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Helen C. Rountree papers

Creator:
Rountree, Helen C., 1944-  Search this
Names:
Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe  Search this
Extent:
27 Sound recordings (1/4" reels and cassettes)
2.4 Linear feet (4 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Pamunkey Indians  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Upper Mattaponi  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Rappahannock Indians  Search this
Algonquin (Algonkin)  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Interviews
Field notes
Place:
Virginia
Date:
1969-1990
Summary:
Helen C. Rountree is emeritus professor of anthropology at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. She studied the history of the Virginia Tribes from the 17th century to the 21st century and is considered a leading expert on Pocahontas. The Helen C. Rountree papers include field notes, correspondence, and sound recordings relating to her field work among the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Monacan, as well as the area around Nottoway Reservation and Gingaskin Reservation.
Scope and Contents:
The Helen C Rountree papers contain correspondence, field notes, and sound recordings relating to her field work primarily among Virginian tribes including the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Monacan, as well as the area around Nottoway Reservation and Gingaskin Reservation. Correspondents include Robert Y. Barham, Christian F. Feest, Samuel Proctor, C.G. Holland, Frank Porter, Marshall Becker, and Nancy Oestreich Lurie.

The sound recordings relate to Rountree's fieldwork and contain recordings of the Chickahominy Fall Festivals, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1978, 1981-1986 and a Chickahominy tribal meeting 1987; Nansemond Tribe Spring Festival, 1984, and Homecoming, 1988. Also included are recordings among the Pamumkey; Mattaponi; Shoshoni; Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada; meetings; public events, and some lectures by Helen Rountree and others. There is one unidentified sound cassette.
Arrangement note:
The collection contains: Correspondence, 1969-1985; Field notes, 1969-1988; Cook Books, 1981, 1983; Audio Ephemera, undated; Sound Recordings, 1969-1990.
Biographical/Historical note:
Helen C. Rountree earned an A.B. in Sociology & Anthropology from the College of William and Mary, an M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Utah, and a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She joined the faculty of Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia as an Instructor in 1968 and retired as a full Professor in 1999. Dr. Rountree worked initially with the Shoshone in Nevada, then began research on the Algonquian-speaking Native Americans of eastern Virginia, becoming an honorary member of the Nansemond and Upper Mattaponi tribes in Virginia. She is acknowledged as a leading researcher and writer on Virginia Indians from the 17th century to the present and is considered an expert on Pocahontas.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Helen C. Rountree in 2005.
Restrictions:
Materials related to interview notes are restricted until June 2025.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Folk songs, Shoshoni  Search this
Indians of North America -- Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Interviews
Field notes
Citation:
Helen C. Rountree Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2005-22
See more items in:
Helen C. Rountree papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2005-22

George L. Nelson papers

Creator:
Nelson, George L.  Search this
Names:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Powhatan  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Writings
Articles
Speeches
Date:
1920-1925
Summary:
The George L. Nelson papers consist of documents belonging to Chief Nelson and left in the posession of his daughter Waneta Swain. The bulk of these documents relate to the work done by Chief Nelson in establishing the Rappahannock Indian Association in 1922 and the activities that led to the recognition of the tribe as part of the larger Virginia Indians Powhatan Confederacy. Chief George L. Nelson was born and raised in Indian Neck, VA.
Scope and Contents:
The George L. Nelson papers consist of documents belonging to Chief Nelson and left in the possession of his daughter Waneta Swain. The bulk of these documents relate to the work done by Chief Nelson in establishing the Rappahannock Indian Association in 1921 and the activities that led to the recognition of the tribe as part of the larger Virginia Indians Powhatan Confederacy. These includes letters, speeches, notes and membership lists. These papers also include letters and articles from Frank Speck, an anthropologist from the University of Pennsylvania, who maintained a relationship with Nelson and his family. Additionally these records includes notes and documents written by Chief Nelson regarding the Racial Integrity act (Bill No. 68) which was enacted in 1924. There are three family photographs which were accompanied by a newspaper clipping announcing the 50th wedding anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. George L. Nelson.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged alphabetically by folder title.
Biographical / Historical:
Chief George L. Nelson (Rappahannock) was born circa 1883 in Indian Neck, Virginia to parents Samuel and Virginia Nelson. A member of the Rappahannock community, Nelson began working to incorporate his tribe under the state laws of Virginia. The Rappahannock Indian Association was founded in 1921 with George Nelson as Chief. In the early 1920's anthropologist Frank Speck spent time among the Rappahannock photographing Nelson and other community members.

Nelson married Polena Sensenbaugh daughter to Simon and Louisa born 1888 in South Whitely, Indiana in 1908. They became acquainted while Nelson was on his way home following a trip around the world with the Navy. George and Polena had 11 children, six sons and five daughters and the family eventually moved to Millville, New Jersey. Nelson died in 1960 in Cumberland, New Jersey. Nelson's daughter Waneta Swain Ackerman (born Waneta Pocahontas Nelson) bequeathed her father's papers to the National Museum of the American Indian in 2005.

Speck, Frank. "The Rappahannock Indians of Virginia," Indian Notes and Monographs, Volume V, No. 3. Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1925.
Related Materials:
Photographs of Chief George Nelson and family were taken both by Frank Speck and Frederick Johnson in the 1920's and can be found in their photo collections.

Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.032) Frederick Johnson photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.038)
Provenance:
The Chief George L. Nelson papers were donated to NMAI in 2005 by the Estate of Waneta P. Swain, daughter to Nelson, along with an outfit worn by Nelson which can be found in the object collections (NMAI Object 265403).
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Race discrimination -- Law and legislation -- Virginia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters
Writings
Articles
Speeches
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George L. Nelson Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.018
See more items in:
George L. Nelson papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-018
Online Media:

Frederick Johnson photograph collection

Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Names:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Linear feet
450 Negatives (photographic) (black and white)
Culture:
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Algonquin [Golden Lake/Pikwàkanagàn First Nation]  Search this
Algonquin [Lac Barriere (Barriere Lake)]  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Anishinaabe [Parry Island, Ontario]  Search this
Potawatomi [Parry Island, Ontario]  Search this
Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]  Search this
Innu [Mashteuiatsh (Pointe-Bleue, Quebec)]  Search this
Innu [Kiskissink]  Search this
Innu [Pessamit (Betsiamites/Bersimis)]  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
Canada
Quebec
Ontario
Nova Scotia
Newfoundland
Delaware
Date:
1924-1931
Summary:
The Frederick Johnson collection consists of original negatives made from 1924 to 1931 by Johnson primary among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, Algonquin, Potawatomi, Montagnais, Abenaki, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree peoples of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Quebec, Canada. Frederick Johnson began his anthropological studies as a teenager, accompanying anthropologist Frank G. Speck (1881-1951) on trips to Native communities in Eastern Canada. Between 1923 and 1929, Johnson studied at the University of Pennsylvania and conducted several research trips in Canada, some of which were sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of original negatives made from 1924 to 1931 by Johnson primary among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, Algonquin, Potawatomi, Montagnais, Abenaki, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree peoples of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Quebec, Canada. The bulk were made among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, and Algonquin peoples in 1925 and from 1927 to 1931. In general, the majority of the Canada materials are informal, outdoor portraits of individuals and groups but they also depict dwellings, the construction of wigwams and birchbark canoes, carving and wood working processes, ceremonials, churches, the process of catching and smoking salmon, and the landscape. In addition there are negatives made in Delaware from 1924 to 1926 of and Nanticoke and Rappahannock. Again, these consist primarily of outdoor, informal portraits of individuals and groups of people.
Arrangement note:
Arranged in three series geographically and chronologically; Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke, 1924-1927; Series 2: Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Various Communities, 1925-1930; Series 3: Canada: Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Mi'kmaq (Micmac), 1930-1931. Series 2 has six subseries organized by community. Negatives are arranged by catalog number within the series or subseries.
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1904 in Everett, Massachusetts, Frederick Johnson at an early age displayed an interest in indigenous cultures and an aptitude for indigenous languages. He studied anthropology at Tufts, the University of Massachusetts, and at the University of Pennsylvania, and eventually accompanied anthropologist and mentor Frank G. Speck on several trips throughout the Northeastern United States. Early in his career, Johnson worked with the Algonquin people and from 1917 to 1931 among the Innu, Mi'kmaq, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree communities in Canada. Individuals from these communities noted that Johnson's primarily focus was to listen to elders and their stories. Many of Johnson's research trips during this period were sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and Johnson would send collections of ethnographic materials and photographs back to the MAI in New York City. From 1936 to 1967, Johnson was the curator of Harvard's Peabody Museum and subsequently became the Museum's director, a post that he held until his retirement in 1969. Johnson passed away in 1994 in Lowell, Massachusetts.

For more information on Frederick Johnson ethnographic work in Canada see "Frederick Johnson's Canadian Ethnology in the Americanist Tradition" by Marilyn Norcini. Histories of Anthropology Annual, Volume 4, 2008, pp. 106-134.
Related Materials:
Frederick Johnson participated in the 1919 expedition to San Miguel Island (California) with Ralph Glidden, sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Johnson's photographs from that expedition can be found in the Ralph Glidden photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.028).

A collection of Frederick Johnson's papers and photographs can be found at the Robert S. Peabody Institute of Archaeology.
Separated Materials:
A significant collection of ethnographic materials from Canada accompanied the photographs by Johnson and can be found in NMAI's object collection. To view these objects, or for more information, please contact NMAI Collections or make an appointment through the NMAI website.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were sent to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, by Frederick Johnson between 1927-1931 along with his ethnographic field collections.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-038
Online Media:

United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
41 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1924-1927
Scope and Contents:
The negatives in this series were taken among the Nanticoke tribe in Millsboro, Delaware between 1924-1927, while Johnson was an undergraduate student at the University of Pennsylvania studying under Frank Speck. Images of Nanticoke tribal members include Chief Russell R. Clark and his family; members of the Harmon and Wright families; Iona Hamilton; and Dorelix Amaf. During his trips to Millsboro, Johnson also photographed visits to the Nanticoke from Rappahannock tribal members from Virginia including Chief George Nelson among others. The 1927 Rappahannock visit also coincided with a Thanksgiving dance and powwow. Gladys Tantaquidgeon (Mohegan), another student of Speck at the University of Pennsylvania, was also photographed by Johnson in Delaware. Though the majority of photographs are portraits, Johnson also photographed baskets and scenic views.

Many of the Nanticoke tribal members were identified by Bill Davis from the Nanticoke Indian Museum in 2003.
N14726-N14766
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Series 1
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref507

Portrait of Rappahannock Councilor James Johnson

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Rappahannock councilor James Johnson, seated on a trade blanket on a boulder, wearing a feather headdress, fringed shirt, and edged leggings. Wooden structures and trees in background. Probably taken during an inter-tribal gathering with the Nanticoke in Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14728
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref510

Portrait of Robert H. Clarke (Rappahannock), Dorelix Amaf (Nanticoke), and James Johnson (Rappahannock)

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of the men Robert H. Clarke (Rappahannock), Dorelix Amaf (Nanticoke), and James Johnson (Rappahannock). They are posed on a wooden plank walkway, and wear feather headdresses, fringed hide shirts, and are wrapped in trade blankets. Photo probably taken during an inter-tribal gathering in Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14729
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref511

Group of Men, Women, and a Child (Possibly Rappahannock)

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
A group of men, women, and a child (possibly Rappahannock) posed standing on a wooden walkway in front of a wooden clapboard house with screened porch. They wear various fringed cloth pants, shirts, and dresses, some beaded and ribboned, feather headdresses, hats, and necklaces. Visiting from Virginia for an early Nanticoke powwow in Millsboro, Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14755
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref537

Rappahannock Councilman James Johnson

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Rappahannock Councilman James Johnson in an elaborately beaded or embroidered fringed cloth jacket, upright feather headdress, standing with other participants in front of a wooden clapboarded house. Possibly taken during an early Nanticoke powwow in Millsboro, Delaware. Chief Nelson's outfit is NMAI object 265403, and belonged to Chief George Nelson. The photograph was originally identified as George Nelson but has since been corrected.
Related Materials:
Chief Nelson's outfit (pictured) is NMAI object 265403.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14756
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref538

Two Women and Two Men (Possibly Rappahannock)

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
Two women and two men (possibly Rappahannock), in traditional clothing, including feather headdresses, necklaces, and fringed clothing, seated on a sandy bank in front of trees and wooden houses. The man seated in the center is Rappahannock Chief James Johnson from Powhatan or Virginia; the other subjects are from Virginia (possibly Rappahannock) visiting for an early Nanticoke powwow in MIllsboro, Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14757
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref539

Nanticoke Thanskgiving Powwow

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
Drummers and singers in dance attire at Thanksgiving dance taking place in a clearing in the woods, with audience looking on. Possibly a group of Rappahannocks visiting from Virginia for an early Nanticoke powwow in Millsboro, Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14758
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref540

Rappahannock Chief James Johnson

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of the Rappahannock Chief James Johnson from Powhatan or Virginia, wearing a feather headdress, fringed cloth(?) shirt, multiple necklaces, breechcloth, and holding a feathered object (bag?). Visiting for an early Nanticoke powwow in Millsboro, Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14759
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref541

Susie P. Nelson (Rappahannock)

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Susie P. Nelson (Rappahannock), wife of Otho Nelson, wearing a fringed cloth dress, beaded necklace, feather and beaded headband, with trees in background. Possibly visiting for an early Nanticoke powwow in Millsboro, Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14761
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref543

Councilor Robert H. Clarke (Rappahannock)

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents:
Councilor Robert H. Clarke (Rappahannock) addressing visitors at a Nanticoke Thanksgiving ceremony in a clearing in the woods. He wears beaded or embroidered pants and a fringed shirt, feather headdress, and necklaces. Crowd in clothing of the era stand around the periphery of the clearing and look on. Possibly visiting for an early Nanticoke powwow in Millsboro, Delaware.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14764
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref546

Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 Negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

Rappahannock

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
63 Negatives (photographic)
1 Photographic print
Culture:
Rappahannock Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
1919-1925
1942
Scope and Contents:
The majority of the photographs in this series were taken by Frank Speck in 1919-1920 in Indian Neck, Virginia among the Rappahannock community. Many of these images were then used to illustrate Speck's 1925 publication "The Rappahannock Indians of Virginia" in the Museum of the American Indian's Indian Notes and Monograms (Vol. 5, No. 3). Many of the negatives are portraits of members of Nelson family including Old Bob Nelson, George Nelson, Otho Nelson and Samuel Nelson among others. There are also landscape views of the Rappahannock River and farm buildings as well as views of historic buildings in Tappahannock. There is one photographic print from 1942 of Chief Otho Nelson that came to the Museum at a much later date and was added to the Frank Speck collection.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Subseries 9.3
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection / Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref763

Rappahannock River Rapids

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1920
Scope and Contents:
View of rapids in the Rappahannock River, beside a prehistoric Indian village near Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Item N12532
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection / Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan / 9.3: Rappahannock
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref764

Rappahannock River Rapids

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1920
Scope and Contents:
View of rapids in the Rappahannock River, beside a prehistoric Indian village near Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Item N12544
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection / Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan / 9.3: Rappahannock
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref765

Rappahannock River Rapids

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1920
Scope and Contents:
View of rapids in the Rappahannock River, beside a prehistoric Indian village near Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Item N12545
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection / Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan / 9.3: Rappahannock
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref766

Rappahannock River Rapids

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1920
Scope and Contents:
View of rapids in the Rappahannock River, beside a prehistoric Indian village near Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Item N12546
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection / Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan / 9.3: Rappahannock
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref767

Man walking along the Rappahannock River

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1918
Scope and Contents:
View of an expedition member walking along snowy stream or body of water with woods and road in background, near the Rappahannock River in Virginia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Item N12570
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection / Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan / 9.3: Rappahannock
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref768

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