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Philadelphia -- Andalusia

Architect:
Walter, Thomas Ustick, 1804-1887  Search this
Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, 1764-1820  Search this
Former owner:
Biddle, Charles J. (Charles John), 1819-1873  Search this
Craig, John  Search this
Biddle, Nicholas, Mrs., 1786-1844  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Andalusia (Andalusia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Bucks County -- Bensalem Township -- Andalusia
Date:
1904-1961
Scope and Contents note:
The folder includes a worksheet; brief descriptions; and web pages from www.philadelphiabuildings.org.
General note:
Andalusia is a National Historic Landmark. The main portion of Andalusia was built in 1794-1795 by John Craig as a summer residence for his wife and daughter. The latter became Mrs. Nicholas Biddle. In 1833, the "Big House" was built with Grecian porticoes--the porticoes being an exact copy of the Greek temple of Neptune at Paestum in Italy. The garden was famous for its grapes grown in forcing houses designed by Thomas U. Walter. The Biddle family harvested grapes from the hothouses until the 1870's. The estate also became known as an experimental farm. The first Guernsey cattle were brought to Andalusia. A 20th century feature of the grounds is the Green Walk with ornamental dwarf evergreens. According to the "List of Gardens of the Members of the Garden Club of America," 1921, Andalusia was typed as an old-fashioned walled garden with specialties being wisteria and white hawthorn trees.
Persons associated with the garden include: John Craig (former owner, 1794-1811); Mrs. Nicholas Biddle (Jane Craig) (former owner, 1814); Charles J. Biddle (former owner); Benjamin Latrobe (architect, 1800); and Thomas U. Walter (architect of Greek Revival additions and Gothic "ruin," 1811).
Related Archival Materials note:
Architectural plans located at John M. Dickey Collection, Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
Registered by HABS (Historic American Building Survey): PA-1248-B.
Additional images located at Mellor, Meigs & Howe Collection, Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Andalusia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File PA007
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref11495

U.S. Patent Office Plant Patents, #s 1800 - 1850

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Container:
Box 60, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 4: Plant Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref6362

Madison -- Boxwoods (Madison, North Carolina)

Former owner:
Scales, Randall Duke  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
United States of America -- North Carolina -- Rockingham County -- Madison
Boxwoods (Madison, North Carolina)
Date:
1924
Scope and Contents note:
The folder includes an information sheet and a copy of images, a description from the Town of Madison's web site and the Van Noppen article.
General note:
Boxwoods, considered the oldest house in Madison, was built for Randall Duke Scales. In 1812, Scales sold ninety-six one half acre lots which became the original Town of Madison. Leading up to the house is a long entry walkway bordered with boxwoods. At one time there were between five hundred and one thousand boxwoods of both American and English type on the property. The Vaughn family purchased the house in the mid 1800's and the Vaughn descendents continued to occupy it throughout the twentieth century. Nineteenth-century outbuildings include a smokehouse, coal shed and slave quarters.
Persons associated with the garden include: Randall Duke Scales (previous owner, early 1800s-) and Vaughn family (previous owner, mid to late 1800s-present).
A history about the Boxwoods property is also included in, "Old Homes in Rockingham Along the Dan," by Anne Pearl Pratt Van Noppen, published in the Messenger (Madison, North Carolina).
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- North Carolina -- Madison  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File NC007
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / North Carolina
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref11240

Portland -- Fuller Garden

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File OR005
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Oregon
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref11347

Hartford -- Elizabeth Park

Former owner:
Pond, Charles  Search this
Provenance:
Meehan, Kathryn  Search this
Landscape architect:
Wirth, Theodore  Search this
Owner:
City of Hartford  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Elizabeth Park (Hartford, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Hartford County -- Hartford
Date:
1904-1941
Scope and Contents note:
The folders include catalog sheets and articles.
General note:
Charles Pond, a wealthy businessman, bequeathed his estate to the City of Hartford in the late 1800s to be used as a horticultural park and named it after his wife, Elizabeth. In 1897, the Elizabeth Park Rose Garden was one of the first municipal rose gardens established in America. The rose garden was designed by Theodore Wirth, a Swiss landscape architect hired by the Olmsted firm, who finished training at London's Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. In 1904, the rose garden was constructed and planted. In 1912, the American Rose Society recognized its splendor and significance and requested that a half acre semi-circle be added and used as this country's first test rose garden. The garden was originally famous for its variety of Hybrid Perpetuals (eight original beds continue to bloom). By the 1960s the park became so neglected and weed filled that the American Rose Society would no longer recognize it as an accredited testing grounds. In 1977, the Friends of Elizabeth Park was formed and they hired a rosarian. A restored garden replanted with new vintage plants was installed. The American Rose Society reinstated Elizabeth Park as a test garden. Today, the garden has 15,000 rose bushes of about 800 varieties--mainly Hybrid Teas, Grandifloras, Floribundas, shrubs, polyanthas, and minis. In 1990, the All-American Rose Selections awarded Elizabeth Park the most outstanding garden award. Other gardens in the park include an annual garden; a perennial garden; an herb garden; a rockery; a Dahlia garden; and a large number of rare and unusual trees and shrubs.
This collection is made up of glass lantern slides, photo prints (color and b&w), glass plate negatives, and postcards. The images include the construction of the garden and early visitors. They also depict the pond and bridge; rose gardens; perennial beds; an aerial view; and expanses of lawn.
Persons and entities associated with the property and garden include: Charles Pond (former owner); City of Hartford and Town of West Hartford (present owners); and Theodore Wirth (park designer and supervisor, 1897).
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Urban parks  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Hartford  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File CT060
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref7510

Orbital and Dynamic Elements for Simplified Two Body Problems (Wayne Tempelman, Convair report OR-56, Mar 1959)

Collection Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 181, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers / Series 3: Company Files / Miscellaneous Reference Materials / 1959
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2003-0025-ref3247

"Dr. Matilda Arabella Evans" by Burnett W. Gallman, Jr., M.D [photocopy]

Collection Creator:
Evans, Matilda Arabella, Dr., 1872-1935  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1931
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection of archival material, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection
Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection / Series 5: Reference Material / 5.2: Research Material
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2019-109-ref56
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Pills, File L

Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Collection Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Container:
Box 204, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1914-1917
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records / Series 7: Control Department Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0001-ref9897

Sugar Manifest for ship from Havana, Cuba to Philadelphia, PA

Collection Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Container:
Box Box 2, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
18000
Collection Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family / Series 3: Businesss Records, 1757-1899; undated / 3.1: Ship Manifests, Logbooks, Journals, 1810-1880
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2-ref122
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  • View Sugar Manifest for ship from Havana, Cuba to Philadelphia, PA digital asset number 1

Daily Log and expenses written General Average Brig. Wm Pitt

Collection Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1846
Collection Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family / Series 3: Businesss Records, 1757-1899; undated / 3.1: Ship Manifests, Logbooks, Journals, 1810-1880
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2-ref127
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  • View Daily Log and expenses written General Average Brig. Wm Pitt digital asset number 1

ocr 21M-LGM30F-2-28-1 Ancillary Mechanical Systems - "Technical Manual: Maintenance Instructions, Organizational, Ancillary Mechanical Systems (VAFB LCF-01A, LCF-01B, LF-07, Wing II) USAF Series LGM30F Missile" - Boeing, 18 July 1980 [PDF]

Collection Creator:
Stumpf, David  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf], NASM.2020.0028 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf]
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf] / Construction including CEMBCO [Corps of Engineers Ballistic Missile Construction Office] and SATAF [Site Activation Task Force] / Launcher Closure
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0028-ref1929

Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection

Creator:
Turner, Reginald  Search this
Names:
Arnold, Juanita Burnett, (1909-2005)  Search this
Bates, J. B., 1916-2008  Search this
Campbell-Webster, Beatrice  Search this
Clark, Otis Granville, (1903-2012)  Search this
Eddy, Clyde, (1911-2008)  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott  Search this
Franklin, Archie Jackson, (1915-2006)  Search this
Franklin, Jimmie Lilly, (1915-2009)  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Gates, Eddie Faye  Search this
Holloway, Robert, (1918-2010)  Search this
Hooker, Olivia J., Dr., (1915-2018)  Search this
Jackson, Eunice Cloman, (1903-2004)  Search this
Knight, Thelma Thurman, (1915-2009)  Search this
McCondichie, Eldoris Mae Ector, (1911-2010)  Search this
O'Brien, William [Bill]  Search this
Ogletree, Charles, Jr.  Search this
Rogers, Jewel Smitherman, (1918-2010)  Search this
Rogers, John Washington, Jr.  Search this
Young, Wess Hubert, (1917-2014)  Search this
Extent:
1.38 Terabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Terabytes
Oral history
Place:
Tulsa (Oklahoma)
Date:
2004-2007
Scope and Contents:
The Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection documents the survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre as well as their journey to acknowledgment, justice, and restitution. This digital collection is an edited version of a larger collection created by Reginald Turner, Executive Director and Founder of The Tulsa Project, Inc. The collection consists of interview videos of individual survivors, their descendants, riot witnesses, historians, community supporters as well as the legal proceedings for U.S. government acknowledgement of the massacre and its subsequent devastation. This collection serves to bear witness to one of the most infamous episodes of American history, allowing those who lived through it to convey their experiences directly in their own words.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1921, one of the most devastating race massacres in American history occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma. From May 31 to June 1, mobs of white Tulsa residents ransacked, pillaged, bombed, and burned over 1,000 homes, businesses, and churches and murdered scores of African Americans in the Tulsa's Black community of Greenwood. The history of this event was hidden in plain sight for many generations, invariably vanished from or never placed in the history books across the country. Generations of Tulsa's universal community began to learn of this tragic event over the course of the last few decades through the efforts of the survivors and their supporters. The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection alongside the great work of The Tulsa Project, Inc. sheds light on a community of resilience grappling with complex questions of history and memory, justice and law, reparation and reconciliation.

In the decades that followed, just a partial list of cities exhibits the expansive and dizzying geographic and temporal scope of organized white violence that continued with little recourse or reproach well into twentieth century. Such cities include: Colfax, Louisiana (1873); Clinton, Mississippi (1875); Hamburg, South Carolina (1876); Thibodaux, Louisiana (1887); Omaha, Nebraska (1891); Wilmington, NC (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); and East St. Louis, Missouri (1917). In the summer of 1919, the U.S. was rocked by the white supremacist violence and attacks against over thirty Black communities across the country. This period of overwhelming racial violence was dubbed, "Red Summer" and affected major Black communities in Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Clarksdale, Mississippi; and Omaha, Nebraska as well as many others. In these cities like Tulsa, mob violence devastated Black communities through the destruction of property and livelihoods.

The Greenwood District of Tulsa, Oklahoma is rooted in the history of westward expansion of the United States in early 19th century. Beginning in 1830s, the first African Americans came to the Oklahoma Territory with Native Americans along the Trail of Tears, the U. S government sanctioned removal of American Indians from their native territory across the country. Some of the African American travelers were enslaved while free Blacks traveled through treacherous conditions alongside white travelers. Dubbed the "Oil Capital of the World" and "Magic City," Tulsa experienced booming economic growth and prosperity during the early 1900s. During the era of post-Emancipation until the onset of the 20th century, African Americans were a part of a newer wave of migration that came to Tulsa from all over the country, including other parts of the Oklahoma Territory.

More than 50 all-Black settlements were established in Oklahoma territory during this era, including Tatums, Langston, Rentiesville, Boley, as well as Black communities of larger cities such as Muskogee, Okmulgee, and Tulsa. By 1900, African Americans composed seven percent of the combined Oklahoma and Indian Territories and five percent of Tulsa's population. In 1905, the Tulsa's Greenwood community was sold to African American settlers. Many of Greenwood's founding families were of mixed-race heritage as result of multiracial migration patterns and organic cultural adaptation to Oklahoma's natural resources and environment. The Perrymans, one of Tulsa's founding families, included Muskogee (Creek), African American, and white members.

In 1907, Oklahoma was admitted into the United States, and the legislature immediately began implementing restrictive race laws. Many mixed-race families lived in the Oklahoma Territory in the late 1800s. But dividing lines between the races were drawn more sharply after Oklahoma became a state. Oklahoma had one of the strictest sets of Jim Crow laws that divided the country, especially in Tulsa. Black Tulsans formed their community along Greenwood and Archer streets and quickly began to thrive as homes, churches and businesses were built and further developed. The community took shape with the construction and proliferation of African American owned cafes, grocery stores, beauty parlors, movie theaters, and dentist, lawyers, and doctor offices. By close of World War I, 10,000 individuals lived in Tulsa's Greenwood District, considered to be one of the most prosperous African American communities in America at the time. Educator, activist, and statesman Booker T. Washington dubbed the district, "Negro Wall Street." Later coined as "Black Wall Street" in the 1950s as scholarship began developing around the massacre.

After World War I, Black veterans returned to seek a "double victory" by securing freedom and equality at home, striking fear among white supremacists. This fear left white Tulsans blaming the prosperity of "Black Wall Street" for the lack to employment opportunities and other misfortunes among the white community. Tulsa city founder and prominent businessman, W. Tate Brady, despite his support of African American financial independence, was a member of white supremacy terrorist group, the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) as well as an active member in the Sons of the Confederate Veterans. A resolute white supremacist, Brady's mansion's design was inspired by the Virginia home of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. He welcomed KKK founder, Nathan Bedford Forrest to that same home in 1915. It was Brady's active membership in the Sons of Confederate Veterans that brought the organization's 28th annual convention to the city in 1918. The latter circumstances along with the ongoing racial tensions set the stage for 1921 massacre.

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a 19-year-old African American shoe shiner was accused of assaulting a 17-year-old white woman, Sarah Page. Rowland went inside the Drexel Building to use the restroom, the only bathroom allowed to African Americans in downtown Tulsa. Page was an elevator operator in the building. It is unclear if Rowland tripped or the elevator stopped suddenly, but he had physical contact with Page. Page screamed assault and a scared Rowland immediately fled. The next morning on May 31, Rowland was arrested and jailed in the city's courthouse. Later that afternoon, the city's most popular newspaper, Tulsa Tribune printed the story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that claimed Rowland raped Page. Also printed was an editorial with the title, "To Lynch Negro Tonight," which no doubt influenced the rumors of a possible lynching of Rowland as the evening approached.

A large mob of thousands continued to grow over the course of the night outside the courthouse. African American WWI veterans and other members of the Greenwood community began to set up defenses outside the courthouse in order to protect Rowland. Tensions rose and soon an individual fight broke out and a gun was fired. The now weaponized white mob began to move about Greenwood armed with torches, guns, and other weaponry. Some survivors recall aerial bombs released overhead from small planes. The terror was directed at every visible African American in the vicinity, many fled for their lives while their homes and livelihoods were demolished. Historical research has not rendered an accurate number of lives lost in the massacre; it is believed that over 300 African Americans were murdered. Over 35 blocks of homes and businesses were destroyed with damages estimated to be over 1.5 million dollars.

On June 1st, the Oklahoma National Guard arrived, and martial law was declared. They arrested over 6,000 African Americans including children and illegally held them in detention centers throughout Tulsa. They were only released if a white person named them as an employee. Martial law ended on June 3rd, but African Americans were required to carry "green cards" once released from the detention centers as a mechanism to the police the Black population. The next week, Oklahoma governor James B.A. Robertson ordered an inquiry into the massacre. Only 85 people were indicted, mostly African Americans citizens. Rowland was released from jail and not charged for any crimes. Page recanted her claim as well.

Residents of Greenwood filed over 1400 lawsuits for damaged property. Insurance companies denied all claims based on a "riot clause." 1,000 Black Tulsans were forced to live in tents provided by the Red Cross from 1921-1922 because their homes were demolished. Historians estimate that over 700 families left Tulsa and never returned. However, many stayed and worked to rebuild the Greenwood community but experienced great difficulty as the city government actively tried to prevent African Americans from returning to their homes. Zoning regulations were put into effect that would make Greenwood only a commercial area, making it virtually impossible to live there. B.C. Franklin, businessman and father of historian John Hope Franklin, led the charge and filed a suit against the City of Tulsa before the Oklahoma Supreme Court and won, allowing Greenwood to rebuild.

Dozens of Black-owned businesses were rebuilt in Greenwood within a year of the riot, and hundreds more followed over the next three decades. The Oklahoma Eagle newspaper founded in 1922, replacing the community's former Black newspaper, The Tulsa Star that was destroyed by the riot. The Oklahoma Eagle, founded directly after the massacre, reported on African American community, as well as all facets of the massacre, since white newspapers refused to acknowledge the incident. In 1925, in a display of courage, the National Negro Business League held its 26th annual convention in Greenwood. By the 1950s, Greenwood was a thriving Black community despite racial segregation and inequality. Greenwood's mid-century renaissance was a rare occurrence as employment opportunities and fair treatment outside of the Greenwood remained limited. The Tulsa NAACP chapter, along with other activist groups, was formed to fight inequality and racism in wider Tulsa. Despite advances of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, redlining and urban renewal projects dwindled the former Greenwood improvements leaving the area and its residents impoverished and highly segregated.

After suffering decades of aftereffects from the massacre, Tulsa's African American community demanded justice and reparations from the state of Oklahoma and the U.S. government. In 1997, African American state lawmakers, Representative Don Ross and Senator Maxine Horner, co-sponsored an Oklahoma House Bill to create the Tulsa Race Riot Commission. The Commission was tasked with finding survivors and recording their testimony, gaining accurate accounts of property losses and values, and then make recommendations for reparations. In addition, they worked with forensic anthropologists and archeologists tasked with locating mass graves of massacre victims. In 2001, the committee concluded that each survivor should receive $200,000 and up to $100,000 in property claims. Unfortunately, these recommendations were not passed leaving survivors and descendants with little prospects for restitution.

In 2003, over 200 Tulsa massacre survivors filed a suit against the state of Oklahoma in the case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al. Survivors and their descendants served as plaintiffs and recounted their experiences during and after the massacre. The legal team was led by esteemed lawyer and educator Charles Ogletree and celebrity lawyer Johnnie Cochran. The suit demanded restitution for the damages and injuries done by the state of Oklahoma and the city of Tulsa. The main argument declared violations of the 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution including "deprivation of life and liberty [and property] and the privileges and immunities of United States citizenship". In addition, plaintiffs wanted to establish a scholarship fund to ensure future generations learn the history of the massacre for years to come. The judge ruled against the survivors, claiming that the statute of limitations had passed. In 2005, the lawyers tried yet again for justice by bringing the case to the U. S. Supreme Court, but the court declined to hear the appeal. A few survivors were given the opportunity to speak at a briefing in front of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and other leaders on Capitol Hill, the same year with no action taken.

Over the years, Tulsa cultural institutions and organizations were developed to preserve the legacy of the African American community in Greenwood, Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma. The Greenwood Cultural Center and Mabel B. Little House have showcased the heritage of the community since the 1990s. In 2008, lawyer and filmmaker, Reginald Turner founded The Tulsa Project, Inc., a non-profit group committed to raising funds and awareness on behalf of massacre survivors and their descendants. The same year, Turner filmed interviews of massacre survivors that were later compiled in a documentary entitled, "Before They Die!" The interviews took place from 2004 to 2007 and featured survivors' efforts for justice, government hearings, and legal proceedings as well as Tulsa Commission meetings. The film's sales go towards compensating survivors and serve as an educational tool exhibited in schools, churches, and civic organizations around the country. In 2010, the John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize the massacre survivors and educate the community. In 2018, Tulsa Mayor G.T. Bynum called for the opening another investigation into the location of mass graves. In 2019, the Tulsa Race Massacre was added to the Oklahoma Education department curriculum and taught in classrooms.

As the massacre approaches its 100th anniversary in 2021, there are continuing advances for greater education about the massacre and the restitution of justice for the victims, survivors, and descendants of the one of the darkest times in American history.

Historical Timeline

1900 -- African Americans composed seven percent of Oklahoma territory and five percent of the Tulsa population.

1905 -- The Greenwood area in Tulsa was sold to African American Settlers.

1907 -- Oklahoma was made a state.

1917-1918 -- World War I veterans returned home seeking freedom and equality. In 1918, Tulsa hosted the 28th Annual Sons of the Confederacy Convention.

1919 -- "Red Summer," Over 30 race riots occurred over the course of 10 months in states across America.

1920 -- The wealth and prosperity of the Greenwood community, nicknamed "Black Wall Street," led to it to becoming one of the most financially prosperous African American communities in America.

1921: Tulsa Race Riot also known Tulsa Race Massacre takes place from May 30th to June 1st, in the Greenwood community of Tulsa. -- May 30: Dick Rowland, an African American shoe shiner is accused of assaulting Sarah Page, a white elevator operator. May 31: Rowland was arrested and brought to the courthouse jail. Afternoon: The Tulsa Tribune printed a story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that Rowland raped Page and printed the editorial, "To Lynch Negro Tonight." 4:00 pm: Talk and rumors of lynching Rowland had spread. Police and Fire commissions J.M. Adkison phoned to warn Sheriff Willard McCullough of a possible incident. 7:30: A large white mob, numbering in the hundreds, gathered at the courthouse demanding Rowland be released to them. 9:30 pm: The mob had grown to two thousand. Members of the Greenwood community, many World War I veterans, set up defenses at the courthouse in order to protect Rowland from any impending violence from the mob. 10:00 pm: A fight broke out and a gun was fired. The mob began attacking and shooting all African Americans. June 1 12:00-1:30 am: Gunfire occurred between the white and African American commercial businesses across Fisco yards. 1:00-4:00 am: Over 35 blocks were destroyed, including 1200 homes, and an estimated 300 African Americans were murdered. However, the exact number is unknown. 9:00 am: The Oklahoma National Guard arrived. 11:30 am: Government declared martial law, by this point most of the fighting had already stopped. The final altercation occurred at Noon when the mob fired on African Americans near the Santa Fe railroad tracks. The National guard gathered and arrested nearly all the Greenwood residents, over 6000, detaining them in the Convention Center, sports arenas, and fairgrounds. 6:00 pm: All businesses were ordered to close, and a curfew was put into effect beginning at 7:00. June 3: Martial law ended. African Americans were required to carry "green cards" to leave the detention centers until July. June 8-20: Governor James B. A. Robertson ordered an inquiry of events by a Grand Jury examining the role of the police and sheriff departments. The all-white jury indicted over 85 people, the majority African American, for rioting and illegally carrying weapons. Five city police officers, including the Tulsa Chief of Police, John Gustafson, were also indicted and later fired. June 8-July 30: 1400 lawsuits were filed by African Americans for damaged commercial and/or personal property. The insurance companies invoked a "riot clause" that dismissed almost all the claims. Rowland was released and was not charged for any crime.

1922 -- Mary E. Jones Parrish was hired by the Inter-Racial Commission to write an account of the Race Riot. She was a teacher and journalist living with her daughter in Tulsa at the time of the massacre. Parrish interviewed survivors of the riot, collecting oral histories, photographs and a listing of property loses, publishing her findings in Events of the Tulsa Disaster. This was the first book published about the race riot. A large reconstruction effort began in Greenwood, and 80 businesses opened.

1925 -- National Negro Business League holds national convention in Tulsa, celebrating the rebuilding of Greenwood.

1931 -- Buck Colbert Franklin writes an unpublished memoir of the massacre entitled: The Tulsa Riot and Three of its Victims. It was later published by his son, John Hope Franklin and grandson, John W. Franklin in 1997.

1946 -- The first general history of the riot was published by Loren L. Gill, from the University of Tulsa. Although conducting many oral histories and research, some of his conclusions were later found to be incorrect.

1975 -- The Tulsa Race War of 1921 by Rudia M. Halliburton, Jr. was published. Halliburton was a professor at Northeastern State University and his work featured a collection of photographs, many from his students, of the riot.

1997 -- The Tulsa Race Riot Commission is established to study the riot and recommended reparations for survivors and their descendants. The city didn't comply.

1998 -- The Commission recommends archeological search for mass graves. This was approved in February 1999. A potential mass grave was found in Oaklawn Cemetery.

2003 -- Court case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al, was filed by over 200 survivors of the massacre. The suit was denied because the statute of limitations had passed.

2005 -- The survivors and lawyers attempted to repeal the decision in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided not to accept a case.

2010 -- John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize and educate the community about the race massacre.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from The Tulsa Project, Inc. (Reginald Turner, J.D.Clement & The Lomax Company).
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use. It is the responsibility of the user to pursue the copyright owner, The Tulsa Project, Inc . for permission to use and publish the materials from this collection for use beyond private study, scholarship or research. Any reproduction of materials of this collection must include the copyright notice: © The Tulsa Project, Inc.
Topic:
Race relations  Search this
Tulsa Race Massacre, Tulsa, Okla., 1921  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Violence  Search this
Race riots  Search this
Justice  Search this
Activism  Search this
Law  Search this
Identity  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Citation:
Guide to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection, 2004-2007. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.240
See more items in:
Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-240

Handwoven Cloth

Collection Creator:
Byrd, Charlene Hodges, 1929-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 26, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1750 - circa 1800
Scope and Contents:
Tan handwoven cloth made by Catherine Thomas's great grandmother.
Series Restrictions:
Some items are in fragile condition. Please seek assistance with the following items: Painting, circa 1930s - circa 1940s.
Collection Rights:
This collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Charlene Hodges Byrd collection, circa 1750-2009. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charlene Hodges Byrd collection
Charlene Hodges Byrd collection / Series 8: Memorabilia
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2010-26-ref662

Promotional Materials

Collection Creator:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1939-1977
Scope and Contents:
Contains material created by the company to promote their products and activities. Materials include two films of interest. Behind the Cup: The Story of Hills Bros. Coffee (1939), created for the Golden Gate International Exposition Fair, was produced in 35mm Cinecolor for theatrical screening. Also, of note are two short films probably produced for screening at a meeting of Hills Bros. employees. In the first Gene Barry, star of Bat Masterson and Hills Bros.' spokesman describes the next seasons plans for Bat Masterson and presents a portion of a proposed episode. In the second film Walt Disney talks about his company's plans for the next year including additions to Disneyland and planned episodes of Walt Disney Presents.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives and audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records, 1856-1989, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0395, Subseries 13.1.3
See more items in:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records / Series 13: Audiovisual Materials / 13.1: Moving Images
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0395-ref4172

Information about David Baker Jazz monograph series

Collection Creator:
Boatwright, Ruth Ellington, 1914-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 70, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1979
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction. Copyright restrictions exist. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Ellington Collection, 1923-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials
Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials / Series 9: Other Artists
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0415-ref3162

The rise of modern urban planning, 1800-1914 / edited by Anthony Sutcliffe

Author:
International Conference on the History of Urban and Regional Planning (1st : 1977 : London, England)  Search this
Sutcliffe, Anthony 1942-  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 235 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1980
19th century
Topic:
City planning--History  Search this
Regional planning--History--Congresses  Search this
Call number:
HT166 .I6113 1977X
HT166.I6113 1977X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_133049

The model company town : urban design through private enterprise in nineteenth-century New England / John S. Garner

Author:
Garner, John S. 1945-  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 288 p. : ill. ; 19 x 24 cm
Type:
Case studies
Place:
New England
Massachusetts
Hopedale
Date:
1984
1984, c1982
19th century
Topic:
Company towns--History  Search this
City planning--History  Search this
Call number:
HT123.5.A11G37 1984X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_270751

Nuovo trattato di navigazione che contiene la teorìa e la pratica del pilotaggio del sig. Bouguer ... ; tradotto in Italiano e arricchito d'illustrazioni e aggiunte dal Dottor Vincenzio Brunacci di Firenze .

Title:
Trattato di navigazione DSI
Author:
Bouguer M (Pierre),) 1698-1758  Search this
Author:
Brunacci, Vincenzo 1768-1818  Search this
Donor:
Dibner, Bern DSI  Search this
Bookseller:
C. E. Rappaport (Firm),) DSI  Search this
Physical description:
2 volumes illustrations, charts 24 cm (4to)
Type:
Early works to 1800
Early works
Date:
1795
Topic:
Nautical astronomy  Search this
Navigation  Search this
Pilots and pilotage  Search this
Call number:
VK553 .B7 I1795
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_274912

Urban capitalists : entrepreneurs and city growth in Pennsylvania's Lackawanna and Lehigh regions, 1800-1920 / Burton W. Folsom, Jr

Author:
Folsom, Burton W  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 191 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Case studies
Place:
Pennsylvania
Lackawanna River Valley (Pa.)
Lehigh River Valley (Pa.)
Date:
1981
C1981
Topic:
Cities and towns--Growth  Search this
Urbanization  Search this
Capitalists and financiers--History  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Call number:
HT371.F64X 1981
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_318371

Military architecture, cartography & the representation of the early modern European city : a checklist of treatises on fortification in the Newberry Library / Martha D. Pollak

Author:
Pollak, Martha D  Search this
Newberry Library  Search this
Subject:
Newberry Library Catalogs  Search this
Physical description:
xxxvi, 119 p. : ill. ; 26 cm
Type:
Bibliography
Place:
Europe
Date:
1991
Topic:
Military architecture--Early works to 1800  Search this
Fortification--Early works to 1800  Search this
City planning--Early works to 1800  Search this
Cities and towns, Renaissance  Search this
Early printed books  Search this
Call number:
NA497.E85 P77 1991
NA497.E85P77 1991
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_427646

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