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Civil Rights Recordings: Mass Meeting in Birmingham, Alabama

Recorder:
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Carawan, Candie  Search this
Artist:
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Birmingham Movement Choir  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Alabama
Contents:
Come on this house--Rev. Martin Luther King--Trying to make 100 (99 1/2 won't do)--Rev. Ralph Abernathy
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-1425
General:
Folkways 5487

CDR copy; Extensive notes and bibliographical references in accompanying booklet. Performer(s): Documentary of a mass meeting, including speeches by Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther King ; songs performed by the Birmingham Movement Choir. Recorded by Guy and Candie Carawan in Birmingham, Alabama, 1963.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
United States -- History  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements -- United States  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-1425
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / Commercial / Folkways Recordings
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk529843921-7b91-48e4-9b64-6832cdfedc12
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19903

Lest We Forget, Vol. 2: Birmingham, Alabama, 1963 - Mass Meeting

Producer:
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Recorder:
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Carawan, Candie  Search this
Performer:
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Birmingham Movement Choir  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 10 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Alabama
Birmingham (Ala.)
Contents:
Come on this house--Martin Luther King speaks--Trying to make 100 (99 1/2 won't do)--Ralph Abernathy speaks
Track Information:
101 Come on in This House / Birmingham Movement Choir.

102 Speaks / Martin Luther, Jr. King.

103 Trying to Make 100 (99 1/2 Won't Do) / Birmingham Movement Choir.

104 Speaks / Ralph Abernathy.
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-10RR-3167
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Alabama, United States, 1963.
General:
Folkways 5487

CDR copy exists-- accompanying booklet. Performer(s): Documentary of a mass meeting, including speeches by Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther King ; songs performed by the Birmingham Movement Choir. Recorded by Guy and Candie Carawan in Birmingham, Alabama, 1963.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
United States -- History  Search this
Folk songs -- United States  Search this
Speeches, addresses, etc.  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements -- United States  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-10RR-3167
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / Commercial / Folkways Recordings
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5e8c0f3af-f964-44f6-99e1-f8d0337c72f0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref21379

Lest We Forget, Vol. 2: Birmingham, Alabama, 1963 - Mass Meeting

Recorder:
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Carawan, Candie  Search this
Artist:
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Performer:
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Birmingham Movement Choir  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 10 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Alabama
Birmingham (Ala.)
Contents:
Surely he's able to carry you through; Ralph Abernathy speaks; I'm on my way
Track Information:
101 Surely He's Able to Carry You Through / Birmingham Movement Choir.

103 I'm On My Way / Birmingham Movement Choir.

102 Speaks / Ralph Abernathy.
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-10RR-3168
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Alabama, United States, 1963.
General:
Folkways 5487

CDR copy exists
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
United States -- History  Search this
Folk songs -- United States  Search this
Speeches, addresses, etc.  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-10RR-3168
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / Commercial / Folkways Recordings
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk561dce429-20f0-4f40-bae4-b480ab8561c2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref21380

Civil Rights Recordings: Ralph Abernathy- Sit-In

Producer:
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Performer:
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Alabama
Birmingham (Ala.)
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-4272
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Alabama, United States.
General:
Folkways 5487

CDR copy
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
Documentary  Search this
United States -- History  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-4272
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / Commercial / Folkways Recordings
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk54316b077-15b1-424c-aa31-6c4ce4bd0f8a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref25957

Birmingham Mass Meeting: Ralph Abernathy

Performer:
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Recorder:
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Carawan, Candie  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Alabama
Contents:
Ralph Abernathy Speaks
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-5956-7
General:
Folkways 5487

Extensive notes and bibliographical references in accompanying booklet. Performer(s): Documentary of a mass meeting, including speeches by Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther King ; songs performed by the Birmingham Movement Choir. Recorded by Guy and Candie Carawan in Birmingham, Alabama, 1963.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
United States -- History  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-5956-7
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / Commercial / Folkways Recordings
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5a125c851-95ef-4432-bd59-ea4ed9c4e747
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref27730

Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection

Creator:
McNamara, Norris  Search this
Moon, Moses  Search this
Names:
Freedom Singers (SNCC)  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Anderson, Marian, 1897-1993  Search this
Baez, Joan  Search this
Baker, Ella, 1903-1986  Search this
Baker, Josephine, 1906-1975  Search this
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Barry, Marion, 1936-  Search this
Bikel, Theodore  Search this
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Donaldson, Ivanhoe  Search this
Dylan, Bob, 1941-  Search this
Ferebee, Dorothy Boulding , 1898?-1980  Search this
Forman, James, 1928-2005  Search this
Gregory, Dick  Search this
Guyot, Lawrence, 1939-  Search this
Hamer, Fannie Lou  Search this
Height , Dorothy I. (Dorothy Irene), 1912-2010  Search this
Horne, Lena  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Lewis, John  Search this
Moses, Robert  Search this
Moses, Robert Parris  Search this
Odetta, 1930-2008  Search this
Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 1942-  Search this
Reagon, Cordell  Search this
Robinson , Amelia Boynton, 1911-2015  Search this
Robinson, Jackie  Search this
Rustin, Bayard, 1912-1987  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Sherrod, Charles, 1937-  Search this
Shuttlesworth, Fred L., 1922-2011  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Sound recordings
Date:
1963-1964
Summary:
Recorded by Moses Moon (known at the time as Alan Ribback) and assisted by Norris McNamara during 1963 and 1964, the collection includes audio recordings of interviews with civil rights leaders and participants as well as free-style recordings of mass meetings, voter registration events, and other gatherings organized by Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). This collection provides a mostly unfiltered documentation of significant moments in the civil rights movement.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 115 reel to reel audio recordings containing interviews, mass meetings, demonstrations, and conversations concerning the civil rights movement, and in particular the voter registration drives organized by SNCC in Alabama and Mississippi in 1963 and 1964. Mass meetings were recorded in Greenwood, Mississippi; Americus, Georgia; Selma, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Danville, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; Hattiesburg, Mississippi; and Indianola, Mississippi. Major demonstrations recorded include the March on Washington in August of 1963, Freedom Day in Selma, Alabama in October of 1963, and Freedom Day in Hattiesburg, Mississippi in January of 1964. Interviews with SNCC workers include Julian Bond, John Lewis, James Forman, Bruce Gordon, Prathia Hall, Ivanhoe Donaldson, Bob Moses, Avery Williams, Willie Peacock, Bruce Boynton and his mother, as well as dozens of others involved in the movement, who are named in the collection inventory. Many of those interviewed were actively involved in strategizing and carrying out SNCC demonstrations and political actions, and many were victims of death threats, beatings, unlawful arrest, police brutality, and torture and abuse in prison. These interviews contain detailed eyewitness accounts and personal testimony regarding these experiences, as well as personal history and thoughts about the movement, the South, and the future.

It is clear from what we know of the dates and locations of these recordings, as well as from documentation of these events in other sources, that many of these recordings are unique documents of important events in American history, which may also contain the commentary of important political and cultural figures who were involved in the movement. For example, an article by Howard Zinn recounts how an unidentified man recorded James Baldwin on October 7, 1963, Freedom Day in Selma, on the steps of the courthouse. Baldwin was furious at the lack of support from nearby federal agents as state troopers advanced on peaceful demonstrators. One of the tapes dated October 7, 1963, originally labeled "courthouse interviews," appears to be this recoding, although Baldwin is not named. The same article (available in The Howard Zinn Reader) recounts the mass meetings which led up to that demonstration, at which actor Dick Gregory gave a rousing sermon as his wife sat in jail for demonstrating in Selma. The Moses Moon Collection may be the only existing audio recording of that sermon as well as many other sermons and speeches.

Moses Moon changed his name after these recordings were made. He is referred to in the finding aid as Alan Ribback because that name is used on the recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.Series 1 is in chronological order to the degree recording dates can be determined, and is based on the locations and dates provided by Moon in his description or gleaned from the recordings themselves and other secondary sources. Series 1 contains 17 groups of recordings.

Moon's original numbers are recorded in the column next to the descriptions. Following the first four Greenwood tapes, which are numbered sequentially, Moon's numbering system took the first two letters of the town in which the recordings were made, a one (1), a decimal, and then a tape number. Numbers preceding the town code refer to the recording day. "N" numbers were later assigned by Moon to the 7" reels only, after the original recordings were made, possibly during editing or when the tapes were made available to the Program in African American Culture.

Series 1, Original Tapes

1. Greenwood, Mississippi; Spring 1963; 4 7" reels

2. Chicago, Illinois; August 9, 12, 1963; 2 5" reels

3. Americus, Georgia; August 17, 1963; 5 5" reels, 1 7" reel

4. Atlanta, Georgia; August 21, 1963; 1 5" reel

5. Washington, D.C.; August 26-28, 1963; 6 5", 8 7" reels

6. Atlanta, Georgia; September 8, 1963; 4 5" reels

7. Selma, Alabama; September 29-October 7, 1963; 11 5" reels, 16 7" reels

8. Gadsden, Alabama; October 23, 1963; 2 5" reels

9. Jackson, Mississippi; Fall/Winter 1963; 11 7" reels

10. Greenwood, Mississippi; c. November 3, 1963; 3 5" reels, 4 7" reels

11. Danville, Virginia; 1963; 6 7" reels

12. Washington, D.C.; soon after November 22, 1963; 6 7" reels

13. Washington, D.C.; late 1963, or possibly during MOW; 10 7" reels

14. Hattiesburg, Mississippi; January 1964; 9 7" reels

15. Indianola, Mississippi; Summer 1964; 2 7" reels

16. Monroe County, Mississippi; August 1, 1964; 4 5" reels

17. Milton, Mississippi; August 16, 1964; 3 5" reels

Series 2, Preservation Masters consists of data DVDs for a portion of the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Moses Moon was born Alan Ribback in 1928. During the 1950s until 1962, Ribback was the proprietor of the Gate of Horn, Chicago's premier folk music club, which featured performers including Bob Gibson, Odetta, Judy Collins, Joan Baez, Jo Mapes, Peter, Paul and Mary, Lenny Bruce, and Shelley Berman. On December 5, 1962, Lenny Bruce was arrested during a performance at the Gate of Horn along with Ribback, George Carlin, and others. As a result of the arrest and Bruce's subsequent conviction for obscenity, the club was closed by the City of Chicago, and Ribback left Chicago with Norris McNamara, an audio technician, to record folk concerts taking place in the South as part of the growing civil rights movement. From the spring of 1963 until the summer of 1964, Ribback and McNamara recorded demonstrations and mass meetings and interviewed civil rights activists, primarily those involved in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Later, Ribback moved to New York and edited his recordings into an album called Movement Soul. Ribback married Delia Moon in 1971, took her last name and changed his first name to Moses. In 1979, Bernice Reagon Johnson, working with the Program on African American Culture at the Smithsonian, contacted Moon and borrowed the recordings of mass meetings for a 1980 program on the voices of the civil rights movement. In the late 1980s, Moon was stricken with a severe case of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which left him paralyzed. Moon donated the entire collection of original recordings shortly before his death in 1993.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The papers of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee are held by the King Library and Archives in Atlanta, Georgia; archives@thekingcenter.org.
Provenance:
Donated by Moses and Delia Moon in 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies must be used. Tapes noted in the container list have digital reference copies in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but copyright status unknown. Contact Archives Center staff for additional information. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American civil rights workers.  Search this
African American preaching.  Search this
Mississippi Freedom Project  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Voter registration  Search this
African Americans -- Civil rights  Search this
African American student movements.  Search this
Folk music  Search this
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963  Search this
Gospel music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Sound recordings
Audiotapes
Citation:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection, 1963-1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0556
See more items in:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f8d8405e-ab8d-486c-96c7-58c33804c206
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0556

ABC News Broadcast: Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King

Creator:
ABC News  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, Ga.)  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Collection Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Speeches
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1968
Scope and Contents:
ABC News Washington broadcast covers riots, civil rights, and other news post-assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King (MLK). The focus of the broadcast is the spirit of Dr. King's optimism and a tribute to MLK via songs, speeches, prayer by others. The recording also includes coverage from Morehouse College and of Dr. King's funeral at Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, GA), including sermon delivered by Rev. Ralph Abernathy.
News broadcast. Part of Broadcast Programs. Undated.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Speeches
Citation:
ABC News Broadcast: Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King, Record Group 09-037, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.09-037, Item ACMA AV003516-1
See more items in:
Broadcast Programs
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa79573306d-7951-4518-8816-ef0935486915
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-09-037-ref11

Stephen Somerstein Selma to Montgomery March Photographs

Photographer:
Somerstein, Stephen  Search this
Names:
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Baez, Joan  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Lewis, John  Search this
Extent:
12 Photographic prints
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1965
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the march of many Americans from Selma to Montgomery Alabama in 1965 during the Civil Rights March. It focuses mainly on photographs and an original book cover from Stephen Somerstein. There are twelve black and white images, 11" x 14", documenting the 1965 Selma to Montgomery Civil Rights March. Some of the photographs include Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Other images include John Lewis of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, minister and civil rights leader Ralph D. Abernathy, and singer Joan Baez.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into two folders.

Folder 1: Photographs, 1965

A collection of 12 black and white images showcasing what life was like for the marchers headed to Montgomery to Selma.

Folder 2: Book Cover, 1965

An original book cover which served as the enclosure for the images.
Biographical / Historical:
Stephen Somerstein was born in 1941 in New York City, Somerstein is best known for his photographic work capturing the march from Selma to Montgomery. He began his passion for photography while studying at the City University of New York while pursuing a degree in physics. In college Stephen ultimately became the managing editor for the university newspaper entitled "Main Events". In 1965, with the rise in public consciousness in the importance of the civil rights movement and Dr. King's pursuit of equal opportunity and voting rights, Stephen decided to journey to Alabama to cover the Selma to Montgomery civil rights march for his collegiat newspapper. Stephen was 24 years old when he shot the iconic images of the march on Selma.

It was an historic occasion that greatly tested his ability to shape beautiful and meaningful images, while on a short film quota, with rapidly evolving photo-opportunities. The 1965 Selma to Montgomery Civil Rights March (actually three separate marches) was the culmination of a multi-year protest against alleged discriminatory voting registration practices in Dallas County, Alabama. Images in the news media of violence that took place in response to the march shocked Americans and influenced civil rights legislation and enforcement. His body of work spans a continuous thread from the 1960's to the present, covering cultural, social and political subjects.
Provenance:
Stephen Somerstein
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Stephen Somerstein Selma to Montgomery March Photographs, 1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1300
See more items in:
Stephen Somerstein Selma to Montgomery March Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e505721d-cfa3-4622-a115-2207bd82f0b4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1300
Online Media:

Partners to history : Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph David Abernathy, and the civil rights movement / by Donzaleigh Abernathy ; foreword by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr

Author:
Abernathy, Donzaleigh  Search this
Subject:
King, Martin Luther Jr. 1929-1968  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph 1926-1990  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 240 p. : ill. ; 26 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
20th century
Topic:
African Americans--Civil rights--History  Search this
Civil rights movements--History  Search this
African American civil rights workers  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_721523

And the walls came tumbling down : an autobiography / Ralph David Abernathy

Author:
Abernathy, Ralph 1926-1990  Search this
Subject:
Abernathy, Ralph 1926-1990  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 638 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., ports. ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1989
C1989
Topic:
Civil rights workers  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Call number:
CT275.A13 A1 1989
CT275.A13A1 1989
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_381430

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