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Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project

Topic:
Marlboro (cigarette brand)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Zinn, Manfredo  Search this
Marx, Dick  Search this
Nunez, Raul  Search this
Winfield, Darrel  Search this
Kwan, William  Search this
Kwong, Goddard  Search this
Adams, Hall  Search this
Landry, Jack  Search this
Arguelles, Rafael  Search this
Fockler, Knut  Search this
Philip Morris, Inc.  Search this
Gil, Felipe  Search this
Jarrard, Tom  Search this
Names:
Leo Burnett, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
17.4 Cubic feet (86 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color slides
Commercials
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Posters
Proofs (printed matter)
Newsletters
Articles
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Brazil -- advertising
Argentina -- advertising
China -- advertising
Hong Kong -- advertising
Switzerland -- advertising
West Germany -- advertising
Dominican Republic -- advertising
Date:
1926-1988
Scope and Contents:
The Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project is the result of a two-year effort supported in part by a gift from Philip Morris, Inc. Sixty oral history interviews and a variety of television commercials, print advertising, promotional materials, packaging, and industry publications were gathered to document Marlboro cigarette advertising. The bulk of the collection focuses on the period between 1954 and 1986, and examines the "Marlboro man", "Settle Back" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The collection is a rich source of information for researchers interested in advertising and marketing history, issues of smoking and health, and the export of both tobacco and American cultural symbols abroad. The core of the collection is a series of interviews conducted during 1985-1987 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth, an independent scholar and oral historian. The broad range of interviewees included executives of Philip Morris, advertising agency personnel from Leo Burnett, photographers, production staff, sales and marketing personnel, and Marlboro cowboys. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted overseas, in Argentina, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, Switzerland, and West Germany. Conducted primarily with Marlboro licensee and affiliate staff, the interviews focus on the marketing and advertising history of Marlboro in the six nations. These interviews and others conducted with executives of Philip Morris International in New York City also address the history of Marlboro advertising in Africa, the Middle East, China, Eastern Europe and elsewhere in Europe and Latin America. The interviews cover events from the 1930s through the 1980s. They focus on the theory and development of Marlboro advertising, its content and creation, and its modifications over the years. The foreign interviews also discuss the structure of the local cigarette marketplace, marketing and advertising techniques, and the use and modification of Marlboro advertising for different cultures. Finding aids to the oral histories include abstracts of each interview indicating the major topic discussed, a cumulative index to personal names and topics in the interviews, and brief biographical and scope notes.
Arrangement:
Dthe collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1987

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1986

Series 3; Oral History Interviews, 1986

Series 4: Advertising Materials, 1926-1986

Series 5: Promotional items and packaging, 1926-1986

Series 6: Publications and Research Material, 1960-1988

Series 7: Travel Slides Generated by Project Team, 1926-1986
Biographical / Historical:
The history of Marlboro cigarettes offers insight into one of the great advertising and marketing success stories of the 20th century. Marlboro cigarettes were marketed from the Victorian era through the first half of this century as a women's cigarette, with tag-lines that aimed to appeal to female smokers, such as "Marlboro - Mild As May." In 1955, two transformations occurred which would affect both profitability and brand recognition: the addition of an integrated filter and the re-invention of the market through the debut of the "Marlboro Man" advertising campaign. The original Marlboro Man campaign featured close-up images of all kinds of men using the product -- the cowboy was one, along with lifeguards, sailors, drill sergeants, construction workers, gamblers and other types suggestive of a masculine spirit and rugged independence. By 1963, the "Marlboro Country" campaign began. This campaign focused on the cowboy and his symbolic canon: boots, hats, horses, and western landscapes. By the mid-1980s, Marlboro was the best-selling brand in the United States and the world, and the Marlboro cowboy was among the most widely recognized of American cultural symbols. Sold in over 180 nations, both the cigarettes and the ad campaign had become a global phenomena.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Philip Morris, Inc. in 1986.
Restrictions:
The materials in the Marlboro Collection are made available for research according to the established practices and principles of the Archives Center and the National Museum of American History.
Rights:
In making these materials available for research, the Smithsonian Institution makes no claims of ownership of the copyrights or related rights. All responsibility for infringement of legal authorship rights and or copyright is assumed by the user of the materials. In addition, the user indemnifies and holds harmless the Smithsonian Institution for all claims, actions, damages, judgments and expenses that may result from use of these materials. In addition, the donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction or broadcast of collection materials by third parties. The reproduction or broadcast of print ads and television commercials in the collection is subject to prior written consent from: Nancy Lund, Vice President, Marketing,Philip Morris International, 120 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017;(917) 663-5000
Occupation:
Cinematographers  Search this
Topic:
T.V. commercial producers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Accountants  Search this
advertising -- Cigarettes -- 20th century  Search this
Cowboys -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising, Newspaper -- 20th century  Search this
Smoking -- 1940-1990  Search this
Travel photography -- 1940-1990  Search this
Photography, Advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising photography  Search this
Advertising campaigns -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarette industry -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarettes -- advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 20th century  Search this
Television advertising -- Cigarettes -- 1940-1990  Search this
Advertising, magazine -- 20th century  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Copy writers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides -- 1960-1990
Commercials
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Videotapes
Posters
Proofs (printed matter)
Newsletters
Articles
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0198
See more items in:
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0198
Online Media:

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection

Creator:
Lopez Negrete Communications (Houston, Texas)  Search this
Names:
Bank of America  Search this
Circle K Corporation  Search this
Fiesta Mart  Search this
Goya Foods, Inc.  Search this
Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority  Search this
Microsoft Corporation  Search this
Nationsbank  Search this
Tyson (Firm)  Search this
Wal-Mart (Firm)  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Born digital
Oral history
Print advertising
Place:
Texas -- 20th century
Date:
1988 - 2015
Summary:
The López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection showcases the successful print advertising campaigns the communications agency undertook with major clients like Goya Foods, NationsBank, and Walmart. The advertising posters in this collection exemplify the agency's creativity in building on U.S. Latinos' everyday experiences to market American products and services. Alex and Cathy López Negrete, the founders of López Negrete Communications, made it their mission to use ethnographic approaches to better understand the U.S. Latino market which led to their success as the largest independently-owned Latino advertising agency in the country.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is made up of López Negrete Communications' large posters created as part of the print advertising campaigns for major American corporations and oral history interviews with Javier Gonzalez Herba, Alex López Negrete, and Cathy López Negrete. Transcripts for oral history interviews with Javier Gonzalez Herba and Alex López Negrete are available.

López Negrete Communications' clients include Fiesta Mart, Goya Foods, NationsBank (and its successor, Bank of America), Tyson Foods, and Walmart. The content of the posters serves as an example of the advertising agency's efforts to better understand the U.S. Latino market by engaging with Latinos' everyday experiences through ethnography and direct communication.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into ten series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 2016

Series 2: Bank of America, 2000-2007

Series 3: Circle K, Totally Bueno, 2003

Series 4: Fiesta Mart, Inc., 2002-2003

Series 5: Goya Foods, Inc., 2003

Series 6: Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority (METRO), El camino a su destino/The Road to Your Destiny, 1988

Series 7: Microsoft, Nosotros vemos/We See, 2002

Series 8: NationsBank, 1994-1998

Series 9: Tyson Foods, 2001-2006

Series 10: Walmart, Inc. 1998-2015
Biographical / Historical:
Originally named Third Coast Marketing, López Negrete Communications was founded in 1985 by Alex and Cathy López Negrete. The advertising agency has been based in Houston, Texas since the beginning but has additional offices in Los Angeles and New York. López Negrete Communications is currently the largest independently-owned Latino advertising agency in the United States. It is known for drawing on the everyday lives and experiences of US Latino consumers in order to work with major corporate clients to market their products through effective communication and empowerment.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds the following artifacts related to this collection:

Coin, Accession #: 2015.0305.01

Paperweight, Accession #: 2015.0305.02
Provenance:
Collection donated by López Negrete Communications, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- Department stores  Search this
Hispanic American business enterprises  Search this
Latinos in American society and culture  Search this
advertising -- Banks  Search this
mexican Americans and mass media  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 20th century  Search this
advertising -- Computers  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising history  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Mexican American business enterprises  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- Transportation  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 21st century  Search this
Minorities in advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Hispanic Americans and mass media  Search this
Hispanic American consumers  Search this
Hispanic American mass media  Search this
Hispanic American businesswomen  Search this
Hispanic American capitalists and financiers  Search this
advertising -- Groceries  Search this
Hispanic Americans -- 1950-2000  Search this
Hispanic American businesspeople  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 1980-2010
Born digital
Oral history -- 2010-2020
Posters -- 20th century
Print advertising
Citation:
López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection, 1988-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1413
See more items in:
López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1413

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