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United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials

Topic:
United States Women in Aviation, 1940-1985
Creator:
Douglas, Deborah G.  Search this
Names:
Carl, Ann  Search this
Felker, Toby  Search this
Fitzroy, Nancy  Search this
Hoffman, Margaret  Search this
Howard, Jean Ross  Search this
Hubert, Beth  Search this
Pateman, Yvonne C.  Search this
Rassmussen, Janet  Search this
Rippelmeyer, Lynn  Search this
Silitch, Mary F.  Search this
Extent:
2.57 Cubic feet (2 record center boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Transcripts
Reports
Notes
Articles
Newspapers
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1944-1994
bulk [ca. 1940s, 1980s]
Summary:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985, by Deborah G. Douglas, was published in 1991 as part of the Smithsonian Institution Press series on women in the aviation industry. This collection consists of a variety of different types of material compiled during the author's research for the book.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a variety of different types of material compiled during the author's research for the book. Included are: various types of correspondence; photographs; newspapers and other publications; photocopies of book chapters and magazine and newspaper articles; working notes belonging to the author; reports (official and personal); interview transcripts; and approximately 600 bibliographic note cards. Also included are 10 cassettes containing interviews with the following aviators: Ann Carl, Toby Felker, Nancy Fitzroy, Margaret Hoffman, Jean Ross Howard, Lt. Beth Hubert, Lt. Col. Yvonne C. Pateman, Janet Rassmussen, Lynn Rippelmeyer, and Mary F. Silitch.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects. In addition, images of some material in the collection have been excluded from online display due to possible copyright restrictions.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged by topic/subject.
Biographical / Historical:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985, by Deborah G. Douglas, was published in 1991 as part of the Smithsonian Institution Press series on women in the aviation industry. The publication documents the stories of women involved in all aspects of aviation during this time period, from pilots and engineers, to aircraft industry personnel and flight attendants.
Provenance:
Deborah G. Douglas, Gift, 1995, NASM.1995.0062
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Flight attendants  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Transcripts
Reports
Notes
Articles
Newspapers
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials, NASM.1995.0062, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1995.0062
See more items in:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1995-0062
Online Media:

Edgar S. Gorrell Collection

Creator:
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Names:
Air Transport Association of America  Search this
United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces  Search this
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Extent:
3.95 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Date:
1893-1943
Summary:
This collection contains documents relating mainly to Gorrell's activities as president of the Air Transportation Association of America. The materials include copies of Gorrell's addresses and Congressional testimony, as well as press clippings concerning Gorrell's activities. The collection also includes albums of World War I vintage photographs collected by or presented to Gorrell.
Scope and Contents:
The Edgar S. Gorrell Collection is largely comprised of material relating to Gorrell's career as president of the Air Transport Association of America. The material includes his correspondence and speeches, the Congressional hearings and reports for the bills he advocated, and publications and newspaper articles about him and his career. Also in the collection are several photographs and photograph albums from World War I and other miscellaneous material.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Arranged into two series:

Series 1: GENERAL. This series contains correspondence, addresses delivered by E.S. Gorrell, and publications and newspaper articles, some written by Gorrell. There are also Congressional hearings and reports, and some miscellaneous material. The documents are arranged in chronological order.

Series 2: PHOTOGRAPHS/ALBUMS. This series contains photographs and photo albums. Many of these are aerial photographs of trenches taken c. 1916 --1918, but there are also many photographs of aerial and land transport equipment.
Biographical/Historical note:
Colonel Edgar S. Gorrell (1891-1945) was a pilot and an advocate for aviation safety. He graduated from West Point in 1912 and then spent two years as an infantryman in Alaska before transferring to the Signal Corps, where he joined the 1st Aero Squadron, serving under Gen. John J. Pershing in Mexico. On one of his flying missions in Mexico, Gorrell ran out of gas and was stranded in the desert for several days before being rescued. Upon returning to his unit, he began to criticize the poor equipment US pilots were forced to use, both in terms of actual aircraft components and the signals and communication equipment used on land. In 1917 he was promoted to Captain, and in World War I he became the Chief Engineering Officer for the Air Service, and eventually the Chief of Staff for the Air Service, with the rank of Colonel. After the war, Gorrell remained in Europe representing the US at conferences and peace talks.

In March 1920, he resigned his commission in the Army and joined the automobile business. He served as the vice president of Marmon Motor Car Company until 1925. Then he became vice president, director, and general manager, and later president, of the Stutz Motor Car company of America. In January 1936, Gorrell again switched fields when he was elected the first president of the Air Transport Association of America, shortly after its conception. It was with this organization that he was known for his role in promoting safety in civil aeronautics. He was a strong advocate for the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 which provided government control and regulation of civil aeronautics, and he provided testimony before congressional committees several times. Gorrell continued to support civil aeronautics, especially through his role as president of the Air Transport Association of America, until his death, in 1945.
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, unknown, XXXX-0057
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Citation:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection, Acc. XXXX-0057, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0057
See more items in:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0057
Online Media:

James Means Collection

Topic:
Aeronautical Annuals (annual)
Creator:
Means, James, 1853-1920  Search this
Names:
Aerial Experiment Association  Search this
Aero Club of America  Search this
Aero Club of Washington  Search this
Aeronautic Society of New York  Search this
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Jones, Ernest La Rue, 1883-1955  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Lilienthal, Otto  Search this
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 1850-1924  Search this
Maxim, Hiram S., 1840-1916  Search this
Means, James, 1853-1920  Search this
Zahm, Albert Francis, 1862-  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet ((4 legal document boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Publications
Photographs
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Date:
1892-1913
bulk 1895-1897
Summary:
James Means (1855-1920) was an American industrialist who sacrificed his business to devote himself to the promotion of aviation. The collection consists of correspondence, publications, photographs, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence and scrapbooks. The correspondence is arranged into 15 sub-series: Aerial Experiment Association, Aero Club of America, Aero Club of Washington, Aeronautic Society of New York, Aeronautical Annuals, Octave Chanute and his daughters, Glenn Curtiss, House Resolution #7653, Ernest Jones, Otto Lilienthal, Henry Cabot Lodge, Hiram Maxim, Technical Matters, U.S. Signal Corps, and Albert Zahm. Of the three scrapbooks, one is a photograph album containing early glider photos and travel postcards. The second contains photos and news clippings regarding aviation in the 1890's, especially the work of Langley and Maxim with kites, balloons, and aerial bicycles. Clippings are in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German and Dutch. The third scrapbook is labeled 'James Means 1892' and consists of photos, letters, manuscripts, clippings in English and German, copies of legislation, and book excerpts.

Note: The digital images shown for this collection were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product which did not reproduce all materials found in this collection; some items have not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The James Means Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
James Means (1855-1920) was an American industrialist who sacrificed his business to devote himself to the promotion of aviation. Determined to disseminate information on flying, he collected and edited the most significant works of Otto Lilienthal, Octave Chanute, Samuel Langley and others, producing the 'Aeronautical Annuals' which appeared in 3 volumes in 1895, 1896 and 1897. Dr. Means studied bird-flight, kites and gliders, and designed model gliders in the early 1890s. He was awarded patents for his aircraft smoke signal device (1909), his aircraft launcher (1909), and his simplified control column for airplanes (1909-1911).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
James H. Means, gift, unknown, XXXX-0394, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Kites  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Publications
Photographs
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Citation:
James Means Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0394, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0394
See more items in:
James Means Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0394
Online Media:

Alva R. DeGarmo Collection

Creator:
DeGarmo, Alva R., 1899-1988  Search this
Names:
Atlantic Airways  Search this
Boeing Air Transport  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Western Airlines  Search this
DeGarmo, Alva R., 1899-1988  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
1.04 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Date:
1916-1986
Summary:
The Alva R. DeGarmo Collection consists of DeGarmo's army records; logbooks; Boeing Air Transport/United Air Lines correspondence; material documenting his World War II activities; newspaper articles; photographs; and Western Air Lines anniversary items.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: Army records; logbooks; Boeing Air Transport/United Air Lines correspondence; material documenting his World War II activities; newspaper articles; photographs; and Western Air Lines anniversary items.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Alva R. DeGarmo Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Alva R. DeGarmo (1899-1988) enlisted in the Army Air Service, soloing in 1920 in a Curtiss JN-4 at March Field, Riverside, CA. He was in the Air Service for three years before joining the Air Reserve Corps. During his service he patrolled the Mexican boarder and spotted forest fires in Oregon. After resigning from the Air Service and a brief stint in barnstorming, he worked for two years with Western Air Lines, being one of their first four pilots, the "Four Horseman." After two years he changed to Boeing Air Transport/United Air Lines, flying with them until 1939. During World War II DeGarmo helped ferry bombers and transport planes across the Atlantic under the Pan American subsidiary, Atlantic Airways, and later during the War he took over a Pan American Miami to Rio De Janeiro passenger route. Towards the end of the war he worked for Curtiss Wright on C-46 fuel problems. He ended his aviation career with a short stint as a Lockheed test pilot after the war.
General:
Other materials: Logbooks. Most of Alva DeGarmo's material was placed in the Delta Air Lines Museum.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Richard and Bernice DeGarmo, gift, 1991, 1992-0049, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Citation:
Alva R. DeGarmo Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0049####, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0049
See more items in:
Alva R. DeGarmo Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0049
Online Media:

Survey of Central African Seaports and Air Routes

Topic:
Survey of Central African Seaports and Air Routes
Names:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
United States. War Dept.  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Place:
Africa, Central
Date:
1941-1942
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of four volumes of 'Survey of Central African Seaports and Air Routes.' The volumes include photographs, charts, and pages of text, gathered during 139 days of travel covering approximately 16,000 miles through Central Africa. The purpose of the survey was to assist the Departments [War? or a department in Pan Am?] in determining what seaports, routes, and services of supply should be established to bring aircraft to the desired war areas most expeditiously, i.e., increase the flow of supplies to the British Eighth Army. At one point there was, according to the preface, a book of charts which was not transferred to NASM.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
National Museum of American History, Transfer, 1996, 1996-0043, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Africa  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.1996.0043
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1996-0043

Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers

Creator:
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986  Search this
Names:
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
Civil Aeronautics Administration  Search this
Federal Aviation Administration  Search this
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Air Navigation Development Board  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service  Search this
United States. Post Office Department. Air Mail Service  Search this
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986  Search this
Extent:
4.22 Cubic feet (1 slim legal document box; 4 legal document boxes; 3 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Articles
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1917-1977
Summary:
This collection consists of Stanton's personal papers. The material includes correspondence, photographs, news clippings and articles, reunion memorabilia and records, and personal and professional writings over the course of his aeronautical career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection of the papers of Charles Ingram Stanton contains work-related photographs, personal writings on his career, periodicals, programs, financial records, published materials, maps, charts, plans, scrapbooks and audiotapes. At the time of processing, no attempt was made to transcribe the audiotapes. Please contact the Archives for information about duplication.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as follows:

Series I, Professional Life Subseries I: Military Career Subseries II: Civilian Career

Series II, Personal Life

Series III, Miscellaneous Oversize Material
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles Ingram Stanton was born on July 28, 1893, in Medford, Massachusetts. He graduated from high school in Revere, Massachusetts in 1911; and earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Tufts College in 1917. After graduation, he joined the United States Army and was assigned to the Signal Corps. Upon graduation from the Corps flight school, Stanton was promoted to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. Although he served in the Air Service during World War I, he was never assigned overseas, but remained in the United States conducting research regarding radios and their effects in aircraft. In December of 1918, Stanton was formally discharged from the Army.

Prior to his military discharge, Stanton accepted a position with the United States Post Office Department of Aerial Mail, and began work as a test pilot. On September 15, 1920, Stanton was promoted to Superintendent of Operations, United States Air Mail Service. He later resigned from the Post Office and went to work for the National Aeronautic Association (NAA). His tenure there was terminated for unknown reasons in 1923; he then went to work for the U.S. Engineer Corp as a surveyman. From 1925 through 1926, he was employed as a civil engineer in Miami, Florida. On January 17, 1927 Stanton returned to government service as an airplane and engine inspector for the United States Department of Commerce. He was named the Chief of Airways Engineering Division, Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA) on May 4, 1937. While working there, he obtained patent number 2,147,679 for an illuminating system for runways. On June 29, 1940 Stanton was named Assistant Administrator and Director of the Bureau of Federal Airways. Stanton served as Administrator for the CAA from 1942 to 1944 before returning to his previous position as Deputy Administrator. During his tenure with the CAA, Stanton attended several conferences and important meetings for the establishment of international airways. Stanton was instrumental in establishing the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization. In 1944 he received an honorary doctorate from Tufts College for his contribution to the field of civil aeronautics.

On March 8, 1948 Stanton retired from the United States Government and took a teaching position at the Technological Institute of Aeronautics of Brazil as Professor of Air Navigation, and Chief of Airway Division. Upon returning to the United States in 1952, Stanton went to work for Bell Telephone Laboratories. He returned to work for the CAA in 1957, where he remained until his retirement in 1962.

Charles Ingram Stanton's love of flying did not end with his work. He remained an active member in the OX-5 Club, the Society of Air Mail Pioneers, Society of Airway Pioneers, and the Washington Air Derby Association. In addition to flying clubs, Stanton was a member of the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. Charles Ingram Stanton passed away in 1986.
Timeline:
1893 July 28 -- Born in Medford Massachusetts

1911 -- Graduated from Revere High School

1917 -- Graduated from Tufts College

1917 December 8 -- Joined United States Army

1918 December 12 -- Joined United States Post Office Department of Aerial Mail

1918 December 18 -- Discharged from the United States Army

1920 September 15 -- Appointed Superintendent of Operations, Air Mail Service

1923 November 13 -- Terminated from National Aeronautic Association

1924 -- Worked for United States Engineer Corp as Surveyman

1925 -- Worked as a Civil Engineer in Miami

1927 January 17 -- Worked for U.S. Department of Commerce as an Airplane Inspector

1937 May 4 -- Selected as Chief of Airways Engineering Division, Civil Aeronautics Authority

1939 June 1 -- Granted U.S. Department of Justice Patent Number 2,147,679

1940 June 29 -- Appointed Assistant Administrator and Director of Bureau of Federal Airways, Civil Aeronautics Authority

1942 July 20 -- Appointed Administrator of Civil Aeronautics, Civil Aeronautics Administration

1944 June 18 -- Received Honorary Degree from Tufts College

1944 September 23 -- Resigned as Administrator to return to former position as Deputy Administrator, Civil Aeronautics Administration.

1948 March 8 -- Took leave of absence to serve as head of Department of Airways Engineering, Aeronautical Technical Institute of Brazil.

1952 -- Returned to America to work for Bell Laboratories

1956 November 16 -- Left Bell Laboratories

1957 January 23 -- Worked for the Air Navigation Development Board, Civil Aeronautics Administration

1957 November 6 -- Worked as Electrical Engineer (Gen.) of Airways Modernization Board Civil Aeronautics Administration

1957 -- Worked as Chief of Airports Division, Civil Aeronautics Administration

1962 -- Retired from the Federal Aviation Agency

1986 January 1 -- Passed away
Provenance:
Charles I. Stanton, Jr., gift, 1987, NASM.1987.0076
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Aeronautics -- Safety measures  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Articles
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers, Acc. NASM.1987.0076, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0076
See more items in:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0076
Online Media:

Basil Lee Rowe Collection

Creator:
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Names:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
West Indian Aerial Express  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Extent:
5.35 Cubic feet (5 document boxes, 4 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Date:
1917-1973
bulk 1930-1968
Summary:
Basil Lee Rowe (1896-1973) enjoyed a long and successful career in aviation, initially as a military exhibition pilot, barnstormer, air racer, charter operator, flight instructor, aircraft salesman, and rumrunner, before moving to the West Indies to start an airline, the short-lived West Indian Aerial Express, bought out by Pan American Airways in 1928. Rowe became a pioneering senior pilot for Pan Am, flying with them for 28 years before his retirement in 1956. This collection includes scrapbooks, photo albums, memorabilia, and first day covers, in addition to the draft manuscript for Rowe's 1956 autobiography, Under My Wings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of Rowe's pilot's log books covering his career from 1927 to 1956, assorted periodicals, cartoons featuring Rowe, scrapbooks and photo albums assembled by Rowe (featuring newspaper clippings, photographs, and ephemera), several draft manuscripts of Rowe's 1956 autobiography Under My Wings, and first day air mail postal covers collected by Rowe.
Arrangement:
Materials in this collection are grouped into series by format. See individual series Scope and Content notes for details on arrangement within that series. Note that with the exception of the chronologically arranged flight log books, Rowe did not appear to organize his materials in any particular order.
Biographical / Historical:
Basil Lee Rowe, born February 10, 1896, grew up in the small town of Shandaken, New York, in the Catskill Mountains. He began his flying career in 1914 as an apprentice to aviator Turk Adams after seeing Adams fly at a local county fair. Impatient to become a military pilot, Rowe arranged to join the Royal Canadian Air Force, but was sidelined by a ruptured appendix before he could get to Canada. By the time Rowe had recovered, the United States had entered World War I and Rowe was able to join the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps; he was sent to Texas. During the Third Liberty Loan drive, Rowe was assigned to a group of fliers who were to give exhibition flights; after his discharge, he used his savings to buy a used Avro biplane and barnstormed around the East Central United States, using Hadley Field (New Brunswick, New Jersey) as his home field. Rowe soon bought a second aircraft, hired pilot William S. "Bill" Wade, and moved his base of operations to the Aeromarine Base at Keyport, near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Rowe prospered through the early 1920s, and his troupe the "Rowe Fliers" (including at various times wingwalkers Bill Stacy and Marguerite L. "Peggy" Roome) toured the eastern US giving exhibition flights and passenger rides. In the winter, Rowe moved his operation to Florida, and, with a rebuilt Curtiss Seagull, ferried passengers eager to escape Prohibition from Miami to Nassau, Bahamas--with a bit of rumrunning on the side. Back in New Jersey, Rowe formed the Chamberlin-Rowe Aircraft Corporation with fellow aviator Clarence Chamberlin to buy and resell Army surplus aircraft; the short-lived business went bust in 1924 when the government finished selling off its aircraft. Rowe, a talented racing pilot, kept busy from 1924 through 1926 on the racing circuit, winning numerous prizes.

By the end of 1926, at the age of thirty, Rowe felt that he had reached a turning point in his life. Dismayed by the increase in US government regulation of aviation, Rowe moved his operations to the West Indies, settling in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. With Bill Wade, Rowe rapidly established a business flying charters around the country, with flights to neighboring Haiti and Puerto Rico. In June 1927, with financial backing provided by sugar industry businessmen and the government of the Dominican Republic, Rowe founded West Indian Aerial Express (abbreviated variously as WIAE or WIAX) to provide airline service between Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, hoping to be well positioned to bid on future US foreign air mail routes. With this in mind, Rowe returned to the Unites States and purchased a Fairchild FC-2W floatplane (christened "La Niña") and a larger Keystone K-47 Pathfinder trimotor (the former "American Legion," r/n NX179, rebuilt by the Keystone factory following a crash in April 1927 and rechristened as "Santa Maria"). To his dismay, Rowe was forced to acquired a US transport pilot license in order to be allowed to fly the "Santa Maria" back to Santo Domingo; he hired Canadian pilot Cy Caldwell to ferry "La Niña." On the way south in mid October 1927, Rowe found himself and his two aircraft in Florida just as Pan American Airways (PAA), which had been successful in obtaining a temporary contract to deliver mail from the US to Cuba, found itself without any aircraft able to fly out of their Key West, Florida, field to fulfill the contract before it expired. PAA struck a deal with Rowe to lease "La Niña" (piloted by Caldwell) to fly the first Pan American Airways flight on October 19, 1927.

With its two new aircraft, West Indian Aerial Express started regularly scheduled twice-weekly flights on December 1, 1927, between Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico, later extending the routes to St. Thomas and St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands. On June 30, 1928, WIAX filed a bid with the US government for air mail service on the route from Key West to Puerto Rico, but was outmanuevered by the more politically-savvy Pan American Airways which won the contract. A final crippling blow was dealt to WIAX in September 1928 when a severe hurricane hit their base in San Juan, Puerto Rico, destroying "La Niña" and two older Waco biplanes. Rowe made his last flight in the "Santa Maria" on September 20, 1928, before turning the aircraft over to Pan American. On October 16, 1928, PAA purchased WIAX, with Rowe becoming PAA's senior pilot.

During his first ten years with Pan Am, Rowe flew a record number of hours and surveyed most of the new air routes through the Caribbean to Central and South America, several times flying with Charles Lindbergh. When the US entered World War II, Rowe was assigned to Pan Am's Africa and Orient Division to serve with the US Army Air Forces Air Transport Command on their supply route across the South Atlantic and Africa to India and China (the "Cannonball Run"). His wife, Florence May Sharp, whom Rowe had married in 1930, served as an aircraft spotter during the war. During the Korean Conflict, Rowe was once again pressed into service, and was transferred to Pan Am's Pacific Division to fly transpacific supply routes and medical evacuation flights. May's early death in 1943 left Rowe a widower at his retirement from Pan Am in 1956. At their Coral Gables, Florida, home he wrote his autobiography, Under My Wings (The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., New York, 1956) and remained active as a tennis instructor until his death on October 28, 1973.
Provenance:
Basil Lee Rowe, gift, 1969; United States Air Force Museum, transfer, 1973; NASM.XXXX.0019
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Citation:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0019, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0019
See more items in:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0019
Online Media:

Major John Stanley Henderson Collection

Creator:
Henderson, John Stanley.  Search this
Names:
United States. Marine Corps  Search this
Extent:
0.95 Cubic feet ((2 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Newspaper clippings
Telegrams
Technical manuals
Awards
Correspondence
Publications
Date:
bulk 1941-1952
Scope and Contents:
Included in this collection are photographs of John Stanley Henderson, fellow servicemen, and airfields; diary and notebooks; flight logs; award citations and military orders; newspaper clippings; a map of the Solomon Islands; phrase books in French and Japanese as well as the CBI Pointie Talkie; pocket guides to Egypt and Australia; The Marines Handbook, seventh edition; telegram relating the death of Major Henderson; Certificate of Death in Service; condolence letters; and Power of Attorney and Last Will and Testament.
Biographical / Historical:
Major John Stanley Henderson (?-1952) joined the US Marine Corps in 1941 and served two tours in the World War II Pacific Theater, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) and four Air Medals. He served as a dive bomber pilot at Guadalcanal and a transport pilot on Guam. He was on active duty with the Marine Reserves as Executive Officer of the Marine Air Detachment at NAS Olathe, Kansas, at the time of his death at 33, killed while preparing for his departure to Korea.
Provenance:
Bryn Henderson, Gift, 2005
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Medals -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Newspaper clippings
Telegrams
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Awards
Correspondence
Publications
Citation:
Major John Stanley Henderson Collection, Accession number 2005-0015, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2005.0015
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2005-0015

50th Anniversary of the NC-4 Transatlantic Flight Collection [Richard K. Smith]

Creator:
Smith, Richard K.  Search this
Names:
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
United States. Navy  Search this
Extent:
1.9 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Correspondence
Photographs
Diaries
Manuscripts
Microfilms
Publications
Date:
circa 1918-1969
Summary:
The 50th Anniversary of the NC-4 Transatlantic Flight Collection [Smith] Collection contains photocopies of correspondence, published materials, maps, and photographs. The collection also includes photocopies of aircraft logs, naval ship logs, weather reports, progress reports, biographies of the participants, information on the construction of the NC Aircraft and the general planning for the flight, and original material on the thirtieth and fiftieth anniversaries of the flight.
Scope and Content Note:
This collection was gathered by Dr. Richard K. Smith of the National Air and Space Museum, in preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of the NC-4's transatlantic flight. It contains photocopies from microfilm of documents found in the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Record Group 24, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, and Record Group 72, Records of the Bureau of Aeronautics. The researcher will find photocopies of correspondence, published materials, maps, and photographs. The collection also includes photocopies of aircraft logs, naval ship logs, weather reports, progress reports, biographies of the participants, information on the construction of the NC Aircraft and general planning for the flight, and original material on the thirtieth and fiftieth anniversaries of the flight.

The final box of the collection (Box 5) contains 6 reels of microfilm from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Record Groups 24 and 72 relating to the Trans Atlantic flight of the NC-4. As the processing archivist reviewed the microfilm, it appeared that many of the documents in boxes 1-4 were copied from the microfilm. These reels of microfilm are available for review upon request.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged by subject and then chronologically.
Historical Note:
In 1917, the United States Navy developed specifications for a flying boat of sufficient range to cross the Atlantic to England. The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, in conjunction with the Navy, developed a three-engine aircraft. The Navy intended that the flying boat would serve as an anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The first of the new aircraft, the NC-1, flew on October 4, 1918, followed by the NC-2 on April 12, 1919. Even though World War I had ended, the Navy decided to continue the program in an effort to make the first transatlantic crossing by air. As the program progressed, the NC-2 was dismantled for parts for the other NC aircraft. On May 16, 1919, the NC-1, the NC-3, and the NC-4 assembled at Trepassey Bay, Newfoundland, to begin the 1200 nautical-mile flight to the Azores. The NC-1 was forced down short of the islands and sank, but the Greek vessel, Ionia, rescued the crew. The NC-3 landed two hundred miles short and taxied the remaining distance to the islands. The NC-4 completed the flight successfully, reaching Plymouth, England via Lisbon, Portugal, on May 31, 1919. Following publicity tours of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, the NC-4 was given to the Smithsonian Institution and is a part of the National Air and Space Museum collection.
Provenance:
Aeronautics Division, NASM, transfer, unknown, XXXX-0418, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.

Reels of microfilm are available for review upon request.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to ue NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Curtiss NC-1 (P2N-1)  Search this
Curtiss NC-4 (P2N-1)  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Transatlantic flights  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Seaplanes  Search this
Curtiss NC-Boat Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Correspondence
Photographs
Diaries
Manuscripts
Microfilms
Publications
Citation:
50th Anniversary of the NC-4 Transatlantic Flight Collection [Smith], Acc. XXXX-0418, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0418
See more items in:
50th Anniversary of the NC-4 Transatlantic Flight Collection [Richard K. Smith]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0418
Online Media:

Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection

Creator:
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Names:
Japan. Navy  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Tanaka, Kiyoshi  Search this
Extent:
1.51 Cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Clippings
Date:
1860-1988
bulk 1945-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection was gathered by National Air and Space Museum curator Robert C. Mikesh for his publication on this subject, "Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America." The collection consists of the following: magazine and newspaper articles on the Japanese balloons; manuscripts and independent articles; 83 photos Mr. Mikesh used in his book and 68 miscellaneous photos collected for research purposes; also photocopies of Japanese balloon illustrations and Japanese balloon propaganda reports. The collection also includes the working files of Kiyoshi Tanaka, the Supervisor Technical Lieutenant Commander for the Japanese Navy balloon project, and multiple copies of Mr. Mikesh's publication.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as originally numbered and titled by Robert C. Mikesh. Additional folder title information has been added by the processing archivist in brackets.
Biographical / Historical:
During World War II the Japanese constructed nearly 10,000 lighter-than-air balloons for the purpose of carrying destructive pay loads to the U.S. Between November 1944 and April 1945 these balloons made use of the prevailing west-to-east jet stream over the North Pacific Ocean. Nearly 285 sightings and fragment findings have been recorded in North America, and 5 deaths resulted. This was the first and only attack upon the American continent directly from an enemy homeland.
Provenance:
NASM Generated, Transfer, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0558.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Air defenses -- United States  Search this
Air defenses  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Clippings
Citation:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection, Acc. XXXX.0558, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0558
See more items in:
Japanese World War II Balloon Bombs Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0558
Online Media:

William Carl Diehl Collection

Creator:
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Names:
Army Air Corps  Search this
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Pathe News  Search this
United Eastern Airplane Company  Search this
Wright Aeronautical Corp  Search this
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974  Search this
Extent:
2.7 Cubic feet ((6 legal document boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox))
2.52 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1912-1972
bulk 1945-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of biographical information, business records, information on the aviation organizations with which Diehl was involved, aviation material collected by Diehl, and information on flight, events, and aviation accidents.
Biographical / Historical:
William Carl Diehl (1891-1974) was an aviation pioneer and a member of the Early Birds organization. In 1914 he built and flew a monoplane and in 1915 he helped establish two flying schools, an unsuccessful school in Chicago and a school on Long Island. During the time he was working at Long Island, he helped to organize the United Eastern Airplane Company which manufactured airplanes. During World War I, Diehl was a civilian instructor for the Army Air Corps. In the late 1910s and early 1920s, Diehl established a commercial flying taxi service, performed stunts for movie production and for Pathe News, and barnstormed around the nation. He began work in 1926 on patents for aircraft mufflers and values. Diehl worked during 1927-1930 at the Wright Aeronautical Corporation at Paterson, New Jersey as an engine flight test pilot. Diehl returned to his original occupation of plumbing but continued flying until 1945, and continued his patent work until the early 1970s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, XXXX-0469, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Diaries
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Financial records
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0469
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0469

Crocker Snow Collection

Creator:
Snow, Crocker  Search this
Names:
Logan International Airport. Boston, MA  Search this
Massachussetts. Aeronautics Commission  Search this
Skyways  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 498th Bombardment Group  Search this
United States. Aviation Advisory Commission  Search this
Snow, Crocker  Search this
Extent:
41.4 Cubic feet ((37 records center boxes) (1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Reports
Manuscripts
Videotapes
Audiotapes
Publications
Photographs
Date:
[ca. 1920s-1990s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 40 cubic feet of material documenting the varied aviation career of Crocker Snow. These materials include the following types of media: photographs, published materials, audio and videotapes, manuscripts, reports, surveys, propaganda leaflets, correspondence, and scrapbooks. There is quite a bit of material relating to airport planning, in specifically Boston Logan Airport and the problems of noise pollution.
Biographical / Historical:
Crocker Snow was involved in many facets of aviation, most notably in the areas of aviation law and politics. Highlights of his career, which are covered in this collection, include the following: documentation on his company, Skyways, formed in 1927, one of the first commercial flying operations at East Boston's airport; Snow's role as author of the first comprehensive aeronautical law for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; Snow's role as Director of the Massachusetts Aeronautics Commission from its creation until 1976; and Snow's role as Chairman of the President's Aviation Advisory Commission in 1972. Snows' World War II military aviation career is also covered here in some detail including his stints as the commanding officer of the North Atlantic Sector of the Air Corps Ferrying Command, his role as commander of a provisional B-17 Bomb Group, and his organization of and participation with the 498th B-29 Bomb Group, which took part in numerous bombing and propaganda missions against the Japanese mainland.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Janice Snow, Gift, 2001, 2001-0059, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airports  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Noise pollution  Search this
Airports -- Planning  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Reports
Manuscripts
Videotapes
Audiotapes
Publications
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.2001.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2001-0059

Apollo Milton Olin (A. M. O.) Smith Papers

Creator:
Smith, Apollo Milton Olin (A. M. O.), 1911-1997  Search this
Names:
Smith, Apollo Milton Olin (A. M. O.), 1911-1997  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1935-1981
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the significant writings of Smith, including writings relating to his contributions to boundary layer theory. The collection also includes Smith's notebooks and related photographs of his post-World War II on-site appraisal of Nazi aeronautical developments.
Biographical / Historical:
Apollo Milton Olin Smith (1911-1997), an aircraft designer and engineer known as 'AMO' for most of his life, was born in Columbia, Missouri. He began constructing gliders in high school and earned Masters Degrees in both Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering from Caltech in 1938. After graduation, he began work for Douglas Aircraft, where he was to be employed until his retirement in 1975. His work for Douglas included wind tunnel testing of the A-20 bomber, performance analysis of the DC-5 and aerodynamic design of the A-26 light bomber. During a leave of absence from Douglas, he served as first chief engineer of the Aerojet Co. Smith's work in aerodynamics led to his participation in an important post-World War II mission to Germany, which revealed that country's developments in swept-wing design. AMO Smith's subsequent research would make him a leader in aerodynamics, especially regarding his contributions to boundary layer theory. He was the recipient of many honors and awards during his lifetime and was responsible for advances in research involving the use of rocket motors to assist takeoff (JATO) and the design of the D-558 Phase 1 airplane and the F4D Skyray.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Elisazbeth Krost Smith, Gift, 2000, 2000-0014, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aerodynamics  Search this
Airplanes -- Wings, Swept-back  Search this
Airplanes -- Jet propulsion  Search this
Airplanes -- Assisted take-off  Search this
Boundary layer  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Germany  Search this
Douglas F4D (F-6) Skyray Family  Search this
Douglas D-558 Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.2000.0014
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2000-0014

Edo Aircraft Corporation Collection

Creator:
Edo Aircraft Corp  Search this
Names:
Edo Aircraft Corp  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Date:
1925-1970
bulk 1927-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material relating to the EDO Aircraft Corporation, mostly from the 1920s-1940s. The following types of material are included: company correspondence, photographs, brochures, price lists and float specifications, and annual reports.
Biographical / Historical:
The Edo Aircraft Company, later renamed the EDO Corporation, was founded in 1925. The company's first project was an all-metal flying boat, called the 'Malolo.' Because of the limited market for flying boats in 1926, the company switched its endeavors to the design and construction of all-metal seaplane floats. Development of the EDO all-metal float did much to stimulate the use of seaplanes. Over 300 different types of aircraft, from many countries, were equipped with EDO floats by 1941. During 1942-1945 all the floats used by the Navy and Army Air Corps were built by EDO. After the war, the company ventured into other areas, including: Sonar for underwater exploration and antisubmarine warfare; development of the hydro-ski; involvement in the Navy's Polaris and Trident programs; development of the navigational aide Loran; and participation in cold-war intelligence gathering equipment.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Margery O. Erickson, gift, 1995, 1995-0054, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Edo Model B Flying Boat "Malolo"  Search this
Seaplanes  Search this
Seaplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Identifier:
NASM.1995.0054
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1995-0054

George Blair Harrison Collection

Creator:
Harrison, George Blair, 1873-1930  Search this
Names:
United States International Air Meet  Search this
Harrison, George Blair, 1873-1930  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Diaries
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Date:
1904-1979
bulk 1910
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents Harrison's aviation career. The material consists mainly of newspaper articles on Harrison and early aviation in general, as well as a small amount of material on his son, Bennett.
Biographical / Historical:
George Blair Harrison (1873-1930) was a pioneer aeronaut and businessman. Following graduation by Washburn College and University of Michigan, he entered the business world, working as a newspaperman (1898-1903, 1908-15), for the St.Louis World's Fair (1903-05), in printing and lithography (1905-07), and in the motion picture industry (1915-17). During this time he earned Federation Aeronautique International (FAI) Balloon certificate 32, becoming the first licensed balloon pilot west of St.Louis. In January 1910 he helped organize the first U.S. International air meet, at Dominquez Field, Los Angeles. He was also associated briefly with Wright Airplane Co (1910) and Glenn L. Martin Co. (1911). He joined the army as an aviation cadet when the US entered World War I, attending Ground School at Austin, TX (1917) and Balloon School, Ft. Omaha, NE (1917-18). After his discharge in 1919, he returned to commercial aviation, serving as airport inspector for Los Angeles County (1920, 1921), secretary and director of Universal Institute of Aeronautics, Inc., until his death.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Marion S. Harrison, gift, 1986, 1987-0012, not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Airships  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Diaries
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0012
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0012

Joseph D. Mountain Collection

Creator:
Mountain, Joseph D., 1902-1970  Search this
Names:
Arabian American Oil Company  Search this
Mountain, Joseph D., 1902-1970  Search this
Extent:
1.57 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Correspondence
Maps
Photographs
Publications
Place:
Saudi Arabia
Date:
1916 - 1970
Summary:
This collection follows Mountain's aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection follows Joseph Mountain's aviation career and includes photographic negatives and prints, diaries and flight log books, reports, and maps. Mountain's photographs from his service in Saudi Arabia are of particular interest --taken not long before the great oil discoveries at Dammam in 1938, they capture the desert kingdom at the very edge of the tremendous changes that the oil economy brought to the Gulf. The images are a fascinating record of traditional Saudi Arabian life, crafts and architecture. Highlights include portraits of dancers at Eid al-Fitr celebrations, market scenes in Hufuf and the Old Town of Al Jubail, camel caravans, Saudi hunters with their hawks, and pearl fishermen and their dhows. Mountain also extensively photographed members of the CASOC team at work and interacting with their Saudi workers and acquaintances.

Joseph Mountain's negatives are stored in the Archive Division's cold vault and are not available to researchers. Scans of the negatives may be viewed in the Archives Division reading room, or through the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS) web site at http://bit.ly/dL2zDs.
Arrangement:
No series - arranged by materials: Documents, oversize and images
Biographical/Historical note:
Joseph Dunlap Mountain was born on October 24, 1902 in Cherryvale, Kansas. He joined the U.S. Army Air Service in 1919; he was awarded his wings and commissioned a second lieutenant in 1921. Mountain continued to fly after leaving the Air Service and also took up photography.

In 1928, Mountain was employed by the Continental Air Map Company in the aerial mapping of the state of California. In 1934-1935, he served as a pilot, aerial photographer, darkroom technician and mechanic for the California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (CASOC; in 1944 renamed the Arabian American Oil Company --Aramco, now Saudi Aramco) expedition to Saudi Arabia; Mountain logged over 221 hours of reconnaissance and mapping flights for CASOC. In 1936-1937, Mountain contracted with the Saudi Arabia Mining Syndicate to make an aerial survey of the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia.

From 1937-1947, Mountain was a pilot for Trans World Airlines. During World War II, Mountain returned to active duty with the U.S. Army Air Forces as a training officer in the Air Transport Command. He was awarded the Bronze Star while serving in the China-Burma-India Theater and supervising supply missions over "The Hump" --the dangerous air route over the Himalaya Range. In 1945 he was promoted to full Colonel and appointed executive officer of the Committee for Air Navigation and Traffic Control.

In 1947, Mountain entered the computer industry with International Telephone and Telegraph. Later, he founded Mountain Systems, a digital computer manufacturing company, and Mountain Datasystem, a data processing firm. During the Korean War, he served as an Air Force liaison officer with the Bell Telephone Laboratories. After the war, he returned to civilian life and continued to work in the computer industry. Joseph Mountain died on November 25, 1970 at the age of 68.
Provenance:
Isabel Mountain, gift, 1991, 1991-0079, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Cartography  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Correspondence
Maps
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Joseph D. Mountain Collection, Acc. 1991-0079, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0079
See more items in:
Joseph D. Mountain Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0079
Online Media:

Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection

Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Names:
Air University (U.S.). Air War College  Search this
United States Military Academy  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 332nd Fighter Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 477th Bombardment Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 99th Fighter Squadron  Search this
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Nixon, Richard M.  Search this
Extent:
75.03 Cubic feet (168 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Place:
Tuskegee Army Air Field (Ala.)
Date:
1928-1990
Summary:
This collection consists of 72 linear feet of the papers of Benjamin O. Davis. Included are the following types of material: programs, invitations, certificates, correspondence, published material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material gathered by General and Mrs. Davis over the course of their lives to 1993. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, newsclippings, and photographs relating to or received by the Davises, especially after General Davis retired from the Air Force. The collection is particularly rich in materials from the black press of the 1940s, documenting the response of the black community to the activities of the 99th Fighter Squadron and 332d Fighter Group during and after World War II, and contains a small amount of material related to the controversy surrounding the units' combat performance and the morale issues raised by the segregated society of the 1940s. Most of the remainder of the material from Davis' military career centers on his own activities. Davis' tenure as the Director of Public Safety in Cleveland coincides with the activities of the Black Panther movement and the term of Mayor Carl Stokes, Cleveland's first mayor of African descent; the newclippings and correspondence from this period highlight police activities and public reaction in this racially-polarized atmosphere. Much of the material from Davis' early tenure at the Department of Transportation deals with civil aviation security, initially to counter the hijacking wave of the early 1970s and later to reduce cargo theft. The material from his later years, particularly during his years as a consultant, deals primarily with attempts to reduce gasoline consumption, especially his work promoting the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. The largest blocks of material from Davis' private life relate to his tenure on the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (1970) and the President's Commission on Military Compensation (1977-1978); these contain, respectively, materials on student protests, including the shootings at Kent State, and on issues surrounding military pay and retirement. There is also a significant body of material relating to his association with Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. and his speaking tours to increase public knowledge of the role of black servicemen during World War II.

Materials of a personal nature, particularly correspondence between General and Mrs. Davis, were retained by the Davises and therefore do not figure in this collection. Most official documents relating to Davis' activities in the military or civil service are held by the United States National Archives and Records Administration in Record Groups 18 (Records of the Army Air Forces), 341 (Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff)), 342 (Records of United States Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations), and 398 (General Records of the Department of Transportation). Official materials remaining in the collection are primarily contemporary copies given to Mrs. Davis relating to General Davis' travel or public appearances.

Some of the early material (through approximately 1948) was organized by Mrs. Davis into a series of scrapbooks, each of which contains photographs, correspondence, and newsclippings. The rest of the items in the collection were organized into envelopes by the Davises before donation, with the material generally arranged by posting (duty station) and chronology. The items in any given envelope were generally not organized and neither were the envelopes themselves grouped in any particular manner. Additionally, some military records gathered by General Davis as reference material while writing his autobiography were identified by the period of his posting, although the material itself was generally created after that period. Items relating primarily to Mrs. Davis were not separated by the Davises in any manner; during processing such material was treated in a like manner, remaining interfiled with material relating primarily to General Davis, except as noted below.

The collection as a whole has been organized into four chronological groups: Civilian and Family Life (predating Davis' admission to the US Military Academy at West Point, NY), Military Service, Private Life (post-dating Davis' retirement from the USAF), and Autobiography. The second of these (Military Service) has been organized chronologically by posting, then alphabetically by subject; the remaining groups have been organized alphabetically by broad subject areas, then chronologically.

A number of broad subject areas recur in both the civilian and military sections of this collection. In cases where such broad areas can be applied individually to Davis, Mrs. Davis, or Davis Sr., they have been grouped in that order. The subject areas are as follows:

Awards and Honors -- materials relating to medals, citations, or other awards or honors given to Davis (or other members of his family)

Newclippings -- clippings from newspapers or magazines, or complete newspapers or magazines, except when such clippings were enclosures which had remained with their associated cover letter

Official Duties -- materials relating to Davis' activities connected to his official duties (used in Series II only)

Social -- materials relating to the Davises' activities which are not obviously connected to his official duties

Travel -- materials relating to trips by the Davises which do not appear to be duty-related trips

Other subject areas are generally self-explanatory.

The collection contained two videotapes, one relating to the 50th Anniversary of the Tuskegee Airmen and the other to the 1992 Clinton Campaign, both of which have been transferred to the NASM Film Archives. Cross references to these tapes have been placed in the finding aid in the series or subseries into which they would have fallen had they been documents. A large number of three-dimensional items, particularly plaques, have been transferred to curatorial control. For access to these items, please contact the NASM Aeronautics Department. Oversized items remaining in the collection have been placed in appropriate-sized containers at the end of the document collection; reference to such items occurs in the file lists as "see oversized..." or "see also oversized..." as appropriate.

Researchers should also consult Davis' autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991).
Arrangement:
Series 1: Education and Civilian Life, to June 1932

Series 2: Military Career, June 1932 to January 1970

Series 3: Civilian Life, February 1970 to 1993

Series 4: Autobiography
Biographical / Historical:
Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. was born in Washington, DC on December 18, 1912, the second of three children born to Benjamin Oliver (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis. At that time Davis Sr.(1) was a First Lieutenant in the United States Army, having worked his way up from an enlisted cavalry trooper. Elnora Davis died from complications after giving birth to their third child (Elnora) in 1916 and three years later Davis Sr. married Sadie Overton, an English professor at Wilberforce University. Davis and his sisters lived with relatives in Washington while Davis Sr. completed his tour of duty in the Philippines with his new bride. The family was reunited in Tuskegee, AL when Davis Sr. taught military science and tactics at the Tuskegee Institute between 1920 and 1924. In 1924 Davis Sr. was assigned as an instructor to a federalized Ohio National Guard unit and the family moved to Cleveland, OH.

Davis finished his schooling in Cleveland, graduating from Central High School in 1929. He then attended Western Reserve University (1929-1930) and the University of Chicago (1930-1932) before gaining admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. He graduated in the Class of 1936 and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Infantry.(2) Upon graduation, he married Ms. Agatha Scott, whom he had met and dated while at the Academy.

After serving in the infantry for several years Davis was posted to the newly-established Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL for pilot training in 1942. He graduated in the first class from the new flying school and was officially transferred to the Army Air Corps. In August 1942 he assumed command of the 99th Fighter Squadron, leading it in combat in North Africa and Sicily. The 99th Fighter Squadron was the first unit of "Tuskegee Airmen," as black(3) units in the segregated Army Air Forces (AAF) have come to be called. Two units of Tuskegee Airmen saw combat during World War II: the 99th Fighter Squadron and the 332d Fighter Group (composed of the 100th, 301st, and 302d Fighter Squadrons). Davis, promoted to Colonel in 1944, commanded both of these units in turn, leading the 99th and 332d in combat in Europe and earning the Air Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, Legion of Merit, and Silver Star for his own actions and a Distinguished Unit Citation for the 332d Fighter Group.

Davis returned to the United States in June 1945 to assume command of the 477th Bombardment Group (composed of the 616th, 617th, 618th, and 619th Bombardment Squadrons; later redesignated the 477th Composite Group), another segregated black unit, at Godman Field, KY. Davis was expected to prepare the unit for deployment to the Pacific Theater, although the unit's training was badly behind schedule due to racial tensions between the white staff and black operating personnel of the unit. Davis quickly brought the unit up to deployment requirements, but the war ended before the 477th left the United States. Returning elements of the 332d and 99th were merged into the 477th, which was redesignated the 332d Fighter Wing in 1947. As the only remaining black unit in the newly-established, but still segregated, United States Air Force (USAF), the 332d suffered from a surplus of qualified personnel while remaining USAF units were often under manned. The performance of the units under Davis' command had laid to rest questions regarding the abilities of the "negro race" and in 1948 the Air Force determined that the efficient use of its manpower required the integration of its units. As a result the Air Force rapidly complied with President Truman's order for the integration of the United States military. Davis acted as an advisor to the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force in relation to the integration of the armed forces. The integration procedure, however, resulted in the deactivation of Davis' command as its personnel were dispersed among the rest of the Air Force; Davis himself was assigned to attend classes at the Air War College at Maxwell AFB, AL.

After completing the course of study at the Air War College (1949-1950), Davis was posted to a variety of command and staff positions both within the United States and abroad. He served in a number of staff positions in Headquarters, USAF, at the Pentagon.(4) He held both command and staff positions abroad in Korea (5), Japan (6), Taiwan (7), Germany (8), and the Philippines.(9) His final assignment was as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command at MacDill AFB, FL.

Davis was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1954 (10), after ten years as a Colonel. He was promoted to Major General in June 1959 and to Lieutenant General in April 1965. Despite persistent rumors of his impending promotion to full General (four stars), no such promotion was pending by the time of his retirement on January 31, 1970.

Throughout his military career Davis took great pains to insure good living conditions and fair treatment for the men under his command. He strove to create good relations between the US military forces and local military and civil authorities. In particular, he negotiated several Status of Forces Agreements and defused several antagonistic situations between US forces and local authorities while commanding units in Asia. In addition, he and Agatha established many personal relationships, which they maintained after their return to the United States.

After his retirement from the military, he served briefly as the Director of Public Safety for the City of Cleveland, OH (February-July 1970), leading the Cleveland Police and Fire Departments in the racially-polarized atmosphere in that city after the riots of the late 1960s. Following his resignation from Cleveland, he took a position as the Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (November 1970-June 1971), where he was responsible for implementing measures to counter the first wave of aerial hijackings of the 1970s. In July 1971 he was appointed Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (July 1971-September 1975), serving both the Nixon and Ford Administrations in that position.

Following his retirement from the civil service, he worked as a consultant to the Department of Transportation in the Ford and Carter Administrations on a number of issues, but was particularly linked to the promotion of the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. He served on a number of boards and commissions, including the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, the American Battle Monuments Commission, The President's Commission on Military Compensation, and the Board of Directors of the Manhattan Life Insurance Co. He was also active in a number of clubs and organizations, particularly the Tuskegee Airmen Inc., which awarded him a lifetime membership in 1991.

In the late 1980s he began work on his autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991). Following its publication, Davis pursued an active speaking career, crossing the country to talk to schools, clubs, and general audiences about his experiences. His book and

es, his contributions to the Black Wings exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum (opened 1983), and the work of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. did much to lift the veil that had fallen over the activities of black Americans during World War II, both in the air and on the ground. For his contributions, both during and after World War II, he received many awards, including the Order of the Sword (presented by the Non-Commissioned Officers of USAF Tactical Air Command, awarded 1978), designation as an Elder Statesman of Aviation (National Aeronautic Association, awarded 1991), and the Langley Medal (Smithsonian Institution, awarded 1992), as well as numerous lifetime and distinguished achievement awards.

On December 9, 1998, Davis was promoted to General on the Retired List, receiving his fourth star from President William Clinton in a ceremony held in the Presidential Hall of the Old Executive Office Building in Washington, DC. The promotion came only after the Tuskegee Airmen approached Senator John McCain of Airzona, who agreed that the promotion was warranted by Davis' service. McCain added the necessary language to a defense-related bill, which was passed by Congress in September 1998.

Agatha died early in 2002 and General Davis, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease, followed shortly after, passing away on July 4, 2002 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC.

Endnotes 1. For the sake of brevity, "Davis" refers to Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. "Davis Sr." refers to his father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr.

2. Davis had requested a commission in the Army Air Corps, but was refused due to his race. Davis was the fourth black American to graduate from West Point and the first in the twentieth century. In keeping with his sentiments, his ethnicity will only be mentioned when it has a direct bearing upon his career. See Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991).

3. At the request of General and Mrs. Davis the term "black" or "black American" is used in preference to "African-American". Patricia Williams, Memorandum for the Record, August 21, 1992, NASM Accession File 1992 0023.

4. Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division/Commands Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O; July 1950-January 1951); Chief, Air Defense Branch/Fighter Branch, DCS/O (January 1951-July 1953); Director of Manpower and Organizations, DCS/Programs and Requirements (August 1961-February 1965); Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements (February-May 1965).

5. Commander, 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing (November 1953-July 1954); Chief of Staff, United Nations Command/US Forces Korea (May 1965-August 1967)

6. Director of Operations and Training, Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo (July 1954-April 1957)

7. Commanding Officer, Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) and Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (June 1955-April 1957)

8. Chief of Staff, Twelfth Air Force (May-December 1957); Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, USAF Europe (December 1957-July 1961)

9. Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (August 1967-July 1968)

10. Davis was the first black American to achieve flag rank in the United States Air Force. He was the second in the armed forces, the first being his father, who was promoted to Brigadier General in the United States Army in 1940.

1912 December 18 -- Davis born in Washington, DC to First Lieutenant Benjamin O. Davis (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis

1914 September 1 -- World War I begins

1915 February -- Davis Sr. begins duties as instructor at Wilberforce University, OH

1916 February 9 -- Elnora Dickerson Davis dies

1917 April 6 -- United States declares war on Germany; direct U.S. involvement in World War I begins

1917 (Summer) -- Davis Sr. assigned to 9th Cavalry Regiment, Camp Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands

1918 November 11 -- World War I armistice signed; end of combat operations in Europe

1919 -- Davis Sr. marries Sadie Overton

1920 July -- Family moves to Tuskegee, AL (Davis Sr. instructs at Tuskegee Institute)

1924 July -- Family moves to Cleveland, OH (Davis Sr. instructs 372d Infantry Regiment, OH National Guard)

1929 -- Davis graduates from Central High School, Cleveland, OH

1929 --1930 -- Davis attends Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH

1930 --1932 -- Davis attends University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

1931 March -- Davis appointed to United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (fails entrance exam)

1932 March -- Davis passes USMA entrance exam

1932 July 1 -- Davis reports to USMA, West Point, NY (attends July 1, 1932-June 12, 1936)

1936 June 12 -- Davis graduates from USMA, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Infantry

1936 June 20 -- Davis marries Agatha Josephine Scott

1936 September 12 -- Davis reports to Company F, 24th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning, GA (Company Officer, September 12, 1936-August 27, 1937)

1937 July 7 -- Japanese forces invades China; World War II begins in Asia

1937 August 27 -- Davis reports to the Infantry School at Fort Benning, GA (attends normal course, August 27, 1937-June 18, 1938)

1938 June 18 -- Davis reports to Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, AL as Professor of Military Science (instructs June 18, 1938-February 14, 1941)

1939 June 12 -- Davis promoted to First Lieutenant

1939 September 1 -- German forces invade Poland; World War II begins in Europe

1940 October 9 -- Davis promoted to Captain (temporary promotion)

1940 October 25 -- Davis Sr. promoted to Brigadier General and placed in command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade at Fort Riley, KS

1941 February -- Davis assigned as Aide de Camp to Davis Sr. (serves February-May 1941)

1941 May 20 -- Davis reports to Flying School at Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL (student, May 20, 1941-March 7, 1942)

1941 December 7 -- Japanese aircraft attack Pearl Harbor, HI; direct U.S. involvement in World War II begins

1942 March 7 -- Davis is appointed Administrative Officer, Tuskegee AAF, AL (serves March 7-August 27, 1942)

1942 May -- Davis transferred from Infantry to Army Air Corps

1942 May 11 -- Davis promoted to Major (temporary promotion)

1942 May 21 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant Colonel (temporary promotion)

1942 August 27 -- Davis assumes command of 99th Fighter Squadron, Tuskegee AAF, AL (Squadron Commander, August 27, 1942-October 4, 1943)

1943 April 24 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Casablanca, French Morocco

1943 April 29 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Oued N'ja, French Morocco

1943 June 7 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Fardjouna, Tunisia

1943 July 28 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Licata, Sicily

1943 September 4 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Termini, Sicily

1943 September 17 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Barcellona, Sicily

1943 September -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1943 October 8 -- Davis assumes command of 332d Fighter Group, Selfridge Field, MI (Group Commander, October 8, 1943-June 7, 1945)

1944 February 3 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Montecorvino, Italy

1944 April 15 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Capodichino, Italy

1944 May 28 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Ramitelli Airfield, Italy

1944 May 29 -- Davis promoted to Colonel (temporary promotion)

1945 May 4 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Cattolica, Italy

1945 May 7 -- Germany surrenders; World War II ends in Europe

1945 June 10 -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1945 June 21 -- Davis assumes command of 477th Composite Group (Group Commander, June 21-30, 1945)

1945 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Godman Field, KY, and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, July 1, 1945-March 4, 1946)

1945 September 2 -- Japan surrenders; World War II ends in the Pacific

1946 March 4 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AAB and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, March 4, 1946-September 15, 1947) All units at Godman Field transferred to Lockbourne Army Air Base, OH

1947 July 1 -- 477th Composite Group redesignated 332d Fighter Wing

1947 July-August -- Davis travels to Liberia with Davis Sr. as a special representative of the United States Government for the establishment of Liberian independence

1947 September 16 -- Davis assumes direct command of 332d Fighter Wing (Wing Commander, September 16, 1947-June 30, 1949)

1947 October 1 -- United States Air Force created as an independent service.

1948 July 2 -- Davis' promotion to Lieutenant Colonel made permanent.

1948 July 26 -- President Truman signs Executive Order 9981 ordering the full integration of the United States armed forces.

1949 May 11 -- USAF issues Air Force Letter 35-3 stating that Air Force policy is equal treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Air Force regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin.

1949 June 30 -- 332d Fighter Wing deactivated

1949 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AFB, OH (Base Commander, July 1-August 16, 1949)

1949 August 16 -- Lockbourne AFB, OH transferred to Ohio Air National Guard

1949 August 17 -- Davis reports to Air War College, Maxwell AFB, AL (attends course, August 17, 1949-July 4, 1950)

1950 June 25 -- North Korean forces invade South Korea; Korean War begins

1950 July 19 -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O), Headquarters, United States Air Force, Washington, DC (serves July 19, 1950-January 4, 1951)

1950 July 27 -- Davis' promotion to Colonel made permanent

1950 August 8 -- Davis awarded Croix de Guerre by the French government for his actions during World War II

1950 September 12 -- Operations and Planning Division redesignated Commands Division of DCS/O

1951 January 5 -- Davis begins duty as Branch Chief, Air Defense Branch, Commands Division, DCS/O. (serves January 5, 1951-July 15, 1953)

1951 April 16 -- Air Defense Branch redesignated Fighter Branch, Control Division, DCS/O

1953 February 5 -- Davis reports to Craig AFB, AL for Jet Indoctrination Course (February 5-March 2, 1953); returns to Fighter Branch on completion of course

1953 July 16 -- Davis reports to Nellis AFB, NV for Advanced Jet Fighter Gunnery School (July 16-November 16, 1953)

1953 July 27 -- Korean War armistice signed; end of combat operations in Korea

1953 November 25 -- Davis assumes command of 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing at Suwon, Korea (Wing Commander, November 25, 1953-July 6, 1954)

1954 July 7 -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo, Japan to serve a Director of Operations and Training (serves July 7, 1954-April 1957)

1954 October 27 -- Davis is promoted to Brigadier General (temporary promotion)

1955 June -- Davis reports to Taipei, Taiwan to establish Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) (Commander, June 1955-April 1957), with simultaneous duties as Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force and Director of Operations and Training, FEAF

1957 March -- Davis awarded Command Pilot Rating

1957 May -- Davis assigned to Twelfth Air Force

1957 June -- Davises travel from Taiwan to Europe via United States

1957 July -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Twelfth Air Force at Ramstein, Germany (Chief of Staff, May-December 1957)

1957 December -- Davis begins duties as Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (ADVON) at Headquarters, USAF Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany (serves December 1957-July 1961)

1959 June 30 -- Davis is promoted to Major General (temporary rank)

1960 May 16 -- Davis' promotion to Brigadier General made permanent

1961 -- US military personnel sent to South Vietnam as advisors

1961 August -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Director of Manpower and Organizations, Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves August 1961-February 1965)

1962 January 30 -- Davis' promotion to Major General is made permanent

1965 February -- Davis begins duty as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves February-May 1965)

1965 April 30 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant General

1965 March 2 -- USAF begins "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign over North Vietnam

1965 May 13 -- Davis reports to Seoul, Korea to begin duties as Chief of Staff to the United Nations Command and United States Forces Korea (serves May 13, 1965-August 1, 1967)

1966 October 25 -- Sadie Overton Davis dies

1967 August -- Davis assumes command of Thirteenth Air Force, Clark Air Base, Philippines (Commanding Officer, August 1967-July 1968)

1968 August 1 -- Davis reports to MacDill AFB, FL to begin duties as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command (serves August 1, 1968-January 31, 1970)

1968 January -- Tet Offensive begins in Vietnam

1968 October 31 -- "Rolling Thunder" ends on orders from President Johnson

1969 January 20 -- Richard M. Nixon inaugurated President of the United States

1970 -- USAF begins withdrawing units from South Vietnam

1970 January 31 -- Davis retires from United States Air Force

1970 February 1 -- Davis begins work as Director of Public Safety for the Cleveland, OH (works February 1, 1970-July 27, 1970)

1970 June 13 -- Davis joins President's Commission on Campus Unrest (report issued September 27, 1971)

1970 July 27 -- Davis resigns from Cleveland position, citing lack of support from Mayor Stokes

1970 September 20 -- Davis begins work as a consultant to the United States Secretary of Transportation on air transportation security (works September 20, 1970-November 4, 1970)

1970 November 4 -- Davis begins work a Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (works November 4, 1970-July 1, 1971)

1970 November 26 -- Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. dies

1971 July 1 -- Davis becomes Acting Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves July 1, 1971-August 3, 1971)

1971 July 8 -- Nixon Administration nominates Davis to be Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs

1971 July 29 -- Senate confirms Davis in Assistant Secretary position

1971 August 3 -- Davis sworn in a Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves August 3, 1970-September 20, 1975)

1973 March 28 -- Last US Military personnel leave South Vietnam

1974 August 9 -- Nixon resigns as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald R. Ford becomes President

1975 September 20 -- Davis retires from Civil Service

1976 April -- Davis begins work as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation for the National Maximum Speed Limit

1977 January 20 -- James E. Carter inaugurated President of the United States

1977 June -- Davis joins President's Commission on Military Compensation (report issued March 1978)

1981 January 20 -- Ronald W. Reagan inaugurated President of the United States Davis leaves position as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation

1989 January 20 -- George H. W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

1991 -- Davis' autobiography – Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography – is published by Smithsonian Press

1991 June 30 -- Davis awarded a Lifetime Membership by Tuskegee Airmen Inc

1993 January 20 -- William J. Clinton inaugurated President of the United States

1998 December 9 -- Davis promoted to General (Retired) in a ceremony at the Old Executive Office Building

2001 January 20 -- George W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

2002 July 4 -- Davis dies at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

2002 July 17 -- Davis buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA
Provenance:
Benjamin O. Davis and Agatha S. Davis, Gift, various, 1992-0023
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Fighter pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0023
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0023
Online Media:

Japanese World War II Aircraft Articles Collection

Creator:
Beilstein, Chris  Search this
Names:
United States Strategic Bombing Survey  Search this
Extent:
2.63 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box) (2 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Publications
Photographs
Date:
[ca. 1940s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection is a comprehensive survey of Japanese World War II aircraft and information on the various air battles and battles where aviation played a significant role in either defeat or victory. The material primarily consists of articles and photographs clipped from American and Japanese scholarly and general interest aviation magazines. Also included are copies of three United States Strategic Bombing Survey reports written after the war that analyze Japanese strategy and tactics.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Chris Beilstein, gift, 1990, 1990-0055, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Airplanes -- Japan  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Publications
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0055
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0055

Edgar J. Wynn Collection

Creator:
Wynn, Edward J., 1914-  Search this
Names:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
Royal Canadian Air Force  Search this
Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc.  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. Air Transport Command  Search this
Wynn, Edward J., 1914-  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 flatbox; 1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Publications
Date:
1939-[ca. 1940s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of several copies of Wynn's So You're going to Fly the Big Stuff, and a black scrapbook containing photographs of Wynn with aircraft and people, mostly captioned.
Biographical / Historical:
Captain Edward J. Wynn (born 1914) learned to fly at age 16, and barnstormed in the East and Middle West of the United States until the outbreak of World War II. In 1940 Wynn joined the Royal Canadian Air Force, where he was an instructor. After a few months, however, Wynn resinged his commission to take a job as a civilian ferry pilot. After forty-odd flights across the North Atlantic as a ferry pilot, he shifted to Pan American Airways where he ferried bombers to Africa by the South Atlantic Route. He later switched to TWA where he had the privilege of piloting Eleanor Roosevelt. After his stint with TWA he became a captain in the Air Transport Command. Wynn wrote several books about flying transport aircraft including Bombers Across, and So You're going to Fly the Big Stuff.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Gardette L. Cumpston, Gift, 1993, 1993-0029, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Airplanes -- Ferrying  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0029
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0029

Colonel Alexis B. McMullen Collection

Creator:
McMullen, Alexis B.  Search this
Names:
National Association of State Aviation Officials  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. Air Transport Command. North African Division  Search this
Cody, Mabel  Search this
McMullen, Alexis B.  Search this
Extent:
28.15 Cubic feet (25 records center boxes; 2 legal document boxes; 1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Maps
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Diaries
Correspondence
Date:
1915-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection spans A.B. McMullen's aviation career and interests, from his involvement in WWI until his death. This collection includes correspondence, both personal and business, reports/material from his aviation corporations/distributorships and stint as Director of Florida Aviation and career in the NASAO. Also included are photographs, articles and newspaper clippings of his career as a barnstormer and of his military career.
Biographical / Historical:
Colonel Alexis B. McMullen participated in American aviation activities at the local, state and national level over a period of some 50 years, as well as international activities during two world wars. A.B. McMullen learned to fly during WWI, and he became an Aerobatic Flight Instructor and Base Engineering Officer. After the war, he barnstormed with Mabel Cody and owned/operated flying schools, aviation corporations and distributorships. In 1933 he became Florida's first State Director of Aviation. Under his leadership in this position, 84 new airports and flight strips were constructed and the first comprehensive state aviation map was published. From 1936-1942 McMullen served as Chief, Airports Section Bureau of Air Division. During WWII he actively served as Deputy Commander North African Division of Air Transport Command (ATC), stationed in Morocco. After the war he established the Washington, D.C. Headquarters of the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO) which he continued to serve with until his retirement.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Sarah Ann Lindsey, gift, 1990, 1990-0060, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeroanutics -- Florida  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Maps
Publications
Photographs
Drawings
Manuscripts
Diaries
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0060
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0060

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