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Space Telescope History Project

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
National Air and Space Museum. Department of Space History  Search this
Space Telescope History Project (U.S.)  Search this
Adams, Robert  Search this
Aucremanne, M.  Search this
Bahcall, John N.  Search this
Bahcall, Neta  Search this
Baum, William  Search this
Belton, M. J. S.  Search this
Bensimon, March  Search this
Bless, Robert, 1927-  Search this
Boeshaar, Greg  Search this
Boggess, Albert  Search this
Brandt, John C.  Search this
Brown, Art  Search this
Brown, Robert A.  Search this
Bulkin, Bert  Search this
Burbidge, E. Margaret  Search this
Caldwell, J. J.  Search this
Carr, Frank  Search this
Chapman, Clark R.  Search this
Clark, John  Search this
Costa, Frank  Search this
Danielson, E. G.  Search this
Davidsen, Arthur Falnes, 1944-  Search this
Disney, Michael  Search this
Downey, John  Search this
Doxsey, Rodger E.  Search this
Edmondson, Frank K. (Frank Kelly)  Search this
Elliot, James, 1943-2011  Search this
Emanuel, Garvin  Search this
Fastie, William  Search this
Giacconi, Riccardo  Search this
Goldberg, Alan  Search this
Groth, Edward  Search this
Guha, Arun  Search this
Hall, Donald N. B.  Search this
Harms, Richard  Search this
Havens, Kitty  Search this
Henry, Richard B. C.  Search this
Hinners, Noel W.  Search this
Hulst, H. C. van de (Hendrik Christoffel), 1918-  Search this
Hunten, Donald M.  Search this
Keathley, William  Search this
Keller, Sam  Search this
Keller, Warren  Search this
King, Ivan R.  Search this
Lane, A. L.  Search this
Lasker, Barry M.  Search this
Laurence, Robin  Search this
Leckrone, David  Search this
Longair, M. S., 1941-  Search this
Lowrance, John  Search this
Macchetto, F.  Search this
McCandless, Bruce  Search this
Meserve, Kent  Search this
Mitchell, Jesse  Search this
Moore, Jim  Search this
Nein, Mas  Search this
Noah, Don  Search this
Norman, Memphis  Search this
Norris, T. Bland  Search this
Odom, James  Search this
Olivier, Jean  Search this
Pellerin, Charles  Search this
Reetz, Arthur  Search this
Rehnberg, Jack  Search this
Richards, Evan  Search this
Roman, Nancy Grace, 1925-  Search this
Rose, James  Search this
Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.  Search this
Russell, Jane  Search this
Scherrill, Thomas  Search this
Schreier, Ethan  Search this
Schroeder, D. J.  Search this
Simmons, F. Pete  Search this
Smith, Robert W. (Robert William), 1952-  Search this
Sobieski, Stanley  Search this
Speer, Fred  Search this
Spitzer, Lyman, 1914-  Search this
Stockman, Peter  Search this
Stuhlinger, Ernst, 1913-  Search this
Teem, John  Search this
Tenerelli, Domenik  Search this
Tifft, William G.  Search this
Trevino, Robert  Search this
Weiler, Edward  Search this
Welch, James  Search this
Westphal, James  Search this
White, Richard Lee, 1953-  Search this
Zedekar, Ray  Search this
Extent:
3.7 Cubic feet (15 cassette boxes; 5 letter-size document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Press releases
Transcripts
Photographs
Reports
Publications
Date:
1983-1991
Summary:
This collection consists of the oral history transcripts and related research documentation for the Space Telescope History Project (STHP), which examined the space sciences, predominantly astronomy, viewed through the lens of a particular undertaking, the Hubble Space Telescope, 1970s-1980s.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the oral history transcripts and related research documentation for the Space Telescope History Project (STHP), which examined the space sciences, predominantly astronomy, viewed through the lens of a particular undertaking, the Hubble Space Telescope, 1970s-1980s. The principal investigator for the STHP was Robert W. Smith, and the interview set contains 235 hours of interviews with 80 individuals. The central thread of this collection was the problem of configuring new political relations among the space sciences and sponsors. The following were interviewed: Bob Adams (with Robert Trevino and Kitty Havens); M. Aucremanne; John Bahcall; Neta Bahcall; William Baum; Michael Belton; March Bensimon; Robert Bless; Greg Boeshaar; Albert Boggess; John Brandt; Robert Brown; Bert Bulkin; Margaret Burbidge; J. J. Caldwell; Frank Carr; Clark Chapman; John Clark; Art Code; Frank Costa; E. G. Danielson; Arthur Davidsen; Mike Disney; John Downey; Rodger Doxsey; Frank Edmondson; James Elliot; Garvin Emanuel; William Fastie; Riccardo Giacconi; Alan Goldberg; Edward Groth; Arun Guha; Don Hall; Richard Harms; Richard Henry; Noel Hinners; Donald Hunten; William Keathley; Warren Keller; Sam Keller; Ivan King; A.L. Lane; Barry Lasker; Robin Laurence; David Leckrone; Malcolm Longair; John Lowrance; Duccio Macchetto; Bruce McCandless; Kent Meserve; Jesse Mitchell; Jim Moore; Mas Nein; Don Noah; Memphis Norman; T. Bland Norris; James Odom; Jean Olivier; Charles Pellerin; Arthur Reetz; Jack Rehnberg; Evan Richards; Nancy Roman; James Rose; Jeffrey Rosendhal; Jane Russell; Ethan Schreier; Daniel Schroeder; Thomas Sherrill; F. Pete Simmons; Stanley Sobieski; Fred Speer; Lyman Spitzer; Peter Stockman; Ernst Stuhlinger; John Teem; Domenick Tenerelli; William Tifft; Hedrick van de Hulst; Edward Weiler; James Welch; James Westphal; Richard White; and Ray Zedekar. The collection also contains the following documentation gathered from a variety of sources: photographs, slides, NASA publications and reports, contractor reports and studies, press releases, and finding aids produced by the Space History Department, NASM.
Arrangement:
The Space Telescope History History Project interviews are arranged alphabetically by interviewee. Boxes 1-14 contain interviews on audio cassette tapes. Boxes 15-20 contain the transcripts for these cassette tapes. Most of these transcripts are available to researchers though, restrictions are placed on a small number of them. A NASM staff member will advise the patron which transcripts are available for copying and/or viewing and how to order copies of transcripts. Transcripts with user restrictions are highlighted in bold type.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection contains the interviews for the Space Telescope History Project. These interviews examine the early planning and development of what would eventually be known as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The period covered is from the 1970s into the 1980s. This project constitutes one of several oral history projects carried out within the National Air and Space Museum's (NASM) Department of Space History. This interview set consists of over 235 hours of interviews with 94 individuals. Please note that there are a few instances where audio cassette tapes of the interview subjects exist but without written transcripts while there are a few cases of existing transcripts of the interviews without any audio cassette tapes. Those interviewed include astronomers, scientists, engineers, as well as administrators, all of whom were involved in the space telescope project. The following were interviewed for this project: Bob Adams, Ken Ando, Marcel Aucremanne, John N. Bahcall, Neta Bahcall, William Baum, Michael J.S. Belton, Marc Bensimon, Livingston Biddle, Robert C. Bless, Greg Boeshaar, Albert Boggess, III, John Brandt, Robert A. Brown, Bert Bulkin, Margaret E. Burbridge, J.J. Caldwell, Frank Carr, Clark R. Chapman, John Clark, Art Code, Frank V. Costa, Allan Cree, E.G. Danielson, Arthur Davidsen, Mike Disney, James A. Downey, III, Roger Doxsey, Frank K. Edmondson, James L. Elliot, Garvin Emmanuel, William G. Fastie, George Field, Don Fordyce, Laurence W. Fredrick, Riccardo Giaconi, Alan Goldberg, Edward Groth, Arun K. Guha, Don Hall, Richard Harms, Kitty Havens, Richard Henry, Noel Hinners, Donald Hunten, William W. Keathley, Warren J. Keller, Sam Keller, Ivan King, A.L. Lane, Barry Lasker, Robin J. Laurance, David Leckone, Malcolm Longair, John L. Lowrance, Duccio Macchetto, Bruce McCandless, Kent Meserve, Jesse L. Mitchell, Jim Moore, Max Nein, Don Noah, Memphis Norman, T. Bland Norris, James B. Odom, Jean R. Olivier, Charles Pellerin, Arthur J. Reetz, Jack Rehnberg, Evan Richards, Nancy Roman, James Rose, Jeffrey D. Rosendahl, Jane Russell, Ethan Schreier, Daniel J. Schroeder, Thomas J. Sherrill, Pete F. Simmons, Stanley Sobieski, Fred A. Speer, Lyman Spitzer, Peter Stockman, Ernst Stuhlinger, John Teem, Domenick Tenerelli, William G. Tifft, Rodger Thompson, Robert Trevino, Hendrick C. van de Hulst, Edward Weiler, James C. Welch, James A. Westphal, Richard L. White and Ray Zedekar.
General note:
Additional material: This collection consists only of the interview transcripts, not the tapes. The tapes are housed in the National Air and Space Museum Department of Space History.
Provenance:
Department of Space History, NASM, Transfer, 1999, 1999-0035, Varies.
Restrictions:
Some restrictions apply; see permission forms in the collection accession file.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Telescopes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Press releases
Transcripts
Photographs
Reports
Publications
Citation:
Space Telescope History Project, NASM.1999.0035, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0035
See more items in:
Space Telescope History Project
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28f1ca8cd-bf66-41c9-a0f9-72d1b05e5962
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0035
Online Media:

USS ZR-1 Shenandoah Crash Site Photographs [McElroy]

Creator:
Parkins  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1925
Summary:
The USS ZR-1 Shenandoah was the first American-built rigid airship to use helium; the first to use water recovery apparatus for the continuous recovery of ballast from the exhaust gas of the fuel burned; and, during 57 flights with 740 hours in the air, the Shenandoah also trained crew members in the science of handling large airships in naval missions. The ZR-1 Shenandoah was destroyed in a squall on September 3, 1925, with the bulk of the airship crashing near Ava, Ohio; fourteen of the 43 person crew were killed. Robert McElroy visited the site of the Shenandoah's crash on September 4, 1925. This collection consists of two black and white photographs of the crash site that belonged to McElroy.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two black and white photographs that belonged to Robert McElroy of the crash site of the USS ZR-1 Shenandoah. Each photograph measures 8 by 10 inches and both are marked "Photo by Parkins" with a Zanesville, Ohio address.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
The USS ZR-1 Shenandoah was the first American-built rigid airship to use helium. Plans for the construction of the ZR-1 Shenandoah began in September 1919; the parts were manufactured at the Naval Aircraft Factory and then shipped to NAS Lakehurst for final assembly. The assembling began on 11 February 1922 and the ZR-1 Shenandoah was commissioned in 1923. During the ZR-1 Shenandoah's short life, it had many achievements, including being the first rigid airship to be inflated with helium and the first to use water recovery apparatus for the continuous recovery of ballast from the exhaust gas of the fuel burned; and making 57 flights, logging 740 hours in the air, training crew members in the science of handling large airships in naval missions. The ZR-1 Shenandoah was destroyed in a squall on September 3, 1925, with the bulk of the airship crashing near Ava, Ohio; fourteen of the 43 person crew were killed.

Robert McElroy visited the site of the Shenandoah's crash on September 4, 1925. McElroy collected a piece of the Shenandoah's fabric on which he wrote a first hand account of viewing the crash site and this item is now in the National Air and Space Museum's artifact collection.
Provenance:
Bennington McElroy, Gift, 2023, NASM.2023.0018.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Airships  Search this
ZR-1 Shenandoah  Search this
Aircraft accidents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
USS ZR-1 Shenandoah Crash Site Photographs [McElroy], NASM.2023.0018, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2023.0018
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg265bf3c13-a4d7-483c-ab3b-843da30ac8ed
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2023-0018
Online Media:

A. Scott Crossfield Papers

Creator:
Crossfield, A. Scott (Albert Scott), 1921-  Search this
Names:
Eastern Air Lines  Search this
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
20.23 Cubic feet (42 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Date:
1940 - 2004
Summary:
This collection consists of over nine cubic feet of material documenting Scott Crossfield's aviation career, with emphasis on his involvement with the North American X-15. The following types of material are included: correspondence; reel to reel tapes; papers, manuscripts; newspaper and magazine clippings; aviation manuals; photographs; film; and Crossfield's notes and reports.
Scope and Content note:
This collection encompasses the entirety of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr.'s career as an engineer, test pilot, airline executive, and speaker and advocate for aerospace education. Records in the collection date from Crossfield's time at college in the 1940s through his death in 2006. Crossfield's papers were donated to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives by the Crossfield family in 2006 and a second batch of material was received in 2008. The collection was received without any apparent organizational scheme, but some items were received in labeled folders and these folder titles were retained when the collection was processed. One group of material was loaned by the family for copying and these items were photocopied and placed within the appropriate folder in the case of documents, or were scanned and entered into the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives image database in the case of photographs.

After his retirement from North American Aviation, Inc., Crossfield gave his papers to a former secretary, Marion Brown, so that she could organize them for his use in future writing projects. In February 1973, a U.S. Navy Vought A-7E Corsair II crashed into the apartment building where Brown lived and all of Crossfield's papers in her possession were destroyed. Due to this incident, the collection has more material from Crossfield's time with Eastern Air Lines and onwards, although the prior years are still well represented through records that were either retained in Crossfield's possession or copies that were gathered after the fact. There is correspondence from Crossfield relating to the crash in Box 11 of the collection.

The archival materials in this collection are organized into four series. The first series is composed of personal materials and includes school records, correspondence, personal photographs, records relating to various organizations in which Crossfield was active, information relating to the publication of Crossfield's autobiography, Always Another Dawn, other writings by Crossfield, financial records, subject files assembled by Crossfield, philatelic materials (Crossfield was an active collector and was a founding member and officer of The Aviation Historical Foundation, a philatelic organization), and news clippings. The material in this series is largely organized chronologically. Personal photographs and subject files are organized by topic first and chronologically within each folder and organizations are arranged alphabetically by name first and also chronologically within the individual folders.

The second series contains items relating to Crossfield's professional life, organized chronologically by place of employment. This series includes materials relating to Crossfield's work at Boeing, the U.S. Navy, the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), North American Aviation, Inc., Eastern Air Lines, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Crossfield's work as an Independent Technical Advisor, Crossfield's application for the position of Director of the National Air and Space Museum, Crossfield's time as a member of the United States Organizing Committee, and his work with organizations such as the Scott Crossfield Foundation and The Wright Experience. During the later part of his life, Crossfield toured the country extensively giving speeches, presenting awards, etc. and there is a large amount of material relating to these appearances in this part of the collection. These materials arrived already organized chronologically by individual trip and this organizational scheme was retained. Specifically, the professional life series includes flight reports, manuals, drawings, business correspondence, administrative records, presentations and papers, travel itineraries, notebooks, calendars, speeches delivered by Crossfield, and career related photographs (which are broken out as their own subseries). The professional life series also includes a section of miscellaneous professional items including job seeking correspondence, information on the patent for a power wheel braking or driving unit designed by Crossfield, and a folder of Crossfield's résumés.

The third series consists of audiotapes and is organized first by tape format and then chronologically within each category. Subjects of the audiotapes include speeches, a large number of North American X-15 cockpit recordings and radio communications, tape produced for a television program, and autobiographical notes. A number of the audiotapes include no description. With a total of 65 examples in this series, the most common audiotape format in the collection is, by far, 7 inch reel to reel tapes. Other formats in this series include 5 inch reel to reel tapes, 3.125 by 3.5 inch metal audiotape cartridges, and Dictaphone recording belts. Please note that these audio recordings are unavailable to the researcher at the time of processing due to the format and fragility of the tapes.

The fourth series of this collection is comprised of oversized materials and additional materials including galley proofs, news clippings, drawings, charts, professional records, and photographs. The organization of this series mirrors the folder titles found in the rest of the collection.

The researcher should note that the collection also contains several motion picture films relating to the life and career of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. These films are not included in the container list but a NASM Archives staff person can assist you regarding access.
Arrangement:
The A. Scott Crossfield Papers are organized into the following series and subseries:

Series I: Personal Materials

1.1 School Records

1.2 Correspondence

1.3 Personal Photographs

1.4 Organizations

1.5 Information Related to the Publication of Always Another Dawn

1.6 Other Writings by Crossfield

1.7 Financial Records

1.8 Subject Files

1.9 Philatelic Materials

1.10 News Clippings

1.11 Miscellaneous Personal Records

Series II: Professional Life

2.1 Boeing

2.2 U.S. Navy

2.3 Kirsten Wind Tunnel, University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory

2.4 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)

2.5 North American Aviation, Inc.

2.6 Eastern Air Lines

2.7 Hawker Siddeley Aviation

2.8 Independent Technical Advisor

2.9 Application for NASM Director Position

2.10 United States Organizing Committee

2.11 Scott Crossfield Foundation

2.12 The Wright Experience

2.13 Speaking Engagements and Professional Appearances

2.14 Career Related Photographs

2.14 Miscellaneous Professional Records

Series III: Audiotapes

Series IV: Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. was born on October 2, 1921, in California. As a young boy, Crossfield was often confined indoors due to health problems related to pneumonia and rheumatic fever. During this time, he dreamed of becoming a pilot and designed and constructed model airplanes. Crossfield took his first airplane ride in 1927, at six years old, in an Alexander Eaglerock A-1 piloted by family friend Charles "Carl" Lienesch. Lienesch also encouraged Crossfield to become an engineer as well as a pilot. Unbeknownst to Crossfield's parents, he began taking flying lessons at the age of 12 at Wilmington Airport under the tutelage of pilot Vaughn McNulty. The family later moved to Washington State and it was there, at the Chehalis Airport, that Crossfield made his first solo flight in a Curtiss Robin. It was not until the summer of 1941, however, that Crossfield officially soloed and earned his pilot's license under the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP).

Crossfield enrolled in the University of Washington in 1940 and worked at the Boeing plant in Seattle, beginning in the fall of 1941, while still pursuing his studies. Crossfield's first assignment at Boeing was as an assembly page clerk. He was later promoted to the position of production expediter and shop salvage engineer. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps and continued to work at Boeing while he waited for an opening in a cadet class. In February 1942, tired of waiting on the Air Corps and eager to get into combat, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Navy instead where he joined the cadet class of May 7, 1942. Crossfield first trained in Seattle, Washington, and later was sent to the Naval Air Training Center in Corpus Christi, Texas, where he earned his Naval Aviator's wings in 1942. During his time in the Navy, Crossfield never fulfilled his ambition to see combat because he was selected instead to remain at Corpus Christi as a flight and gunnery instructor. Crossfield eventually was sent to Hawaii to prepare and train for an invasion of Japan but the war ended before this became necessary. During his time in the U.S. Navy, Crossfield flew the Grumman F6F Hellcat, Vought F4U Corsair, and the North American SNJ Texan, among other aircraft. After he separated from active duty with the Service, Crossfield remained active in the Naval Reserves and was part of an aerobatic team at Sand Point Naval Air Station that flew Goodyear FG-1D Corsairs.

Crossfield returned to his studies at the University of Washington in 1946 and was employed doing tests at the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University's Aeronautical Laboratory. Crossfield earned his Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1949 and his master's degree in aeronautical science in 1950. After obtaining his degrees, Crossfield joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) as a research pilot. During his time with NACA, Crossfield flew many aircraft including the Convair XF-92A, Bell X-1, Northrop X-4 Bantam, Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak, Bell X-5, Republic F-84F Thunderstreak, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, North American F-86 Sabre, and the North American F-100A Super Sabre. Crossfield made history in the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket on November 20, 1953, as the first pilot to exceed Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound).

In 1955, Crossfield left NACA and joined North American Aviation, Inc. to work on the X-15 program where he would not only serve as the X-15 Project Pilot but also as a Design Specialist, a role in which he was an integral part of the design of both the aircraft and the pressure suit developed by the David Clark Company for the X-15 program. The suit served as a prototype for the spacesuits later worn by astronauts. Crossfield helped to develop the X-15's cockpit, control, and engine systems; structural design; propulsion system; engineered its escape system; and contributed to its handling quality requirements. He also developed the ground control test methodology that would later become standard on the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. Crossfield piloted the North American X-15 on its first captive flight in March 1959, first glide flight in June 1959, and the first powered flight in September 1959, as well as numerous other test flights, before the X-15 was delivered to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in February 1960. Crossfield also served as Chief Engineering Test Pilot at North American from 1955-1961 before moving to the Space and Information Systems Division first as the Director of Systems Test (1961) then as the Division Director of Test and Quality Assurance (1961-1966) where he was responsible for quality control in all North American projects including the Hounddog Missile (AGM-28, GAM-77), Paragliders for the Gemini program, Apollo Command and Service Module, and the Saturn V launch vehicles, second stage. Crossfield's final position with North American was as the Technical Director, Research, Engineering and Test from 1966-1967.

Crossfield joined Eastern Air Lines in Miami, Florida, as Division Vice President, Flight, Research, and Development, Flight Operations in 1967, a position he held until 1971 when he moved to Washington, DC, to serve as Staff Vice President, Transportation Systems Development (1971-1973). From 1974 to 1975, Crossfield served as Senior Vice President at Hawker Siddeley Aviation's U.S. subsidiary branch, an office he helped to establish. After leaving Hawker Siddeley, Crossfield served for many years as an independent technical advisor to the U.S. Congress. Crossfield also served on the United States Organizing Committee to plan the Air and Space Bicentennial. In the later part of his life, Crossfield traveled extensively to give talks, attend events, and make various professional appearances and it was on a return flight home from one such trip in 2006 that Crossfield was killed when the plane he was piloting was caught in a thunderstorm.

Crossfield was active in various organizations including the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautic Association (NAA), and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP), a group in which he was a founding member. Crossfield also created the Scott Crossfield Foundation to support aerospace education. Crossfield was the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Sperry (Lawrence B.) Memorial Award (1954) and Chanute (Octave) Award (AIAA, 1958), Kincheloe Award (SETP, 1960), Harmon Trophy (1960), Collier (Robert J.) Trophy (1961), NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1993), and the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Trophy for Lifetime Achievement (2000).

Crossfield published his autobiography, Always Another Dawn, in 1960 with Clay Blair, Jr. and is the author of numerous other publications, articles, and technical papers.
Provenance:
Alice Crossfield, Gift, 2006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
North American X-15  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Citation:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Accession number 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Acc. 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0041
See more items in:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28d41031c-4569-4e2e-b114-8a32f81be51e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0041
Online Media:

Wright Field Technical Documents Library

Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Names:
McCook Field, Ohio  Search this
United States. Air Force  Search this
United States. Air Force Materiel Division  Search this
United States. Air Materiel Command  Search this
Wright Field, Ohio  Search this
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Extent:
733.77 Cubic feet (1508 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Publications
Reports
Photographs
Date:
1915-1955
Summary:
Throughout its history the Engineering Division/Materiel Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, maintained a catalogued library of technical documents, which was turned over to the Air Force Museum and later donated to the National Air and Space Museum. The collection consists of reports and other documents on a variety of aviation-related topics, including general science (aeronautics, physics, chemistry, etc); military air service personnel, organization, and equipment for both US and foreign air forces; as well as operations, and so on. Currently, the finding aid only covers documents from the D52.1 subject code (Airplanes, arranged alphabetically) and only those that are physically located in the Wright Field Technical Documents Library.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of reports and other documents on a variety of aviation-related topics, including general science (aeronautics, physics, chemistry, etc); military air service personnel, organization, and equipment for both US and foreign air forces; as well as operations, and so on. Information on foreign services and equipment is usually from military intelligence reports, although some foreign documents or translations are included. The material also includes a large section of test reports from the Material Division itself.
Arrangement:
Every document in the collection has been assigned a multi-part Wright Field Number. This number is adapted from the Air Force central decimal correspondence filing system. Wright Field Numbers are written in the format:

[Subject Code] [Category Suffix] / [Sequence Number] [Sequence Modifier]

• Subject Code: This number begins with an alpha-numeric subject code. For example, D52.1 (Airplanes, arranged alphabetically).

• Category Suffix: A more specific textual subject reference. For example, in the D52.1 subjects, the suffix is usually a manufacturer name, aircraft name, or a general type of aircraft. (Original Wright Field cataloguers could be inconsistent in how they classified an airplane. For example, a document on a Japanese Mitsubishi A6M could be filed alphabetically under A6M, Mitsubishi, Zeke, Zero, or Misc. Japanese.) It is possible to not have a category suffix.

• Sequence Number: The individual number assigned to the document within its subject code and category. If a document was formerly classified as "Security Information," the sequence number starts with "S," for example "S-1." These are usually filed at the beginning of a range of documents. Sometimes technical manuals are filed using the technical order (TO) number. For example, 01-20EE-3 is the sequence number used for a Boeing B-17 Handbook of Overhaul Instructions, TO-01-20EE-3.

• Sequence Modifier: If there is a revision or multiple parts of a document, this is reflected in a sequence modifier. Ex. Dates, revision numbers, etc.

The documents are arranged alpha-numerically by Wright Field Number in the order of:

Subject Code, Category Suffix, Sequence Number, Sequence Modifier

Example of arrangement by Wright Field Number:

D52.1 / 42

D52.1 Aeronca / 2

D52.1 Boeing / S-1

D52.1 Boeing / 422

D52.1 Boeing / 511 Dec 1, 1941

D52.1 Boeing / 511 vol. 2 March 1, 1943

D52.1 Misc. Japanese / 46

Each record contains the title and source from the index cards. Information from the subject field on the cards appears as a scope and content note.

Currently, the finding aid only covers documents from the D52.1 subject code and only those that are physically located in the Wright Field Technical Documents Library. Please contact the NASM Archives regarding additional documents. Some may be located in the Technical Reference Files, cataloguing information may be only on the index cards, or the document has been catalogued as missing from the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1917, the United States Army Air Service established an aviation engineering section at McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio. In 1927, the Engineering Division, as it was then known, moved to nearby Wilbur Wright Field and remained there as the Air Force Materiel Division (AFMD) and Air Materiel Command (AMC) until Wright Field combined with Patterson Field to become Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in 1948. The Engineering Division was responsible for Army Air Services research and development and served as a clearinghouse for information on aviation development worldwide. Throughout its history the Engineering Division/Materiel Division maintained a catalogued library of documents, which was turned over to the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson and was later donated to the National Air and Space Museum.
Provenance:
United States Air Force Museum, Transfer, 1962, NASM.XXXX.0428.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Military intelligence  Search this
Airplanes, Military -- Flight testing  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military -- Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Publications
Reports
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0428
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2124245c3-eb7c-495a-a446-e87ba26d8251
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428

Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Family Photographs Collection

Creator:
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C.  Search this
Names:
Lowe, Leontine Gachon  Search this
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C.  Search this
Extent:
0.49 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Cartes-de-visite
Date:
bulk 1862-1895
1862-1965
Summary:
The Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Family Photographs Collection contains material from the post-Civil War activities of aeronaut Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe, his wife, Leontine Augustine Gachon Lowe, and their family.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Lowe family photographs, including portraits and mounted stereographs of Lowe, his wife Leontine Augustine Gachon Lowe, and their children. The collection also includes a folding leather wallet album of carte de visite portraits of Lowe, Leontine Lowe, and their children. There are two albums of photographs from a world cruise made by Leontine Lowe, circa 1889, including photographs of India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), China, Japan, Egypt, Palestine, and Greece. The images are round Kodak No. 2 photographs. The album pages have been dismounted. Besides family photographs, there are also photographs from the Civil War, including a Mathew Brady studio image of Lowe's Balloon Camp at Gaines' Hill during the battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862, showing Lowe in the basket of a balloon held by Union soldiers; a portrait of Lowe with his father, Clovis Lowe; and a stereograph of one of Lowe's portable hydrogen generators. Photographs of Lowe's other business ventures include photographs of Lowe's Pasadena and Mt. Wilson Railway, later known as the Mt. Lowe Railway, and of a visit by Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard, to Pasadena and Mt. Wilson, April 1892, and a mounted photograph of a Lowe designed coke furnace in operation at the San Francisco Coke & Gas Company. Besides the photographs there is a letter from General Andrew A. Humphreys (Lowe's commanding officer) to Lowe, dated July 23, 1862.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by subject matter.
Biographical / Historical:
Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913), was a balloonist, the Chief Aeronaut of the Union Army's Balloon Corps, a self-trained scientist and engineer, and an inventor and entrepreneur. He was born in Jefferson Mills, New Hampshire on August 20, 1832. After leaving his local grammar school, Lowe educated himself in chemistry and meteorology. Lowe built a portable laboratory and traveled on the lecture circuit, lecturing on scientific subjects and giving public demonstrations. In 1855, Lowe married Leontine Augustine Gachon, a French actress; they eventually had ten children. Lowe acquired his first balloon in 1856, and first achieved public notice with a series of ascents in Ottawa in 1858. In 1859, Lowe developed plans for a transatlantic flight with his giant "City of New York" (later renamed "Great Western") balloon, though the attempt was never made. With the coming of the Civil War, Lowe offered his services as a balloonist to the Union Army. His reconnaissance operations were appreciated, but disputes over pay caused him to resign in 1863. Lowe developed and patented the water gas process for the production of hydrogen gas, and invented a series of ice-making machines. Lowe moved to California in 1887 and eventually settled in Pasadena, where he built ice plants and founded a bank. With David J. Macpherson, Lowe began the construction of the Pasadena and Mt. Wilson Railway. By 1899, Lowe had suffered financial setbacks and his fortune was lost. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe died at the age of 80 in Pasadena on January 16, 1913.
Provenance:
Lance Ferm, Gift, 2011
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Mt. Lowe Railway  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Cartes-de-visite
Citation:
Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Family Photographs Collection, Accession 2011-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2011.0025
See more items in:
Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Family Photographs Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg25a2aaf73-888e-41a6-ae12-bb8f134c2593
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2011-0025
Online Media:

Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection

Topic:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation
Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum -- Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
13.38 Cubic feet (11 legal document boxes, 1 shoe box (5 x 8 inches), 6 records center boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1917-2000
bulk 1981-1986
Summary:
This collection consists of background material collected in support of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" (opened in 1982) and its companion book (published 1983) by curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, a related symposium, educational materials, and a travelling version of the exhibit. The collection contains photographs and textual materials used in the exhibit and book, internal correspondence and memoranda, and a large amount of material gathered for research purposes but not used in any "Black Wings" production.
Scope and Contents:
The core of the collection covers activities of American Black aviators between 1917 and 1981, from Eugene Bullard's service as a pilot in World War I through the first Black astronauts assigned to the Space Shuttle program in the early 1980s. Curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano and other Museum staff collected and generally grouped materials to fit the four chronological sections of the "Black Wings" exhibit and related book, with a strong emphasis on the stories of individual people.

Headwinds (1917-1939) covers pioneer fliers such as Bullard and Bessie Coleman; Black aviation activities in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; early aviators and organizers including William J. Powell, Willa Brown, and Cornelius Coffey; and long distance flights by James Herman Banning and Thomas C. Allen, and C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson and Dr. Albert E. Forsythe.

Flight Lines (1939-1945) includes the 1939 flight of Dale L. White and Chauncey E. Spencer to Washington, D.C.; the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPT); the start of training of Black military pilots at Tuskegee Army Air Field during World War II; and training of the all-Black 477th Bombardment Group. This section and the next include U.S. Army Air Force documents and photography, and materials obtained from individual Tuskegee Airmen.

Wings for War (1943-1945) covers the experiences of the men of the 99th Fighter Squadron and later the 322nd Fighter Group, all-Black fighter units which participated in the Allied campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy during World War II, and their commander, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Era of Change (1945-1981), including many materials from the U.S. armed forces and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), covers the desegregation of the armed forces; military pilots' participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars (featuring William Earl Brown, Jr.; Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr.; Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.); general aviation (John W. Green, Jr.; Neal Loving); commercial aviation (Perry H. Young, Jr.; James O. Plinton, Jr.); and the U.S. space program, including not just the first Black astronauts (Guion S. Bluford, Jr.; Ronald E. McNair; Frederick D. Gregory; Charles F. Bolden) but many other NASA professional men and women from Project Mercury through the beginning of the Space Shuttle era.

Most of the material was photocopied from other sources such as books, newspapers, periodicals, and other archival collections, but many copy photographs and anecdotes were obtained from the aviators themselves (or their families), particularly those active in the 1930s and 1940s. The collection also contains internal Museum documents, notes, and memoranda regarding the development and implementation of the various "Black Wings" productions, including portions of exhibit scripts, book manuscripts, ephemera, and Museum photography taken at the exhibit opening and the symposium. Photographic formats include prints, copy prints, 4 x 5 inch black and white copy negatives and color transparencies, and 35mm copy slides. Quality of the photography is often fair to poor, as the copies are several generations removed from the original images.

The last six boxes of the collection (currently unprocessed) consists of material collected circa 2000 by curator Cathleen S. Lewis and Ian Cook (NASM Department of Space History) for a proposed update to the "Black Wings" exhibit. After it became clear that the exhibit was not going to be updated, Lewis transferred the material to the NASM Aeronautics Department, as Hardesty and Pisano were contemplating an update to the Black Wings book. This, too, failed to materialize, and the material was transferred to the NASM Archives in May 2018 to be added to the existing Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection. This series was received by the Museum's Archives Division after the existing collection material had been scanned; it has not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series. The first four roughly chronological series (Exhibit, Book, Educational Outreach, and Symposium) relate to the different "Black Wings" productions, and materials within each series often reflect the four-section groupings detailed in the Scope and Content note. The next series, Research Materials, has four sub-series: Biographical Files (alphabetical by last name), Subject Files and Study Materials (alphabetical by subject), Photographic Negatives, and Photographic Prints and Illustrations. The last series houses later additions to the collection which are currently unprocessed. Materials within folders are predominantly photocopies (xerographs) and often include numerous duplicates, many unlabeled, and in no specific order. Materials relating to an exhibit often include a NASM Exhibits Department reference number (example: SE:13-L73-P58 to P59) indicating the exhibit number (13), label number (L73), and position within the exhibit (P58 to P59). Some materials are not visible online due to copyright restrictions.
Biographical / Historical:
On September 23, 1982, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" opened as part of the existing "Pioneers of Aviation" exhibit located in Gallery 208 of the museum's National Mall Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. "Black Wings" encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both civilian, military, and commercial circles. The exhibit generated much public and media interest, and inspired the Museum to sponsor a symposium on February 25, 1983, entitled "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," (working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War") featuring presentations by historians and U. S. Army Air Forces veterans including Noel F. Parrish (Commander, Tuskegee Army Air Field, 1942-1946), George F. Roberts (Commander, 99th Fighter Squadron, September 1943 to April 1944), and pilots Lewis A. Jackson, Elwood T. Driver, and Louis R. Purnell. In conjunction with the exhibit, the Museum, working with Sid Aaronson Films, Inc., produced a set of sound filmstrip packages designed for elementary and secondary school use. In 1983, the Smithsonian Institution Press published a companion book, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, authored by the exhibit's curators, Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano; a second edition was issued the following year as part of the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight series. A Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES) version of the exhibit began circulating to other museums and venues in June 1983, and a expanded version of the SITES exhibit (featuring additional artifacts, photography, and audio-visual materials) was displayed April 1 to August 5, 1984, at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (later know as the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) in Washington, D.C. The original NASM "Black Wings" exhibit—with occasional updates—remained on display in the "Pioneers of Flight" gallery (later renamed the "Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery") until 2019 when the gallery was closed due to renovations to the Museum's National Mall Building.
Related Materials:
"Black Wings: African American Pioneer Aviators" NASM Website Collection, NASM.2004.0026 [finding aid not available online]
Provenance:
National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Department of Aeronautics, Transfer, 1993, NASM.1993.0060; additional material transferred from NASM Department of Space History, 2018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American women air pilots  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Astronauts  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Vietnam War, 1961-1975  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27c62d0c6-784f-4db6-9a31-26160b8635a1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0060
Online Media:

Photos, Introduction and Chapter 1: Headwinds

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Box 10, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2ce41508c-b0bb-4438-9ced-f37b2b858a5c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref518

Photos, Chapter 2: Flight Lines

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Box 10, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2644f5982-823c-43e2-86b3-0750ce386950
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref519

Photos, Chapter 3: Wings for War

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Box 10, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2277654a7-cd52-4822-9d22-0b76c5f4f253
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref520

Photos, Chapter 4: Era of Change

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Box 10, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2902ec39e-cd59-4ab6-b154-b86e585d0d4d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref521

Photos, Miscellaneous

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d4f5e6ad-7085-479d-b9ca-7c94e430ec49
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref522

Exhibit Opening Event, Photographs (Enlargements, 1 of 3)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
September 22, 1982
Scope and Contents:
Original photography by Dale E. Hrabak, Smithsonian Institution (enlargments from 35 mm black and white negatives).
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 1: Exhibit
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b8f344a3-7bbf-428e-b800-eeb7f93f2bf7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref529

Exhibit Opening Event, Photographs (Enlargements, 2 of 3)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
September 22, 1982
Scope and Contents:
Original photography by Dale E. Hrabak, Smithsonian Institution (enlargments from 35 mm black and white negatives).
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 1: Exhibit
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg20458ecdd-5402-44a1-82da-401f8cd1e900
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref530

Exhibit Opening Event, Photographs (Enlargements, 3 of 3)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
September 22, 1982
Scope and Contents:
Original photography by Dale E. Hrabak, Smithsonian Institution (enlargments from 35 mm black and white negatives).
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 1: Exhibit
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28dd97edf-c5e3-4230-aa03-50810a6b132f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref531

Brown, Jill Elaine

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Biographical Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28ad81486-644b-4959-9cd4-f9e7d01beaf7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref539

Driver, Elwood Thomas "Woody"

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 6
Box 8, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Biographical Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2194e5355-1ff4-4f08-b243-b59b08fb0157
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref546

Greene, John William, Jr

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 8
Box 8, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Biographical Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b83e090c-bbcf-477e-b8d5-5311e4fb2c36
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref549

Johnson, Hayden [Group Photographs, Negro Air Corps, Tuskegee Army Air Field]

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Biographical Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d6d33c5a-2e0d-4d76-b33d-b320210a002e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref555

Norwood, William R. (Captain)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Biographical Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d8632d9f-f572-453e-b751-6913fc7090e6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref560

Owens, Frank Julian

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Biographical Files
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg23837b4ee-12d8-4f90-a85b-9dbdb72c6f05
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref561

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