraft. He designed an all-metal low-wing single-seater called the Airmate 5, which won the Experimental Aircraft Association's (EAA) best workmanship award in 1954. Soon after however, Schreder became fascinated with soaring. He bought a Bowlus Baby Albatross and a Schweizer 1-23D before building his own sailplane designs. In 1956 Schreder built the HP-7 which he flew to a four-place finish in that year's US National Championship contest. Schreder's next design, the HP-8 won the 1958 US Nationals and established speed records in the 100, 200, and 300 km courses. Schreder's first attempt at developing a glider specifically for kit manufacture was the HP-10. That design was followed by the HP-11, HP-14, HP-15, HP-16, RS-15, HP-17, HP-18, HP-19, HP-20, HP-21 and HP-22. The aircraft were so successful the Schreder set up a company, Bryan Aircraft Inc., in 1966 to market the plans and kits, eventually selling more than 470 kits. Schreder won three US national sailplane contests (1958, 1960,1966) in sailplanes he designed and represented the United States at four international sailing contests. Due to Schreder's contribution to soaring, both in design and piloting skill, he was elected to the Soaring Society of American Hall of Fame in 1962.
Provenance:
Carol Schreder and Karen Schreder Barbera, Gift, 2008
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautical sports  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Schreder HP-7 Sailplane  Search this
Schreder HP-10 Sailplane  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Logs (records)
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Richard E. Schreder Papers and Drawings, 2008-0038, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0038
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0038

General Electric GE4 Super-Sonic Transport (SST) Engine Collection

Creator:
General Electric Company  Search this
Extent:
0.18 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Reports
Date:
bulk 1963-1971
Scope and Contents:
Materials in this collection relating to the General Electric GE4 SST engine include the following: Master Engine Cross-section, GE4 Tool Flow Sheet, documents relating to production and assembly of the GE4, documents relating to the National Air and Space Museum's acquisition of the GE4 SST engine, miscellaneous draft correspondence concerning the GE4 and other General Electric projects, a drawing of the GE4 Experimental Bypass Engine, a drawing of GE Lift-Cruise Fan, three drawings of cruise fan engine installation, and Generalized Field Balance Procedure for Jet Engines. Also included is a drawing of a General Electric scramjet engine.
Biographical / Historical:
The United States' Supersonic Transport (SST) program was initiated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1963. The program aimed for a Mach 2+ aircraft capable of carrying approximately 300 passengers with intercontinental range. The US aimed to outstrip the British Aerospace/Aerospatiale Concorde and Soviet Tu-144 programs through the use of advanced technology and materials. By the late 1960s contracts had been let to prime contractors Boeing (airframe) and General Electric (engines) but the program was four to five years behind the European and Soviet efforts, which had graduated to supersonic flight testing while the US program had yet to pass beyond the mockup stage. In 1971 the slow pace of technical development, environmental concerns, high costs, and questions over the commercial feasibility of the aircraft led Congress to cancel the program.
Provenance:
William L. Rowe, Gift, 2005
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Supersonic transport planes  Search this
High-speed aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
General Electric GE4 SST  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Reports
Citation:
General Electric GE4 Super-Sonic Transport (SST) Engine Collection, Accession number 2005-0049 National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2005.0049
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2005-0049

Peter W. Westburg Drawings

Topic:
Century illustrated monthly magazine
Creator:
Westburg, Peter W., 1914-1984  Search this
Names:
Westburg, Peter W., 1914-1984  Search this
Extent:
2.2 Cubic feet ((1 map case drawer))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1970-1981
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Westburg's original drawings. The material consists of 105 ink-on-mylar detail drawings of 37 aircraft from the 1920s and 1930s. Westburg executed all these drawings between April 1970 and February 1981.
Biographical / Historical:
Peter W. Westburg (1914-1984) was raised in Michigan City, Indiana, and relocated to Santa Monica, California, just before World War II to work for Douglas Aircraft Company. As a lifelong aeronautical engineer for Douglas he held several patents, including a flap mechanism for the DC-8. Westburg is perhaps best known for his superbly accurate and detailed scale view drawings of many military and civil aircraft from the 1930s. Working closely with Westburg, MODEL BUILDER magazine published all of his drawings, each accompanied by photographs and brief histories of the aircraft. After Westburg's death in 1984 the National Air and Space Museum authorized Paul L. Smith, an associate of Westburg's, to undertake a fundraising effort to purchase the Westburg drawings for the archives.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Madeline Westburg, Purchase, 1986, 1987-0001, Madeline Westburg until her death; then NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Models  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0001
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0001

Isidor B. Laskowitz Collection

Creator:
Laskowitz, Isidor B.  Search this
Extent:
0.68 Cubic feet ((2 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Drawings
Correspondence
Maps
Photographs
Date:
bulk 1932-1982
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains numerous drawings by Isidor B. Laskowitz; patents obtained by Laskowitz; photographs relating to Laskowitz's design and testing work; and many articles and publications by Laskowitz. There is also correspondence relating to a lawsuit between Laskowitz and the United States. Also in this collection are three maps. One is a route map showing the way from Cheyenne, Wyoming to Salt Lake City, Utah, including a listing of landmarks. The second is a U.S. Navy Aviation Chart showing the route from Hampton, Virginia to Morehead City, North Carolina. The third route map details the way between York County, Pennsylvania and Niagara County, New York. This map includes handwritten notations.
Biographical / Historical:
Isidor B. Laskowitz was an engineer and designer who was a pioneer in the field of helicopters and vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. In 1925, he founded the Laskowitz Helicopter Company, Inc. Laskowitz held numerous patents for helicopter and VTOL components and wrote numerous articles and other publications in this area. Laskowitz was a member and fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and, in 1962, established the I. B. Laskowitz Gold Medal Award for Research in Aerospace Engineering Sciences.
Provenance:
Isidor B. Laskowitz, Gift, 1982
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Helicopters  Search this
Vertically rising aircraft  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Drawings
Correspondence
Maps
Photographs
Citation:
Isidor B. Laskowitz Collection, Accession XXXX-1118, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1118
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1118

Aeromarine Model 39 Drawings

Creator:
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co.  Search this
Names:
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co.  Search this
United States. Navy  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet ((2 drawers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1916-1917
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of various sized autopositive drawings of the Aeromarine Model 39.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1917, the Navy placed an order with the Aeromarine Plane and Motor Company for 50 Model 39-A and 150 Model 39-B trainers. They were conventional two-bay wood and fabric biplanes and could be fitted with either wheels or floats. On October 22, 1922, an Aeromarine 39-B made the first landing on an aircraft carrier, the USS Langley.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Unknown, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeromarine 39 Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0505
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0505

Adlershof R-Plane Drawings

Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet ((1 oversized folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
[ca. 1918]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ten linen drawings and two microfilm drawings of the Adlershof R-Planes. Six of the drawings depict a twin fuselage configuration. The drawings originated at Adlershof, Germany, but there is no other information on these drawings.
Biographical / Historical:
The R-planes of World War I were German giant bombers - the largest aircraft of World War I. The 'R' was an abbreviation for 'Riesenflugzeug,' which meant 'giant aircraft.' The R-plane was conceived as a long-range strategic weapon for attacking objectives deep within enemy territory. The aircraft were only produced in small numbers.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Unknown, possibly USAF Museum, unknown, XXXX-0541, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Zeppelin-Staaken R-Plane Projects  Search this
Siemens-Schuckert Steffen R-Planes  Search this
Adlershof R-plane projects  Search this
Riesenflugzeug  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aircraft drafting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0541
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0541

United States Air Force Aircraft Engineering Drawings (Microfilm)

Creator:
United States. Air Force. Engineering Drawing Section  Search this
Names:
United States. Air Force. Engineering Drawing Section  Search this
United States. Navy  Search this
Extent:
? Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Microfilms
Date:
[ca. 1910s-1940s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 8000 reels of 35 mm microfilm engineering drawings of aircraft and engines from the early years through World War II. The microfilm contains engineering drawings, reports, and standards covering aircraft, engines, and other equipment used by the USAF and its predecessors. The original documents filmed were in a variety of media, in some case the original drawing was filmed, in others a blueprint or other duplicate was filmed instead of the original. Because of the variation in the quality of the original document and variations in the quality of the filming process, the quality of the filmed image varies considerably throughtout the collection
Biographical / Historical:
The United States Air Force (USAF) Engineering Drawing Section was established in 1917 to maintain and reproduce engineering data for the USAF. The Drawing Collection was originally developed by the USAF for two major functions: to create a historical record of the equipment operated by the USAF and its predecessors and to provide engineering drawings of current equipment for maintenance operation centers requiring such information. Engineering drawings of then-current equipment and extant engineering drawings for obsolete equipment were microfilmed either by the USAF, by vendors under contract to the USAF, or by the manufactures. Additional microfilm created by or for the United States Navy (USN) covering some aircraft also operated by the USAF were added to the collection.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
United States Air Force Museum, Gift, mid-1980s, XXXX-0521, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Airplanes, Military  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Microfilms
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0521
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0521

Lawrance Aero-Engine Corporation Collection

Creator:
Lawrance Aero-Engine Corporation  Search this
Names:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
Lawrance Engineering and Research Corp  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Lawrance, Charles Lanier, 1882-  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
[ca. 1910s-1920s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the following: documentation pertaining to the production and endurance test results of the J-1 Engine; engineering data for the Model Z-5 and the Model B engine; five engineering drawings for various parts; photographs;correspondence; price listings; lists of engines by serial number; service notes; calculations; and an obituary on C.L. Lawrance.
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrance Engines was established by Charles L. Lawrance in the late 1910s. Lawrance built the first air cooled radial engine, which evolved into the 200 horse power Wright Whirlwind engine. In 1924, Lawrance merged with the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. After serving as president of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation and vice president of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, he founded the Lawrance Engineering and Research Corporation in Linden, New Jersey (1930). Lawrance engines are associated with the aircraft flown by Charles Lindbergh, Rear Admiral Byrd and Amelia Earhart.
Provenance:
Joseph Worth, gift, 1972, XXXX-0579
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Lawrance J-1 9-cyl radial engine  Search this
Lawrance Model B 3-cyl radial engine  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0579
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0579

Italian Aeronautical Lab Reports

Creator:
Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale  Search this
Extent:
0.21 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Reports
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This item consists of a large bound volume of Italian reports that apparently relates to activities carried out by the Istituto Centrale Aeronautico (Central Aeronautical Institute) in the period 1916 through 1917. The volume, labeled "Istituto Sperimentale Aeronautico, Attivita della Sezione Aero-Idro-Dinamica, Anno 1916-1917," consists of blueprint reproductions of handwritten (in Italian) report pages (some oversized with foldouts), and includes 13 heavy brown cardstock pages each containing a dry-mounted toned original photograph or photograph copy of a detailed chart or drawing.
The reports begin with a detailed description of the hydrodynamic test apparatus (tunnel) used by the Institute, then proceed to report the test results on a variety of aircraft-related objects: propellers, hull designs (flying boats), rudders and/or vertical stabilizers, airfoil sections, dirigibles (rigid and non-rigid), bombs, shells, a radiator, a cylindrical tank, and Bréguet and Coanda wing designs. The reports include detailed engineering drawings, circuit diagrams, tables of results, etc. Also included are scale drawings for the following aircraft: "Biplano Orlandi," "Monoplano Orlandi," "Biplano per Cannone da 65" (Caproni type), and "Fiat 14B 100 h.p."
Provenance:
United States Navy, Gift
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Italy  Search this
Caproni Aircraft Family  Search this
Breguet Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Reports
Citation:
Italian Aeronautical Lab Reports, XXXX-0670, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0670
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0670

Eric Preece Engine Collection

Creator:
Preece, Eric  Search this
Names:
American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Cubic feet (8 records center boxes; 1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Correspondence
Photographs
Reports
Memoranda
Drawings
Manuals
Catalogs
Brochures
Date:
1933-1944
Summary:
This collection traces Preece's engineering work with WAC, and includes the following types of materials: correspondence, memos, technical drawings, minutes of meetings from both the WAC Gear Committee and the American Society of Tool Engineers, descriptions of various projects and equipment, photographs, reports, catalogues, brochures, manuals, notebooks, and personnel information.
Scope and Contents:
This collection traces Preece's engineering work with Wright Aeronautical Corporation (WAC), and includes the following types of materials: correspondence, memos, technical drawings, minutes of meetings from both the WAC Gear Committee and the American Society of Tool Engineers, descriptions of various projects and equipment, photographs, reports, catalogues, brochures, manuals, notebooks, and personnel information.
Arrangement:
The original arrangement of this collection was maintained.
This collection is arranged into six series:

Series I: Professional Materials

Series II: Material Related to Notebooks

Series III: Material Related to Business Practices

Series IV: Drawings

Series V: Miscellaneous Material

Series VI: Oversized Material
Biographical/Historical note:
Eric Preece was an engineer with the Wright Aeronautical Corporation (WAC) of Paterson, New Jersey, a company involved in the engineering development of the mass production of cylinder heads for WAC air-cooled engines for Boeing B-29 bombers during World War II. Mr. Preece served as the manager of Experimental Manufacturing prior to his promotion to Production Manager of WAC's Plant 7 in 1943. He was also an active member of the American Society of Tool Engineers, serving as the Public Relations Chairman and later as chapter president.
Provenance:
Unknown (Eric Preece?)
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Wright Cyclone 18 (R-3350) 18-cyl radial engine family  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Correspondence
Photographs
Reports
Memoranda
Drawings
Manuals
Catalogs
Brochures
Citation:
Eric Preece Engine Collection, Acc. XXXX-0502, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0502
See more items in:
Eric Preece Engine Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0502
Online Media:

Thomas Towle Ford Tri-Motor Collection

Creator:
Towle, Thomas, 1887-  Search this
Names:
Ford Motor Company. Airplane Division  Search this
Island Airways  Search this
Towle, Thomas, 1887-  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Reports
Drawings
Photographs
Pamphlets
Clippings
Date:
1921-1967
bulk 1925-1926
bulk 1953-1967
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material gathered by Towle to support his claim as the designer of the Ford Tri-Motor. The material consists of the following: newspaper and magazine articles; pamphlets; photographs pertaining to the history of the aircraft and its role in early air transportation; drawings; early flight test reports; technical notes relating to early Tri-Motor models; a short autobiography and resumeof Towle; and assorted postcards, stamps, articles, and so forth relating to Island Airways, an airline still flying Ford Tri-Motors
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Towle (1897- ) was a mechanical engineer and main designer of the Ford Tri-Motor. Following graduation from Yale University (1920) Towle worked as an engineer for a number of aircraft companies, including Dayton-Wright (1921-22), Martin (1922-23), Aeromarine (1923-24), and Stout Metal Airplane Co (1924-25) before joining Ford Motor Company's Airplane Division (1925-27). While at Ford, Towle designed a three-motored aircraft to replace the Stout 'Air Pullman:, the rights to which Ford purchased with Stout in 1925. Towle left Ford in 1927 to form his own company, Towle Marine Aircraft (1927) and Towle Aircraft Company (1928-32). In 1933 Towle joined Monocoupe and later moved to Lambert Aircraft (1933-35) before leaving the aircraft industry.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Tom Towle, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0102, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Ford Tri-Motor Family  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Reports
Drawings
Photographs
Pamphlets
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0102
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0102

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