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Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers

Creator:
Gerber, H. Joseph (inventor)  Search this
Names:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company (Hartford, Conn.).  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Articles
Speeches
Place:
Hartford (Conn.)
Date:
1924 - 1999
Summary:
Records document the life and career of H. Joseph Gerber, inventor and president of Gerber Scientific, Inc. Gerber was known for his invention of the variable scale, GERBERcutter S-70, and other automated industrial devices. The records include personal records, correspondence, biographical sketches, photographs, publicity, journals and magazines, clippings, speeches, award information, and one audio recording.
Scope and Contents:
The Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers document Gerber's personal life and career as an inventor and president of Gerber Scientific, Inc. The records are arranged into six series and consist of biographical records, documentation of the Young Man in a Hurry broadcast, correspondence, publicity, speeches, and award records.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1924-1997

Series 2: Young Man in a Hurry, 1950, 1986

Series 3: Correspondence, 1943-1996

Series 4: Publicity, 1949-1995

Subseries 1: Articles, 1950-1995

Subseries 2: Clippings, 1949-1994

Subseries 3: Publicity, 1949

Series 5: Speeches, 1952-1996

Series 6: Awards, 1952-1997

Subseries 1: Outstanding Young Man of the Year, 1952-1955

Subseries 2: R.P.I. Honorary Degree, 1981

Subseries 3: Textile Institute Companion Status, 1992-1994

Subseries 4: National Medal of Technology, 1993-1995

Subseries 5: Heinz Award, 1995

Subseries 6: Other Awards, 1988-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Heinz Joseph "Joe" Gerber was born in Vienna, Austria, on April 17, 1924. In 1940, Gerber escaped the Nazis and immigrated to New York City and then to Hartford, Connecticut, with his mother Bertha Gerber, a dressmaker. Gerber's father, Jacob, is presumed to have died in a concentration camp. Gerber attended Weaver High School and graduated in two years (1943). He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York, on a scholarship and earned a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering in 1947. As a junior at RPI, Gerber developed the Gerber Variable Scale, his first invention. The earliest version of the variable scale was fashioned from an elastic band removed from a pair of pajamas. Gerber created a rubber rule and scale that could flow with a curve, expand, contract, and turn a corner. The scale allows for direct reading of curves, graphs, and graphical representations, giving direct numerical readings of proportions, spacing and interpolation. The Variable Scale became the building block of what would become Gerber Scientific Instrument Inc.

With financial assistance from Abraham Koppleman, a newspaper and magazine distributor in Hartford, Gerber and Koppleman formed a partnership and incorporated Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in 1948. Gerber served as president, Koppleman as treasurer, and Stanley Levin as secretary. The manufacture of the Variable Scale was jobbed out and the distribution was conducted from Hartford. Gerber also worked as a design analytical engineer for Hamilton Standard Propellers of United Aircraft and for Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Shares of Gerber Scientific Instrument Company were eventually sold to the public in 1961, and in 1978, the company changed its name to Gerber Scientific, Inc. In 1967, Gerber realized that the U.S. garment industry, due to a lack of automation, was faced with increasing overseas competition. Gerber's solution was to engineer the GERBERcutter S-70, a machine that cuts apparel quickly and effectively while using less cloth.In the 1960s and 1970s, Gerber developed the first series of precision, computer-driven cutting systems for the apparel industry called the Gerber Cutter. The cutters introduced automation to the garment industry.

Gerber holds more than 600 United States and foreign patents. Many of his patents relate to the United States apparel industry. In 1994, Gerber was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Clinton for helping to revolutionize the optical, garment, automotive, and other industries. His pioneering achievements include:

-a generation of data readers (electromechanical devices that converted graphical data directly into computer readable format)

-projection systems that interactively converted information from aerial photographs for use in computers

-devices that plotted digital output data from computer cards or tape

-digital numerically-controlled drafting machines which verified the accuracy of the cutting path of numerical machine tools

-a photoplotter (drafting machine configured with a unique light source to directly draw high accuracy layouts of printed circuit board masters on photographic film or glass with light beams)

-systems with laser technology to draw at high speeds

Subsequent subsidiaries of Gerber Scientific, Inc., were: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. (GGT); Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. (GSP); Gerber Systems Corp. (GSC), and Gerber Optical, Inc., (GO). GGT makes computer-controlled cutting and design equipment for apparel, automotive, aerospace and other industries. GSP produces systems for sign-making and graphic arts industries. GSC makes production systems for printing, industrial machinery and other industries. GO makes equipment for the optical-lens manufacturing industry.

In 1954, Gerber married Sonia Kanciper. They had a daughter, Melisa Tina Gerber, and a son, David Jacques Gerber. H. Joseph Gerber died on August 9, 1996, at the age of 72.

Sources

National Medal of Technology, 1994.

W. Joseph Campbell, "High Tech and Low Key as Gerber Scientific Mounts a Recovery Philosophy that Reflects Innovative Founder," Hartford Courant, May 16, 1994.
Provenance:
The Archives Center received a twenty-four (24) cubic foot addendum of archival material from David Gerber, son of of Joe Gerber in 2014. The addendum was separated into two collections--the Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records (AC0929) and the Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers (AC01336).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Immigrants -- 20th century  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Machine-tool industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Articles
Speeches
Citation:
Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1336
See more items in:
Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1336
Online Media:

Greg Meyer Taser Collection

Creator:
Cover, Jack  Search this
Donor:
Meyer, Greg  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Test reports
Patents
Photographs
Articles
Design drawings
Eulogies
Date:
1946 - 2009
Summary:
Papers relating to the invention, development, use, and popularization of the Taser, a nonlethal weapon invented by Jack Covers.
Scope and Contents:
Papers relating to the invention, development, use, and popularization of the Taser, a nonlethal weapon invented by Jack Cover. The collection includes biographical information about Cover, Cover's initial concept paper, design drawings, notes and writings, photographs, papers relating to the patenting of the Taser, test results, training materials on the use of the Taser, articles and printed materials, notes to law enforcement officers, response to controversy surrounding the use and misuse of the Taser, and a eulogy. Interaction and use of the Taser by law enforcement mostly focuses on the Los Angeles Police Department.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
John "Jack" Cover (1920-2009) was born in New York, New York. He joined the United States Air Force in 1942, and served as an aeronautical engineer and an aircraft engineering officer. During World War II he was awarded the World War II Victory Medal and American Theater Service Medal. Cover was released from active service in 1946, after which he earned a B.S and Ph.D at University of Chicago. He worked at North American Aviation (NAA), as a contractor for NASA, and was part of the the team that won the Prime contract for NAA from 1961-1962 on the Apollo Moon Landing Program.

As a result of a growing push for law enforcement agencies to use non-lethal weapons in the 1960's, Cover developed and later patented iwhat would become known as the TASER. He named the device the Taser, an acronym for Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifle. Cover formed Taser Systems. Inc. in 1970 and the Taser was patented in 1974 as a "Weapon for Immobilization and Capture (US 3,803,463). The device was adopted by the Los Angeles Police Department in the 1970s as an alternative to lethal weapons in subduing suspects, particularly those under the influence of drugs or who posed harm to themselves.
Provenance:
Collected donated by Greg Meyer, 2013.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Weapons  Search this
TASER  Search this
Nonlethal weapons  Search this
Stun guns  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Test reports
Patents -- 20th century
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Articles
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Eulogies
Citation:
Greg Meyer Taser Collection, 1946-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1311
See more items in:
Greg Meyer Taser Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1311

Paul MacCready Innovative Lives Presentation

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Interviewee:
Judd, Michael  Search this
MacCready, Paul, 1925-  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Oral history
Interviews
Videotapes
Date:
2002-11-08
Scope and Contents:
Collection includes nine (9) original Beta Cam SP videos documenting interviews with Paul MacCready, the father of human powered flight. MacCready invented the Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross.
Biographical / Historical:
Born September 25, 1925 in New Haven, Connecticut. He began flying in his teens and received formal flight training from the Navy during World War II. After the war, MacCready earned a physics degree from Yale University and a doctorate in aeronautical engineering from California Institute of Technology.
Provenance:
Created by the Innovative Lives Program of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Solar energy -- 20th century  Search this
Gliders (Aeronautics)  Search this
Physics -- 20th century  Search this
Engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Oral history -- 2000-2010
Interviews -- 2000-2010
Videotapes
Citation:
Paul MacCready Innovative Lives Presentation, November 8, 2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0842
See more items in:
Paul MacCready Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0842

David Gittens Innovative Lives Presentation

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Gittens, David  Search this
Names:
Gyro 200 Company.  Search this
Extent:
0.35 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Lectures
Slides
Date:
May 7, 1997
Scope and Contents:
Original and reference videos documenting an NMAH children's program by David Gittens, the inventor of the Ikenga 5302 gyroplane.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Original videos, 1997

Series 2: Master videos, 1997

Series 3: Reference Videos, 1997

Series 4; Photographs, 1997
Biographical / Historical:
Gittens's Ikenga 5302 has several applications--aerial photography, aerial surveying, air courier, border patrol, cattle herding, commuting, crop spraying, flying doctors, intelligence gathering, pipe line inspection, postal service, reconnaissance, and search and rescue. The name Ikenga is derived from Ibomythology in Eastern Nigeria and refers to the creative life forces of humanity.
Related Materials:
The Ikenga 5302 gyroplane is part of National Air and Space Museum's collections, housed at the Garber facility, Silver Hill, Maryland.
Provenance:
Made for the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Autogiros  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Lectures -- 1990-2000
Slides
Citation:
David Gittens Innovative Lives Presentation, May 7, 1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0598
See more items in:
David Gittens Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0598

The Federal Express Advertising History Collection

Interviewer:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Fallon McElligott Advertising Agency  Search this
Federal Express Corporation  Search this
Names:
Ally & Gargano, Inc. (advertising agency)  Search this
Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Interviewee:
Ally, Carl  Search this
Altenburg, Nancy  Search this
Burnham, Patrick  Search this
Frazier, Sharon  Search this
Gargano, Amil  Search this
Kelly, Patrick  Search this
Miller, William B.  Search this
Moschitta, John (actor)  Search this
Oliver, Tom  Search this
Presley, Carol  Search this
Sedelmaier, Joe (filmmaker)  Search this
Smith, Fred  Search this
Tesch, Mike  Search this
Williams, Carl  Search this
Extent:
6.6 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Minneapolis (Minn.)
Chicago (Ill.)
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1972-1989
Summary:
Created in 1971, the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system was an innovative company known for its memorable advertising campaigns. The core of the Federal Express Advertising History Collection is a series of interviews conducted in 1988 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth. Twenty-five individuals associated with Federal Express advertising were interviewed about the company and its award-winning advertising.
Scope and Contents:
The Federal Express Advertising Collection documents the dvelopment of the overnight air freight delivery company with particular emphasis on the innovative advertising campaigns used to introduce and promote the company's services. The oral histories with individuals associated with both Federal Express Corporation and the advertising agencies form the core of the collection. Abstracts that provide biographical information and summaries of the interviews supplement the oral histories. Research files and company publications provide background information. Television commercials and print advertising contain examples, particularly illustrating the campaigns discussed in the interviews.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1972-1988

Subseries 1.1, Federal Express Clippings Files

Subseries 1.2, Federal Express Research Reports

Subseries 1.3, Research Files

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1988

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1988

Subseries 3.1, Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2, Researcher Copies

Subseries 3.3, Masters

Series 4, Television Advertising, 1973-1989

Subseries 4.1, Television Commercials

Subseries 4.2, Storyboards

Subseries 4.3, Slides and Photographs

Series 5, Print Advertising, 1972-1988

Subseries 5.1, Federal Express Print Advertising

Subseries 5.2, Federal Express Mechanicals

Subseries 5.3, Slides of Mechanicals and International Marketing

Subseries 5.4, Federal Express Posters

Subseries 5.5, Print Reference Materials

Series 6, Public Relations Materials, 1973-1988

Series 7, Company Publications, 1973-1988

Series 8, Miscellaneous, Undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1971, Fred Smith of Memphis, Tennessee created the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system. He based his idea for a new approach to the air freight delivery service on the "hub and spoke system." According to Smith's innovative model, a fleet of airplanes would fly packages from cities across the nation each evening to a central "hub" in Memphis, where the parcels would be unloaded, sorted, and re-loaded onto other planes for travel to their final destinations. Smith's objective was two-fold: to expedite delivery of the parcels and to ensure their security in the process.

In 1977, Congress passed the Air Cargo Deregulation Act. This enabled Federal Express to fly much larger planes and to expand its business without substantial capital investment. During its first decade of existence, the corporation achieved remarkable success, enjoying its first billion-dollar revenue in 1981.

Federal Express originally employed two advertising agencies: Ally & Gargano, Inc. of New York City (1974-1987) and Fallon McElligott of Minneapolis (1987 - 1994). In its early years, Federal Express was attracted to Ally & Gargano due to the agency's small size and its entrepreneurial spirit. Fred Smith believed these traits would foster the creativity necessary for original and effective advertising to introduce Federal Express. It was the responsibility of the agency to convince customers not only to abandon such incumbants in the industry as Emery, United Parcel Service and the U.S. Postal Service, but also to trust Federal Express, a newcomer.

Ally & Gargano targeted the professional community and the general public through print advertisements and television commercials. Especially in the latter medium, the agency used humor as its primary marketing technique, emphasizing competitors' "slowness" and "unreliability." In 1981, the agency launched a series of widely acclaimed ads with John Moschitta as the "Fast Talking Man." The slogan "When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight" seen at the close of most commercials served as a practical reminder of Federal Express' function.

Federal Express moved its account from Ally & Gargano to Fallon McElligott in 1987. Fallon McElligott's first television campaign used the phrase "It's more than just a package -- it's your business" and depicted scenes of different work environments. The campaign stressed the seriousness with which Federal Express handled its customers' parcels. In 1988, Federal Express was a sponsor of the Winter Olympics.
Related Materials:
Ally and Gargano, Inc. Print Advertisements (AC0938)
Provenance:
Made by the Smithsonian Institution and donated by the Federal Express Corporation, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television advertising  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Service industries  Search this
Overnight delivery service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Freight  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Citation:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection, 1972-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smiithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0306
See more items in:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0306

Melvin Kranzberg Papers

Creator:
Kranzberg, Melvin, Dr., 1917-1995  Search this
Names:
Society for the History of Technology  Search this
Extent:
140 Cubic feet (408 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Personal papers
Business records
Professional papers
Correspondence
Date:
1934 - 1988
Summary:
Personal papers of Dr. Kranzberg from his undergraduate years at Amherst College through his professional career. Collection documents his involvement with development of the new field of history of technology and his role as principal founder of the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT); work as consultant and advisor to domestic and international agencies, colleges, and universities; personal affiliations, lectureships, publications; and teaching and administrative activities for more than 40 years as a college professor.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 140 cubic feet of material divided into nine series and housed in 359 document boxes. Several subseries remain organized in the original order as they were received. There has been no attempt by the archivist to rearrange them. Some folders did not have folder titles. The archivist has provided titles in those instances, and these folder titles have been put in brackets [] in the Container List. Melvin Kranzberg's personal activities from 1934 through 1968 are arranged chronologically in Series 4: PERSONAL ACTIVITIES, including his early education. Series 8: TEACHING AND ADMINISTRATION is divided into two subseries and is comprised of teaching and administrative files compiled by Dr. Kranzberg during his forty years as a college professor.

Series 2: Correspondence between Kranzberg and numerous colleagues in the U.S. and abroad, 1949-1988. He was actively involved with technically oriented societies, U.S. government agencies, and SHOT. Since he also wrote a textbook and several encyclopedia articles, subjects range from business to academic to personal.

Kranzberg's role as a consultant and advisor is located in Series 1: CONSULTATION AND ADVISEMENT. This series is further divided into nine alphabetically arranged subseries. Kranzberg's many professional affiliations are arranged in Series 5: PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS. This series is comprised of eight alphabetically arranged subseries. Series 2: CORRESPONDENCE is also arranged alphabetically and contains much of Dr. Kranzberg's correspondence during the years 1949 to 1988. He was actively involved with a number of technically oriented societies, United States government agencies, and the Society for the History of Technology. Since he also wrote a textbook and several encyclopedia articles, the subjects represented range from business to academic to personal.

Series 7: RESEARCH SUBJECT FILES is arranged alphabetically and documents nearly forty years of research by Kranzberg on hundreds of diverse topics. The results of some of this research is available in Series 6: PUBLICATIONS, which is divided into eleven subseries and contains manuscripts, research, correspondence, outlines, and reprints of various Kranzberg essays and books. In addition, much of Kranzberg's research results were delivered in a verbal format. Series 3: LECTURESHIPS is divided into three subseries, and not only details lectures and speeches delivered by Melvin Kranzberg, but also those given by his colleagues, and those delivered at the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminars for Professional Journalists, which he organized. Series 9: SPECIAL PROJECTS consists of materials relative to a number of projects of varying importance and duration, such as engineering and human values and ethics in an age of pervasive technology.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Consultation and advisement, 1958-1987

Series 2: Correspondence, 1949-1988

Series 3: Lectureships and speeches, 1951-1988

Series 4: Biographical, 1934-1963

Series 5: Professional affiliations, 1961-1988

Series 6: Publications, 1942-1968

Series 7: Research subject files, 1940-1978

Series 8: Teaching and administration, 1947-1988

Series 9: Special projects, 1951-1980
Historical:
Kranzberg's Six Laws

As reported in the July 1986 Issue of Technology and Culture, Volume 27, Number 3, pages 544-561, Kranzberg's Six Laws are listed as follows in the SHOT Presidential Address.

"These are not laws in the sense of commandments but rather a series of truisms deriving from a longtime immersion in the study of the development of technology and its interactions with sociocultural change." 1.. Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral.(p.545); 2. Invention is the mother of necessity, (p.548) 3. Technology comes in packages, big and small, (p. 549); 4. Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology-policy decisions, (p. 550); 5. All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant, (p. 553); 6. Technology is a very human activity—and so is the history of technology, (p. 557); 7."But if ours is truly a man-made world, I claim that mankind can re-make it. And in that remaking process, the history of technology can play a very important role in enabling us to meet the challenges besetting mankind now and in the future."
Biographical:
Melvin Kranzberg (born St. Louis, Mo.) received his A.B. from Amherst College (1938), and his M.A. (1939) and Ph.D. (1942) in modern European history from Harvard University. When World War II commenced, Dr. Kranzberg went, with an Amherst professor, Charles W. Cole, to work at the Office of Price Administration in Washington, D. C. At that same time, he enlisted in the Signal Corps Reserve. Since he was regarded as "educable," he was sent for electronics training at Catholic University, and then to Johns Hopkins for a three-year course in electrical engineering that was crammed into sixteen weeks. Instead of receiving a commission, he was sent to Philco Radio Laboratories in Philadelphia for another three-month crash course, this one in radar.

By the end of his course of study, however, the Signal Corps no longer needed officers and he was put in the infantry. After basic training, he was assigned to the Army's Specialized Training Program. His language skills enabled him to engage in an intensive three-month study of Turkish. Since invasion of Turkey was not likely, he then entered a language program in German. This led to appointment in Military Intelligence, where he was charged with interrogating German POWs, often on the front lines. That assignment lasted from about September 1944 through the Battle of the Bulge, until the German surrender. He received three Battle Stars, a Combat Infantry Badge, and a Bronze Star. He was awarded honorary doctorates of letters (Litt. D.) by New Jersey Institute of Technology and Northern Michigan University, doctorates of engineering (D. Eng.) by Worcester Polytechnic Institute and Colorado School of Mines, and doctorates of humane letters (L.H.D.) by Denison University and Amherst College.

Dr. Kranzberg's major professional contribution has been the establishment of a new field of history: the history of technology. He was the principal founder of the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT), founding editor (1959-81) of its quarterly journal, Technology and Culture, and served as SHOT Secretary (1959-74) and President (1983-84). A cofounder of ICOHTEC (International Committee for the History of Technology, a Scientific Section of the International Union for the History Science [UNESCO], he served as its vice-president from its inception in 1968. When he retired from that post at ICOHTEC'S 17th International Symposium (Hamburg, 1989), he was elected honorary president for life. In 1979-1980 Dr. Kranzberg was national president of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (120,000 active members in 500 chapters and clubs). Over the years, he has been a Sigma Xi National Lecturer and has served on various committees of the honorary organization. He was Chairman (1966, 1979) of Section L (History and Philosophy of Science) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and Chairman (1978-81) of the AAAS Committee on Science Engineering, and Public Policy. From 1977-1980, he chaired the Advisory Committees of the Policy Research and Analysis (PRA) and Science Resources Studies (SRS) Divisions of the National Science Foundation (NSF). An original member (1964) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's History Advisory Committee (Chairman, 1966-71, 1984-87), he also served on NASA's National Advisory Council (1984-87). In 1989, Dr. Kranzberg was elected to the newly founded Board of the National Association for Science, Technology, and Society (NASTS), an "umbrella organization for educators, scientists, engineers, public policy analysts, public interest groups, media, and individuals interested in the impact of scientific and technological development on society." At its 1992 Annual Technological Literacy Conference, Kranzberg was honored by being the initial recipient of a NASTS Honorary Lifetime Membership.

Other activities include: Vice-President, AAAS (1966); Chairman (1957-58), Humanistic-Social Division, American Society for Engineering Education (ASEEO; Vice-President (1959), Society for French Historical Studies; Trustee (1979-), Charles Babbage Foundation; and Chairman (1972-73), U.S. National Committee of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. He has served on the Technology Assessment Panel of the National Academy of Sciences and the NAS Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering, The National Research Council's Committee on the Education and Utilization of the Engineer, and various advisory committees of the National Academy of Engineering.

Kranzberg has been a member of the Editorial Advisory Boards of the following journals: Engineering Education; Science, Technology & Human Values; Knowledge in Society; History and Technology; and Research in Philosophy and Technology; and the "Inside Technology" book series of the MIT Press. In 1980, he coordinated the Course-by-Newspaper on "Energy and the Way We Live" with 400 newspapers and was awarded a $10,000 prize by the Academy for Educational Development. He was a TV commentator on the PBS "Connections" series and lectured throughout the world, including USIA tours to India, Southeast Asia, and Africa. He has written or edited: The Siege of Paris, 1870-1871 (1950; reprinted 1970); 1848: A Turning Point? (1959, 14 printings); the two-volume

Technology in Western Civilization (1967; Japanese, 1976; Spanish, 1980); Technology and Culture: an Anthology (1972; Arabic, 1976; Spanish 1980); By the Sweat of Thy Brow: Work in the Western World (1975 [an alternate selection of the Fortune Book Club]; Italian, 1976); Technological Innovation: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge (1978); Energy and the Way We Live (1980); Ethics in an Age of Pervasive Technology (1980); Bridge to the Future: A Centennial Celebration of the Brooklyn Bridge (1984); Technological Education/Technological Style (1986); and Innovation at the Crossroads Between Science and Technology (1989). He is also the author of over 150 articles in encyclopedias, learned journals, and scholarly collections on topics in European history, engineering education, history of technology, science-technology policy, and science-technology-society interactions.

Dr. Kranzberg taught at Harvard, Stevens Institute of Technology, Amherst College, and Case Western Reserve University, where he established the first graduate program in the history of technology at an American university. From 1972 to 1988, he was Callaway Professor of the History of Technology at Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). He is a member of the honorary societies Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Epsilon Pi Tau, and Phi Kappa Phi. His awards include: Leonardo da Vinci Medal, Society for the History of Technology (1968); Apollo Achievement Award, NASA (1969); Special Research Day Citation, Case Western Reserve University (1970); Special Recognition Award, American Industrial Arts Association (1978); and the Roe Medal, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1980). Dr. Kranzberg was one of 100 Americans presented the State of Israel's Jabotinsky Centennial Medal (1980) for eminence in the sciences and letters, and was elected (1985) an Honorary Foreign Member of the Czechoslovak Society for the History of Science and Technology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. In 1991, the Liberal Education Division of the American Society for Engineering Education presented him its Olmsted Award for "outstanding contributions to engineering education by bringing the humanities and technology together for the mutual benefit of both." In November 1991, the Society for Social Studies of Science (SSSS) and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) presented him the Bernal Award for "outstanding contributions to the social studies of science." At its 1994 meeting in Zaragoza, Spain, the prestigious International Academy of the History of Science elected Dr. Kranzberg to its membership.

The January-September 1976 issue (Vol. 12, Nos. 1-3) of Lex et Scientia (The International Journal of Law and Science) was devoted to Kranzberg's 1975 Mellon Lectures at Lehigh University, and the French Centre de Recherche sur la Culture Technique dedicated its June 1983 (No. 10) issue of Culture Technique to him. In 1985 The Society for the History of Technology and the MIT Press co-published John M. Staudenmaier's, Technology's Storytellers: Reweaving the Human Fabric as a "tribute" to him, and Lehigh University Press published (1989) Stephen H. Cutcliffe and Robert C. Post's, In Context; History and the History of Technology — Essays in Honor of Melvin Kranzbergr containing articles by major historians of technology. When Dr. Kranzberg became emeritus in June 1988, the Georgia Tech Foundation established the Melvin Kranzberg Professorship in the History of Technology. The first occupant of this chair was Dr. Bruce Sinclair, former head of the Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology at the University of Toronto and a former student of Dr. Kranzberg. Dr. Melvin Kranzberg married tLouise Lester Clark.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Georgia Institute of Technology, through Dr. Melvin Kranzberg, August 24, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Collection stored off-site. Contact repository for details.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Technology -- Societies, etc. -- 1930-1990  Search this
Educators -- 1930-1990  Search this
Technology -- History -- 1930-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Personal papers -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Professional papers -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 1940-1990
Citation:
Melvin Kranzberg Papers, 1934-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0266
See more items in:
Melvin Kranzberg Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0266

Greville I. Bathe Papers

Creator:
Bathe, Greville  Search this
Names:
Evans, Oliver, 1766-1819  Search this
Perkins, Jacob, 1766-1849  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Patents
Wills
Notebooks
Genealogies
Letters
Pamphlets
Articles
Writings
Design drawings
Catalogs
Date:
bulk 1933-1944
1893-1985
Scope and Contents note:
Papers contain archival materials comprising Bathe's research on Oliver Evans (1755-1819), an American engineer engaged in the development of steam engines. The collection includes copies of letters, design drawings, pamphlets and a book written by Evans, patents, a scrapbook, articles, genealogical information, Evans's will, and writings by Bathe on Evans, including his book about him. Correspondence with libraries and other scholars is included, as are papers relating to the book such as reviews, notebooks, and papers relating to the printing and publishing. There is also research material on American engineer Jacob Perkins, for Bathe's books Citizen Genet (1946), Horizontal Windmills (1948), and Ship of Destiny...Merrimac (1951), and assorted trade catalogs and materials pertaining to Bathe's manufacturing companies in London and Philadelphia. A photograph album compiled by Bathe containing photographs and sketches of models built by Bathe is also included.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Correspdondence, 1893-1960

Series 2: Photographs, 1897-1954

Series 3: Writings, 1933-1960

Series 4: Catalogs/Trade Literature, 1905-1985

Series 5: Research about Oliver Evans (1955-1819), 1933-1962

Series 6: Research about Jacob Perkins (1766-1849), 1937-1944

Series 7: Miscellaneous, 1919-1980
Biographical:
Greville I. Bathe (1883-1964) was born in Cambridge, England. He attended the London Polytechnic Institute, earning a degree in mechanical engineering. Bathe worked in England as a model maker and in 1919 came to the United States to establish a model making business in Philadelphia which he ran until 1936. Bathe retired to Florida in 1948.

Bathe built and collected working scale models of steam engines, a hobby that dates to his childhood in England. During his lifetime he amassed a significant library of books (1,500) on the history of technology before and after the Industrial Revolution. Bathe wrote extensively about steam engines and was the author of many articles and books which included Jacob Perkins: His Inventions, His Times, and His Contemporaries (1943), Horizontal windmills, draft mills and similar air-flow engines (1948), The rise and decline of the paddle-wheel (1962), The St. John's Railroad, 1858 to 1895: a contemporary history of a pioneer railroad (1958), and his definitive biography of Oliver Evans (1935).
Related Materials:
Swarthmore College Libraries

Bathe Collection in the History of Technology

The Bathe Collection is comprised of some 1,500 volumes on the history of technology before and after the Industrial Revolution. The collection was willed to Swarthmore by Greville Bathe, author of several books on the history of technology, and contains primary source material from the 16th through 18th centuries as well as contemporary bibliographies, biographies, histories, and secondary materials. The collection's range of subject matter extends from steam engines and their inventors to post-Newtonian mechanics, early aeronautics, and the Atlantic cable. In addition, it includes Greville Bathe's books, galley proofs, and manuscripts.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History holds artifacts related to Greville I. Bathe, specifically scale models built by Bathe.
Provenance:
Originally a bequest to the National Museum of American History from Greville I. Bathe.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Windmills  Search this
Engineering -- History  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Patents
Wills
Notebooks
Genealogies
Letters
Pamphlets -- 19th century
Articles
Writings
Design drawings
Catalogs
Citation:
Archives Center, Greville I. Bathe Papers, 1933-1967, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0970
See more items in:
Greville I. Bathe Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0970

Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records

Creator:
Gerber, H. Joseph  Search this
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company (Hartford, Conn.).  Search this
Extent:
75 Cubic feet (182 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Marketing records
Photographs
Speeches
Correspondence
Catalogs
Clippings
Patents
Business records
Manuals
Legal documents
Date:
1911 - 1999
Summary:
Records document the Gerber Scientific Instrument Company, Hartford, Connecticut, and its four subsidiaries: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc., Gerber Scientific Products, Inc., Gerber Systems Corp., and Gerber Optical, Inc. Gerber Scientific designs, develops, manufactures, markets and services computer aided design and computer aided CAD/CAM systems. The records include correspondence, memoranda, product literature, trade literature, patent records, instruction manuals, proposals, engineering records, photographs, technical reports, drawings, press releases, and newspaper clippings.
Scope and Contents:
The Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records document the company's designs, development, manufacture, and marketing of computer-aided design and computer-aided CAD/CAM systems. The records are arranged into twelve series and consist of Personal, Corporate Records, Engineering Department Records, Product Literature, Instruction Manuals/User Guides, Proposals, Photographs, Trade Literature, Press Releases and Newspaper Clippings, Patent Records, Lectra Systèmes Litigation Materials, and Audio Visual Materials.

Series 1, David R. Pearl, 1968-1984, contains three volumes of diaries kept by David R. Pearl, President of Gerber Garment Technology. The diaries were maintained by Pearl from July 21, 1968 to June 6, 1977, to document Pearl's and H. Joseph Gerber's activities concerning the development of the technology and the establishment of a business to market computer-controlled fabric cutting devices. One notebook contains some materials later than 1977. There are diary entries for September 12, 1979, February 1, 1980, and October 29, 1984.

Series 2, Corporate Records, 1968-1999, includes administrative records, an Industrial Projects Eligibility Review, annual reports, shareholders reports, newsletters, New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) materials, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) materials, Gerber Museum documents, and empty Gerber Scientific Instrument Company binders. The administrative documents consist of a corporate history, mission statement, organizational chart, company map, time line and biographies of key corporate personnel. There are two organizational charts: one for the Engineering Organization (software, mechanical and electrical divisions) from 1987 and one for the subsidiary Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. (Gerber Garment Technology (GGT)), dated 1985. Additional organizational charts can be found with the 1968 annual report. The Industrial Projects Eligibility Review was submitted to the Connecticut Development Authority by Gerber Scientific Intsrument (GSI) to facilitate financing for future expansion of the company. A copy of the company's articles of incorporation are here. The newsletters included in this series are in-house publications for employees only. The newsletter Communiqué, 1960, is in Series 4, Product Literature. The NYSE materials include press releases, photographs, the listing application to the NYSE and printed material about Gerber Scientific, Inc. joining the NYSE in October 1980. Gerber Scientific is traded on the Stock Exchange as GRB. The Securities and Exchange Commission files contain Form S-3, a registration statement and the Annual Report, and Form 10-K for Gerber Scientific, Inc. The Gerber Museum file includes photographs of artifacts and a 1996 memo and fax discussing the establishment of a museum to honor H. Joseph Gerber.

Series 3, Engineering Department Records, 1966-1990, is the largest series and is arranged alphabetically by the engineer's last name and then alphabetically by subject/topic. The records include the files of: Ed LaGraize, David Logan, Bud Rich, Ron Webster, and Ken Wood. The majority of engineering files belong to David Logan. Logan joined Gerber Scientific Instrument in 1957 as a project engineer. From 1959 to 1961, he was chief engineer and then became Vice President of Engineering from 1961 to 1963. From 1963 to 1980, Logan served as Senior Vice President of Engineering. He holds several patents, primarily in the field of plotting devices and control systems. The engineering files contain technical memoranda, correspondence, drawings, product literature, trade literature, notes, and drawings.

Series 4, Product Literature, 1953-1996, contains informational sheets for a variety of products available from Gerber Scientific, Inc. and its subsidiary companies. Gerber Scientific Instrument (GSI) creates designs, manufactures and promotes data reduction equipment of many types. Data reduction equipment allows complex mathematical problems to be solved quickly and accurately. Both analogue and digital systems are offered. The bulk of the product literature falls into the following categories: instruments, data reader systems, recorders, special scanning tables, oscillogram amplitude tabulators, standard system scanners, and plotters. The series is arranged alphabetically by name of product with a few exceptions.

Series 5, Instruction Manuals/User Guides, 1953-1980, undated, is divided into two subseries, Gerber Scientific Instrument Company manuals and other companies' manuals. This series contains instruction manuals, maintenance manuals, and users' guides for a variety of Gerber Scientific, Inc. products. The Gerber System Model 1434, Ultra Precise Artwork Generator which provides precision photo-plotting on photo-sensitive material is well represented among the manuals. The other companies represented include Bendix Industrial Controls and the KOH-I-NOOR Rapidograph, Inc.

Series 6, Proposals, 1961-1980, consists of bound certified and signed technical and bid proposals completed by Gerber Scientific Instrument Company detailing available and actual estimated costs and pricing data for Gerber products. The proposals were assembled for specific companies such as North American Aviation.

Series 7, Photographs, 1948-1974, undated, is further divided into three subseries: Product and Client Files, 1966-1974, undated; Gerber Scientific Instrument (Gerber Scientific Intsrument (GSI) Corporate, 1948-1970, undated; and Numerical, 1966-1974, undated photographs. The majority of photographs are 8" x 10" black-and-white prints. The product and client file photographs are arranged alphabetically. The Gerber Scientific Instrument (GSI) corporate photographs include photographs of GSI buildings both interior and exterior shots, employees, employee functions such as banquets, annual meetings, tours, stockholder meetings, and trade shows. The numerical photographs are arranged numerically according to the number assigned on the reverse of the photograph. Some of the numerical photographs are identified by product name, but others are labeled unidentified.

Series 8, Trade Literature, 1947-1992, is arranged alphabetically by company name. The trade literature in this series is from competitors or from companies that used Gerber products.

Series 9, Press Releases and Newspaper Clippings, 1943-1996, is divided into two subseries, Press Releases, 1972-1982 and Newspaper Clippings, 1943-1996. The press releases are arranged chronologically. This series contains information on H. Joseph Gerber, his company and its subsidiaries, and the garment and apparel industry. The newspaper clippings are arranged chronologically and include a wide variety of local Connecticut and United States newspapers and industry specific magazines such as Bobbin and Apparel Industry.

Series 10, Patent Records, 1911-1985, contains copies of patents, correspondence with patent attorneys and the United States Patent and Trademark Office, patent search results, and other legal filings associated with the patenting process. The materials are arranged chronologically with the name of the equipment or instruments being patented noted.

Series 11, Lectra Systèmes Litigation Materials, 1968-1990, contains documents that mainly deal with Lectra (France), but there are documents about patent infringement for Lectra (Japan) and Lectra (United Kingdom). The materials consist of depositions by David Pearl, then president of Gerber Garment Technology, and David Siegelman, then Vice President and General Manager for Lectra Systèmes, Inc., in the United States. Confidential progress reports, memoranda, correspondence, competition reports, drawings and sketches, notes, and other documents summarize events in the litigation history.

Lectra Systèmes was formed on November 12, 1973 at Bordeaux-Cestas (France) by two visionary engineers, Jean and Bernard Etcheparre. They developed a computer system, the LECteur-TRAceur 200, which automatically calculated and plotted all sizes of an item of apparel. The Lectra Systèmes litigation materials document Gerber Garment Technology's claim that Lectra infringed upon Gerber's line of cutting machines. The specific patents being infringed are United States patents: 3,955,458; 4,205,835; and 3,765,289. In September 1986, Lectra introduced a new line of cutting machines that cost roughly half as much as Gerber's top-of-the-line competing system. Gerber Garment Technology filed suit in the United States and France as Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. v. Lectra Systems, Inc. Civil Action No. 1:86-cv-2054CAM. In 1992, Lectra Systems, Inc., appealled the judgment of the United States District Court for the Northern District infringement of Gerber's U.S. Patent No. 3,955,458 ('458 patent) and denied Lectra's claim that Gerber's U.S. Patent No., 4,205,835 ('835 patent) is unenforceable.

Series 12, Audio Visual Materials, 1986-1998, includes 3⁄4" U-matic, 1⁄2" VHS, audio cassettes, BetaCam SP, and one Super 8mm color, silent camera original reversal film. The majority the of audio visual materials cover interviews with H. Joseph Gerber, the National Technology of Medal ceremony, and sales and marketing footage for various Gerber products.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into twelve series.

Series 1: David R. Pearl Materials, 1968-1984

Series 2: Corporate Records, 1968-2002

Subseries 2.1: Administrative, circa 1977-1995

Subseries 2.2: Industrial Projects Eligibility Review, undated (contains articles of incorporation for Gerber Scientific)

Subseries 2.3: Annual Reports, 1968-1999

Subseries 2.4: Shareholders Reports, 1990-1995, 1997, 1998

Subseries 2.5: Newsletters, 1969-1996

Subseries 2.6: New York Stock Exchange, 1980 October

Subseries 2.7: Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 1983-1992

Subseries 2.8: Gerber Museum, 1996

Subseries 2.9: Gerber Scientific Instrument Company binders (empty), undated

Subseries 2.10: Stock and Financial Information, 1949-2002

Series 3: Engineering Department Records, 1966-1990

Subseries 3.1: Ed LaGraize's Files, 1978-1990

Subseries 3.2: Dave Logan's Engineering Files, 1966-1990

Subseries 3.3: Dave Logan's Competitors Files, 1966-1982

Subseries 3.4: Bud Rich's Files, 1967-1980

Subseries 3.5, Ron Webster's Files, 1963-1992

Subseries 3.6: Ken Wood's Files, 1976-1980

Subseries 3.7: Ken Wood's Case Study of Model 1434, 1966-1989

Subseries 3.8: General Engineering Files, 1970-1980

Series 4: Product Literature, 1953-1996

Series 5: Instruction Manuals/User Guides, 1953-1980, undated

Subseries 5.1: Gerber Scientific Instrument Company, 1953-1979

Subseries 5.2: Other Companies, 1962, 1980

Series 6: Proposals, 1961-1980

Series 7: Photographs, 1948-1974, undated

Subseries 7.1, Product and Client Files, 1966-1974, undated

Subseries 7.2, Gerber Scientific Instrument Corporate, 1948-1970, undated

Subseries 7.3, Numerical, 1966-1974, undated

Series 8: Trade Literature, 1947-1992

Series 9: Press Releases and Newspaper Clippings, 1943-1998

Subseries 9.1: Press Releases, 1972-1998

Subseries 9.2: Newspaper clippings, 1943-1996

Subseries 9.3: Articles, 1969-1991

Series 10: Patent Records, 1911-1985

Series 11: Lectra Systèmes Litigation Materials, 1968-1990

Series 12: Audio Visual Materials, 1986-1998
Biographical / Historical:
Heinz Joseph "Joe" Gerber was born in Vienna, Austria, on April 17, 1924. In 1940, Gerber escaped the Nazis and immigrated to New York City and then to Hartford, Connecticut, with his mother Bertha Gerber, a dressmaker. Gerber's father, Jacob, is presumed to have died in a concentration camp. Gerber attended Weaver High School and graduated in two years (1943). He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York, on a scholarship and earned a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering in 1947. As a junior at RPI, Gerber developed the Gerber Variable Scale, his first invention. The earliest version of the variable scale was fashioned from an elastic band removed from a pair of pajamas. Gerber created a rubber rule and scale that could flow with a curve, expand, contract, and turn a corner. The scale allows for direct reading of curves, graphs, and graphical representations, giving direct numerical readings of proportions, spacing and interpolation. The Variable Scale became the building block of what would become Gerber Scientific Instrument Inc.

With financial assistance from Abraham Koppleman, a newspaper and magazine distributor in Hartford, Gerber and Koppleman formed a partnership and incorporated Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in 1948. Gerber served as president, Koppleman as treasurer, and Stanley Levin as secretary. The manufacture of Variable Scale was jobbed out and the distribution was conducted from Hartford. Gerber also worked as a design analytical engineer for Hamilton Standard Propellers of United Aircraft and for Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Shares of Gerber Scientific Instrument Company were eventually sold to the public in 1961, and in 1978, the company changed its name to Gerber Scientific, Inc. In the 1960s and 1970s, Gerber developed the first series of precision, computer-driven cutting systems for the apparel industry called the Gerber Cutter. The cutters introduced automation to the garment industry. In 1967, Gerber realized that the U.S. garment industry, due to a lack of automation, was faced with increasing overseas competition. Gerber's solution was to engineer the GERBERcutter S-70, a machine that cuts apparel quickly and effectively while using less cloth.

Gerber holds more than 600 United States and foreign patents. Many of his patents relate to the United States apparel industry. In 1994, Gerber was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Clinton for helping to revolutionize the optical, garment, automotive, and other industries. His pioneering achievements include:

-a generation of data readers (electromechanical devices that converted graphical data directly into computer readable format);

-projection systems that interactively converted information from aerial photographs for use in computers;

-devices that plotted digital output data from computer cards or tape;

-digital numerically-controlled drafting machines which verify the accuracy of the cutting path of numerical machine tools;

-a photoplotter (drafting machine configured with a unique light source to directly draw high accuracy layouts of printed circuit board masters on photographic film or glass with light beams); and

-systems with laser technology to draw at high speeds.1

Subsequent subsidiaries of Gerber Scientific, Inc., were: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. (GGT); Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. (GSP); Gerber Systems Corp. (GSC), and Gerber Optical, Inc., (GO). GGT makes computer-controlled cutting and design equipment for apparel, automotive, aerospace and other industries. GSP produces systems for sign-making and graphic arts industries. GSC makes production systems for printing, industrial machinery and other industries. GO makes equipment for the optical-lens manufacturing industry.2

In 1954, Gerber married Sonia Kanciper. They had a daughter, Melisa Tina Gerber, and a son, David Jacques Gerber. H. Joseph Gerber died on August 9, 1996, at the age of 72.

Sources

1 National Medal of Technology, 1994.

2 W. Joseph Campbell, "High Tech and Low Key as Gerber Scientific Mounts a Recovery Philosophy that Reflects Innovative Founder," Hartford Courant, May 16, 1994.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Gerber Fabric Cutter Video Documentation, February 1996 (AC0609)

This videohistory documents the inventor, engineers, assembly workers, operators and other technicians who worked with the computer-controlled fabric cutter.

Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers (AC1336)

This collection documents Joseph Gerber's personal life including his highschool and college years, correpondence with family and friends, and speeches given by Gerber throughout his life.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by David Gerber, son of H. Joseph Gerber, on December 23, 2006.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fabric cutters -- 1960-1990  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Computerized instruments -- 1960-1990  Search this
Automation -- 1960-1990  Search this
Machinery -- 1960-1990  Search this
Machine-tool industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Marketing records
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1940-2000
Speeches
Correspondence -- 20th century
Catalogs
Clippings
Patents
Business records -- 1950-2000
Manuals
Legal documents
Citation:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0929
See more items in:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0929
Online Media:

Victor L. Ochoa Papers

Creator:
Ochoa, Elizabeth V.  Search this
Ochoa, Victor Leaton  Search this
International Airship Co.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Drawings
Place:
El Paso (Texas)
Texas -- 20th century
Mexico -- 20th century
Date:
circa 1894-1945
Summary:
The papers document Victor L. Ochoa, Mexican American inventor of the Ochoaplane, orinthopter (an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings), a windmill, magnetic brakes, a wrench and a reversible motor. The papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, both U.S. and foreign, drawings and typescripts for a short story, "The Making of an American," and a novel The Cycle of Life or Professor Mimo Abas: The Wise Man of the Land of Moctezuma.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Victor Leaton Ochoa, Mexican American inventor of the Ochoaplane, orinthopter (an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings), a windmill, magnetic brakes, a wrench and a reversible motor. The papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, both United States and foreign, drawings and typescripts for a short story and a novel.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1895-1945

Series 2: Financial materials, 1911, 1912, undated

Series 3: Patent Materials, 1901-1925

Subseries 3.1: Patent Papers, 1922; 1925

Subseries 3.2: Drawings, undated

Subseries 3.3: Foreign Patents, 1901-1922

Subseries 3.4: United States Patents, 1903-1922

Series 4: Writings, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1933, undated

Series 6: Newspaper Clippings, circa 1894-1912

Series 7: Miscellaneous Printing Blocks, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Leaton Ochoa (1850-1945?) was born in Ojinaga, Mexico. Ochoa later moved to Presidio del Norte, Texas, (Presidio is on the Rio Grande River) and became a United States citizen in 1889. Ochoa was the son of Juan Ochoa, a customs collector in Presidio.

Victor Ochoa was a journalist/writer, founding (El Hispano-American andEl Correo del Bravo) ; a politician (running unsuccessfully in El Paso); a union leader founding (La Union Occidental Mexicana to help Mexicans in the United States preserve their language); a revolutionary (opposing the Mexican government of President Porfirio Díaz, the President of Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911); a prisoner, corporate president of the International Airship Company and the Ochoa Tool and Machine Company; miner and inventor. Ochoa was bitterly opposed to the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz. He became involved in the fight by Mexican rebels in the early 1890s to overthrow Diaz. Some consider Ochoa to be the originator of the revolt, and Díaz ultimately issued a $50,000 reward for Ochoa, "dead or alive." Ochoa's participation in Mexican revolutionary activities led to his arrest in 1894 for supplying and hiring Mexican dissidents in El Paso, Texas, thus violating United States neutrality laws. As a result of his illegal actions, a federal warrant was issued for Ochoa's arrest. The Texas Rangers as well as the U.S. Marshal Service sought Ochoa. In October of 1894, Pecos County Sheriff A. J. Royal and Texas Ranger James W. Fulgham arrested Victor Ochoa while rounding up suspected horse thieves. Ochoa was put in the Pecos County Jail and promptly escaped. He was eventually found and returned to El Paso. Ochoa was ultimately sentenced to two years in federal prison at Kings County Penitentiary in Brooklyn. Ochoa was stripped of his United States citizenship, but it was ultimately restored by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.

Ochoa was as committed to inventing as he was to his revolutionary ideals. He was known to reside in the New York City and the Patterson, New Jersey area in the late 1890s. Ochoa's issued patents list him at New York, New Jersey, and Texas addresses. He also worked with Watson E. Coleman, a solicitor of patents in Washington, D.C. Coleman helped Ochoa file for and obtain patents in other countries such as Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. Ochoa's patents include: a magnetic brake (US Patent No. 867,147); a reversible motor (US Patent No. 718,508); a rail magnetic brake (US Patent No. 873,587); a windmill (US Patent No. 1,319,174); and a wrench (US Patent No. 1,417,196 and 1,454,333).

Ochoa had a strong interest in aviation. He created the "Ochoaplane," circa 1908-1911. He designed it with an automobile in mind, and it included collapsible wings so that it could be housed in a garage or barn. He also incorporated the International Airship Company in Patterson, New Jersey, presumably to manufacture his "airships." Ochoa was imprisoned at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas on February 18, 1917 and was released on May 1, 1918 upon completion of his sentence. In a September 17, 1917, letter written from Leavenworth, Ochoa asks the Naval Consulting Board to consider the use of metal wings constructed in such a manner that they fold back and over the body of the airship. Ochoa called this his fluttering wing machine. Ochoa's letter is deliberate, and he writes, "There was no desire on my part of abandoning this and three other patents that at this time went to issue. At that time I was taken sick with consumption and my struggle for life then became my sole purpose and then there arose other circumstances, over which I had no control, to prevent my taking them out."

Ochoa married Amanda Cole, granddaughter of Thomas Cole, the American painter, whose most famous painting isThe Last of the Mohicans . They had one son, Stephen Ochoa. Victor Ochoa returned to Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1936, and it is believed he died there in 1945.

Source Romo, David Dorado. Ringside Seat to a Revolution: An Underground Cultural History of El Paso and Juarez: 1893-1923. El Paso, Texas: Cinco Puntos Press, 2005.
Related Materials:
Record Group 129, Records of the Bureau of Prisons held by the National Archives, Central Plains Division, Kansas City, Missouri (http://www.archives.gov/central-plains/kansas-city/), contains a 54 page file on Victor L. Ochoa's imprisonment.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Elizabeth Victoria Ochoa on May 17, 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Drawings
Citation:
Victor L. Ochoa Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0590
See more items in:
Victor L. Ochoa Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0590
Online Media:

Potter Aeronautical Corporation, brochure, 1964

Collection Source:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Instrument Society of America  Search this
Container:
Box 85, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status unknown. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Collection Citation:
Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1972, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Instrument Society of America Collection
Instrument Society of America Collection / Series 3: Trade Literature
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0215-ref1163

Honeywell Corporation (Aeronautical Division), 1951

Collection Source:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Instrument Society of America  Search this
Container:
Box 40, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status unknown. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Collection Citation:
Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1972, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Instrument Society of America Collection
Instrument Society of America Collection / Series 3: Trade Literature
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0215-ref578

Neil Armstrong

Artist:
Charles A. Fagan, born 1966  Search this
Sitter:
Neil Alden Armstrong, 5 Aug 1930 - 25 Aug 2012  Search this
Medium:
Bronze
Dimensions:
estimate: 243.8cm (96")
Type:
Sculpture
Date:
2007
Topic:
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Equipment\Drafting & Writing Implements\Ruler  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Male  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Education\Educator\Professor  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronaut  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Military\Navy\Pilot  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aeronautical  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aerospace  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Military\Navy  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Purdue University
Object number:
IN080001
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4342f624f-2913-48ac-baf7-4fde8e137895
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_IN080001

Rackete: Apollo (Rocket: Apollo)

Alternate Title:
Neil Armstrong
Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Sitter:
Neil Alden Armstrong, 5 Aug 1930 - 25 Aug 2012  Search this
Medium:
Metal and plastic game toy
Dimensions:
13 x 10.7 x 46.5cm (5 1/8 x 4 3/16 x 18 5/16")
Type:
Sculpture
Date:
c. 1970
Topic:
Vehicle\Spacecraft\Rocket  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Male  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Education\Educator\Professor  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronaut  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Military\Navy\Pilot  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aeronautical  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aerospace  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Military\Navy  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Object number:
1992/09/021 SHDG
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm412c13c70-c45e-49ea-8c37-fa29a259e58e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1992_09_021_SHDG

Teller zur Mondlandung 1969 (Plate on the Moon Landing 1969)

Alternate Title:
Neil Armstrong
Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Sitter:
Neil Alden Armstrong, 5 Aug 1930 - 25 Aug 2012  Search this
Unidentified Man  Search this
Medium:
Porcelain, multi-colored
Dimensions:
1.8 x 19.5cm (11/16 x 7 11/16")
Type:
Decorative Arts
Date:
1969
Topic:
Exterior  Search this
Exterior\Landscape  Search this
Exterior\Sky  Search this
Vehicle\Spacecraft\Rocket  Search this
Nature & Environment\Moon  Search this
Human Figures\Astronaut  Search this
Unidentified Man: Male  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Male  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Education\Educator\Professor  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronaut  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Military\Navy\Pilot  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aeronautical  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aerospace  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Military\Navy  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Neil Alden Armstrong: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Object number:
1993/07/760 SHDG
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm40db05291-d5d3-416c-891e-a904ee5fce76
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1993_07_760_SHDG

John Jeffries

Artist:
Caroline Watson, 1760 - 1814  Search this
Copy after:
John Russell, 1745 - 1806  Search this
Sitter:
John Jeffries, 5 Feb 1744 - 16 Sep 1819  Search this
Medium:
Stipple engraving on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 10.6 × 8 cm (4 3/16 × 3 1/8")
Sheet/Mount: 25.3 × 19.2 cm (9 15/16 × 7 9/16")
Type:
Print
Date:
1786
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat\Fur  Search this
Equipment\Barometer  Search this
John Jeffries: Male  Search this
John Jeffries: Health and Medicine\Physician  Search this
John Jeffries: Health and Medicine\Physician\Surgeon  Search this
John Jeffries: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
John Jeffries: Science and Technology\Aviator\Balloonist  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.97.146
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4d5814b95-be88-4d5d-a9ff-5fc9ad3ef7cc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.97.146

Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe

Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Sitter:
Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe, 1832 - 1913  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
67cm x 55cm (26 3/8" x 21 5/8"), Estimate
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1890-1900
Topic:
Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe: Male  Search this
Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe: Science and Technology\Inventor  Search this
Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe: Science and Technology\Aviator\Aeronaut  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Pasadena Historical Society
Object number:
CA160010
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4883c4e69-2703-4702-9bee-21faa8b59b25
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_CA160010

Samuel Pierpont Langley

Artist:
R. Shulgold, 1875 - 1975?  Search this
Sitter:
Samuel Pierpont Langley, 22 Aug 1834 - 27 Feb 1906  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
121.4cm x 90cm (47 13/16" x 35 7/16"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
1926
Topic:
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Male  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Literature\Writer\Scientific  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Education\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Scientist\Physicist  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Inventor  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Smithsonian Institution\Secretary  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronomer  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Aviator\Aeronaut  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania
Object number:
323.DUP1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a4787a96-67dd-4c2d-b578-b3bbc0e63b57
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_323.DUP1

Hugh Latimer Dryden

Artist:
Una Hanbury, 1904 - 9 Feb 1990  Search this
Sitter:
Hugh Latimer Dryden, 1898 - 1965  Search this
Medium:
Bronze
Dimensions:
Without Base: 35.8cm x 21.3cm x 23.5cm (14 1/8" x 8 3/8" x 9 1/4"), Estimate
Type:
Sculpture
Topic:
Hugh Latimer Dryden: Male  Search this
Hugh Latimer Dryden: Science and Technology\Scientist  Search this
Hugh Latimer Dryden: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Minister  Search this
Hugh Latimer Dryden: Science and Technology\Engineer\Aeronautical  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: National Academy of Sciences
Object number:
DC170021
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4e544c038-8fed-4618-8169-d838b16e543a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_DC170021

Samuel Pierpont Langley

Artist:
Seymour Smith, 1855 - 1955?  Search this
Sitter:
Samuel Pierpont Langley, 22 Aug 1834 - 27 Feb 1906  Search this
Medium:
Oil on board
Dimensions:
40.5cm x 30cm (15 15/16" x 11 13/16"), Accurate
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1885-1906
Topic:
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Male  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Literature\Writer\Scientific  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Education\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Scientist\Physicist  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Inventor  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Smithsonian Institution\Secretary  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronomer  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Aviator\Aeronaut  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Object number:
CA170052
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4e2a666c5-3592-434b-bdb4-f6af4385fb8f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_CA170052

Samuel Pierpont Langley

Artist:
F. Carl Smith, 1868 - 1955  Search this
Sitter:
Samuel Pierpont Langley, 22 Aug 1834 - 27 Feb 1906  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
59.5cm x 49cm (23 7/16" x 19 5/16"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1885-1906
Topic:
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Male  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Literature\Writer\Scientific  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Education\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Scientist\Physicist  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Inventor  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Smithsonian Institution\Secretary  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronomer  Search this
Samuel Pierpont Langley: Science and Technology\Aviator\Aeronaut  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Object number:
A.6916.56-1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm439059955-34e5-4faf-aa6f-5439394073e7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_A.6916.56-1

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